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chromosome condensation

Laura Monteonofrio, Davide Valente, Manuela Ferrara, Serena Camerini, Roberta Miscione, Marco Crescenzi, Cinzia Rinaldo, Silvia Soddu
Cytokinesis, the final phase of cell division, is necessary to form two distinct daughter cells with correct distribution of genomic and cytoplasmic materials. Its failure provokes genetically unstable states, such as tetraploidization and polyploidization, which can contribute to tumorigenesis. Aurora-B kinase controls multiple cytokinetic events, from chromosome condensation to abscission when the midbody is severed. We have previously shown that HIPK2, a kinase involved in DNA damage response and development, localizes at the midbody and contributes to abscission by phosphorylating extrachromosomal histone H2B at Ser14...
March 22, 2018: Oncogene
Sarah E Wilkins, Saiful Islam, Joan M Gannon, Suzana Markolovic, Richard J Hopkinson, Wei Ge, Christopher J Schofield, Rasheduzzaman Chowdhury
Oxygenase-catalysed post-translational modifications of basic protein residues, including lysyl hydroxylations and Nε -methyl lysyl demethylations, have important cellular roles. Jumonji-C (JmjC) domain-containing protein 5 (JMJD5), which genetic studies reveal is essential in animal development, is reported as a histone Nε -methyl lysine demethylase (KDM). Here we report how extensive screening with peptides based on JMJD5 interacting proteins led to the finding that JMJD5 catalyses stereoselective C-3 hydroxylation of arginine residues in sequences from human regulator of chromosome condensation domain-containing protein 1 (RCCD1) and ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6)...
March 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Dmitry S Bogolyubov
The karyosphere, aka the karyosome, is a meiosis-specific structure that represents a "knot" of condensed chromosomes joined together in a limited volume of the oocyte nucleus. The karyosphere is an evolutionarily conserved but morphologically rather "multifaceted" structure. It forms at the diplotene stage of meiotic prophase in many animals, from hydra and Drosophila to human. Karyosphere formation is generally linked with transcriptional silencing of the genome. It is believed that karyosphere/karyosome is a prerequisite for proper completion of meiotic divisions and further development...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Ragu Kanagasabai, Soumendrakrishna Karmahapatra, Corey A Kientz, Yang Yu, Victor A Hernandez, Evan E Kania, Terry S Elton, Jack C Yalowich
DNA topoisomerase IIα (170 kDa, TOP2α/170) is essential in proliferating cells by resolving DNA topological entanglements during chromosome condensation, replication, and segregation. We previously characterized a C-terminally truncated isoform (TOP2α/90), detectable in human leukemia K562 cells but more abundantly expressed in a clonal subline, K/VP.5, with acquired resistance to the anticancer agent etoposide. TOP2α/90 (786 aa) is the translation product of a TOP2α mRNA which retains a processed intron 19...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
Ivan Junier, Paul Frémont, Olivier Rivoire
In condensed matter physics, simplified descriptions are obtained by coarse-graining the features of a system at a certain characteristic length, defined as the typical length beyond which some properties are no longer correlated. From a physics standpoint, in vitro DNA has thus a characteristic length of 300 base pairs (bp), the Kuhn length of the molecule beyond which correlations in its orientations are typically lost. From a biology standpoint, in vivo DNA has a characteristic length of 1000 bp, the typical length of genes...
March 7, 2018: Physical Biology
Fabio Eduardo Dos Santos, Marcos Schleiden Sousa Carvalho, Graciele Lurdes Silveira, Felipe Folgaroli Correa, Maria das Graças Cardoso, Larissa Fonseca Andrade-Vieira, Luciane Resende Vilela
Plants are rich in biologically active compounds. They can be explored for the production of bioherbicides. In this context, the present work aimed to evaluate the allelopathic effect of hydroalcoholic extracts from two Solanaceae species: Solanum muricatum Ait. and Solanum betaceum Cav. For this end, we conducted phytochemical screening and biological assays, determining the effects of the extracts on germination, early development, cell cycle, and DNA fragmentation in plantlets and meristematic cells of the plant model Lactuca sativa L...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Quentin Szabo, Daniel Jost, Jia-Ming Chang, Diego I Cattoni, Giorgio L Papadopoulos, Boyan Bonev, Tom Sexton, Julian Gurgo, Caroline Jacquier, Marcelo Nollmann, Frédéric Bantignies, Giacomo Cavalli
Deciphering the rules of genome folding in the cell nucleus is essential to understand its functions. Recent chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) studies have revealed that the genome is partitioned into topologically associating domains (TADs), which demarcate functional epigenetic domains defined by combinations of specific chromatin marks. However, whether TADs are true physical units in each cell nucleus or whether they reflect statistical frequencies of measured interactions within cell populations is unclear...
