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Misconceptions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941856/effective-communication-approaches-in-tuberculosis-control-health-workers-perceptions-and-experiences
#1
Sriram Arulchelvan, Rengan Elangovan
BACKGROUND: Health workers' experiences and understanding of the myths, misconceptions, beliefs about TB, and patients in the community (and effective communication methods) can be useful in designing effective IEC materials and strategies. OBJECTIVE: To study the perceptions and experiences of health workers regarding TB disease, patients, and effective communication strategies in TB control. METHODS: A survey was conducted among health workers involved in Directly Observed Treatment Short (DOTS) course...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938889/intoxication-with-ghb-gbl-characteristics-and-trends-from-ambulance-attended-overdoses
#2
Desiree Madah-Amiri, Lars Myrmel, Guttorm Brattebø
BACKGROUND: Overdoses from so-called "club drugs" (GHB/GBL) have become a more frequent cause of overdoses attended by ambulance services. Given its availability, affordability, and lack of awareness of risks, there is a common misconception among users that the drug is relatively safe. METHODS: This study reviewed ambulance records in Bergen, Norway between 2009 and 2015 for cases of acute poisonings, particularly from suspected GHB/GBL intoxication. RESULTS: In total, 1112 cases of GHB and GBL poisoning were identified...
September 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935387/attitudes-and-beliefs-pertaining-to-sexual-and-reproductive-health-among-unmarried-female-bhutanese-refugee-youth-in-philadelphia
#3
Cherie Priya Dhar, Dilu Kaflay, Nadia Dowshen, Victoria A Miller, Kenneth R Ginsburg, Frances K Barg, Katherine Yun
PURPOSE: We explored attitudes and beliefs pertaining to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) among unmarried, female, resettled Bhutanese refugees 16-20 years. METHODS: Fourteen interviews were analyzed using the constant comparison method, and major themes were identified. RESULTS: SRH was stigmatized for unmarried youth, making seeking information about SRH or accessing family planning difficult. There were many misconceptions about access to SRH...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935205/-usefulness-of-patient-education-in-antihypertensive-treatment-compliance-in-black-africans
#4
J Koffi, C Konin, A Gnaba, Y NGoran, N Mottoh, M K Guikahue
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the compliance for antihypertensive treatment and to assess the effects of patient education as tool to improve the compliance in hypertensive patients. METHODS: We include prospectively all hypertensive patients followed in consultation in the cardiology department of the national police hospital in Ivory Coast. Compliance evaluation was made with the Girerd scale. After evaluation, all the patients benefit from an individual and/or collective education sessions...
September 18, 2017: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931963/-when-you-re-a-baby-you-don-t-have-puberty-understanding-of-puberty-and-human-reproduction-in-late-childhood-and-early-adolescence
#5
Lisa B Hurwitz, Alexis R Lauricella, Brianna Hightower, Iris Sroka, Teresa K Woodruff, Ellen Wartella
Basic knowledge of human reproduction can help youth prepare for puberty and make later classes focused on advanced reproductive health topics manageable. With the intention of potentially informing the creation of learning materials, we conducted a needs assessment among children ages 7 to 12 in our suburban Chicago community to ascertain their current understanding of, and beliefs and misconceptions about, human reproduction, and to determine their needs for additional reproductive health education. We held qualitative focus group interviews with local children...
August 2017: Journal of Early Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931031/reducing-therapeutic-misconception-a-randomized-intervention-trial-in-hypothetical-clinical-trials
#6
Paul P Christopher, Paul S Appelbaum, Debbie Truong, Karen Albert, Louise Maranda, Charles Lidz
BACKGROUND: Participants in clinical trials frequently fail to appreciate key differences between research and clinical care. This phenomenon, known as therapeutic misconception, undermines informed consent to clinical research, but to date there have been no effective interventions to reduce it and concerns have been expressed that to do so might impede recruitment. We determined whether a scientific reframing intervention reduces therapeutic misconception without significantly reducing willingness to participate in hypothetical clinical trials...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927408/paramedical-staffs-knowledge-and-attitudes-towards-antimicrobial-resistance-in-dire-dawa-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Belay Tafa, Adugna Endale, Desalegn Bekele
BACKGROUND: The continuing emergence, development and spread of pathogenic organisms that are resistant to antimicrobials are a cause of increasing concern. The control of antimicrobial resistance requires knowledge of factors causing antimicrobial resistance, good attitudes towards the intervention strategies as well as changes in antibiotic prescribing behavior of health workers. Hence, this study was aimed to assess paramedical staffs' knowledge and attitudes towards antimicrobial resistance and their antibiotics prescription practices in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia...
