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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642366/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-red1-protein-exhibits-nonhomologous-dna-end-joining-activity-and-potentiates-hop1-promoted-pairing-of-double-stranded-dna
#1
Rucha Kshirsagar, Indrajeet Ghodke, Kalappa Muniyappa
Elucidation of the function of synaptonemal complex (SC) in <Saccharomyces cerevisiae> has mainly focused on in vivo analysis of recombination-defective meiotic mutants. Consequently, significant gaps remain in the mechanistic understanding of the activities of different SC proteins and the functional relationships among them. S. cerevisiae Hop1 and Red1 are essential structural components of the SC axial/lateral elements. Previous studies have demonstrated that Hop1 is a structure-specific DNA-binding protein that exhibits high affinity for the Holliday junction, promotes DNA bridging, condensation and pairing between duplex DNA molecules...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634865/dynamics-of-tobacco-dna-topoisomerases-ii-in-cell-cycle-regulation-to-manage-topological-constrains-during-replication-transcription-and-mitotic-chromosome-condensation-and-segregation
#2
Badri Nath Singh, V Mohan Murali Achary, Varakumar Panditi, Sudhir K Sopory, Malireddy K Reddy
The topoisomerase II expression varies as a function of cell proliferation. Maximal topoisomerase II expression was tightly coupled to S phase and G2/M phase via both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Investigation in meiosis using pollen mother cells also revealed that it is not the major component of meiotic chromosomes, it seems to diffuse out once meiotic chromosomal condensation is completed. Synchronized tobacco BY-2 cell cultures were used to study the role of topoisomerase II in various stages of the cell cycle...
June 20, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631016/new-insights-into-cohesin-loading
#3
REVIEW
Ireneusz Litwin, Robert Wysocki
Cohesin is a conserved, ring-shaped protein complex that encircles sister chromatids and ensures correct chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. It also plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression, DNA condensation, and DNA repair through both non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. Cohesins are spatiotemporally regulated by the Scc2-Scc4 complex which facilitates cohesin loading onto chromatin at specific chromosomal sites. Over the last few years, much attention has been paid to cohesin and cohesin loader as it became clear that even minor disruptions of these complexes may lead to developmental disorders and cancers...
June 19, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620461/the-enemies-within-regions-of-the-genome-that-are-inherently-difficult-to-replicate
#4
REVIEW
Rahul Bhowmick, Ian D Hickson
An unusual feature of many eukaryotic genomes is the presence of regions that appear intrinsically difficult to copy during the process of DNA replication. Curiously, the location of these difficult-to-replicate regions is often conserved between species, implying a valuable role in some aspect of genome organization or maintenance. The most prominent class of these regions in mammalian cells is defined as chromosome fragile sites, which acquired their name because of a propensity to form visible gaps/breaks on otherwise-condensed chromosomes in mitosis...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608466/crystal-structure-of-human-wbscr16-an-rcc1-like-protein-in-mitochondria
#5
Masako Koyama, Taeko Sasaki, Narie Sasaki, Yoshiyuki Matsuura
WBSCR16 (Williams-Beuren Syndrome Chromosomal Region 16) gene is located in a large deletion region of Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), which is a neurodevelopmental disorder. Although the relationship between WBSCR16 and WBS remains unclear, it has been reported that WBSCR16 is a member of a functional module that regulates mitochondrial 16S rRNA abundance and intra-mitochondrial translation. WBSCR16 has RCC1 (Regulator of Chromosome Condensation 1)-like amino acid sequence repeats but the function of WBSCR16 appears to be different from that of other RCC1 superfamily members...
