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hypercalcemia of malignancy

Mehandar Kumar, Abhishek Kumar, Vinod Kumar, Supreet Kaur, Michael Maroules
Hypercalcemia of malignancy due to metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma is extremely rare; in fact, to the best of our knowledge, only three case reports of hypercalcemia associated with metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma have been published in the literature to date. Herein, we report a rare case involving a 61-year-old African-American female who had hypercalcemia at initial presentation and who was later diagnosed with poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma with extensive liver metastases, without bone involvement...
September 2016: Journal of Gastric Cancer
Paige M Kulling, Kristine C Olson, Thomas L Olson, David J Feith, Thomas P Loughran
Commonly known for its critical role in calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization, more recently vitamin D has been implicated in haematological cancer pathogenesis and shows promise as an anti-cancer therapy. Serum levels of 25(OH)D3 , the precursor to the active form of vitamin D, calcitriol, are typically lower in patients with haematological disease compared to healthy individuals. This often correlates with worse disease outcome. Furthermore, diseased cells typically highly express the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is required for many of the anti-cancer effects observed in multiple in vivo and in vitro cancer models...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Haematology
Jimena Soutelo, Sofía Moldes, Cielo Frisone, Laura Salvá, Cecilia Agostinis, Gabriel Faraj
Paraneoplastic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of malignant diseases caused by events which involve endocrine, immune and metabolic aspects and whose symptoms vary according to the substance produced and the primary tumor. Hypercalcemia is a frequent complication in cancer patients. Prognosis of cancer patients with hypercalcemia is usually poor. A factor called parathyroid hormone related peptide, whose actions are similar to those of the parathyroid hormone, is thought to be the most common cause of malignancy associated hypercalcemia...
October 10, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Tsuyoshi Shimo, Norie Yoshioka, Masaharu Takigawa, Akira Sasaki
Bone metastasis is a common occurrence in human malignancies, including breast, prostate, and lung cancer, and is associated with a high morbidity rate because of intractable bone pain, pathological fractures, hypercalcemia, and nerve compression. Animal models of bone metastasis are important tools to investigate the pathogenesis and develop treatment strategies. However, there are few models of spontaneous bone metastasis despite the fact that animals often spontaneously develop cancer. Here, we describe methods for developing a mouse model of breast cancer bone metastasis achieved by injection of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells into the heart...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mélanie Gahier Penhoat, Delphine Drui, Catherine Ansquer, Eric Mirallie, Yves Maugars, Pascale Guillot
We report the case of a patient who presented with multiple brown tumors as the inaugural manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism. Tc-99m hexakis methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) scintigraphy demonstrated increased radiotracer uptake by the bone lesions. The patient was a 65-year-old male who sought advice for a swelling on his right shin. An osteolytic lesion was visible on the radiograph. A bone biopsy showed a benign tumor containing abundant osteoclastic cells. Laboratory abnormalities included hypercalcemia (3...
October 7, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Muzafar Wani, Imtiaz Wani, Khurshid Banday, Mohd Ashraf
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in Indian Kashmir. Many people get injectable vitamin D (600,000 IU/injection). At times, the dose prescribed is far above the permissible limit. We report 62 patients with malpractice-related vitamin D intoxication, presenting with hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: The diagnosis was made on basis of (1) history of multiple intramuscular vitamin D injections (2) toxic serum levels of 25-OH vitamin D and (3) exclusion of common causes of hypercalcemia (malignancy and hyperparathyroidism)...
November 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Manuel C D F Maia, Delmar Muniz Lourenço, Rachel Riechelmann
BACKGROUND: Approximately 10% of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are associated with familial syndromes, with the most common type being multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1). However, the available evidence on how to treat NET comes from studies in sporadic NET. CASE REPORT: Here we report the case of a 51-year-old male patient with a metastatic MEN-1-associated pancreatic NET and hypercalcemia related to primary hyperparathyroidism and tumor-secreted parathyroid-related protein...
