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Cortical dysplasia mri

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137921/intraoperative-definition-of-bottom-of-sulcus-dysplasia-using-intraoperative-ultrasound-and-single-depth-electrode-recording-a-technical-note
#1
Dorothea Miller, Patrick Carney, John S Archer, Gregory J Fitt, Graeme D Jackson, Kristian J Bulluss
Bottom of sulcus dysplasias (BOSDs) are localized focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) centred on the bottom of a sulcus that can be highly epileptogenic, but difficult to delineate intraoperatively. We report on a patient with refractory epilepsy due to a BOSD, successfully resected with the aid of a multimodal surgical approach using neuronavigation based on MRI and PET, intraoperative ultrasound (iUS) and electrocorticography (ECoG) using depth electrodes. The lesion could be visualized on iUS showing an increase in echogenicity at the grey-white matter junction...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125946/a-stereo-eeg-study-in-a-patient-with-sleep-related-hypermotor-epilepsy-due-to-depdc5-mutation
#2
Lorenzo Ferri, Francesca Bisulli, Roberto Mai, Laura Licchetta, Chiara Leta, Lino Nobili, Barbara Mostacci, Tommaso Pippucci, Paolo Tinuper
PURPOSE: Dishevelled EGL-10 and pleckstrin domain-containing protein 5 (DEPDC5) mutations are found in a wide spectrum of focal epilepsies ranging from epilepsy caused by malformation of cortical development to non-lesional epilepsy, including sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE). A surgical approach has been anecdotally reported in patients with DEPDC5 mutations, but most of these cases had a lesional etiology. METHODS: We describe a stereo-EEG (SEEG) study in a patient with drug-resistant/non-lesional SHE...
November 4, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106684/frontal-lobe-epilepsy-surgery-in-childhood-and-adolescence-predictors-of-long-term-seizure-freedom-overall-cognitive-and-adaptive-functioning
#3
Georgia Ramantani, Navah Ester Kadish, Hans Mayer, Constantin Anastasopoulos, Kathrin Wagner, Gitta Reuner, Karl Strobl, Susanne Schubert-Bast, Gert Wiegand, Armin Brandt, Rudolf Korinthenberg, Irina Mader, Vera van Velthoven, Josef Zentner, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Thomas Bast
BACKGROUND: Although frontal lobe resections account for one-third of intralobar resections in pediatric epilepsy surgery, there is a dearth of information regarding long-term seizure freedom, overall cognitive and adaptive functioning. OBJECTIVE: To identify outcome predictors and define the appropriate timing for surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 75 consecutive patients aged 10.0 ± 4.9 yr at surgery that had an 8...
July 5, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097316/quantitative-surface-analysis-of-combined-mri-and-pet-enhances-detection-of-focal-cortical-dysplasias
#4
Yee-Leng Tan, Hosung Kim, Seunghyun Lee, Tarik Tihan, Lawrence Ver Hoef, Susanne G Mueller, Anthony James Barkovich, Duan Xu, Robert Knowlton
OBJECTIVE: Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) often cause pharmacoresistant epilepsy, and surgical resection can lead to seizure-freedom. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) play complementary roles in FCD identification/localization; nevertheless, many FCDs are small or subtle, and difficult to find on routine radiological inspection. We aimed to automatically detect subtle or visually-unidentifiable FCDs by building a classifier based on an optimized cortical surface sampling of combined MRI and PET features...
October 31, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095842/asymmetry-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-without-structural-abnormalities
#5
Jae Hyun Park, Chun Soo Kim, Kyoung Sook Won, Jungsu S Oh, Jae Seung Kim, Hae Won Kim
METHODS: Thirty-six VLBW infants who underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) brain PET and MRI were prospectively enrolled, while infants with evidence of parenchymal brain injury on MRI were excluded. The regional glucose metabolic ratio and asymmetry index were calculated. The asymmetry index more than 10% (right > left asymmetry) or less than -10% (left > right asymmetry) were defined as abnormal. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism were compared between right and left cerebral hemispheres, and between the following subgroups: multiple gestations, premature rupture of membrane, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074057/magnetoencephalographic-characteristics-of-cortical-dysplasia-in-children
#6
Nitin Agarwal, Balu Krishnan, Richard C Burgess, Richard A Prayson, Andreas V Alexopoulos, Ajay Gupta
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Magnetoencephalography has emerged as a tool for preoperative evaluation in children. We aimed to study magnetoencephalography characteristics in subtypes of focal cortical dysplasia and correlate with postoperative seizure outcome. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were children ≤18 years who had magnetoencephalography during preoperative workup followed by epilepsy surgery and a histopathologic diagnosis of focal cortical dysplasia between February 2008 and February 2013...
