Read by QxMD icon Read

chromosome condensation

Zhixiong Dong, Changjun Zhu, Qimin Zhan, Wei Jiang
The chromokinesin Kif4A controls proper chromosome condensation, congression/alignment, and cytokinesis to ensure faithful genetic inheritance. Here, we report that Cdk phosphorylation of human Kif4A at T1161 licenses Kif4A chromosomal localization, which, in turn, controls Kif4A early mitotic function. Phosphorylated Kif4A (Kif4AWT) or Cdk phospho-mimetic Kif4A mutant (Kif4ATE) associated with chromosomes and condensin I (non-SMC subunit CAP-G and core subunit SMC2) to regulate chromosome condensation, spindle morphology, and chromosome congression/alignment in early mitosis...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
Agus Budi Setiawan, Chee How Teo, Shinji Kikuchi, Hidenori Sassa, Takato Koba
Background: Detailed karyotyping using metaphase chromosomes in melon ( Cucumis melo L.) remains a challenge because of their small chromosome sizes and poor stainability. Prometaphase chromosomes, which are two times longer and loosely condensed, provide a significantly better resolution for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) than metaphase chromosomes. However, suitable method for acquiring prometaphase chromosomes in melon have been poorly investigated. Results: In this study, a modified Carnoy's solution II (MC II) [6:3:1 ( v /v) ethanol: acetic acid: chloroform] was used as a pretreatment solution to obtain prometaphase chromosomes...
2018: Molecular Cytogenetics
Jeffrey B Woodruff
Cells compartmentalize biochemical reactions using organelles, which can be membrane-enclosed or built entirely of proteins and ribonucleic acids. Recent studies indicate that many organelles which lack membranes have liquid-like properties, including the ability to flow, fuse, and undergo rapid internal rearrangement. The assembly of these "biomolecular condensates" has been described as liquid-liquid phase separation, whereby their constituent components demix from the cytoplasm, similar to water separating from oil...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Christoph Schiklenk, Boryana Petrova, Marc Kschonsak, Markus Hassler, Carlo Klein, Toby J Gibson, Christian H Haering
Although the formation of rod-shaped chromosomes is vital for the correct segregation of eukaryotic genomes during cell divisions, the molecular mechanisms that control the chromosome condensation process have remained largely unknown. Here, we identify the C2 H2 zinc-finger transcription factor Zas1 as a key regulator of mitotic condensation dynamics in a quantitative live-cell microscopy screen of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe By binding to specific DNA target sequences in their promoter regions, Zas1 controls expression of the Cnd1 subunit of the condensin protein complex and several other target genes, whose combined misregulation in zas1 mutants results in defects in chromosome condensation and segregation...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Jagdish K Sahu, Arun K Mishra
OBJECTIVE: Ozenoxacin is one of the potent quinolone antibiotics, recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) with reported pharmacology to treat the impetigo. The demand for better acting topical formulation is increasing day by day. The present review is an attempt to summarize the facts behind the chemistry and biological applications of Ozenoxacin. Mechanism of action: This novel drug being a quinolone antibiotic compound, acts by inhibiting DNA gyrase A and topoisomerase IV and affects supercoiling, supercoil relaxation, chromosomal condensation, chromosomal decatenation and many others...
May 2, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Carlos Felipe Estévez Castro, Jorge Humberto Serment-Guerrero, Jorge Luis Fuentes
Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation blocks DNA replication and arrests cellular division in Escherichia coli. Restoration of chromosome replication involves nucleoid reorganization, which involves the participation of the recombination-catalysing proteins RecA, RecO, RecR and RecN. In the present work, we evaluated the influence of recN, uvrA and recJ gene mutations on post-irradiation nucleoid reorganization. We used isogenic E. coli strains that are defective for these genes to study post-irradiation kinetics of the nucleoid shape fractions using fluorescence microscopy...
April 26, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Ke Fang, Xuecheng Chen, Xiaowei Li, Yi Shen, Jielin Sun, Daniel M Czajkowsky, Zhifeng Shao
It is widely recognized that the higher-order spatial organization of the genome, beyond the nucleosome, plays an important role in many biological processes. However, to date, direct information of even such fundamental structural details as the typical sizes and DNA content of these higher-order structures in situ is poorly characterized. Here, we examine the nanoscopic DNA organization within human nuclei using super-resolution direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) imaging and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) click chemistry, studying single fully-labeled chromosomes within an otherwise unlabeled nuclei to improve the attainable resolution...
