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chromosome condensation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812991/the-retinoblastoma-rb-tumor-suppressor-pushing-back-against-genome-instability-on-multiple-fronts
#1
REVIEW
Renier Vélez-Cruz, David G Johnson
The retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor is known as a master regulator of the cell cycle. RB is mutated or functionally inactivated in the majority of human cancers. This transcriptional regulator exerts its function in cell cycle control through its interaction with the E2F family of transcription factors and with chromatin remodelers and modifiers that contribute to the repression of genes important for cell cycle progression. Over the years, studies have shown that RB participates in multiple processes in addition to cell cycle control...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800583/the-nucleoid-protein-dps-binds-genomic-dna-of-escherichia-coli-in-a-non-random-manner
#2
S S Antipov, M N Tutukina, E V Preobrazhenskaya, F A Kondrashov, M V Patrushev, S V Toshchakov, I Dominova, U S Shvyreva, V V Vrublevskaya, O S Morenkov, N A Sukharicheva, V V Panyukov, O N Ozoline
Dps is a multifunctional homododecameric protein that oxidizes Fe2+ ions accumulating them in the form of Fe2O3 within its protein cavity, interacts with DNA tightly condensing bacterial nucleoid upon starvation and performs some other functions. During the last two decades from discovery of this protein, its ferroxidase activity became rather well studied, but the mechanism of Dps interaction with DNA still remains enigmatic. The crucial role of lysine residues in the unstructured N-terminal tails led to the conventional point of view that Dps binds DNA without sequence or structural specificity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794351/unexpected-roles-of-a-shugoshin-protein-at-subtelomeres
#3
Junko Kanoh
A chromosome is composed of structurally and functionally distinct domains. Telomeres, which are located at the ends of linear chromosomes, play crucial roles in genome stability. Although substantial knowledge of telomeres has been accumulated, the regulation and function of subtelomeres, which are the domains adjacent to telomeres, remain largely unknown. In this review, I describe recent discoveries about the multiple roles of a shugoshin family protein, Sgo2, which is localized at centromeres in mitosis and contributes to precise chromosome segregation, in defining chromatin structure and functions of the subtelomeres in fission yeast...
August 9, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790150/phosphorylation-of-histone-h2a-at-serine-95-a-plant-specific-mark-involved-in-flowering-time-regulation-and-h2a-z-deposition
#4
Yanhua Su, Shiliang Wang, Fei Zhang, Han Zheng, Yana Liu, Tongtong Huang, Yong Ding
Phosphorylation of histone H3 affects transcription, chromatin condensation, and chromosome segregation. However, the role of phosphorylation of histone H2A remains unclear. Here, we found that Arabidopsis thaliana MUT9P-LIKE-KINASE (MLK4) phosphorylates histone H2A on serine 95, a plant-specific modification in the histone core domain. Mutations in MLK4 caused late flowering under long-day conditions but no notable phenotype under short days. MLK4 interacts with CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1), which allows MLK4 to bind to the GIGANTEA (GI) promoter...
August 8, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783137/acetylation-and-methylation-related-epigenetic-proteins-in-the-context-of-their-targets
#5
REVIEW
Nasir Javaid, Sangdun Choi
The nucleosome surface is covered with multiple modifications that are perpetuated by eight different classes of enzymes. These enzymes modify specific target sites both on DNA and histone proteins, and these modifications have been well identified and termed "epigenetics". These modifications play critical roles, either by affecting non-histone protein recruitment to chromatin or by disturbing chromatin contacts. Their presence dictates the condensed packaging of DNA and can coordinate the orderly recruitment of various enzyme complexes for DNA manipulation...
August 7, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765301/cloning-mice
#6
Atsuo Ogura
Viable and fertile mice can be generated by somatic nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes, presumably because the transplanted somatic cell genome becomes reprogrammed by factors in the oocyte. The first somatic cloned offspring of mice were obtained by directly injecting donor nuclei into recipient enucleated oocytes. When this method is used (the so-called Honolulu method of somatic cell nuclear transfer [SCNT]), the donor nuclei readily and completely condense within the enucleated metaphase II-arrested oocytes, which contain high levels of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF)...
August 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764714/testis-specific-histone-2b-is-associated-with-sperm-chromatin-dynamics-and-bull-fertility-a-pilot-study
#7
Naseer A Kutchy, Ana Velho, Erika S B Menezes, Marie Jacobsen, Giselle Thibaudeau, Robert W Wills, Arlindo Moura, Abdullah Kaya, Andy Perkins, Erdogan Memili
BACKGROUND: Bull fertility is the degree of sperm's ability to fertilize and activate the egg and support embryo development, and this is critical for herd reproductive performance. We used the bull as a unique model organism for the study of male fertility because cattle genetics and physiology is similar to those of other mammals including humans. Moreover, reliable fertility data along with well-established in vitro systems are available for bovine. The objective of this original study was to ascertain evolutionary diversification and expression dynamics of Testis Specific Histone 2B (TH2B) in sperm from Holstein bulls with different fertility scores...
