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chromosome condensation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143380/polo-like-kinase-1-inhibition-results-in-misaligned-chromosomes-and-aberrant-spindles-in-porcine-oocytes-during-the-first-meiotic-division
#1
Y Liao, D Lin, P Cui, B Abbasi, C Chen, Z Zhang, Y Zhang, Y Dong, R Rui, S Ju
Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a type of serine/threonine protein kinase, has been implicated in various functions in the regulation of mitotic processes. However, these kinase's roles in meiotic division are not fully understood, particularly in the meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes. In this study, the expression and spatiotemporal localization of Plk1 were initially assessed in the meiotic process of pig oocytes by utilizing Western blotting with immunofluorescent staining combined with confocal microscopy imaging technique...
November 16, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142402/chromosomal-fragmentation-a-possible-marker-for-the-selection-of-high-gymnemic-acid-yielding-accessions-of-gymnema-sylvestre-r-br
#2
Ashutosh Kumar Verma, Sunita Singh Dhawan
Background: Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. a member of family Asclepiadaceae as mentioned in Indian Pharmacopoeia popular among the researchers because of stimulatory effect of its phytoconstituent on pancreatic cells and potential to treat Type I and II type of diabetes. Objectives: Development of cost-effective marker system for the selection of high gymnemic acid yielding accessions of G. sylvestre. Materials and Methods: Presoaked seeds of Brassica campestris treated with different dilutions of gymnemagenin and 10% leaf extract of twenty different accessions of G...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118001/real-time-detection-of-condensin-driven-dna-compaction-reveals-a-multistep-binding-mechanism
#3
Jorine M Eeftens, Shveta Bisht, Jacob Kerssemakers, Marc Kschonsak, Christian H Haering, Cees Dekker
Condensin, a conserved member of the SMC protein family of ring-shaped multi-subunit protein complexes, is essential for structuring and compacting chromosomes. Despite its key role, its molecular mechanism has remained largely unknown. Here, we employ single-molecule magnetic tweezers to measure, in real time, the compaction of individual DNA molecules by the budding yeast condensin complex. We show that compaction can proceed in large steps, driving DNA molecules into a fully condensed state against forces of up to 2 pN...
November 8, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114052/dna-damage-response-protein-topbp1-regulates-x-chromosome-silencing-in-the-mammalian-germ-line
#4
Elias ElInati, Helen R Russell, Obah A Ojarikre, Mahesh Sangrithi, Takayuki Hirota, Dirk G de Rooij, Peter J McKinnon, James M A Turner
Meiotic synapsis and recombination between homologs permits the formation of cross-overs that are essential for generating chromosomally balanced sperm and eggs. In mammals, surveillance mechanisms eliminate meiotic cells with defective synapsis, thereby minimizing transmission of aneuploidy. One such surveillance mechanism is meiotic silencing, the inactivation of genes located on asynapsed chromosomes, via ATR-dependent serine-139 phosphorylation of histone H2AFX (γH2AFX). Stimulation of ATR activity requires direct interaction with an ATR activation domain (AAD)-containing partner...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065303/mitotic-chromosomes-not-so-silent-after-all
#5
H T Marc Timmers, C Peter Verrijzer
Mitotic chromosome condensation is believed to be incompatible with transcription. Palozola et al. (2017) now report in Science that a transcription program is maintained during mitosis and that transcriptional re-activation at mitotic exit is geared to support cell growth rather than cell identity.
October 23, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046402/the-hybrid-incompatibility-genes-lhr-and-hmr%C3%A2-are-required-for-sister-chromatid-detachment-during-anaphase-but-not-for-centromere-function
#6
Jacob A Blum, Silvia Bonaccorsi, Marta Marzullo, Valeria Palumbo, Yukiko M Yamashita, Daniel A Barbash, Maurizio Gatti
Crosses between Drosophila melanogaster females and Drosophila simulans males produce hybrid sons that die at the larval stage. This hybrid lethality is suppressed by loss-of-function mutations in the D. melanogasterHybrid male rescue (Hmr) or in the D. simulansLethal hybrid rescue (Lhr) genes. Previous studies have shown that Hmr and Lhr interact with heterochromatin proteins and suppress expression of transposable elements within D. melanogaster It also has been proposed that Hmr and Lhr function at the centromere...
October 18, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043883/structural-maintenance-of-chromosomes-4-is-required-for-leukemia-stem-cell-maintenance-in-mll-af9-induced-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#7
Luyun Peng, Yuanting Tang, Yingchi Zhang, Siqi Guo, Leiwen Peng, Lei Ye, Yuefang Wang, Yongmei Jiang
The gene, structural maintenance of chromosomes 4 (SMC4) plays important role in chromosomes condensing and mitotic sister chromatid segregation, which has been revealed in regulating multiple cancer development and carcinogenesis. However, the role of SMC4 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) propagation and its function in regulation of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) is not yet clear. Using an MLL-AF9 induced AML mouse model, we demonstrated that down modulating of SMC4 expression could prolong the survival time of AML mice...