May 1, 2018: ACS Nano
Kazuhiro Maeshima, Kayo Hibino, Damien F Hudson
Condensins are key players in mitotic chromosome condensation. Using an elegant combination of state-of-the-art imaging techniques, Walther et al. (2018. J. Cell Biol. counted the number of Condensins, examined their behaviors on human mitotic chromosomes, and integrated the quantitative data to propose a new mechanistic model for chromosome condensation.
April 30, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Ping-Fu Hou, Tao Jiang, Fang Chen, Pei-Cong Shi, Hai-Qing Li, Jin Bai, Jun Song
Kinesin family member 4A (KIF4A) was found to be implicated in the regulation of chromosome condensation and segregation during mitotic cell division, which is essential for eukaryotic cell proliferation. However, little is known about the role of KIF4A in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). This study explored the biological function of KIF4A in CRC progression and investigated the potential molecular mechanisms involved. Here, we found that KIF4A was remarkably upregulated in primary CRC tissues and cell lines compared with paired non-cancerous tissues and normal colorectal epithelium...
April 30, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Irene Gutiérrez, Miguel Garavís, Sara de Lorenzo, Alfredo Villasante, Carlos González, Jose Ricardo Arias-Gonzalez
TERRA is an RNA molecule transcribed from human subtelomeric regions towards chromosome ends potentially involved in regulation of heterochromatin stability, semiconservative replication and telomerase inhibition, among others. TERRA contains tandem repeats of the sequence GGGUUA, with a strong tendency to fold into a four-stranded arrangement known as parallel G-quadruplex. Here, we demonstrate by using single-molecule force spectroscopy that this potential is limited by the inherent capacity of RNA to self-associate randomly and further condense into entropically more favorable structures...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Allexa Dow, Sladjana Prisic
Zinc is an essential micronutrient required for proper structure and function of many proteins. Bacteria regularly encounter zinc depletion and have evolved diverse mechanisms to continue growth when zinc is limited, including the expression of zinc-independent paralogs of zinc-binding proteins. Mycobacteria have a conserved operon encoding four zinc-independent alternative ribosomal proteins (AltRPs) that are expressed when zinc is depleted. It is unknown if mycobacterial AltRPs replace their primary paralogs in the ribosome and maintain protein synthesis under zinc-limited conditions, and if such replacements contribute to their physiology...
2018: PloS One
Aurélie Hurel, Dylan Phillips, Nathalie Vrielynck, Christine Mézard, Mathilde Grelon, Nicolas Christophorou
During meiotic prophase I chromosomes undergo dramatic conformational changes that accompany chromosome condensation, pairing and recombination between homologs. These changes include the anchoring of telomeres to the nuclear envelope and their clustering to form a bouquet. In plants, these events have been studied and illustrated in intact meiocytes of large genome species. Arabidopsis thaliana is an excellent genetic model where major molecular pathways that control synapsis and recombination between homologs have been uncovered...
April 22, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Guoliang Lyu, Tan Tan, Yiting Guan, Lei Sun, Qianjin Liang, Wei Tao
In female mammals, each cell silences one X chromosome by converting it into transcriptionally inert heterochromatin. The inactivation is concomitant with epigenetic changes including methylation of specific histone residues and incorporation of macroH2A. Such epigenetic changes may exert influence on the positioning of the inactive X chromosome (Xi) within the nucleus beyond the level of chromatin structure. However, the dynamic positioning of the inactive X chromosome during cell cycle remains unclear. Here, we show that H3K27me3 is a cell-cycle-independent marker for the inactivated X chromosomes in WI38 cells...
