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Misconceptions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133343/clinical-and-histologic-characterization-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-african-american-patients
#1
Fernando Bril, Paola Portillo-Sanchez, I-Chia Liu, Srilaxmi Kalavalapalli, Kristin Dayton, Kenneth Cusi
OBJECTIVE: There has been a widespread misconception among physicians that African Americans are protected from developing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, a formal histologic and metabolic comparison against well-matched Caucasians has never been performed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixty-seven African American patients were matched 2:1 to Caucasians (n = 134) for age, sex, BMI, hemoglobin A1c, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Screening for NASH included measurement of intrahepatic triglyceride content by proton MRS ((1)H-MRS), followed by a liver biopsy if patients had hepatic steatosis...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131491/the-polygonal-model-a-simple-representation-of-biomolecules-as-a-tool-for-teaching-metabolism
#2
Carlos Francisco Sampaio Bonafe, Jose Ailton Conceição Bispo, Marcelo Bispo de Jesus
Metabolism involves numerous reactions and organic compounds that the student must master to understand adequately the processes involved. Part of biochemical learning should include some knowledge of the structure of biomolecules, although the acquisition of such knowledge can be time-consuming and may require significant effort from the student. In this report, we describe the "polygonal model" as a new means of graphically representing biomolecules. This model is based on the use of geometric figures such as open triangles, squares, and circles to represent hydroxyl, carbonyl, and carboxyl groups, respectively...
November 13, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128382/bad-news-the-influence-of-news-coverage-and-google-searches-on-gardasil-adverse-event-reporting
#3
Kate Faasse, Jarry T Porsius, Jonathan Faasse, Leslie R Martin
BACKGROUND: Human papilloma virus vaccines are a safe and effective tool for reducing HPV infections that can cause cervical cancer. However, uptake of these vaccines has been suboptimal, with many people holding negative beliefs and misconceptions. Such beliefs have been linked with the experience of unpleasant side effects following medical treatment, and media coverage may heighten such concerns. METHODS: The present study sought to assess the influence of news coverage (number of news articles per month) on adverse event reporting in response to Gardasil vaccination in New Zealand over a 7...
November 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128284/-brain-injury-knowledge-in-family-members-of-neurosurgical-patients
#4
Blanca Navarro-Main, Ana M Castaño-León, Pablo M Munarriz, Pedro A Gómez, Marcos Rios-Lago, Alfonso Lagares
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Several studies have shown misconceptions about brain injury in different populations. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and perceptions about brain injury of family members of neurosurgical patients in our hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The participants (n=81) were relatives of patients admitted to the neurosurgery department between February and August 2016. They voluntarily completed a 19-item true-false format survey about brain injury based on a translation of other questionnaires used in previous studies from other countries (USA, Canada, UK, Ireland and New Zealand)...
November 8, 2017: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125122/confronting-the-therapeutic-misconception
#5
Nicole R Grieselhuber, Ira J Kodner, Douglas Brown, Jennifer Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119817/factors-affecting-self-reported-medication-adherence-and-hypertension-knowledge-a-cross-sectional-study-in-rural-villages-yogyakarta-province-indonesia
#6
Riana Rahmawati, Beata Bajorek
Objectives This study assessed medication adherence and hypertension knowledge, and their predictive factors, in people with hypertension, living in rural communities in Indonesia. Methods Data were acquired from 384 people living in eight rural villages via a researcher-administered questionnaire, a validated adherence scale, and a standardized hypertension knowledge survey. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the predictors of adherence and knowledge. Results Fifty-nine (15%) participants had good hypertension knowledge (score ≥ 8 out of 10)...
January 1, 2017: Chronic Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118145/access-to-oral-health-care-a-national-crisis-and-call-for-reform
#7
Catherine H Bersell
Purpose: According to the report Healthy People 2020, oral health is integral to overall health and access to dental services is essential to promoting and maintaining good oral health. Yet, those who need dental care the most are often the least likely to receive it. The dental hygiene profession is poised to play a pivotal role in the resolution of oral health disparities. The purpose of this manuscript is to examine the critical issue of access to oral health care in the United States from various perspectives and consider potential implications for dental professionals and the oral health care system...
