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chromosome condensation

Carol-Anne Martin, Jennie E Murray, Paula Carroll, Andrea Leitch, Karen J Mackenzie, Mihail Halachev, Ahmed E Fetit, Charlotte Keith, Louise S Bicknell, Adeline Fluteau, Philippe Gautier, Emma A Hall, Shelagh Joss, Gabriela Soares, João Silva, Michael B Bober, Angela Duker, Carol A Wise, Alan J Quigley, Shubha R Phadke, Andrew J Wood, Paola Vagnarelli, Andrew P Jackson
Compaction of chromosomes is essential for accurate segregation of the genome during mitosis. In vertebrates, two condensin complexes ensure timely chromosome condensation, sister chromatid disentanglement, and maintenance of mitotic chromosome structure. Here, we report that biallelic mutations in NCAPD2, NCAPH, or NCAPD3, encoding subunits of these complexes, cause microcephaly. In addition, hypomorphic Ncaph2 mice have significantly reduced brain size, with frequent anaphase chromatin bridge formation observed in apical neural progenitors during neurogenesis...
October 13, 2016: Genes & Development
François Trompier, Marion Baumann, Lleonard Barrios, Eric Gregoire, Michael Abend, Elizabeth Ainsbury, Stephen Barnard, Joan Francesc Barquinero, Juan Antonio Bautista, Beata Brzozowska, Jose Perez-Calatayud, Cinzia De Angelis, Inmaculada Domínguez, Valeria Hadjidekova, Ulrike Kulka, Juan Carlos Mateos, Roberta Meschini, Octávia Monteiro Gil, Jayne Moquet, Ursula Oestreicher, Alegria Montoro Pastor, Roel Quintens, Natividad Sebastià, Sylwester Sommer, Orlin Stoyanov, Hubert Thierens, Georgia Terzoudi, Juan Ignacio Villaescusa, Anne Vral, Andrzej Wojcik, Demetre Zafiropoulos, Laurence Roy
PURPOSE: In the frame of the QA program of RENEB, an inter-laboratory comparison (ILC) of calibration sources used in biological dosimetry was achieved to investigate the influence of calibration practices and protocols on the results of the dose estimation performance as a first step to harmonization and standardization of dosimetry and irradiation practices in the European biological dosimetry network. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Delivered doses by irradiation facilities used by RENEB partners were determined with EPR/alanine dosimetry system...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Kazuyoshi Murata, Sayuri Hagiwara, Yoshitaka Kimori, Yasuko Kaneko
Some cyanobacteria exhibit compaction of DNA in synchrony with their circadian rhythms accompanying cell division. Since the structure is transient, it has not yet been described in detail. Here, we successfully visualize the ultrastructure of compacted DNA in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 under rigorous synchronized cultivation by means of high-voltage cryo-electron tomography. In 3D reconstructions of rapidly frozen cells, the compacted DNA appears as an undulating rod resembling a eukaryotic condensed chromosome...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Maria A Parker, Dongseok Choi, Laura R Erker, Mark E Pennesi, Paul Yang, Elvira N Chegarnov, Peter N Steinkamp, Catherine L Schlechter, Claire-Marie Dhaenens, Saddek Mohand-Said, Isabelle Audo, Jose Sahel, Richard G Weleber, David J Wilson
PURPOSE: The goal of this analysis was to determine the test-retest variability of functional and structural measures from a cohort of patients with advanced forms of Stargardt Disease (STGD) participating in the SAR422459 (NCT01367444) gene therapy clinical trial. METHODS: Twenty-two participants, aged 24 to 66, diagnosed with advanced forms of STGD, with at least one pathogenic ABCA4 mutation on each chromosome participating in the SAR422459 (NCT01367444) gene therapy clinical trial, were screened over three visits within 3 weeks or less...
October 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Sonali Lokhande, Biranchi N Patra, Animesh Ray
Huntington's disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder whose complex pathophysiology exhibits system-wide changes in the body, with striking and debilitating clinical features targeting the central nervous system. Among the various molecular functions affected in this disease, mitochondrial dysfunction and transcriptional dysregulation are some of the most studied aspects of this disease. However, there is evidence of the involvement of a mutant Huntingtin protein in the processes of DNA damage, chromosome condensation and DNA repair...