2016: Oncology Research and Treatment
Yogesh S Jethava, Frits van Rhee
Multiple myeloma is a disorder characterized by accumulation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, hypercalcemia, monoclonal protein, and end organ damage. Recently newer generation proteosome inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies and novel agents have been approved by FDA, which is undoubtedly increasing life expectancy of the patients. However, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation still remains the cornerstone of the treatment. In this chapter, we are discussing the autologous stem cell transplant, allogeneic stem cell transplant and total therapy trials with outcomes...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
Siobhan V Glavey, Salomon Manier, Antonio Sacco, Karma Salem, Yawara Kawano, Juliette Bouyssou, Irene M Ghobrial, Aldo M Roccaro
Multiple myeloma is characterized by clonal proliferation of plasma cells within the bone marrow resulting in anemia, lytic bone lesions, hypercalcemia, and renal impairment. Despite advanced in our understanding of this complex disease in recent years, it is still considered an incurable malignancy. This is, in part, due to the highly heterogenous genomic and phenotypic nature of the disease, which is to date incompletely understood. It is clear that a deeper level of knowledge of the biological events underlying the development of these diseases is needed to identify new targets and generate effective novel therapies...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
Marco Mele, Lars Rolighed, MarieLouise Jespersen, Lars Rejnmark, Peer Christiansen
INTRODUCTION: Cancer in the parathyroid gland is rare, but parathyroid cancer is occasionally seen in relation to genetic abnormalities. Due to a limited amount of evidence, the optimal handling of these cases is not clear. Furthermore, the presence of a malignant parathyroid tumor is rarely known at the time of the initial operation; therefore, re-operations are often necessary. The aim of this study was to present the case of a patient with a previously diagnosed jaw tumor and parathyroid carcinoma that presents as a recurrence of hyperparathyroid hypercalcemia...
April 2016: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
John Gubatan, Xiaohui Wang, Abner Louissaint, Anuj Mahindra, John Vanderpool
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow sarcoidosis is extremely rare. The association between sarcoidosis and lymphoproliferative disorders has been previously speculated, although the diagnosis of sarcoidosis often precedes any hematological derangements. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report for the first time, a case of a 57-year-old Caucasian woman with a previous diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) developing hypercalcemia and renal failure with workup notable for isolated bone marrow sarcoidosis and not multiple myeloma as expected...
2016: Biomarker Research
Steve Malangone, Christopher J Campen
A 60-year-old man initially presented with pain in the right upper quadrant in October 2010. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen pelvis completed at that time showed a mass at the junction of the body and tail of the pancreas and multiple large liver lesions. A CT-guided liver biopsy revealed low-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. The patient was initially started on systemic treatment with sunitinib (Sutent) and octreotide. He developed intolerable side effects, including nausea and migraine. Therapy was discontinued in October 2011, when a CT scan revealed evidence of disease progression...
November 2015: Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology
Junshik Hong, Jae Hoon Lee
Epidemiologically, multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant disorder of plasma cells with a higher incidence among Western populations than among Asians. However, there is growing evidence of a recent increase in the age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of MM in Asian countries, particularly Korea. Application of novel agents has resulted in significant improvement of treatment outcomes, and the advances are ongoing with the recent introduction and U.S. Food and Drug Administration's approval of newer agents, including carfilzomib, ixazomib, elotuzumab, and daratumumab...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Peter J Tebben, Ravinder J Singh, Rajiv Kumar
Hypercalcemia occurs in up to 4% of the population in association with malignancy, primary hyperparathyroidism, ingestion of excessive calcium and/or vitamin D, ectopic production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], and impaired degradation of 1,25(OH)2D. The ingestion of excessive amounts of vitamin D3 (or vitamin D2) results in hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria due to the formation of supraphysiological amounts of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] that bind to the vitamin D receptor, albeit with lower affinity than the active form of the vitamin, 1,25(OH)2D, and the formation of 5,6-trans 25(OH)D, which binds to the vitamin D receptor more tightly than 25(OH)D...
