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Misconceptions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731638/factors-influencing-hospital-foodservice-staff-s-capacity-to-deliver-a-nutrition-intervention
#1
Jorja Collins, Catherine E Huggins, Judi Porter, Claire Palermo
AIM: Implementation of an intervention can result in a discrepancy between what was planned and what is delivered, affecting outcomes for recipients. The aim was to explore, from the perspective of hospital foodservice staff, their experiences delivering a nutrition intervention and the barriers and enablers to its implementation. METHODS: A process evaluation of a pilot study was undertaken using qualitative description. A purposive sample (n = 15) of hospital foodservice supervisors and foodservice assistants responsible for delivering a higher energy menu to hospital patients participated in focus groups and semistructured interviews...
April 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728498/variations-in-unrealistic-optimism-between-acceptors-and-decliners-of-early-phase-cancer-trials
#2
Lynn A Jansen, Daruka Mahadevan, Paul S Appelbaum, William M P Klein, Neil D Weinstein, Motomi Mori, Catherine Degnin, Daniel P Sulmasy
Research has found that patient-subjects in early phase cancer trials exhibit unrealistic optimism regarding the risks and possible benefits of trial participation. Unrealistic optimism is associated with therapeutic misconception and failures to appreciate research-related information. This is the first study to assess whether those who decline to participate in these trials also exhibit unrealistic optimism. It is also the first study to assess whether there are significant differences in appreciation of research-related risks/benefits and therapeutic misconception between these two groups...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728496/a-missing-piece-in-clinical-trial-inspections-in-latin-america-interviews-with-research-subjects-in-peru
#3
Gabriela E Minaya, Duilio J Fuentes-Delgado, Antonio Ugalde, Núria Homedes
Most regulatory agencies conduct clinical trial (CT) site inspections, but the experiences and behaviors of the research subjects and their knowledge of the rights and obligations that ensue from participating in a CT are seldom explored. The authors assessed the technical feasibility of incorporating interviews with participants in CT inspections. This article analyzes the responses of 13 CT participants, 14% ( n = 96) of those included in three tuberculosis (TB) CTs. Participants did not object to being interviewed and provided information not obtained during regular inspections...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727700/therapeutic-role-of-placebo-evolution-of-a-new-paradigm-in-understanding-research-and-clinical-practice
#4
Laxmaiah Manchikanti, Mark V Boswell, Alan D Kaye, Standiford Helm Ii, Joshua A Hirsch
Research into interventional techniques in managing chronic spinal pain continues to be challenging, mystifying, confusing, and biased. Insight, or lack thereof, into placebo and nocebo phenomena contributes mightily to these difficulties. Unfortunately, placebo-nocebo responses are the subject of numerous controversies and challenges from not only a research perspective, but also clinical perspective. While interventionalists consider the biggest threat to interventional pain management research is inappropriate and outdated interpretation of the data, a greater problem is the misuse of the placebo response in research, with the declaration that all and everything as a placebo effect: with a misinterpretation of the nature of the placebo the, associated conclusions can be inaccurate...
July 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727577/nurses-exploring-the-spirituality-of-their-patients-with-cancer-participant-observation-on-a-medical-oncology-ward
#5
Jacqueline van Meurs, Wim Smeets, Kris C P Vissers, Marieke Groot, Yvonne Engels
BACKGROUND: Attention for spirituality should be an integral part of professionals' caregiving. Particularly, nurses caring for patients with cancer might have opportunities to give attention to this dimension. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to gain insight in the way and extent to which nurses during daily caregiving observe and explore spiritual issues of hospitalized patients with cancer. METHODS: We performed an ethnographic study with participant observation...
July 19, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726343/cultural-misconceptions-and-public-stigma-against-mental-illness-among-lebanese-university-students
#6
Ahmad Rayan, Mirna Fawaz
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine cultural misconceptions about mental illness and how they are associated with the public stigma against mental illness among Lebanese university students. METHODS: A sample of 203 participants completed the study. Data about cultural misconceptions, attitudes about mental illness, and public stigma of mental illness were obtained. The researchers examined the mean difference in public stigma according to cultural beliefs about mental illness...