September 29, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Soon Bahng, Ryo Hayama, Kenneth J Marians
Properly condensed chromosomes are necessary for accurate segregation of the sisters after DNA replication. The Escherichia coli condesin is MukB, a Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC)3-like protein that forms a complex with MukE and the kleisin MukF. MukB is known to be able to mediate knotting of a DNA ring, an intramolecular reaction. In our investigations of how MukB condenses DNA we discovered that it can also mediate catenation of two DNA rings, an intermolecular reaction. This activity of MukB requires DNA binding by the head domains of the protein but does not require either ATP or its partner proteins MukE or MukF...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
G E Carpagnano, D Lacedonia, P Soccio, I Caccavo, G Patricelli, M P Foschino Barbaro
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive disease of lung interstitium of unknown etiology with poor prognosis. In patients with IPF, the incidence of lung cancer is much higher than that in the general population. The identification of noninvasive biomarkers for early diagnosis of IPF is of great relevance in consideration of the management of these patients. Among the noninvasive omic markers, an increasing interest has been directed toward the study of genetic alterations of microsatellites (MAs) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC)...
November 2016: Medical Oncology
Chengli Zhang, Manchao Kuang, Meng Li, Lin Feng, Kaitai Zhang, Shujun Cheng
Structural maintenance of chromosome 4 (SMC4) is a core subunit of condensin complexes that mainly contributes to chromosome condensation and segregation. Our previous study demonstrated that the gene expression profile during lung development is of great values for the study of lung cancer. In this study, we identified SMC4 through co-expression network analysis and clique percolation clustering using genes that constant changes during four stages of lung development. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated that SMC4 is closely related to cell cycle, cell adhesion, and RNA processing in lung development and carcinogenesis...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xiaohong Yan, Xinhua Zeng, Shasha Wang, Keqi Li, Rong Yuan, Hongfei Gao, Junling Luo, Fang Liu, Yuhua Wu, Yunjing Li, Li Zhu, Gang Wu
Genic male sterility (GMS) has already been extensively utilized for hybrid rapeseed production. TE5A is a novel thermo-sensitive dominant GMS line in Brassica napus, however, its mechanisms of GMS remain largely unclear. Histological and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses of anthers showed that the male gamete development of TE5A was arrested at meiosis prophase I. EdU uptake of S-phase meiocytes revealed that the TE5A mutant could accomplish DNA replication, however, chromosomal and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of TE5A showed that homologous chromosomes could not pair, synapse, condense and form bivalents...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
E Wójcik, E Smalec
Constitutive heterochromatin is a highly condensed fraction of chromatin in chromosomes. It is characterized by a high degree of polymorphism. Heterochromatin is located in the centromeric, telomeric, and interstitial parts of chromosomes. We used the CBG ( C: banding using B: arium hydroxide by G: iemsa) staining technique to identify heterochromatin in chromosomes. Analysis of karyotypes of F1 hybrids resulting from intergeneric hybridization of ducks (A. platyrhynchos × C. moschata) and interspecific crosses of geese (A...
September 23, 2016: Poultry Science
Tiago Ribeiro, André Marques, Petr Novák, Veit Schubert, André L L Vanzela, Jiri Macas, Andreas Houben, Andrea Pedrosa-Harand
Satellite DNA repeats (or satDNA) are fast-evolving sequences usually associated with condensed heterochromatin. To test whether the chromosomal organisation of centromeric and non-centromeric satDNA differs in species with holocentric chromosomes, we identified and characterised the major satDNA families in the holocentric Cyperaceae species Rhynchospora ciliata (2n = 10), R. globosa (2n = 50) and R. tenuis (2n = 2x = 4 and 2n = 4x = 8). While conserved centromeric repeats (present in R. ciliata and R...
September 19, 2016: Chromosoma
Benjamin M Skinner, Emma E P Johnson
Studies of chromosome and genome biology often focus on condensed chromatin in the form of chromosomes and neglect the non-dividing cells. Even when interphase nuclei are considered, they are often then treated as interchangeable round objects. However, different cell types can have very different nuclear shapes, and these shapes have impacts on cellular function; indeed, many pathologies are linked with alterations to nuclear shape. In this review, we describe some of the nuclear morphologies beyond the spherical and ovoid...
September 8, 2016: Chromosoma
Qing-Yang Li, Juan Lou, Xiao-Gan Yang, Yang-Qing Lu, Sheng-Sheng Lu, Ke-Huan Lu
Improving the quality of in vitro maturated buffalo oocytes is essential for embryo production. We report here the effects on microtubules and microfilaments in oocytes and embryo development that result from treating buffalo oocytes with the phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitor cilostamide. Addition of 20μM or 50μM cilostamide for 24h during in vitro maturation showed no differences in the percentage of oocytes arrested at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage. When 20μM cilostamide was added to the pre-maturation culture for 6h, 12h or 24h and continued for another 24h without cilostamide, oocytes resumed meiosis, but with significantly lower (P<0...