February 2017: Journal of Dental Hygiene: JDH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117146/transferability-of-the-mediterranean-diet-to-non-mediterranean-countries-what-is-and-what-is-not-the-mediterranean-diet
#8
Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, Maria Soledad Hershey, Itziar Zazpe, Antonia Trichopoulou
Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet's (MedDiet) nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally...
November 8, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113437/men-s-reproductive-health-knowledge-in-mankweng-district-limpopo-province
#9
Richard M Rasesemola, Tendani S Ramukumba, Majapi Masala-Chokwe, Zerish Z Nkosi
BACKGROUND: Gender roles influence men's attitudes towards reproductive health, and society might assume that reproductive health issues, fertility and family planning are women's responsibilities. Moreover, literature shows that men have insufficient knowledge about reproductive health matters and some misconceptions about modern contraceptive practices. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to describe reproductive health knowledge of men in Mankweng District and was conducted in 2015...
October 19, 2017: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112713/st-product-characteristics-and-relationships-with-perceptions-and-behaviors-among-rural-adolescent-males-a-qualitative-study
#10
Elizabeth T Couch, Ellen F Darius, Margaret M Walsh, Benjamin W Chaffee
Although smoking declines in the United States, the prevalence of male adolescent smokeless tobacco (ST; moist snuff and chewing tobacco) use remains unchanged. ST product characteristics, such as flavoring, packaging, and branding, could influence adolescents' ST initiation and continued use. This qualitative study examines the potential role of product characteristics in shaping ST-related perceptions and behaviors among rural adolescent males. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted at three California rural high schools...
November 3, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108141/teaching-ob-gyn-residents-bioethics-within-a-catholic-healthcare-context
#11
Andrew Steele
Residents entering training in the specialty of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB/GYN) often have misconceptions as to what medical interventions Roman Catholic healthcare institutions prohibit, and why certain restrictions are placed on the provision of reproductive health options that are otherwise legally available to women. The Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Healthcare Services, produced by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops seeks to provide a stable framework upon which reproductive health decisions can be based...
2017: Issues in Law & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107389/open-questions-and-misconceptions-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-anemia-in-patients-with-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#12
Fermín Mearin, Ángel Lanas, Luis Bujanda, Pilar Canelles, José Cotter, Antonio Hervás, Carlos Martín de Argila, Miguel Montoro, Javier P Gisbert
Despite high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in patients with acute or chronic gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), IDA and iron deficiency (ID) are frequently untreated. Reasons may be misconceptions about the impact and diagnosis of IDA and the efficacy of new treatments. Addressing these misconceptions, this article summarizes current evidence for better understanding and management of GIB-associated IDA. Despite only few controlled studies evaluated the efficacy of iron treatment in patients with GIB, there is consistent evidence suggesting that: (a) IDA should be diligently investigated, (b) effective treatment of ID/IDA improves outcomes such as health-related quality of life and can avoid severe cardiovascular consequences, and (c) intravenous iron should be considered as well-tolerated treatment in this setting...
October 26, 2017: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102741/physics-aspects-of-the-papillon-technique-five-decades-later
#13
Li Heng Liang, Nada Tomic, Te Vuong, Saad Aldelaijan, Hamed Bekerat, Francois DeBlois, Jan Seuntjens, Slobodan Devic
PURPOSE: The Papillon technique using 50-kVp soft X-rays to treat rectal adenocarcinomas was developed and clinically implemented in the 1960s. We describe differences between accurate dosimetry and clinical implementation of this technique that is extending from its very inception to date. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A renaissance of the Papillon technique occurred with two recently introduced 50-kVp systems: Papillon+ by Ariane and a custom-made rectal applicator (consisting of a surface applicator inserted into a proctoscope) by iCAD's Xoft Axxent Electronic Brachytherapy (eBT) System (iCad, Inc...
November 1, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101596/case-control-matching-effects-misconceptions-and-recommendations
#14
Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Nicholas Patrick Jewell, Sander Greenland
Misconceptions about the impact of case-control matching remain common. We discuss several subtle problems associated with matched case-control studies that do not arise or are minor in matched cohort studies: (1) matching, even for non-confounders, can create selection bias; (2) matching distorts dose-response relations between matching variables and the outcome; (3) unbiased estimation requires accounting for the actual matching protocol as well as for any residual confounding effects; (4) for efficiency, identically matched groups should be collapsed; (5) matching may harm precision and power; (6) matched analyses may suffer from sparse-data bias, even when using basic sparse-data methods...