July 20, 2017: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724228/a-new-method-for-correlation-analysis-of-compositional-environmental-data-a-worked-example
#7
C Reimann, P Filzmoser, K Hron, P Kynčlová, R G Garrett
Most data in environmental sciences and geochemistry are compositional. Already the unit used to report the data (e.g., μg/l, mg/kg, wt%) implies that the analytical results for each element are not free to vary independently of the other measured variables. This is often neglected in statistical analysis, where a simple log-transformation of the single variables is insufficient to put the data into an acceptable geometry. This is also important for bivariate data analysis and for correlation analysis, for which the data need to be appropriately log-ratio transformed...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719055/endocrine-toxicity-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-essential-crosstalk-between-endocrinologists-and-oncologists
#8
REVIEW
Frédéric Illouz, Claire Briet, Lucie Cloix, Yannick Le Corre, Nathalie Baize, Thierry Urban, Ludovic Martin, Patrice Rodien
Two types of immune checkpoint inhibitors, both antibodies that target cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 and those that target programmed cell death-protein 1, have been approved for use in melanoma, non-small-cell lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma as first-line or second-line therapy. Their adverse events are primarily regarded as immune-related adverse events. We felt it was important to pinpoint and discuss certain preconceptions or misconceptions regarding thyroid dysfunction, hypophysitis, and diabetes induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors...
July 18, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717058/lumbosacral-transitional-vertebrae-cause-spinal-level-misconception-in-surgeries-for-degenerative-lumbar-spine-disorders
#9
Tomowaki Nakagawa, Ko Hashimoto, Takumi Tsubakino, Takeshi Hoshikawa, Takashi Inawashiro, Yasuhisa Tanaka
Human lumbar spine usually consists of five vertebrae; however, some individuals have vertebral anomalies with four or six lumbar vertebrae because of sacralized fifth lumbar vertebra (L5 sacralization) or lumbarized first sacral vertebra (S1 lumbarization), respectively. These vertebral anomalies are called lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV). Although LSTV is an asymptomatic anomaly, it is known to cause misconception in spinal counts and in spinal level at lumbar spinal surgery. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how LSTV affects the diagnosis and surgeries in lumbar spine disorders...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714910/minding-the-cyber-physical-gap-model-based-analysis-and-mitigation-of-systemic-perception-induced-failure
#10
Yaniv Mordecai, Dov Dori
The cyber-physical gap (CPG) is the difference between the 'real' state of the world and the way the system perceives it. This discrepancy often stems from the limitations of sensing and data collection technologies and capabilities, and is inevitable at some degree in any cyber-physical system (CPS). Ignoring or misrepresenting such limitations during system modeling, specification, design, and analysis can potentially result in systemic misconceptions, disrupted functionality and performance, system failure, severe damage, and potential detrimental impacts on the system and its environment...
July 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711322/intuitive-physics-current-research-and-controversies
#11
REVIEW
James R Kubricht, Keith J Holyoak, Hongjing Lu
Early research in the field of intuitive physics provided extensive evidence that humans succumb to common misconceptions and biases when predicting, judging, and explaining activity in the physical world. Recent work has demonstrated that, across a diverse range of situations, some biases can be explained by the application of normative physical principles to noisy perceptual inputs. However, it remains unclear how knowledge of physical principles is learned, represented, and applied to novel situations. In this review we discuss theoretical advances from heuristic models to knowledge-based, probabilistic simulation models, as well as recent deep-learning models...
July 12, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710708/the-bridge-between-design-and-analysis
#12
Jimmie Leppink, Patricia O'Sullivan, Kal Winston
The overall purpose of the 'Statistical Points and Pitfalls' series is to help readers and researchers alike increase awareness of how to use statistics and why/how we fall into inappropriate choices or interpretations. We hope to help readers understand common misconceptions and give clear guidance on how to avoid common pitfalls by offering simple tips to improve your reporting of quantitative research findings. Each entry discusses a commonly encountered inappropriate practice and alternatives from a pragmatic perspective with minimal mathematics involved...
July 14, 2017: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710594/addressing-a-common-misconception-ammonium-acetate-as-neutral-ph-buffer-for-native-electrospray-mass-spectrometry
#13
Lars Konermann
Native ESI-MS involves the transfer of intact proteins and biomolecular complexes from solution into the gas phase. One potential pitfall is the occurrence of pH-induced changes that can affect the analyte while it is still surrounded by solvent. Most native ESI-MS studies employ neutral aqueous ammonium acetate solutions. It is a widely perpetuated misconception that ammonium acetate buffers the analyte solution at neutral pH. By definition, a buffer consists of a weak acid and its conjugate weak base. The buffering range covers the weak acid pKa ± 1 pH unit...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704128/commune-health-workers-methadone-maintenance-treatment-mmt-knowledge-and-perceived-difficulties-providing-decentralized-mmt-services-in-vietnam
#14
Chunqing Lin, Nguyen Anh Tuan, Li Li
BACKGROUND: With the initial establishment of countrywide methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) system, Vietnam is in the process of expanding and decentralizing the MMT program to community-based healthcare settings. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to measure the MMT-related knowledge and perceived difficulties in treating patient who use drugs (PWUD) among community-based healthcare providers, e.g., commune health workers (CHW), and examine its correlated factors. METHODS: A total of 300 CHW from 60 communes in two provinces of Vietnam completed a survey using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) method...