October 2016: Endocrine Reviews
Efstratios Koutroumpakis, Montgomery Lobe, Lezah McCarthy, Syed Mehdi
BACKGROUND: Hypercalcemia due to malignancy is well described in the literature and a common paraneoplastic finding in certain solid tumors. Hematologic malignancies, however, are less frequently associated with hypercalcemia with the exception of myelomas and T-cell lymphomas. CASE REPORT: This case report describes a patient with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) who developed symptomatic hypercalcemia. None of the pathogenetic mechanisms of malignancy-associated hypercalcemia already described in the literature could explain the pathogenesis of hypercalcemia in our patient...
September 2016: In Vivo
Brunah A Otieno, Colleen E Krause, Abby L Jones, Richard B Kremer, James F Rusling
Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) is recognized as the major causative agent of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM). The paraneoplastic PTHrP has also been implicated in tumor progression and metastasis of many human cancers. Conventional PTHrP detection methods like immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) lack the sensitivity required to measure target peptide levels prior to the development of hypercalcemia. In general, sensitive, multiplexed peptide measurement by immunoassay represents challenges that we address in this paper...
September 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Seung Won Ahn, Tong Yoon Kim, Sangmin Lee, Jeong Yeon Jeong, Hojoon Shim, Yu Min Han, Kyu Eun Choi, Seok Joon Shin, Hye Eun Yoon
Adrenal insufficiency is an uncommon cause of hypercalcemia and not easily considered as an etiology of adrenal insufficiency in clinical practice, as not all cases of adrenal insufficiency manifest as hypercalcemia. We report a case of secondary adrenal insufficiency presenting as hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury in a 66-year-old female. The patient was admitted to the emergency department with general weakness and poor oral intake. Hypercalcemia (11.5 mg/dL) and moderate renal dysfunction (serum creatinine 4...
2016: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Vitorino Modesto Dos Santos, Eduardo Flávio Oliveira Ribeiro, Priscilla Souza de Faria, Isabella Augusta Barros, Marcelo Martins Oliveira
Adult T-cell leukemia÷lymphoma (ATL) is caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection. Classification of ATL includes acute, chronic, lymphomatous and smoldering, and main features are hypercalcemia, organomegaly, bone, brain, lung, and skin changes. Elevated mortality rates of ATL may be due to the advanced age at diagnosis, because this malignancy can evolve unsuspected for decades before the first clinical manifestations. Palliative therapy, chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation are often utilized, but response to treatment is poor...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Avin Yaldo, Lonnie Wen, Augustina Ogbonnaya, Adriana Valderrama, Jonathan Kish, Michael Eaddy, Charles Kreilick, Krishna Tangirala, Katarzyna Shields
PURPOSE: The development of skeletal-related events (SREs) (pathologic fracture, need for surgery and/or radiation to bone, spinal cord compression, and hypercalcemia of malignancy) in metastatic prostate cancer (MPC) is associated with worsened pain and compromised quality of life. Opioids are frequently used throughout the course of SRE treatment. This study describes the treatment patterns and incremental use of opioids in MPC patients diagnosed with SREs. METHODS: PC patients with bone metastases newly diagnosed with an SRE between January 1, 2005, and September 30, 2014, were identified using MarketScan Commercial and Medicare databases...
August 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Anliang Dong, Yan Lu, Bingjian Lu
Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecological malignancy worldwide. Recent advance in genomic/epigenomic researches will impact on our prevention, detection and intervention on ovarian carcinoma. Detection of germline mutations in BRCA1/BRCA2, mismatch repair genes, and other genes in the homologous recombination/DNA repair pathway propelled the genetic surveillance of most hereditary ovarian carcinomas. Germline or somatic mutations in SMARCA4 in familial and sporadic small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemia type, lead to our recognition on this rare aggressive tumor as a new entity of the atypical teratoma/rhaboid tumor family...
2016: Journal of Cancer
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