September 19, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042148/histopathology-of-3%C3%A2-tesla-mri-negative-temporal-lobe-epilepsies
#7
Evangelos Kogias, Dirk-Matthias Altenmüller, Jan-Helge Klingler, Barbara Schmeiser, Horst Urbach, Soroush Doostkam
INTRODUCTION: Histopathology of MRI-negative temporal lobe epilepsies (TLE) shows heterogeneous findings. The use of either 1.5 or 3 Tesla MRI for the selection of MRI-negative cases and use of older classification systems instead of the current ILAE classification system may account for this heterogeneity. We focus on histopathology of 3 Tesla MRI-negative TLE according to ILAE criteria and investigate potential correlation to seizure outcome 1 year postoperatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty specimens (9 neocortical, 11 hippocampal) from eleven 3 Tesla MRI-negative patients with TLE were examined in two steps...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040640/pathology-mri-correlations-in-diffuse-low-grade-epilepsy-associated-tumors
#8
Aliya Al-Hajri, Salim Al-Mughairi, Alyma Somani, Shu An, Joan Liu, Anna Miserocchi, Andrew W McEvoy, Tarek Yousry, Chandrashekar Hoskote, Maria Thom
It is recognized that IDH mutation negative, low-grade epilepsy associated tumors (LEAT) can show diffuse growth patterns and lack the diagnostic hallmarks of either classical dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNT) or typical ganglioglioma. "Nonspecific or diffuse DNT" and more recently "polymorphous low-grade neuroepithelial tumor of the young" have been terms used for these entities. There are few reports on the MRI recognition of these diffuse glioneuronal tumors (dGNT), which is important in planning the extent of surgical resection...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034618/altered-electroencephalography-spectral-profiles-in-rats-with-different-patterns-of-experimental-brain-dysplasia
#9
Michal Kielbinski, Zuzanna Setkowicz, Kinga Gzielo, Władysław Węglarz, Krzysztof Janeczko
BACKGROUND: Malformations of cortical development, such as focal cortical dysplasia, are commonly associated with intractable epilepsy. Multiple animal models were created in attempts to recapitulate features of human malformations of cortical development. These manipulations give rise to various focal or diffuse anatomical abnormalities, accompanied by altered susceptibility to epileptic seizures. Both in humans and in models of dysplasia, the question of timing of the initiating insult is important...
October 16, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033429/cowden-syndrome-with-a-novel-pten-mutation-presenting-with-partial-epilepsy-related-to-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#10
Tadashi Adachi, Hiroshi Takigawa, Takashi Nomura, Yasuhiro Watanabe, Hisanori Kowa
Cowden syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple hamartomas of the ectoderm and brain. A 36-year-old Japanese man presented with right facial seizure during sleep and was admitted to our hospital. He showed cobblestoning over the tongue and palmar pitting but no neurological abnormalities while he was not having a seizure. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed focal cortical dysplasia in the left frontal lobe. Electroencephalography showed sharp waves over the left frontal lesion...