June 12, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606921/overexpression-of-rcc2-enhances-cell-motility-and-promotes-tumor-metastasis-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-by-inducing-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#6
Bo Pang, Nan Wu, Rongwei Guan, Lin Pang, Xinlei Li, Su Li, Liudi Tang, Ying Guo, Jialei Chen, Donglin Sun, Haiming Sun, Jialin Dai, Jing Bai, Guohua Ji, Peng Liu, An Liu, Qiushi Wang, Sheng Xiao, Songbin Fu, Yan Jin
Investigate the role of regulator of chromosome condensation 2 (RCC2) on lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) metastasis.<br /><br />Experimental Design: Clinical specimens were used to assess the impact of RCC2 on LUAD metastasis. Mouse models, cytobiology and molecular biology assays were performed to elucidate the function and underlying mechanisms of RCC2 in LUAD.<br /><br />Results: RCC2 expression was frequently increased in LUADs (88/122, 72.13%). It was confirmed by analysis of a larger cohort of TCGA RNA-seq data containing 488 LUADs and 58 normal lung tissues (P<0...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596964/oxidative-stress-induced-dna-damage-by-manganese-dioxide-nanoparticles-in-human-neuronal-cells
#7
Saud Alarifi, Daoud Ali, Saad Alkahtani
Metal nanoparticles have been extensively used in industry as well as in biomedical application. In this work, we have evaluated the toxic potential of manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanoparticles (MNPs) on human neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells. Cellular toxicity due to MNPs (0, 10, 30, and 60 μg/ml) on the SH-SY5Y cell was observed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) tests. MNPs produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and declined in mitochondrial membrane potential in the SH-SY5Y cell in dose and duration dependent manner...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588601/in-favor-of-establishment-regulation-of-chromatid-cohesion-in-plants
#8
REVIEW
Pablo Bolaños-Villegas, Kuntal De, Mónica Pradillo, Desheng Liu, Christopher A Makaroff
In eukaryotic organisms, the correct regulation of sister chromatid cohesion, whereby sister chromatids are paired and held together, is essential for accurate segregation of the sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes into daughter cells during mitosis and meiosis, respectively. Sister chromatid cohesion requires a cohesin complex comprised of structural maintenance of chromosome adenosine triphosphatases and accessory proteins that regulate the association of the complex with chromosomes or that are involved in the establishment or release of cohesion...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584481/sex-determination-efficacy-of-papanicolaou-and-acriflavine-schiff-stains-in-buccal-smears
#9
Tibin Kaithappillil Baby, Priya Thomas, Jayanthi Palani, Rekha Krishna Pillai, Bindhu Pushparajan Ramakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Barr body is formed from random inactivation and condensation of one of the two female chromosomes in virtually all the somatic cells of female mammals. Buccal smears have been reported to be potential sources of Barr bodies. AIM: This study was done to assess the efficacy of acriflavine (AF) Schiff and Papanicolaou (PAP) stains in sex determination by identifying Barr bodies in buccal smears of both sexes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two samples of buccal smears, collected from thirty males and thirty females in the age group of 16-60 years were used to demonstrate Barr bodies using AF Schiff and PAP stains, respectively...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583210/long-read-sequencing-improves-assembly-of-trichinella-genomes-10-fold-revealing-substantial-synteny-between-lineages-diverged-over-7-million-years
#10
Peter C Thompson, Dante S Zarlenga, Ming-Yuan Liu, Benjamin M Rosenthal
Genome assemblies can form the basis of comparative analyses fostering insight into the evolutionary genetics of a parasite's pathogenicity, host-pathogen interactions, environmental constraints and invasion biology; however, the length and complexity of many parasite genomes has hampered the development of well-resolved assemblies. In order to improve Trichinella genome assemblies, the genome of the sylvatic encapsulated species Trichinella murrelli was sequenced using third-generation, long-read technology and, using syntenic comparisons, scaffolded to a reference genome assembly of Trichinella spiralis, markedly improving both...
June 6, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574395/-evaluation-of-genomic-parameters-in-ductal-breast-cancer-patients-and-the-ability-of-it-s-correction
#11
T Jokhadze, M Gaiozishvili, T Buadze, T Sigua, E Namchelvadze, T Lezhava
The level of DNA single strand breaks, chromosomal abnormalities and sister chromatid exchanges and the possibility of its normalization with oligopeptide bioregulator Livagen and cobalt ions in the lymphocyte culture from patients with breast cancer have been studied. The results show that the genome of ductal breast cancer patients is characterized by the high density of DNA single strand breaks, high frequency of chromosomal abnormalities and increased levels of chromatin condensation. The usage of Livagen and cobalt in the form of modifying agents has a protective effect by all studied parameters...
