keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

chromosome condensation

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426272/temperature-dependent-regulation-of-rdna-condensation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#1
Donglai Shen, Robert V Skibbens
Chromatin condensation during mitosis produces detangled and discrete DNA entities required for high fidelity sister chromatid segregation during mitosis and positions DNA away from the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. Regional condensation during G1 also establishes a nuclear architecture through which gene transcription is regulated but remains plastic so that cells can respond to changes in nutrient levels, temperature and signaling molecules. To date, however, the potential impact of this plasticity on mitotic chromosome condensation remains unknown...
April 20, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418749/an-improved-technique-for-obtaining-well-spread-metaphases-from-plants-with-numerous-large-chromosomes
#2
J M Rodríguez-Domínguez, L L Ríos-Lara, E Tapia-Campos, R Barba-Gonzalez
Preparations that contain well-spread metaphase chromosomes are critical for plant cytogenetic analyses including chromosome counts, banding procedures, in situ hybridization, karyotyping and construction of ideograms. Chromosome spreading is difficult for plants with large and numerous chromosomes. We report here a technique for obtaining cytoplasm-free, well-spread metaphases from two Amaryllidaceae species: Sprekelia formosissima (2n = 120) and Hymenocallis howardii (2n = 96). The technique has three main steps: 1) pretreatment to cause chromosome condensation, 2) dripping onto tilted slides coated with a thin layer of pure acetic acid and 3) application of steam and acetic acid to produce cytoplasmic hydrolysis, which spreads the chromosomes...
2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387373/identification-of-a-variant-specific-phosphorylation-of-th2a-during-spermiogenesis
#3
Masashi Hada, Koji Masuda, Kosuke Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Yuki Okada
Tissue-specific histone variant incorporation into chromatin plays dynamic and important roles in tissue development. Testis is one such tissue, and a number of testis-specific histone variants are expressed that have unique roles. While it is expected that such variants acquire post-transcriptional modifications to be functional, identification of variant-specific histone modifications is challenging because of the high similarity of amino acid sequences between canonical and variant versions. Here we identified a novel phosphorylation on TH2A, a germ cell-specific histone H2A variant...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380054/meioc-maintains-an-extended-meiotic-prophase-i-in-mice
#4
Y Q Shirleen Soh, Maria M Mikedis, Mina Kojima, Alexander K Godfrey, Dirk G de Rooij, David C Page
The meiosis-specific chromosomal events of homolog pairing, synapsis, and recombination occur over an extended meiotic prophase I that is many times longer than prophase of mitosis. Here we show that, in mice, maintenance of an extended meiotic prophase I requires the gene Meioc, a germ-cell specific factor conserved in most metazoans. In mice, Meioc is expressed in male and female germ cells upon initiation of and throughout meiotic prophase I. Mouse germ cells lacking Meioc initiate meiosis: they undergo pre-meiotic DNA replication, they express proteins involved in synapsis and recombination, and a subset of cells progress as far as the zygotene stage of prophase I...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380042/genetic-and-pharmacological-inhibition-of-ttk-impairs-pancreatic-cancer-cell-line-growth-by-inducing-lethal-chromosomal-instability
#5
Jeran K Stratford, Feng Yan, Rebecca A Hill, Michael B Major, Lee M Graves, Channing J Der, Jen Jen Yeh
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, which accounts for the majority of pancreatic cancers, is a lethal disease with few therapeutic options. Genomic profiling of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has identified a complex and heterogeneous landscape. Understanding the molecular characteristics of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma will facilitate the identification of potential therapeutic strategies. We analyzed the gene expression profiles of primary tumors from patients compared to normal pancreas and identified high co-overexpression of core components of the spindle assembly checkpoint, including the protein kinase TTK (also known as MPS-1)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374668/morphometric-and-densitometric-analysis-of-heterochromatin-during-cell-differentiation-using-the-leukaemic-granulocytic-lineage-as-a-convenient-model
#6
K Smetana, D Mikulenková, H Klamová
Granulocytic early progenitors and terminally differentiated - mature granulocytes with segmented nuclei were studied using computer-assisted diameter and heterochromatin optical image densitometry to provide more information on the nuclear size and heterochromatin condensation state. Bone marrow smears of patients suffering from chronic myeloid leukaemia untreated as well as treated with "specific" anti-leukaemic therapy with imatinib mesylate are a convenient model for such study because they possess a satisfactory number of cells for diameter and optical density measurements...