October 16, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955216/local-directional-probability-optimization-for-quantification-of-blurred-gray-white-matter-junction-in-magnetic-resonance-image
#11
Xiaoxia Qu, Jian Yang, Danni Ai, Hong Song, Luosha Zhang, Yongtian Wang, Tingzhu Bai, Wilfried Philips
The blurred gray/white matter junction is an important feature of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) lesions. FCD is the main cause of epilepsy and can be detected through magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Several earlier studies have focused on computing the gradient magnitude of the MR image and used the resulting map to model the blurred gray/white matter junction. However, gradient magnitude cannot quantify the blurred gray/white matter junction. Therefore, we proposed a novel algorithm called local directional probability optimization (LDPO) for detecting and quantifying the width of the gray/white matter boundary (GWB) within the lesional areas...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950221/spontaneous-seizure-remission-following-status-epilepticus-in-drug-resistant-epilepsy-due-to-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#12
Nadine Girard, Eric Guedj, Patrick Chauvel, Fabrice Bartolomei, Aileen McGonigal
We describe a patient with chronic pharmacoresistant epilepsy related to right parietal focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), who became seizure-free following an episode of convulsive status epilepticus (SE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) were performed before and after SE. Longitudinal MRI scans showed a stable appearance of the FCD with no new signal change. However, diffusion tensor imaging showed altered white matter fiber tract orientation in posterior cortices, especially in proximity to the lesion, at 3 years post-SE...
September 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919879/automated-online-quantification-method-for-18-f-fdg-positron-emission-tomography-ct-improves-detection-of-the-epileptogenic-zone-in-patients-with-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy
#13
Vanessa Cristina Mendes Coelho, Marcia E Morita, Barbara J Amorim, Celso Darío Ramos, Clarissa L Yasuda, Helder Tedeschi, Enrico Ghizoni, Fernando Cendes
AIMS: To assess the validity of an online method to quantitatively evaluate cerebral hypometabolism in patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy as a complement to the visual analysis of the (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT exam. METHODS: A total of 39 patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy and probable focal cortical dysplasia [22 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and 17 with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)] underwent a presurgical evaluation including EEG, video-EEG, MRI, and (18)F-FDG PET/CT...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833756/multinodular-and-vacuolating-neuronal-tumors-in-epilepsy-dysplasia-or-neoplasia
#14
Maria Thom, Joan Liu, Anika Bongaarts, Roy J Reinten, Beatrice Paradiso, Hans Rolf Jäger, Cheryl Reeves, Alyma Somani, Shu An, Derek Marsdon, Andrew McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Lewis Thorne, Fay Newman, Sorin Bucur, Mrinalini Honavar, Tom Jacques, Eleonora Aronica
Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor (MVNT) is a new pattern of neuronal tumour included in the recently revised WHO 2016 classification of tumors of the CNS. There are 15 reports in the literature to date. They are typically associated with late onset epilepsy and a neoplastic vs. malformative biology has been questioned. We present a series of ten cases and compare their pathological and genetic features to better characterized epilepsy-associated malformations including focal cortical dysplasia type II (FCDII) and low-grade epilepsy-associated tumors (LEAT)...
August 19, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833053/a-distinct-clinicopathological-variant-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-iiid-characterized-by-loss-of-layer-4-in-the-occipital-lobe-in-12-children-with-remote-hypoxic-ischemic-injury
#15
Dan-Dan Wang, Yue-Shan Piao, Ingmar Blumcke, Roland Coras, Wen-Jing Zhou, Qiu-Ping Gui, Cui-Cui Liu, Jing-Xia Hu, Li-Zhen Cao, Guo-Jun Zhang, De-Hong Lu
OBJECTIVE: In 2011, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) proposed a consensus classification system of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) to distinguish clinicopathological subtypes, for example, "isolated" FCD type Ia-c and IIa-b, versus "associated" FCD type IIIa-d. The histopathological differentiation of FCD type I and III variants remains, however, a challenging issue in everyday practice. We present a unique histopathological pattern in patients with difficult-to-diagnose FCD, which highlights this dilemma, but also helps to refine the current ILAE classification scheme of FCD...