October 18, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043642/the-detection-and-analysis-of-chromosome-fragile-sites
#8
Victoria A Bjerregaard, Özgün Özer, Ian D Hickson, Ying Liu
A fragile site is a chromosomal locus that is prone to form a gap or constriction visible within a condensed metaphase chromosome, particularly following exposure of cells to DNA replication stress. Based on their frequency, fragile sites are classified as either common (CFSs; present in all individuals) or rare (RFSs; present in only a few individuals). Interest in fragile sites has remained high since their discovery in 1965, because of their association with human disease. CFSs are recognized as drivers of oncogene activation and genome instability in cancer cells, while some RFSs are associated with neurodegenerative diseases...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037439/caenorhabditis-elegans-dosage-compensation-insights-into-condensin-mediated-gene-regulation
#9
REVIEW
Sarah Elizabeth Albritton, Sevinç Ercan
Recent work demonstrating the role of chromosome organization in transcriptional regulation has sparked substantial interest in the molecular mechanisms that control chromosome structure. Condensin, an evolutionarily conserved multisubunit protein complex, is essential for chromosome condensation during cell division and functions in regulating gene expression during interphase. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a specialized condensin forms the core of the dosage compensation complex (DCC), which specifically binds to and represses transcription from the hermaphrodite X chromosomes...
October 13, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030909/global-gene-expression-profiles-of-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-from-patients-with-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-the-effect-of-in-vitro-culture-with-or-without-imatinib
#10
Sócrates Avilés-Vázquez, Antonieta Chávez-González, Alfredo Hidalgo-Miranda, Dafne Moreno-Lorenzana, Lourdes Arriaga-Pizano, Miguel Á Sandoval-Esquivel, Manuel Ayala-Sánchez, Rafael Aguilar, Luis Alfaro-Ruiz, Hector Mayani
In this study, we determined the gene expression profiles of bone marrow-derived cell fractions, obtained from normal subjects and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) patients, that were highly enriched for hematopoietic stem (HSCs) and progenitor (HPCs) cells. Our results indicate that the profiles of CML HSCs and HPCs were closer to that of normal progenitors, whereas normal HSCs showed the most different expression profile of all. We found that the expression profiles of HSCs and HPCs from CML marrow were closer to each other than those of HSCs and HPCs from normal marrow...
October 13, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026105/mcph1-mutated-in-primary-microcephaly-is-required-for-efficient-chromosome-alignment-during-mitosis
#11
M Arroyo, R Kuriyama, M Trimborn, D Keifenheim, A Cañuelo, A Sánchez, D J Clarke, J A Marchal
MCPH1 gene, mutated in primary microcephaly, regulates cell progression into mitosis. While this role has been extensively investigated in the context of DNA damage, its function during unperturbed cell cycles has been given less attention. Here we have analyzed the dynamics of chromosome condensation and cell cycle progression in MCPH1 deficient cells under undamaging conditions. Our study demonstrates that chromosome condensation is uncoupled from cell cycle progression when MCPH1 function is lacking, resulting in cells that prematurely condense their chromosomes during mid G2-phase and delay decondensation at the completion of mitosis...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954740/release-of-condensin-from-mitotic-chromosomes-requires-the-ran-gtp-gradient-in-the-reorganized-nucleus
#12
Keita Aoki, Hironori Niki
After mitosis, nuclear reorganization occurs together with decondensation of mitotic chromosomes and reformation of the nuclear envelope, thereby restoring the Ran-GTP gradient between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The Ran-GTP gradient is dependent on Pim1/RCC1. Interestingly, a defect in Pim1/RCC1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe causes postmitotic condensation of chromatin, namely hypercondensation, suggesting a relationship between the Ran-GTP gradient and chromosome decondensation. However, how Ran-GTP interacts with chromosome decondensation is unresolved...
November 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947659/xist-rna-a-window-into-the-broader-role-of-rna-in-nuclear-chromosome-architecture
#13
REVIEW
K M Creamer, J B Lawrence
XIST RNA triggers the transformation of an active X chromosome into a condensed, inactive Barr body and therefore provides a unique window into transitions of higher-order chromosome architecture. Despite recent progress, how XIST RNA localizes and interacts with the X chromosome remains poorly understood. Genetic engineering of XIST into a trisomic autosome demonstrates remarkable capacity of XIST RNA to localize and comprehensively silence that autosome. Thus, XIST does not require X chromosome-specific sequences but operates on mechanisms available genome-wide...