September 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927299/evaluation-of-image-quality-and-radiation-dose-of-abdominal-dual-energy-ct
#8
David Schmidt, Marcus Söderberg, Mats Nilsson, Håkan Lindvall, Christina Christoffersen, Peter Leander
Background Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has conceptually been known since the late 1970s and commercially available as dual-source CT (DSCT) systems since 2006; however, the technique has not yet seen widespread implementation in routine protocols. Part of the cause for this is likely due to misconceptions about radiation dose and/or image quality when using DECT. Purpose To compare image quality and radiation dose of single-energy CT (SECT) and DECT abdominal examinations obtained in clinical practice on a second generation DSCT...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926775/geographic-and-demographic-correlates-of-autism-related-anti-vaccine-beliefs-on-twitter-2009-15
#9
Theodore S Tomeny, Christopher J Vargo, Sherine El-Toukhy
This study examines temporal trends, geographic distribution, and demographic correlates of anti-vaccine beliefs on Twitter, 2009-2015. A total of 549,972 tweets were downloaded and coded for the presence of anti-vaccine beliefs through a machine learning algorithm. Tweets with self-disclosed geographic information were resolved and United States Census data were collected for corresponding areas at the micropolitan/metropolitan level. Trends in number of anti-vaccine tweets were examined at the national and state levels over time...
September 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926390/misconceptions-misuses-and-misinterpretations-of-p-values-and-significance-testing
#10
Joel J Gagnier, Hal Morgenstern
The interpretation and reporting of p values and significance testing in biomedical research are fraught with misconceptions and inaccuracies. Publications of peer-reviewed research in orthopaedics are not immune to such problems. The American Statistical Association (ASA) recently published an official statement on the use, misuse, and misinterpretation of statistical testing and p values in applied research. The ASA statement discussed 6 principles: (1) "P-values can indicate how incompatible the data are with a specified statistical model...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926150/facilitation-of-child-health-research-in-hospital-settings-the-views-of-nurses
#11
J Brown, O Barr, M Lindsay, E Ennis, S O'Neill
BACKGROUND: Child health research in clinical practice is increasing throughout the UK. Nurses and midwives facilitate access to patients, enact research study protocols and have a critical role in parental decisions to enrol children into research studies. Little is known about their perception of this process. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To explore the views of nurses towards child health research and to identify factors influencing their willingness to facilitate it in practice...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924280/antibiotics-use-and-misuse-in-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-patients-knowledge-attitude-and-practice-analysis-in-university-hospital-saudi-arabia
#12
Waseem Hajjar, Sami Alnassar, Sara Al-Khelb, Sarah Al-Mutairi, Norah Al-Refayi, Sultan Ayoub Meo
OBJECTIVE: To assess the awareness and causes of antibiotics use and misuse in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January 2014 to December 2015, and comprised patients suffering from upper respiratory tract infections. A well-established, self-administrated questionnaire was randomly distributed to the patients. The questionnaire consisted of 3 parts: demographic variables, knowledge, and beliefs, and behaviour towards antibiotic use and misuse...
September 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920018/neonatal-sex-assignment-in-disorders-of-sex-development-a-philosophical-introspection
#13
REVIEW
V Raveenthiran
Management of ambiguous genitalia is highly controversial. This condition was known previously as intersex and presently as disorders of sex development (DSD). There is no consensus regarding the choice, timing and method of sex assignment in neonates with DSD. Consensus conferences could not unify the views of various stakeholders and third parties. This article philosophically examines the nature and origin of such controversies. Misconception, bias and conflicting priorities are identified as the three cardinal sources of controversies...