October 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828916/magnetoencephalographic-identification-of-epileptic-focus-in-children-with-generalized-electroencephalographic-eeg-features-but-focal-imaging-abnormalities
#16
Garima Shukla, Jin Kazutaka, Ajay Gupta, John Mosher, Stephen Jones, Andreas Alexopoulos, Richard C Burgess
PURPOSE: Children with generalized seizures are often excluded as epilepsy surgery candidates. This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the utility of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to refine the location of the "irritative zone" in children with single lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but with generalized ictal electroencephalographic (EEG) findings. METHODS: Patients admitted with refractory epilepsy with imaging studies showing focal or hemispheric abnormalities but scalp video EEG showing generalized or multiregional epileptiform abnormalities were included...
October 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762286/childhood-onset-epileptic-encephalopathy-associated-with-isolated-focal-cortical-dysplasia-and-a-novel-tsc1-germline-mutation
#17
Hannes Hoelz, Eva Coppenrath, Konstanze Hoertnagel, Timo Roser, Moritz Tacke, Lucia Gerstl, Ingo Borggraefe
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal-dominant inheritable neurocutaneous disease due to mutations within the TSC1 and TSC2 genes. Many patients present with West syndrome, a severe epilepsy syndrome characterized by the triad of infantile spasms, an interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern termed hypsarrhythmia (continuous slow activity with an amplitude higher than 300 µV and multiregional spikes/polyspikes/sharp waves) and developmental regression. In this study, we report on a previously healthy patient with positive family history of epilepsy with new-onset epileptic encephalopathy at the age of 9 years...
March 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745400/voxel-based-magnetic-resonance-image-postprocessing-in-epilepsy
#18
Pascal Martin, Gavin P Winston, Philippa Bartlett, Jane de Tisi, John S Duncan, Niels K Focke
OBJECTIVE: Although the general utility of voxel-based processing of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data for detecting occult lesions in focal epilepsy is established, many differences exist among studies, and it is unclear which processing method is preferable. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of commonly used methods to detect epileptogenic lesions in magnetic resonance MRI-positive and MRI-negative patients, and to estimate their diagnostic yield. METHODS: We identified 144 presurgical focal epilepsy patients, 15 of whom had a histopathologically proven and MRI-visible focal cortical dysplasia; 129 patients were MRI negative with a clinical hypothesis of seizure origin, 27 of whom had resections...
September 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725554/successful-surgical-management-of-new-onset-refractory-status-epilepticus-norse-presenting-with-gelastic-seizures-in-a-3%C3%A2-year-old-girl
#19
Ahmad Marashly, Sean Lew, Jennifer Koop
Gelastic seizures (GS) are typically associated with hypothalamic hamartomas and present during childhood. However it is now known that GS can be found in focal epilepsies arising from other regions in the brain, including mesial and neocortical frontal, temporal and parietal regions. GS have rarely been described as the presenting manifestation of New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus (NORSE). In this article we describe a previously healthy 3-year-old who presented with an explosive onset of GS that were refractory to multiple anti-seizure medications...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677066/tubulin-related-cerebellar-dysplasia-definition-of-a-distinct-pattern-of-cerebellar-malformation
#20
Romina Romaniello, Filippo Arrigoni, Elena Panzeri, Andrea Poretti, Alessia Micalizzi, Andrea Citterio, Maria Francesca Bedeschi, Angela Berardinelli, Raffaella Cusmai, Stefano D'Arrigo, Alessandro Ferraris, Annette Hackenberg, Alma Kuechler, Margherita Mancardi, Sara Nuovo, Barbara Oehl-Jaschkowitz, Andrea Rossi, Sabrina Signorini, Frank Tüttelmann, Dagmar Wahl, Ute Hehr, Eugen Boltshauser, Maria Teresa Bassi, Enza Maria Valente, Renato Borgatti
OBJECTIVE: To determine the neuroimaging pattern of cerebellar dysplasia (CD) and other posterior fossa morphological anomalies associated with mutations in tubulin genes and to perform clinical and genetic correlations. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients harbouring 23 heterozygous pathogenic variants (ten novel) in tubulin genes TUBA1A (n = 10), TUBB2B (n = 8) or TUBB3 (n = 5) were studied by a brain MRI scan performed either on a 1.5 T (n = 10) or 3 T (n = 18) MR scanner with focus on the posterior fossa...
December 2017: European Radiology
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