August 1, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757112/the-abrogation-of-condensin-function-provides-independent-evidence-for-defining-the-self-renewing-population-of-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Alvina G Lai, Nobuyoshi Kosaka, Prasad Abnave, Sounak Sahu, A Aziz Aboobaker
Heterogeneity of planarian stem cells has been categorised on the basis of single cell expression analyses and subsequent experiments to demonstrate lineage relationships. Some data suggest that despite heterogeneity in gene expression amongst cells in the cell cycle, in fact only one sub-population, known as sigma neoblasts, can self-renew. Without the tools to perform live in vivo lineage analysis, we instead took an alternative approach to provide independent evidence for defining the self-renewing stem cell population...
July 28, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719835/silencing-the-tobacco-gene-for-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-1-and-infection-by-potato-virus-y-cause-remodeling-of-cellular-organelles
#9
Farshad Rakhshandehroo, Saeed Rezaee, Peter Palukaitis
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1) has been shown to be involved in DNA methylation, RNA silencing and regulating expression of other genes. RDR1 gene expression is stimulated by infection with potato virus Y° (PVY). Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants silenced for RDR1 gene expression showed morphological changes in mesophyll cells, associated with remodeling of the nuclei, chloroplasts and mitochondria. RDR1 silencing led to decreased nuclear size, increased heterochromatin content and aggregation, decreased numbers of chloroplasts, plus changes in shape, internal structures and integrity of chloroplasts and mitochondria...
July 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717250/plk1-phosphorylation-of-cap-h2-triggers-chromosome-condensation-by-condensin-ii-at-the-early-phase-of-mitosis
#10
Yuya Kagami, Masaya Ono, Kiyotsugu Yoshida
Condensin complexes play crucial roles in chromosome condensation that is a fundamental process to establish the "rod-like" shape of chromosome structure in mitosis. Failure of the chromosome assembly causes chromosome segregation errors and subsequent genomic instability. However, a molecular mechanism that controls condensin function for the chromosomal organization has not been fully understood. Here, we show that the abundance of CAP-H2, one of the condensin II subunits, is fluctuated during the cell cycle in accordance with Plk1 kinase activity...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715365/analysis-of-the-c-kit-ligand-promoter-using-chromatin-immunoprecipitation
#11
Pingyu Zhang, Andres Rojas, Boris Blechacz
Multiple cellular processes, including DNA replication and repair, DNA recombination, and gene expression, require interactions between proteins and DNA. Therefore, DNA-protein interactions regulate multiple physiological, pathophysiological, and biological functions, such as cell differentiation, cell proliferation, cell cycle control, chromosome stability, epigenetic gene regulation, and cell transformation. In eukaryotic cells, the DNA interacts with histone and nonhistone proteins and is condensed into chromatin...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693160/isoliquiritigenin-induces-apoptosis-of-human-bladder-cancer-t24-cells-via-a-cyclin-dependent-kinase-independent-mechanism
#12
Lingling Si, Xinhui Yang, Xinyan Yan, Yanming Wang, Qiusheng Zheng
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an increase in cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) activity is involved in apoptosis of human bladder cancer T24 cells induced by isoliquiritigenin (ISL). The viability of T24 cells was estimated using a sulforhodamine B assay. Cell morphological changes were examined using Hoechst 33258 staining. The apoptotic rate was determined by staining cells with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide labeling. The mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was measured using 5,5,6,6-tetrachloro-1,1, 3,3-tetraethyl benzimidazole carbocyanine iodide...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684914/regulation-of-apoptosis-through-bcl-2-bax-proteins-expression-and-dna-damage-by-nano-sized-gadolinium-oxide
#13
Saud Alarifi, Huma Ali, Saad Alkahtani, Mohammed S Alessia
Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles (GNPs) are applied in industrial products, for example, additives, optical glass, and catalysis. There are various suggestions of metal nanoparticles paradigm but the underlying basic mechanism about the toxicity of metal nanoparticles, for example GNPs, remains unclear. This experiment was done to measure the effective toxicity of GNPs (10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL) over 24 and 48 h and to evaluate toxicity mechanism in human neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells. GNPs produced reactive oxygen species (ROS), as evaluated by 2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682332/cell-cycle-dynamics-of-chromosomal-organization-at-single-cell-resolution
#14
Takashi Nagano, Yaniv Lubling, Csilla Várnai, Carmel Dudley, Wing Leung, Yael Baran, Netta Mendelson Cohen, Steven Wingett, Peter Fraser, Amos Tanay
Chromosomes in proliferating metazoan cells undergo marked structural metamorphoses every cell cycle, alternating between highly condensed mitotic structures that facilitate chromosome segregation, and decondensed interphase structures that accommodate transcription, gene silencing and DNA replication. Here we use single-cell Hi-C (high-resolution chromosome conformation capture) analysis to study chromosome conformations in thousands of individual cells, and discover a continuum of cis-interaction profiles that finely position individual cells along the cell cycle...