April 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562324/prolonged-mitotic-arrest-induced-by-wee1-inhibition-sensitizes-breast-cancer-cells-to-paclitaxel
#12
Cody W Lewis, Zhigang Jin, Dawn Macdonald, Wenya Wei, Xu Jing Qian, Won Shik Choi, Ruicen He, Xuejun Sun, Gordon Chan
Wee1 kinase is a crucial negative regulator of Cdk1/cyclin B1 activity and is required for normal entry into and exit from mitosis. Wee1 activity can be chemically inhibited by the small molecule MK-1775, which is currently being tested in phase I/II clinical trials in combination with other anti-cancer drugs. MK-1775 promotes cancer cells to bypass the cell-cycle checkpoints and prematurely enter mitosis. In our study, we show premature mitotic cells that arise from MK-1775 treatment exhibited centromere fragmentation, a morphological feature of mitotic catastrophe that is characterized by centromeres and kinetochore proteins that co-cluster away from the condensed chromosomes...
May 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554018/in%C3%A2-vitro-evaluation-of-the-cytotoxic-and-bactericidal-mechanism-of-the-commonly-used-pesticide-triphenyltin-hydroxide
#13
Susobhan Mahanty, Darpan Raghav, Krishnan Rathinasamy
Triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) is a widely used pesticide that is highly toxic to a variety of organisms including humans and a potential contender for the environmental pollutant. In the present study, the cytotoxic mechanism of TPTH on mammalian cells was analyzed using HeLa cells and the antibacterial activity was analyzed using B. subtilis and E. coli cells. TPTH inhibited the growth of HeLa cells with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.25 μM and induced mitotic arrest. Immunofluorescence microscopy analysis showed that TPTH caused strong depolymerization of interphase microtubules and spindle abnormality with the appearance of colchicine type mitosis and condensed chromosome...
May 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542354/the-toxic-effects-and-possible-mechanisms-of-brusatol-on-mouse-oocytes
#14
Rujun Ma, Hongru Li, Yu Zhang, Ying Lin, Xuhua Qiu, Min Xie, Bing Yao
Brusatol is a natural quassinoid that shows a potential therapeutic use in cancer models by the inhibition of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and is capable of inducing a variety of biological effects. The effects of Brusatol on oocyte meiosis has not been addressed. In this study, we investigated the impact of Brusatol treatment on mouse oocyte maturation and its possible mechanism. Our data demonstrated that Brusatol treatment disrupted oocyte maturation and spindle/chromosome organization by modulating Nrf2-Cyclin B1 pathway, as the influence of Brusatol was compensated by the addition of Nrf2 activation plasmid, and the mRNA and protein levels of Cyclin B1 were severely reduced in oocytes following Nrf2 decline...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524814/genotoxic-and-cytotoxic-effects-in-exfoliated-buccal-and-nasal-cells-of-chromium-and-cobalt-exposed-electroplaters
#15
Georg Wultsch, Armen Nersesyan, Michael Kundi, Miroslav Mišík, Tahereh Setayesh, Monika Waldherr, Pavel Vodicka, Ludmila Vodickova, Siegfried Knasmüller
Results of a number of studies indicate that electroplaters have increased cancer risks as a consequence of exposure to genotoxic metals such as chromium (VI) and nickel. These effects may be due to induction of damage of the genetic material which plays a key role in the etiology of cancer, and it was found that workers in galvanization factories exhibited increased levels of DNA damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate genetic stability in workers of a bright plating factory who are exposed to chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521053/compaction-and-condensation-of-dna-mediated-by-the-c-terminal-domain-of-hfq
#16
Antoine Malabirade, Kai Jiang, Krzysztof Kubiak, Alvaro Diaz-Mendoza, Fan Liu, Jeroen A van Kan, Jean-François Berret, Véronique Arluison, Johan R C van der Maarel
Hfq is a bacterial protein that is involved in several aspects of nucleic acids metabolism. It has been described as one of the nucleoid associated proteins shaping the bacterial chromosome, although it is better known to influence translation and turnover of cellular RNAs. Here, we explore the role of Escherichia coli Hfq's C-terminal domain in the compaction of double stranded DNA. Various experimental methodologies, including fluorescence microscopy imaging of single DNA molecules confined inside nanofluidic channels, atomic force microscopy, isothermal titration microcalorimetry and electrophoretic mobility assays have been used to follow the assembly of the C-terminal and N-terminal regions of Hfq on DNA...