2017: Folia Biologica (Praha)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360846/stress-and-the-emerging-roles-of-chromatin-remodeling-in-signal-integration-and-stable-transmission-of-reversible-phenotypes
#7
REVIEW
Ian C G Weaver, Austin C Korgan, Kristen Lee, Ryan V Wheeler, Amos S Hundert, Donna Goguen
The influence of early life experience and degree of parental-infant attachment on emotional development in children and adolescents has been comprehensively studied. Structural and mechanistic insight into the biological foundation and maintenance of mammalian defensive systems (metabolic, immune, nervous and behavioral) is slowly advancing through the emerging field of developmental molecular (epi)genetics. Initial evidence revealed that differential nurture early in life generates stable differences in offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) regulation, in part, through chromatin remodeling and changes in DNA methylation of specific genes expressed in the brain, revealing physical, biochemical and molecular paths for the epidemiological concept of gene-environment interactions...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360097/chk2-overexpression-and-mislocalisation-within-mitotic-structures-enhances-chromosomal-instability-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression
#8
Vinicio Carloni, Matteo Lulli, Stefania Madiai, Tommaso Mello, Andrew Hall, Tu Vinh Luong, Massimo Pinzani, Krista Rombouts, Andrea Galli
OBJECTIVE: Chromosomal instability (CIN) is the most common form of genomic instability, which promotes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression by enhancing tumour heterogeneity, drug resistance and immunity escape. CIN per se is an important factor of DNA damage, sustaining structural chromosome abnormalities but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. DESIGN: DNA damage response protein checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) expression was evaluated in an animal model of diethylnitrosamine-induced HCC characterised by DNA damage and elevated mitotic errors...
March 30, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342454/fate-of-micronuclei-and-micronucleated-cells
#9
REVIEW
Henning Hintzsche, Ulrike Hemmann, Albrecht Poth, Dietmar Utesch, Jasmin Lott, Helga Stopper
The present review describes available evidence about the fate of micronuclei and micronucleated cells. Micronuclei are small, extranuclear chromatin bodies surrounded by a nuclear envelope. The mechanisms underlying the formation of micronuclei are well understood but not much is known about the potential fate of micronuclei and micronucleated cells. Many studies with different experimental approaches addressed the various aspects of the post-mitotic fate of micronuclei and micronucleated cells. These studies are reviewed here considering four basic possibilities for potential fates of micronuclei: degradation of the micronucleus or the micronucleated cell, reincorporation into the main nucleus, extrusion from the cell, and persistence in the cytoplasm...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315859/heteromorphism-of-homomorphic-sex-chromosomes-in-two-anole-species-squamata-dactyloidae-revealed-by-synaptonemal-complex-analysis
#10
Artem P Lisachov, Vladimir A Trifonov, Massimo Giovannotti, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Pavel M Borodin
Iguanians (Pleurodonta) are one of the reptile lineages that, like birds and mammals, have sex chromosomes of ancient origin. In most iguanians these are microchromosomes, making a distinction between the X and Y as well as between homeologous sex chromosomes in other species difficult. Meiotic chromosome analysis may be used to elucidate their differentiation, because meiotic prophase chromosomes are longer and less condensed than metaphase chromosomes, and the homologues are paired with each other, revealing minor heteromorphisms...
March 18, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286735/mitotic-phosphorylation-of-ccctc-binding-factor-ctcf-reduces-its-dna-binding-activity
#11
Takeshi Sekiya, Kensaku Murano, Kohsuke Kato, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Kyosuke Nagata
During mitosis, higher order chromatin structures are disrupted and chromosomes are condensed to achieve accurate chromosome segregation. CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed C2H2-type zinc finger protein which is considered to be involved in epigenetic memory through regulation of higher order chromatin architecture. However, the regulatory mechanism of CTCF in mitosis is still unclear. Here we found that the DNA-binding activity of CTCF is regulated in a phosphorylation-dependent manner during mitosis...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284242/epstein-barr-virus-nuclear-antigen-1-interacts-with-regulator-of-chromosome-condensation-1-dynamically-throughout-the-cell-cycle
#12
Thibaut Deschamps, Quentin Bazot, Derek M Leske, Ruth MacLeod, Dimitri Mompelat, Lionel Tafforeau, Vincent Lotteau, Vincent Maréchal, George S Baillie, Henri Gruffat, Joanna B Wilson, Evelyne Manet
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that plays an essential role in viral episome replication and segregation, by recruiting the cellular complex of DNA replication onto the origin (oriP) and by tethering the viral DNA onto the mitotic chromosomes. Whereas the mechanisms of viral DNA replication are well documented, those involved in tethering EBNA1 to the cellular chromatin are far from being understood. Here, we have identified regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1) as a novel cellular partner for EBNA1...
February 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228067/epigenetic-characteristics-of-the-mitotic-chromosome-in-1d-and-3d
#13
Marlies E Oomen, Job Dekker
While chromatin characteristics in interphase are widely studied, characteristics of mitotic chromatin and their inheritance through mitosis are still poorly understood. During mitosis, chromatin undergoes dramatic changes: transcription stalls, chromatin-binding factors leave the chromatin, histone modifications change and chromatin becomes highly condensed. Many key insights into mitotic chromosome state and conformation have come from extensive microscopy studies over the last century. Over the last decade, the development of 3C-based techniques has enabled the study of higher order chromosome organization during mitosis in a genome-wide manner...
