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Xin Gu, Michael J Trujillo, Jacob E Olson, Jon P Camden
Owing to its extreme sensitivity and easy execution, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) now finds application for a wide variety of problems requiring sensitive and targeted analyte detection. This widespread application has prompted a proliferation of different SERS-based sensors, suggesting the need for a framework to classify existing methods and guide the development of new techniques. After a brief discussion of the general SERS modalities, we classify SERS-based sensors according the origin of the signal...
March 16, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Jason Z Morris
I have argued that substance ontology cannot be used to determine the moral status of embryos. Patrick Lee, Christopher Tollefsen, and Robert George wrote a Reply to those arguments in this Journal. In that Reply, Lee, Tollefsen, and George defended and clarified their position that their substance ontology arguments prove that the zygote and the adult into which it develops are the same entity that share the same essence. Here, I show the following: (A) Even using the substance ontology framework to which Lee, Tollefsen, and George subscribe, we cannot know when in development substance changes cease...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Michelle M Leger, Laura Eme, Courtney W Stairs, Andrew J Roger
In a recent BioEssays paper [W. F. Martin, BioEssays 2017, 39, 1700115], William Martin sharply criticizes evolutionary interpretations that involve lateral gene transfer (LGT) into eukaryotic genomes. Most published examples of LGTs in eukaryotes, he suggests, are in fact contaminants, ancestral genes that have been lost from other extant lineages, or the result of artefactual phylogenetic inferences. Martin argues that, except for transfers that occurred from endosymbiotic organelles, eukaryote LGT is insignificant...
March 15, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Rakesh K Chadda, Biswadeep Chatterjee
Addictive disorders have a strong psychosocial component in their etiogenesis, and hence psychosocial approaches form a significant part of management planning with a role in prevention, treatment, relapse prevention and long term rehabilitation. Due to a number of myths and misconceptions associated with addictive disorders, there is often strong resistance from the patients as well as the families towards treatment. The disorder is often perceived as a bad habit and hence not requiring treatment. It is very important to break this barrier to bring the patient and the family in treatment engagement...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Mery Natali Silva Abreu, Angela Deise Soares, Diemack Alle Oliveira Ramos, Fernanda Vieira Soares, Gerson Nunes Filho, Analina Furtado Valadão, Patrícia Gonçalves da Motta
Several studies have identified misconceptions about human papillomavirus (HPV), which can lead to negligent behavior and risk to the health of the population. This article aims to assess the knowledge of men and women about HPV in the city of Ipatinga, Minas Gerais, and evaluate socioeconomic factors and preventive measures associated with such knowledge. It involved a cross-sectional study with 591 subjects living in the city, by means of stratified sampling by quotas proportional to the number of individuals by sex and age in each of the eight administrative regions of the city...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Nupoor Narula, Daniella Kadian-Dodov, Jeffrey W Olin
Fibromuscular dyplasia (FMD) is an under-recognized non-atherosclerotic, non-inflammatory arteriopathy that occurs most commonly in middle-aged women, but may affect individuals of all age groups. FMD may result in stenosis, aneurysm, dissection, occlusion, or arterial tortuosity. Recently published data demonstrated a genetic association of FMD with a variant in the phosphatase and actin regulator 1 gene (PHACTR1), substantiating that the pathogenesis of this condition has genetic contribution. The renal and extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries are most often involved, although any arterial bed may be affected...
March 10, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Connie McGilloway, David Smith, Rose Galvin
BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The incidence of sexual violence against adults with intellectual disability is significantly higher than in the general population. The aim of this systematic review and qualitative meta-synthesis was to explore the barriers faced by adults with intellectual disability in reporting sexual assault from the perspective of different stakeholders. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
Cecli Zenuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Canadian Pharmacists Journal: CPJ, Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada: RPC
Miranda Håkansson, Monica Oguttu, Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson, Marlene Makenzius
Introduction: Adolescent pregnancy represents a serious public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa, and stigmatising attitudes are contributing factors. This study investigates stigmatising attitudes related to adolescent pregnancy, abortion and contraceptive use among healthcare providers working with postabortion care (PAC) in a low-resource setting in Kenya. Methods: A mixed methods approach in a convergent design was utilised to capture attitudes related to abortion and contraceptive use among 86 (f=62; m=19) PAC providers in Kisumu, Kenya...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Pav Kalinowski, Jerry Lai, Geoff Cumming
We explored how students interpret the relative likelihood of capturing a population parameter at various points of a CI in two studies. First, an online survey of 101 students found that students' beliefs about the probability curve within a CI take a variety of shapes, and that in fixed choice tasks, 39% CI [30, 48] of students' responses deviated from true distributions. For open ended tasks, this proportion rose to 85%, 95% CI [76, 90]. We interpret this as evidence that, for many students, intuitions about CIs distributions are ill-formed, and their responses are highly susceptible to question format...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Peter Nagy, Ruth Wylie, Joey Eschrich, Ed Finn
Reflecting the dangers of irresponsible science and technology, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein quickly became a mythic story that still feels fresh and relevant in the twenty-first century. The unique framework of the Frankenstein myth has permeated the public discourse about science and knowledge, creating various misconceptions around and negative expectations for scientists and for scientific enterprises more generally. Using the Frankenstein myth as an imaginative tool, we interviewed twelve scientists to explore how this science narrative shapes their views and perceptions of science...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Fangjie Shao, Chong Liu