July 2017: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919935/hybridization-of-single-nanocrystals-of-cs4pbbr6-and-cspbbr3
#14
Chris de Weerd, Junhao Lin, Leyre Gomez, Yasufumi Fujiwara, Kazutomo Suenaga, Tom Gregorkiewicz
Nanocrystals of all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) feature high absorption and efficient narrow-band emission which renders them promising for future generation of photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Colloidal ensembles of these nanocrystals can be conveniently prepared by chemical synthesis. However, in the case of CsPbBr3, its synthesis can also yield nanocrystals of Cs4PbBr6 and the properties of the two are easily confused. Here, we investigate in detail the optical characteristics of simultaneously synthesized green-emitting CsPbBr3 and insulating Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919643/misconceptions-in-the-exploding-flask-demonstration-resolved-through-students-critical-thinking
#15
Rick Spierenburg, Leon Jacobse, Iris de Bruin, Daan J van den Bos, Dominique M Vis, Ludo B F Juurlink
As it connects to a large set of important fundamental ideas in chemistry and analytical techniques discussed in high school chemistry curricula, we review the exploding flask demonstration. In this demonstration, methanol vapor is catalytically oxidized by a Pt wire catalyst in an open container. The exothermicity of reactions occurring at the catalytic surface heats the metal to the extent that it glows. When restricting reactant and product gas flow, conditions may favor repetitive occurrence of a small explosion...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918665/considerations-in-establishing-bioequivalence-of-inhaled-compounds
#16
Irvin Mayers, Mohit Bhutani
Generic inhalers are often perceived as inferior to their branded counterparts; however, they are safe and effective if they can meet the regulatory requirements. The approach to assess bioequivalence (BE) in oral dosage form products is not sufficient to address the complexities of inhalational products (e.g., patient-device interface); hence, more considerations are needed and caution should be applied in determining BE of inhaled compounds. Areas covered: This review outlines the evaluation process for generic inhalers, explores the regulatory approaches in BE assessment, and highlights the considerations and challenges in the current in vitro and in vivo approaches (lung deposition, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic/clinical studies, and patient-device interface) for establishing BE of inhaled compounds...
September 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914735/palliative-care-in-neuromuscular-diseases
#17
Marianne de Visser, David J Oliver
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Palliative care is an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problem associated with life-threatening illness. Neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) are characterized by progressive muscle weakness, leading to pronounced and incapacitating physical disabilities. Most NMDs are not amenable to curative treatment and would thus qualify for palliative care. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a relentlessly progressive disease, which leads to death about 2 years after onset due to respiratory muscle weakness...
September 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913960/psychosocial-barriers-associated-with-organ-donation-in-mexico
#18
Ma Luisa Marván, Asunción Álvarez Del Río, Kristian Jasso, Patricio Santillán-Doherty
INTRODUCTION: There is a severe shortage of organs for transplantation worldwide and Mexico has one of the lowest organ donation rates. In this study, we explored the psychosocial barriers that prevent posthumous organ donation by Mexicans. METHOD: We asked 218 adults who were not willing to be donors to complete the sentence "I don't want to donate my organs after death because organ donation is…" The data were analyzed using the Natural Semantic Networks Technique...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913380/questionable-word-choice-in-scientific-writing-in-orthopedic-surgery
#19
Casey M O'Connor, Mariano E Menendez, Kevin Hughes, David Ring
BACKGROUND: Given the strong influence of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors on musculoskeletal symptoms and limitations it's important that both scientific and lay writing use the most positive, hopeful, and adaptive words and concepts consistent with medical evidence. The use of words that might reinforce misconceptions about preference-sensitive conditions (particularly those associated with age) could increase symptoms and limitations and might also distract patients from the treatment preferences they would select when informed and at ease...
July 2017: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912929/student-misconceptions-about-plants-a-first-step-in-building-a-teaching-resource
#20
April N Wynn, Irvin L Pan, Elizabeth E Rueschhoff, Maryann A B Herman, E Kathleen Archer
Plants are ubiquitous and found in virtually every ecosystem on Earth, but their biology is often poorly understood, and inaccurate ideas about how plants grow and function abound. Many articles have been published documenting student misconceptions about photosynthesis and respiration, but there are substantially fewer on such topics as plant cell structure and growth; plant genetics, evolution, and classification; plant physiology (beyond energy relations); and plant ecology. The available studies of misconceptions held on those topics show that many are formed at a very young age and persist throughout all educational levels...
2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
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