February 2018: Science Advances
Eulália M L da Silva, Susannah Rankin
Chromosome structure in both interphase and M-phase cells is strongly influenced by the action of the cohesin and condensin protein complexes. The cohesin complex tethers the identical copies of each chromosome, called sister chromatids, together following DNA replication and promotes normal interphase chromosome structure and gene expression. In contrast, condensin is active largely in M phase and promotes the compaction of individual chromosomes. The Xenopus egg extract system is uniquely suited to analyze the functions of both complexes...
February 23, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Kang-Nan Wang, Xi-Juan Chao, Bing Liu, Dan-Jie Zhou, Liang He, Xiao-Hui Zheng, Qian Cao, Cai-Ping Tan, Chen Zhang, Zong-Wan Mao
Two cationic molecular rotors, 1 and 2, capable of real-time cell-cycle imaging by specifically dynamic monitoring of nucleolus and chromosome changes were developed. A further study shows that fluorescence enhancements in the nucleolus and chromosome are attributed to a combination effect of interaction with nucleic acid and high condensation of the nucleolus and chromosome.
February 22, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Hong-Zhen Wang, Si-Han Yang, Gui-Ying Li, Xudong Cao
The main role of condensins is to regulate chromosome condensation and segregation during cell cycles. Recently, it has been suggested in the literatures that subunits of condensin I and condensin II are involved in some human cancers. This paper will first briefly discuss discoveries of human condensins, their components and structures, and their multiple cellular functions. This will be followed by reviews of most recent studies on subunits of human condensins and their dysregulations or mutations in human cancers...
2018: Cell Division
Dmitrii I Ostromyshenskii, Ekaterina N Chernyaeva, Inna S Kuznetsova, Olga I Podgornaya
BACKGROUND: Chromocenters are defined as a punctate condensed blocks of chromatin in the interphase cell nuclei of certain cell types with unknown biological significance. In recent years a progress in revealing of chromocenters protein content has been made although the details of DNA content within constitutive heterochromatin still remain unclear. It is known that these regions are enriched in tandem repeats (TR) and transposable elements. Quick improvement of genome sequencing does not help to assemble the heterochromatic regions due to lack of appropriate bioinformatics techniques...
February 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
Yogitha Thattikota, Sylvain Tollis, Roger Palou, Justine Vinet, Mike Tyers, Damien D'Amours
The morphological transformation of amorphous chromatin into distinct chromosomes is a hallmark of mitosis. To achieve this, chromatin must be compacted and remodeled by a ring-shaped enzyme complex known as condensin. However, the mechanistic basis underpinning condensin's role in chromosome remodeling has remained elusive. Here we show that condensin has a strong tendency to trap itself in its own reaction product during chromatin compaction and yet is capable of interacting with chromatin in a highly dynamic manner in vivo...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
J A Quadri, S Sarwar, A Sinha, M Kalaivani, A K Dinda, A Bagga, T S Roy, T K Das, A Shariff
The susceptibility of the kidneys to fluoride toxicity can largely be attributed to its anatomy and function. As the filtrate moves along the complex tubular structure of each nephron, it is concentrated in the proximal and distal tubules and collecting duct. It has been frequently observed that the children suffering from renal impairments also have some symptoms of dental and skeletal fluorosis. The findings suggest that fluoride somehow interferes with renal anatomy and physiology, which may lead to renal pathogenesis...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Bo Wei, Chao Huang, Bin Liu, Yang Wang, Nansong Xia, Qiuju Fan, Guo-Qiang Chen, Jinke Cheng
Progression of mitotic cell cycle as well as chromosome condensation and segregation are controlled by posttranslational protein modifications such as phosphorylation and SUMOylation. However, how SUMO isopeptidases (SENP) regulate cell mitotic procession is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that precise phosphorylation of SENP3 during mitosis suppresses SENP3 de-SUMOylation activity towards chromosome-associated proteins including Topoisomerase IIα (Topo IIα). Cyclin B-dependent kinases 1 (CDK1) and protein phosphatase 1α (PP1α) were identified as the kinase and phosphatase in control of mitotic SENP3 phosphorylation, respectively...