May 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510289/genome-organization-during-the-cell-cycle-unity-in-division
#17
REVIEW
Rosela Golloshi, Jacob T Sanders, Rachel Patton McCord
During the cell cycle, the genome must undergo dramatic changes in structure, from a decondensed, yet highly organized interphase structure to a condensed, generic mitotic chromosome and then back again. For faithful cell division, the genome must be replicated and chromosomes and sister chromatids physically segregated from one another. Throughout these processes, there is feedback and tension between the information-storing role and the physical properties of chromosomes. With a combination of recent techniques in fluorescence microscopy, chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C), biophysical experiments, and computational modeling, we can now attribute mechanisms to many long-observed features of chromosome structure changes during cell division...
May 16, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510215/species-specific-supercoil-dynamics-of-the-bacterial-nucleoid
#18
N Patrick Higgins
Bacteria organize DNA into self-adherent conglomerates called nucleoids that are replicated, transcribed, and partitioned within the cytoplasm during growth and cell division. Three classes of proteins help condense nucleoids: (1) DNA gyrase generates diffusible negative supercoils that help compact DNA into a dynamic interwound and multiply branched structure; (2) RNA polymerase and abundant small basic nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) create constrained supercoils by binding, bending, and forming cooperative protein-DNA complexes; (3) a multi-protein DNA condensin organizes chromosome structure to assist sister chromosome segregation after replication...
November 2016: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502659/apc-c-cdh1-enables-removal-of-shugoshin-2-from-the-arms-of-bivalent-chromosomes-by-moderating-cyclin-dependent-kinase-activity
#19
Ahmed Rattani, Randy Ballesteros Mejia, Katherine Roberts, Maurici B Roig, Jonathan Godwin, Michael Hopkins, Manuel Eguren, Luis Sanchez-Pulido, Elwy Okaz, Sugako Ogushi, Magda Wolna, Jean Metson, Alberto M Pendás, Marcos Malumbres, Béla Novák, Mary Herbert, Kim Nasmyth
In mammalian females, germ cells remain arrested as primordial follicles. Resumption of meiosis is heralded by germinal vesicle breakdown, condensation of chromosomes, and their eventual alignment on metaphase plates. At the first meiotic division, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome associated with Cdc20 (APC/C(Cdc20)) activates separase and thereby destroys cohesion along chromosome arms. Because cohesion around centromeres is protected by shugoshin-2, sister chromatids remain attached through centromeric/pericentromeric cohesin...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499611/silver-nanoparticle-induced-phosphorylation-of-histone-h3-at-serine-10-is-due-to-dynamic-changes-in-actin-filaments-and-the-activation-of-aurora-kinases
#20
Xiaoxu Zhao, Tatsushi Toyooka, Yuko Ibuki
The phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 (p-H3S10) has been closely correlated with mitotic chromosome condensation. We previously reported that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) significantly induced p-H3S10 independent of mitosis. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying the induction of p-H3S10 by AgNPs. A treatment with AgNPs markedly induced p-H3S10 in a dose-dependent manner in three types of cell lines, and this was dependent on the cellular incorporation of AgNPs. The immunofluorescent staining of AgNP-induced p-H3S10 was thin and solid throughout the nucleus, and differed from that normally associated with mitosis...
July 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
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