November 3, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097906/reflections-of-a-community-based-participatory-researcher-from-the-intersection-of-disability-advocacy-engineering-and-the-academy
#15
Dora M Raymaker
This article uses an evocative autoethnographic approach to explore the experience of being an insider-researcher in a community-based participatory research setting. Taking a holistic perspective and using the form of narrative story-telling, I examine the dynamics between the typically marginalizing (but sometimes empowering) experience of being an autistic woman and the typically privileging (but sometimes oppressive) experience of being an engineering professional, during a time of career upheaval. Themes of motivations and mentors, adversity from social services and the academy, belonging, the slipperiness of intersectional positioning, feedback cycles of opportunity, dichotomies of competence and inadequacy, heightened stakes, and power and resistance are explored through the narrative...
September 2017: Action Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095512/through-the-eyes-of-children-drawings-as-an-evaluation-tool-for-children-s-understanding-about-endangered-mexican-primates
#16
Montserrat Franquesa-Soler, Juan Carlos Serio-Silva
This study seeks to understand children's perceptions and knowledge of endangered Mexican primates. The black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) is a charismatic species endemic to Southern Mexico, Northern Belize, and Guatemala and is a symbol of the region that fosters a sense of local pride. Therefore, it can be considered a flagship species for the forests of Southern Mexico. We evaluated the perception and knowledge that 297 Mexican elementary school children (8-10 years old) have about black howler monkeys...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095326/bismuth-subgallate-toxicity-in-the-age-of-online-supplement-use
#17
Paul Sampognaro, Kathy T Vo, Megan Richie, Paul D Blanc, Kevin Keenan
INTRODUCTION: Bismuth salts have been used to treat gastroenterological disorders and are readily available over-the-counter and via the internet. Even though generally considered safe, bismuth compounds can cause a syndrome of subacute, progressive encephalopathy when taken in large quantities. CASE REPORT: We present the case of woman who developed progressive encephalopathy, aphasia, myoclonus, and gait instability after chronically ingesting large amounts of bismuth subgallate purchased from a major online marketing website to control symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome...
November 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094086/breast-cancer-knowledge-behaviors-and-preferences-in-malawi-implications-for-early-detection-interventions-from-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#18
Racquel E Kohler, Satish Gopal, Clara N Lee, Bryan J Weiner, Bryce B Reeve, Stephanie B Wheeler
Purpose: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in Africa and leading cause of death resulting from cancer; however, many countries lack early detection services. In Malawi, women are frequently diagnosed with large tumors after long symptomatic periods. Little is known about local cancer knowledge. Methods: We administered a cross-sectional survey with a discrete choice experiment to a random sample in urban and rural areas of Lilongwe district. Bivariable and multivariable analyses determined factors associated with knowledge...
October 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093938/forensic-psychiatric-service-provision-in-pakistan-and-its-challenges
#19
Tariq Hassan, Asad Tamizuddin Nizami, M Selim Asmer
In the Islamic Republic of Pakistan the law relating to people who are mentally ill, until 2001, was set out by the Lunacy Act of 1912, which was inherited from the British colonial occupiers. In 2001 the Mental Health Ordinance 2001 took its place but only for this federal law to be superseded in April 2010 with the 18th constitutional amendment. As part of that amendment, provinces have become responsible for (psychiatric) healthcare, including mental health legislation. Forensic psychiatry is practised in Pakistan but is very much in its infancy; it needs to develop and learn from more experienced countries in Europe and North America...
May 2017: BJPsych Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091501/effective-change-management-within-an-australian-community-palliative-care-service
#20
Angie Dredge, Lyle Oates, Heidi Gregory, Scott King
This article attempts to examine and explore the change management process that was undertaken by the community palliative care service at Calvary Health Care Bethlehem, Australia, to challenge the historical practice of prescribing 'emergency subcutaneous medications' for all patients admitted to the service. It discusses how, using a team approach, change management was effectively facilitated to ultimately enhance service provision and consumer satisfaction. Literature (both national and international) was examined to identify the use of emergency medications in the community palliative care setting...
November 2, 2017: British Journal of Community Nursing
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