November 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947656/structural-aspects-of-the-inactive-x-chromosome
#14
REVIEW
Giancarlo Bonora, Christine M Disteche
A striking difference between male and female nuclei was recognized early on by the presence of a condensed chromatin body only in female cells. Mary Lyon proposed that X inactivation or silencing of one X chromosome at random in females caused this structural difference. Subsequent studies have shown that the inactive X chromosome (Xi) does indeed have a very distinctive structure compared to its active counterpart and all autosomes in female mammals. In this review, we will recap the discovery of this fascinating biological phenomenon and seminal studies in the field...
November 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936767/smc-complexes-orchestrate-the-mitotic-chromatin-interaction-landscape
#15
REVIEW
Yasutaka Kakui, Frank Uhlmann
Chromatin is a very long DNA-protein complex that controls the expression and inheritance of the genetic information. Chromatin is stored within the nucleus in interphase and further compacted into chromosomes during mitosis. This process, known as chromosome condensation, is essential for faithful segregation of genomic DNA into daughter cells. Condensin and cohesin, members of the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family, are fundamental for chromosome architecture, both for establishment of chromatin structure in the interphase nucleus and for the formation of condensed chromosomes in mitosis...
September 21, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928399/a-ring-polymer-model-shows-how-macromolecular-crowding-controls-chromosome-arm-organization-in-escherichia-coli
#16
Chanil Jeon, Youngkyun Jung, Bae-Yeun Ha
Macromolecular crowding influences various cellular processes such as macromolecular association and transcription, and is a key determinant of chromosome organization in bacteria. The entropy of crowders favors compaction of long chain molecules such as chromosomes. To what extent is the circular bacterial chromosome, often viewed as consisting of "two arms", organized entropically by crowding? Using computer simulations, we examine how a ring polymer is organized in a crowded and cylindrically-confined space, as a coarse-grained bacterial chromosome...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914393/costunolide-induces-micronuclei-formation-chromosomal-aberrations-cytostasis-and-mitochondrial-mediated-apoptosis-in-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#17
Soma Shiva Nageswara Rao Singireesu, Sunil Misra, Sujan Kumar Mondal, Suresh Yerramsetty, Nivedita Sahu, Suresh Babu K
Costunolide (CE) is a sesquiterpene lactone well-known for its antihepatotoxic, antiulcer, and anticancer activities. The present study focused on the evaluation of the cytogenetic toxicity and cellular death-inducing potential of CE in CHO cells, an epithelial cell line derived from normal ovary cells of Chinese hamster. The cytotoxic effect denoting MTT assay has shown an IC50 value of 7.56 μM CE, where 50% proliferation inhibition occurs. The oxidative stress caused by CE was confirmed based on GSH depletion induced cell death, conspicuously absent in N-acetylcysteine (GSH precursor) pretreated cells...
September 15, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903997/mitotic-post-translational-modifications-of-histones-promote-chromatin-compaction-in-vitro
#18
Alisa Zhiteneva, Juan Jose Bonfiglio, Alexandr Makarov, Thomas Colby, Paola Vagnarelli, Eric C Schirmer, Ivan Matic, William C Earnshaw
How eukaryotic chromosomes are compacted during mitosis has been a leading question in cell biology since the nineteenth century. Non-histone proteins such as condensin complexes contribute to chromosome shaping, but appear not to be necessary for mitotic chromatin compaction. Histone modifications are known to affect chromatin structure. As histones undergo major changes in their post-translational modifications during mitotic entry, we speculated that the spectrum of cell-cycle-specific histone modifications might contribute to chromosome compaction during mitosis...
September 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899358/visualization-of-chromosome-condensation-in-plants-with-large-chromosomes
#19
Maria A Kuznetsova, Inna A Chaban, Eugene V Sheval
BACKGROUND: Most data concerning chromosome organization have been acquired from studies of a small number of model organisms, the majority of which are mammals. In plants with large genomes, the chromosomes are significantly larger than the animal chromosomes that have been studied to date, and it is possible that chromosome condensation in such plants was modified during evolution. Here, we analyzed chromosome condensation and decondensation processes in order to find structural mechanisms that allowed for an increase in chromosome size...
September 12, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882993/the-condensin-complex-is-a-mechanochemical-motor-that-translocates-along-dna
#20
Tsuyoshi Terakawa, Shveta Bisht, Jorine M Eeftens, Cees Dekker, Christian H Haering, Eric C Greene
Condensin plays crucial roles in chromosome organization and compaction, but the mechanistic basis for its functions remains obscure. We used single-molecule imaging to demonstrate that Saccharomyces cerevisiae condensin is a molecular motor capable of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis-dependent translocation along double-stranded DNA. Condensin's translocation activity is rapid and highly processive, with individual complexes traveling an average distance of ≥10 kilobases at a velocity of ~60 base pairs per second...
November 3, 2017: Science
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