February 8, 2018: Cancer Research
Chen-Wei Hsu, You-Jiun Pan, Yan-Wei Wang, Sok-Keng Tong, Bon-Chu Chung
Zebrafish gonadal sexual differentiation is an important but poorly understood subject. The difficulty in investigating zebrafish sexual development lies in its sex determination plasticity, the lack of morphological tools to distinguish juvenile females from males, and the lack of sex chromosomes in laboratory strains. Zebrafish sexual differentiation starts at around 8 days post-fertilization when germ cells start to proliferate. The number of germ cells determines the future sex of the gonad. Gonads with more germ cells differentiate into ovaries, whereas a reduced germ cell number leads to male-biased sexual differentiation...
January 30, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Kerry Bloom
Our understanding of higher order chromosome structure has been transformed through statistical mechanics-based computer simulations of polymer chains. A new study exploring basic electrostatic interactions demystifies how chromosomes regulate their state of compaction over several orders of magnitude.
February 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Hong Cui, Tie-Ling Li, Hai-Feng Guo, Jia-Liang Wang, Ping Xue, Ying Zhang, Jing-Hui Fan, Zhi-Ping Li, Yue-Juan Gao
A novel module-search algorithm method was used to screen for potential signatures and investigate the molecular mechanisms of inhibiting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) growth following treatment with silymarin (SM). The modules algorithm was used to identify the modules via three major steps: i) Seed gene selection; ii) module search by seed expansion and entropy minimization; and iii) module refinement. The statistical significance of modules was computed to select the differential modules (DMs), followed by the identification of core modules using the attract method...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
Christopher Jenness, David J Wynne, Hironori Funabiki
The Xenopus egg extract system has been widely used to study cell cycle events, including DNA replication, nuclear envelope formation, spindle assembly, chromosome condensation and kinetochore formation. The functional roles of the proteins involved in these processes can be determined by immunodepleting a protein of interest from the extract. As immunodepletion may result in co-depletion of other proteins, the protein of interest can be added back to the extract to verify its function. Additionally, proteins harboring point mutations or domain deletions may be added to assess their functions...
January 30, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Aouatef Riahi, Hoda Radmanesh, Peter Schürmann, Natalia Bogdanova, Robert Geffers, Rym Meddeb, Maher Kharrat, Thilo Dörk
Breast cancer is a genetic disease but the known genes explain a minority of cases. To elucidate the molecular basis of breast cancer in the Tunisian population, we performed exome sequencing on six BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation-negative patients with familial breast cancer and identified a novel frameshift mutation in RCC1, encoding the Regulator of Chromosome Condensation 1. Subsequent genotyping detected the 19-bp deletion in additional 5 out of 153 (3%) breast cancer patients but in none of 400 female controls (p=0...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Kumiko Samejima, Daniel G Booth, Hiromi Ogawa, James R Paulson, Linfeng Xie, Cara A Watson, Melpomeni Platani, Masato T Kanemaki, William C Earnshaw
The requirement for condensin in chromosome formation in somatic cells remains unclear as imperfectly condensed chromosomes do form in conventional condensin-depleted cells. In order to dissect the roles of condensin at different stages of vertebrate mitosis, we have established a versatile cellular system that combines auxin-mediated rapid degradation with chemical genetics to obtain near-synchronous mitotic entry of chicken DT40 cells in the presence and absence of condensin. We analysed the outcome by live and fixed-cell microscopy methods, including serial block face scanning electron microscopy with digital reconstruction...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
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