September 6, 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
Rupamoni Thakur, Sudarshan Kini, Sillarine Kurkalang, Atanu Banerjee, Purba Chatterjee, Abhishek Chanda, Anupam Chatterjee, Dulal Panda, Ashis K Mukherjee
Ruviprase, a 4.4 kDa peptide isolated from Daboia russelii russelii venom demonstrated antiproliferative activity against EMT6/AR1, U-87MG, HeLa and MCF-7 cancer cells with an IC50 value of 23.0, 8.8, 5.8 and 4.0 μg ml(-1), respectively. However, it was nontoxic to non-cancerous human embryonic kidney cell and human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Flow-cytometric analysis confirmed the apoptosis induction in MCF-7 cells by Ruviprase where it induced DNA condensation but did not cause mitotic blockage or chromosomal aberration in treated-cells...
October 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Marie-Odile Soyer-Gobillard, Michael F Dolan
As early as 1925, the great protozoologist Edouard Chatton classified microorganisms into two categories, the prokaryotic and the eukaryotic microbes, based on light microscopical observation of their nuclear organization. Now, by means of transmission electron microscopy, we know that prokaryotic microbes are characterized by the absence of nuclear envelope surrounding the bacterial chromosome, which is more or less condensed and whose chromatin is deprived of histone proteins but presents specific basic proteins...
December 2015: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Naoki Iwamori, Kaoru Tominaga, Tetsuya Sato, Kevin Riehle, Tokuko Iwamori, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Cristian Coarfa, Etsuro Ono, Martin M Matzuk
Splicing can be epigenetically regulated and involved in cellular differentiation in somatic cells, but the interplay of epigenetic factors and the splicing machinery during spermatogenesis remains unclear. To study these interactions in vivo, we generated a germline deletion of MORF-related gene on chromosome 15 (MRG15), a multifunctional chromatin organizer that binds to methylated histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36) in introns of transcriptionally active genes and has been implicated in regulation of histone acetylation, homology-directed DNA repair, and alternative splicing in somatic cells...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Eric O Freed
The retroviral enzyme integrase plays an essential role in the virus replication cycle by catalyzing the covalent insertion of newly synthesized viral DNA into the host cell chromosome early after infection. Now, Kessl et al. report a second function of integrase: binding to the viral RNA genome in virion particles late in the virus replication cycle to promote particle maturation.
August 25, 2016: Cell
Ivonne Romero, Ana Ilsa Lamadrid, Jorge Ernesto González, Tania Mandina, Omar García
The possibility to reduce the culture time and volume of blood and reagents required for the chemical Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) assay is demonstrated in this work. Peripheral whole blood was exposed to gamma radiation (1-20 Gy). Lymphocytes were cultured for 40 h, using 50 μl of blood and 450 μl of culture medium. The dose-response curves were adjusted, using length ratio (LR) of the longest to the shortest chromosome piece, and the frequency of rings per cell. No statistical differences were found between the results obtained with this method and those reported with the classical PCC assay culture...
October 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Kiran Kumar Naidu Guturi, Miyuki Bohgaki, Toshiyuki Bohgaki, Tharan Srikumar, Deborah Ng, Ramya Kumareswaran, Samah El Ghamrasni, Justin Jeon, Parasvi Patel, Mohamed Saad Eldin, Rob Bristow, Peter Cheung, Grant S Stewart, Brian Raught, Anne Hakem, Razqallah Hakem
Topoisomerase IIα (TOP2α) is essential for chromosomal condensation and segregation, as well as genomic integrity. Here we report that RNF168, an E3 ligase mutated in the human RIDDLE syndrome, interacts with TOP2α and mediates its ubiquitylation. RNF168 deficiency impairs decatenation activity of TOP2α and promotes mitotic abnormalities and defective chromosomal segregation. Our data also indicate that RNF168 deficiency, including in human breast cancer cell lines, confers resistance to the anti-cancer drug and TOP2 inhibitor etoposide...
2016: Nature Communications
Fukashi Shibata
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was developed for detecting specific DNA sequences directly on mitotic or meiotic chromosomes. However, the resolution of FISH on chromosomes is limited by condensed structure of chromatin, and it is difficult to differentiate two target sites close to each other. To overcome this issue, the objects was changed to stretched DNA fibers, and this fiber FISH technique has now been used for revealing genome structure at molecular level. Hybridization and detection procedures of fiber FISH are common with FISH on chromosomes...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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