July 5, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659416/haspin-inhibition-reveals-functional-differences-of-interchromatid-axis-localized-aurkb-and-aurkc
#15
Suzanne M Quartuccio, Shweta S Dipali, Karen Schindler
Aneuploidy is the leading genetic abnormality contributing to infertility, and chromosome segregation errors are common during female mammalian meiosis I (MI). Previous results indicate that haspin kinase regulates resumption of meiosis from prophase arrest, chromosome condensation, and kinetochore-microtubule attachments during early prometaphase of MI. Here, we report that haspin inhibition in late prometaphase I causes acceleration of MI, bypass of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), and loss of interchromatid axis localized Aurora kinase C...
June 28, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648781/pp2a-controls-genome-integrity-by-integrating-nutrient-sensing-and-metabolic-pathways-with-the-dna-damage-response
#16
Elisa Ferrari, Christopher Bruhn, Marta Peretti, Corinne Cassani, Walter Vincenzo Carotenuto, Mohamed Elgendy, Ghadeer Shubassi, Chiara Lucca, Rodrigo Bermejo, Mario Varasi, Saverio Minucci, Maria Pia Longhese, Marco Foiani
Mec1(ATR) mediates the DNA damage response (DDR), integrating chromosomal signals and mechanical stimuli. We show that the PP2A phosphatases, ceramide-activated enzymes, couple cell metabolism with the DDR. Using genomic screens, metabolic analysis, and genetic and pharmacological studies, we found that PP2A attenuates the DDR and that three metabolic circuits influence the DDR by modulating PP2A activity. Irc21, a putative cytochrome b5 reductase that promotes the condensation reaction generating dihydroceramides (DHCs), and Ppm1, a PP2A methyltransferase, counteract the DDR by activating PP2A; conversely, the nutrient-sensing TORC1-Tap42 axis sustains DDR activation by inhibiting PP2A...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642366/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-red1-protein-exhibits-nonhomologous-dna-end-joining-activity-and-potentiates-hop1-promoted-pairing-of-double-stranded-dna
#17
Rucha Kshirsagar, Indrajeet Ghodke, Kalappa Muniyappa
Elucidation of the function of synaptonemal complex (SC) in <Saccharomyces cerevisiae> has mainly focused on in vivo analysis of recombination-defective meiotic mutants. Consequently, significant gaps remain in the mechanistic understanding of the activities of different SC proteins and the functional relationships among them. S. cerevisiae Hop1 and Red1 are essential structural components of the SC axial/lateral elements. Previous studies have demonstrated that Hop1 is a structure-specific DNA-binding protein that exhibits high affinity for the Holliday junction, promotes DNA bridging, condensation and pairing between duplex DNA molecules...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634865/dynamics-of-tobacco-dna-topoisomerases-ii-in-cell-cycle-regulation-to-manage-topological-constrains-during-replication-transcription-and-mitotic-chromosome-condensation-and-segregation
#18
Badri Nath Singh, V Mohan Murali Achary, Varakumar Panditi, Sudhir K Sopory, Malireddy K Reddy
The topoisomerase II expression varies as a function of cell proliferation. Maximal topoisomerase II expression was tightly coupled to S phase and G2/M phase via both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Investigation in meiosis using pollen mother cells also revealed that it is not the major component of meiotic chromosomes, it seems to diffuse out once meiotic chromosomal condensation is completed. Synchronized tobacco BY-2 cell cultures were used to study the role of topoisomerase II in various stages of the cell cycle...
August 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631016/new-insights-into-cohesin-loading
#19
REVIEW
Ireneusz Litwin, Robert Wysocki
Cohesin is a conserved, ring-shaped protein complex that encircles sister chromatids and ensures correct chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. It also plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression, DNA condensation, and DNA repair through both non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. Cohesins are spatiotemporally regulated by the Scc2-Scc4 complex which facilitates cohesin loading onto chromatin at specific chromosomal sites. Over the last few years, much attention has been paid to cohesin and cohesin loader as it became clear that even minor disruptions of these complexes may lead to developmental disorders and cancers...
June 19, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620461/the-enemies-within-regions-of-the-genome-that-are-inherently-difficult-to-replicate
#20
REVIEW
Rahul Bhowmick, Ian D Hickson
An unusual feature of many eukaryotic genomes is the presence of regions that appear intrinsically difficult to copy during the process of DNA replication. Curiously, the location of these difficult-to-replicate regions is often conserved between species, implying a valuable role in some aspect of genome organization or maintenance. The most prominent class of these regions in mammalian cells is defined as chromosome fragile sites, which acquired their name because of a propensity to form visible gaps/breaks on otherwise-condensed chromosomes in mitosis...
2017: F1000Research
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