July 13, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703153/-dam-it-it-s-easy-or-is-it
#15
K Marshall
Dentists the world over seem to still have issues in making rubber dam application a routine part of practice, even in situations where patients are obviously at risk. In this article, the author - who has delivered hundreds of seminars and hands on tuition in a quick and easy method of dam application (the 'Dam it - it's Easy!' series) to dentists in the UK, Europe, North America and Asia - highlights the similarity of the misconceptions existing in regard to its use by dentists the world over. The valuable advantages to the environment in the dental treatment room by dental dam application are considered underused...
June 9, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701585/banning-tobacco-price-promotions-smoking-related-beliefs-and-behaviour-findings-from-the-international-tobacco-control-four-country-itc-4c-survey
#16
Sherine El-Toukhy, Kelvin Choi, Sara C Hitchman, Maansi Bansal-Travers, James F Thrasher, Hua-Hie Yong, Richard J O'Connor, Ce Shang
BACKGROUND: Ecological models emphasise multilevel influences on health behaviours. While studies show that exposure to price promotions is associated with smoking behaviour and its antecedents, less is known about whether these associations differ by macro-level factors such as national price promotion policies. METHODS: Current and former smokers (N=4698) from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project four-country cohort were included in weighted multivariate logistic regression models to examine individual-level associations between exposure to price promotions at waves 7 and 8 (conducted in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011) and beliefs (social and injunctive norms, functional value of smoking, misconceptions around smoking and beliefs of tobacco industry and its regulations) and behaviour at wave 8, stratified by whether countries allow (Australia and USA) or ban (Canada and UK) price promotions...
July 12, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700631/is-the-level-of-knowledge-a-predictor-of-rational-antibiotic-use-in-serbia
#17
Olga J Horvat, Ana D Tomas, Milica M Paut Kusturica, Alisa V Savkov, Dragica U Bukumirić, Zdenko S Tomić, Ana J Sabo
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behavior regarding antibiotics of the general population. METHODS: The study sample consisted of adult subjects who consulted general practitioners at health centers in Serbia and agreed to complete the questionnaire. A total of 668 questionnaires were distributed; 500 respondents completed the entire questionnaire (response rate 74.85%). RESULTS: The average age was 51...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698969/situating-human-sexual-conditioning
#18
Heather Hoffmann
Conditioning is often thought of as a basic, automatic learning process that has limited applicability to higher-level human behavior. In addition, conditioning is seen as separable from, and even secondary to, "innate" processes. These ideas involve some misconceptions. The aim of this article is to provide a clearer, more refined sense of human sexual conditioning. After providing some background information and reviewing what is known from laboratory conditioning studies, human sexual conditioning is compared to sexual conditioning in nonhumans, to "innate" sexual responding, and to other types of human learning processes...
July 11, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697635/the-perpetuation-of-the-misconception-that-rats-receive-a-3-5-times-lower-lung-tissue-dose-than-humans-at-the-same-ozone-concentration
#19
Darrell McCant, Sabine Lange, Joseph Haney, Michael Honeycutt
This paper highlights the pervasive misconception concerning 1994 findings from Hatch et al. about ozone (O3) tissue dose in humans versus rats. That study exposed humans to 0.4 ppm and rats to 2 ppm (18)O-labeled O3 and found comparable incorporation of (18)O into bronchoalveolar lavage constituents. However, during O3 exposure humans were exercising, which increased their ventilation rate five-fold, while rats were at rest. This resulted in similar O3 tissue doses between the two species, and predominantly explained the comparable (18)O incorporation at five-fold different concentrations...
July 12, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694347/menstrual-hygiene-management-among-bangladeshi-adolescent-schoolgirls-and-risk-factors-affecting-school-absence-results-from-a-cross-sectional-survey
#20
Mahbub-Ul Alam, Stephen P Luby, Amal K Halder, Khairul Islam, Aftab Opel, Abul K Shoab, Probir K Ghosh, Mahbubur Rahman, Therese Mahon, Leanne Unicomb
BACKGROUND: Many adolescent girls in low-income and middle-income countries lack appropriate facilities and support in school to manage menstruation. Little research has been conducted on how menstruation affects school absence. This study examines the association of menstrual hygiene management knowledge, facilities and practice with absence from school during menstruation among Bangladeshi schoolgirls. METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative, cross-sectional study in Bangladeshi schools from March to June 2013 among girls 11 to 17 years old who reached menarche...
July 9, 2017: BMJ Open
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