High-grade glioma, particularly, glioblastoma, is the most aggressive cancer of the central nervous system (CNS) in adults. Due to its heterogeneous nature, glioblastoma almost inevitably relapses after surgical resection and radio-/chemotherapy, and is thus highly lethal and associated with a dismal prognosis. Identifying the cell of origin has been considered an important aspect in understanding tumor heterogeneity, thereby holding great promise in designing novel therapeutic strategies for glioblastoma. Taking advantage of genetic lineage-tracing techniques, performed mainly on genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), multiple cell types in the CNS have been suggested as potential cells of origin for glioblastoma, among which adult neural stem cells (NSCs) and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are the major candidates...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Francisca A Abanyie, Emily Valice, Kristin W Delli Carpini, Elizabeth B Gray, Isabel McAuliffe, Peter V Chin-Hong, Sukwan Handali, Susan P Montgomery, Shirish Huprikar
BACKGROUND: Targeted donor screening for strongyloidiasis performed at the time of organ procurement can prevent this life-threatening donor-derived infection. METHOD: The Association of Organ Procurement Organizations surveyed members to determine the number of U.S. organ procurement organizations (OPOs) performing donor screening for Strongyloides infection and their screening practices. RESULTS: All 58 OPOs responded to the survey. Only six (10%) currently screen donors for strongyloidiasis; most OPOs started 6-36 months before the survey, one started 6 years prior...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
K Mathurin, J-L Volumenie, O Flechelles, C Derancourt, C Bonnier
INTRODUCTION: abortion rate is higher in Martinique than in metropolitan France. Difference in pattern of contraception may be involved, particularly regarding IUD use. IUD use is often hampered by misconceptions. The aim of the study was to evaluate IUD use in a non-selected population in Martinique and to explore knowledge and acceptance of the method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: women were submitted a self-questionnaire about their contraceptive history, appropriate candidates for, effectiveness, side effects and perceived risks of IUD...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Sergey Motov, Lewis S Nelson
Hydromorphone (HM) is a potent opioid analgesic that is commonly administered in the emergency department (ED) and other acute care settings, such as medical surgical wards. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the ED administration of HM relative to other opioids. Although HM is an effective analgesic, its use has been commonly implicated in adverse drug events and medication errors. In addition, intravenous HM has potent euphoric effects that may contribute to its abuse liability. There are limited data regarding how acute parenteral administration of opioid analgesics in the setting of high rates of preexisting chronic opioid use (medical or nonmedical) may contribute to or reinforce addictive behavior, making the potential contribution of rising HM administration to subsequent prescription opioid abuse and overdose uncertain...
January 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Jean-François Morère, Jérôme Viguier, Sébastien Couraud, Lysel Brignoli-Guibaudet, Christine Lhomel, Xavier B Pivot, François Eisinger
BACKGROUND: Primary prevention of cancer relies on awareness of and consequent identification of risk factors. We investigated knowledge of breast cancer risk factors not only among laywomen but also among female physicians. METHODS: The EDIFICE 4 nationwide observational survey was conducted by phone interviews of a representative female population (737 laywomen and 105 female physicians) aged 40-75 years, using the quota method. This analysis focuses on spontaneous replies to the question "In your opinion, what are the five main risk factors that increase the risk of breast cancer?"...
March 5, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Laurent Greillier, Alexis B Cortot, Jérôme Viguier, Lysel Brignoli-Guibaudet, Christine Lhomel, François Eisinger, Jean-François Morère, Sébastien Couraud
BACKGROUND: The general population is nowadays well aware that tobacco smoking dramatically increases the risk of developing lung cancer. We hypothesized that a personal history of smoking and the level of nicotine dependence in current smokers may affect the perception of this risk among healthy individuals. METHODS: The fourth French nationwide observational survey, EDIFICE 4, was conducted by telephone among a representative sample of individuals (N = 1602) aged between 40 and 75 years...
March 5, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
J P H Wong, M Vahabi, J Miholjcic, V Tan, M Owino, A T W Li, M K L Poon
Cervical cancer rates are disproportionately high among women living with the human immunodeficiency virus (wlhiv). Cervical cancer is preventable through hpv screening, regular Pap tests, and early cancer detection. Evidence indicates that hpv and cervical cancer screening are suboptimal among wlhiv, who face a myriad of access barriers. Considering that screening is an effective first-line defense to cervical cancer, we conducted a scoping review with the aim of gaining a better understanding about: (1) the knowledge and perceptions of hpv and cervical cancer screening among wlhiv; and (2) the acceptability of self-sampling for hpv among wlhiv...
February 2018: Current Oncology
Kristin A Maloney, Dina S Alaeddin, Rainer von Coelln, Shannan Dixon, Lisa M Shulman, Katrina Schrader, Yue Guan
The objective of this study was to assess the genetics knowledge of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and to explore their attitudes on genetic testing and interest in genetic counseling. We surveyed 158 patients from the University of Maryland Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Center. Patients averaged a score of 63% on general genetics knowledge and 73% on PD genetics knowledge. Participants had an overall positive attitude toward genetic testing: 80% believed that the use of genetic tests among people should be promoted, and 83% would undertake genetic test for PD if it was available...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Choolwe Muzyamba, Wim Groot, Sonila Tomini, Milena Pavlova
BACKGROUND: Research has shown that community mobilization is a useful strategy in promoting maternal care of HIV negative women in resource poor settings; however, similar evidence for women living with HIV is missing. Therefore, in this study we provide this evidence by exploring the relevance of community mobilization in the promotion of maternal health care among women living with HIV in resource-poor settings by using Mfuwe, a rural district in Zambia as a case study. METHODS: By relying on Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), qualitative data were collected from Mfuwe, Zambia...
March 2, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
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