April 21, 2018: Chromosome Research
Nobuko Ohmido, Aiko Iwata, Seiji Kato, Toshiyuki Wako, Kiichi Fukui
A quantitative pachytene chromosome map of rice (Oryza sativa L.) was developed using imaging methods. The map depicts not only distribution patterns of chromomeres specific to pachytene chromosomes, but also the higher order information of chromosomal structures, such as heterochromatin (condensed regions), euchromatin (decondensed regions), the primary constrictions (centromeres), and the secondary constriction (nucleolar organizing regions, NOR). These features were image analyzed and quantitatively mapped onto the map by Chromosome Image Analyzing System ver...
2018: PloS One
Ermela Paparisto, Matthew W Woods, Macon D Coleman, Seyed A Moghadasi, Divjyot S Kochar, Sean K Tom, Hinissan P Kohio, Richard M Gibson, Taryn J Rohringer, Nina R Hunt, Eric J Di Gravio, Jonathan Y Zhang, Meijuan Tian, Yong Gao, Eric J Arts, Stephen D Barr
In humans, 'homologous to the E6-AP carboxyl terminus (HECT) and regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1)-like domain-containing protein 5' (HERC5) is an interferon-induced protein that inhibits replication of evolutionarily diverse viruses including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). To better understand the origin, evolution and function of HERC5, we performed phylogenetic, structural and functional analyses of the entire human small HERC family, which includes HERC3, HERC4, HERC5 and HERC6...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
Halina Lisowska, Lei Cheng, Alice Sollazzo, Lovisa Lundholm, Aneta Wegierek-Ciuk, Sylwester Sommer, Anna Lankoff, Andrzej Wojcik
PURPOSE: Low temperature at exposure has been shown to act in a radioprotective manner at the level of cytogenetic damage. It was suggested to be due to an effective transformation of DNA damage to chromosomal damage at low temperature. The purpose of the study was to analyze the kinetics of aberration formation during the first hours after exposing human peripheral blood lymphocytes to ionizing radiation at 0.8 °C and 37 °C. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To this end, we applied the technique of premature chromosome condensation...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Murilo T D Bueno, Marta Baldascini, Stéphane Richard, Noel F Lowndes
Lysine demethylase 2A (KDM2A) functions in transcription as a demethylase of lysine 36 on histone H3. Herein, we characterise a role for KDM2A in the DNA damage response in which KDM2A stimulates conjugation of ubiquitin to 53BP1. Impaired KDM2A-mediated ubiquitination negatively affects the recruitment of 53BP1 to DSBs. Notably, we show that KDM2A itself is recruited to DSBs in a process that depends on its demethylase activity and zinc finger domain. Moreover, we show that KDM2A plays an important role in ensuring genomic stability upon DNA damage...
March 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Alakesh Bera, Sajal Biring
Different studies indicated that the prion protein induces hybridization of complementary DNA strands. Cell culture studies showed that the scrapie isoform of prion protein remained bound with the chromosome. In present work, we used an oxazole dye, YOYO, as a reporter to quantitative characterization of the DNA condensation by prion protein. We observe that the prion protein induces greater fluorescence quenching of YOYO intercalated in DNA containing only GC bases compared to the DNA containing four bases whereas the effect of dye bound to DNA containing only AT bases is marginal...
2018: Journal of Nucleic Acids
T Cremer, M Cremer, C Cremer
4D nucleome research aims to understand the impact of nuclear organization in space and time on nuclear functions, such as gene expression patterns, chromatin replication, and the maintenance of genome integrity. In this review we describe evidence that the origin of 4D genome compartmentalization can be traced back to the prokaryotic world. In cell nuclei of animals and plants chromosomes occupy distinct territories, built up from ~1 Mb chromatin domains, which in turn are composed of smaller chromatin subdomains and also form larger chromatin domain clusters...
April 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Richard J Wall, David J P Ferguson, Aline Freville, Blandine Franke-Fayard, Declan Brady, Mohammad Zeeshan, Andrew R Bottrill, Sally Wheatley, Andrew M Fry, Chris J Janse, Hiroyuki Yamano, Anthony A Holder, David S Guttery, Rita Tewari
The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a highly conserved multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls mitotic division in eukaryotic cells by tagging cell cycle regulators for proteolysis. APC3 is a key component that contributes to APC/C function. Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, undergoes atypical mitotic division during its life cycle. Only a small subset of APC/C components has been identified in Plasmodium and their involvement in atypical cell division is not well understood...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"