April 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220245/phosphorylation-of-histone-h3-on-ser-10-by-aurora-b-is-essential-for-chromosome-condensation-in-porcine-embryos-during-the-first-mitotic-division
#14
Changchao Chen, Zixiao Zhang, Panpan Cui, Yaya Liao, Yue Zhang, Lingyun Yao, Rong Rui, Shiqiang Ju
Phosphorylation of histone H3 on Ser-10 (H3S10ph) is involved in regulating mitotic chromosome condensation and decondensation, which plays an important regulatory role during mitotic cell cycle progression in mammalian cells. However, whether H3S10ph plays a similar role in early porcine embryos during the first mitotic division remains uncertain. In this study, the subcellular localization and possible roles of H3S10ph were evaluated in the first mitotic cell cycle progression of porcine embryos using western blot, indirect immunofluorescence and barasertib (H3S10ph upstream regulator Aurora-B inhibitor) treatments...
February 20, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197912/the-sumo-pathway-in-mitosis
#15
Debaditya Mukhopadhyay, Mary Dasso
Mitosis is the stage of the cell cycle during which replicated chromosomes must be precisely divided to allow the formation of two daughter cells possessing equal genetic material. Much of the careful spatial and temporal organization of mitosis is maintained through post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination, of key cellular proteins. Here, we will review evidence that sumoylation, conjugation to the SUMO family of small ubiquitin-like modifiers, also serves essential regulatory roles during mitosis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185826/chaetocin-a-histone-methyltransferase-inhibitor-impairs-proliferation-arrests-cell-cycle-and-induces-nucleolar-disassembly-in-trypanosoma-cruzi
#16
Aline Araujo Zuma, Jean de Oliveira Santos, Isabela Mendes, Wanderley de Souza, Carlos Renato Machado, Maria Cristina M Motta
The Trypanosomatidae family includes pathogenic species of medical and veterinary interest. Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America, and about 8 million people are infected worldwide. There is a need for more effective drugs for the acute, undetermined and chronic phases of the disease that, in addition, do not cause side effects, stimulating the search for identification of new drug targets, as well as new chemotherapeutic targets. Trypanosomatids contain characteristic structures, such as the nucleus that undergoes a closed mitosis without chromosome formation and variations of chromatin packing in the different protozoa developmental stages...
February 6, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182313/h3k23me1-is-an-evolutionarily-conserved-histone-modification-associated-with-cg-dna-methylation-in-arabidopsis
#17
Minerva S Trejo-Arellano, Walid Mahrez, Miyuki Nakamura, Jordi Moreno-Romero, Paolo Nanni, Claudia Köhler, Lars Hennig
Amino-terminal tails of histones are targets for diverse post-translational modifications whose combinatorial action may constitute a code that will be read and interpreted by cellular proteins to define particular transcriptional states. Here, we describe monomethylation of histone H3 lysine 23 (H3K23me1) as a histone modification not previously described in plants. H3K23me1 is an evolutionarily conserved mark in diverse species of flowering plants. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing in Arabidopsis thaliana showed that H3K23me1 was highly enriched in pericentromeric regions and depleted from chromosome arms...
February 9, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181049/condensin-master-organizer-of-the-genome
#18
REVIEW
Paul Kalitsis, Tao Zhang, Kathryn M Marshall, Christian F Nielsen, Damien F Hudson
A fundamental requirement in nature is for a cell to correctly package and divide its replicated genome. Condensin is a mechanical multisubunit complex critical to this process. Condensin uses ATP to power conformational changes in DNA to enable to correct DNA compaction, organization, and segregation of DNA from the simplest bacteria to humans. The highly conserved nature of the condensin complex and the structural similarities it shares with the related cohesin complex have provided important clues as to how it functions in cells...
February 9, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169375/the-rb1-tumour-suppressor-gene-modifies-telomeric-chromatin-architecture-by-regulating-terra-expression
#19
I Gonzalez-Vasconcellos, R Schneider, N Anastasov, S Alonso-Rodriguez, B Sanli-Bonazzi, J L Fernández, M J Atkinson
The tumour suppressor gene (Rb1) is necessary for the maintenance of telomere integrity in osteoblastic cells. We now show that the compaction of telomeric chromatin and the appropriate histone modifications of telomeric DNA are both dependent upon Rb1-mediated transcription of the telomere-derived long non-coding RNA TERRA. Expression of TERRA was reduced in Rb1 haploinsufficient cells, and further decreased by shRNA-mediated reduction of residual Rb1 expression. Restoration of Rb1 levels through lentiviral transduction was sufficient to reestablish both transcription of TERRA and condensation of telomeric chromatin...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166426/the-elusive-role-of-mitotic-bookmarking-in-transcriptional-regulation-insights-from-sox2
#20
Cédric Deluz, Daniel Strebinger, Elias T Friman, David M Suter
The ability of some transcription factors to remain bound to specific genes on condensed mitotic chromosomes has been suggested to play a role in their rapid transcriptional reactivation upon mitotic exit. We have recently shown that SOX2 and OCT4 remain associated to mitotic chromosomes, and that depletion of SOX2 at the mitosis-G1 (M-G1) transition impairs its ability to maintain pluripotency and drive neuroectodermal commitment. Here we report on the role of SOX2 at the M-G1 transition in regulating transcriptional activity of embryonic stem cells...
April 3, 2017: Cell Cycle
keyword
keyword
85591
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"