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chromosome condensation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315859/heteromorphism-of-homomorphic-sex-chromosomes-in-two-anole-species-squamata-dactyloidae-revealed-by-synaptonemal-complex-analysis
#1
Artem P Lisachov, Vladimir A Trifonov, Massimo Giovannotti, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Pavel M Borodin
Iguanians (Pleurodonta) are one of the reptile lineages that, like birds and mammals, have sex chromosomes of ancient origin. In most iguanians these are microchromosomes, making a distinction between the X and Y as well as between homeologous sex chromosomes in other species difficult. Meiotic chromosome analysis may be used to elucidate their differentiation, because meiotic prophase chromosomes are longer and less condensed than metaphase chromosomes, and the homologues are paired with each other, revealing minor heteromorphisms...
March 18, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286735/mitotic-phosphorylation-of-ccctc-binding-factor-ctcf-reduces-its-dna-binding-activity
#2
Takeshi Sekiya, Kensaku Murano, Kohsuke Kato, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Kyosuke Nagata
During mitosis, higher order chromatin structures are disrupted and chromosomes are condensed to achieve accurate chromosome segregation. CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed C2H2-type zinc finger protein which is considered to be involved in epigenetic memory through regulation of higher order chromatin architecture. However, the regulatory mechanism of CTCF in mitosis is still unclear. Here we found that the DNA-binding activity of CTCF is regulated in a phosphorylation-dependent manner during mitosis...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284242/epstein-barr-virus-nuclear-antigen-1-interacts-with-regulator-of-chromosome-condensation-1-dynamically-throughout-the-cell-cycle
#3
Thibaut Deschamps, Quentin Bazot, Derek M Leske, Ruth MacLeod, Dimitri Mompelat, Lionel Tafforeau, Vincent Lotteau, Vincent Maréchal, George S Baillie, Henri Gruffat, Joanna B Wilson, Evelyne Manet
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that plays an essential role in viral episome replication and segregation, by recruiting the cellular complex of DNA replication onto the origin (oriP) and by tethering the viral DNA onto the mitotic chromosomes. Whereas the mechanisms of viral DNA replication are well documented, those involved in tethering EBNA1 to the cellular chromatin are far from being understood. Here, we have identified regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1) as a novel cellular partner for EBNA1...
February 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228067/epigenetic-characteristics-of-the-mitotic-chromosome-in-1d-and-3d
#4
Marlies E Oomen, Job Dekker
While chromatin characteristics in interphase are widely studied, characteristics of mitotic chromatin and their inheritance through mitosis are still poorly understood. During mitosis, chromatin undergoes dramatic changes: transcription stalls, chromatin-binding factors leave the chromatin, histone modifications change and chromatin becomes highly condensed. Many key insights into mitotic chromosome state and conformation have come from extensive microscopy studies over the last century. Over the last decade, the development of 3C-based techniques has enabled the study of higher order chromosome organization during mitosis in a genome-wide manner...
April 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220245/phosphorylation-of-histone-h3-on-ser-10-by-aurora-b-is-essential-for-chromosome-condensation-in-porcine-embryos-during-the-first-mitotic-division
#5
Changchao Chen, Zixiao Zhang, Panpan Cui, Yaya Liao, Yue Zhang, Lingyun Yao, Rong Rui, Shiqiang Ju
Phosphorylation of histone H3 on Ser-10 (H3S10ph) is involved in regulating mitotic chromosome condensation and decondensation, which plays an important regulatory role during mitotic cell cycle progression in mammalian cells. However, whether H3S10ph plays a similar role in early porcine embryos during the first mitotic division remains uncertain. In this study, the subcellular localization and possible roles of H3S10ph were evaluated in the first mitotic cell cycle progression of porcine embryos using western blot, indirect immunofluorescence and barasertib (H3S10ph upstream regulator Aurora-B inhibitor) treatments...
February 20, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197912/the-sumo-pathway-in-mitosis
#6
Debaditya Mukhopadhyay, Mary Dasso
Mitosis is the stage of the cell cycle during which replicated chromosomes must be precisely divided to allow the formation of two daughter cells possessing equal genetic material. Much of the careful spatial and temporal organization of mitosis is maintained through post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination, of key cellular proteins. Here, we will review evidence that sumoylation, conjugation to the SUMO family of small ubiquitin-like modifiers, also serves essential regulatory roles during mitosis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185826/chaetocin-a-histone-methyltransferase-inhibitor-impairs-proliferation-arrests-cell-cycle-and-induces-nucleolar-disassembly-in-trypanosoma-cruzi
#7
Aline Araujo Zuma, Jean de Oliveira Santos, Isabela Mendes, Wanderley de Souza, Carlos Renato Machado, Maria Cristina M Motta
The Trypanosomatidae family includes pathogenic species of medical and veterinary interest. Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America, and about 8 million people are infected worldwide. There is a need for more effective drugs for the acute, undetermined and chronic phases of the disease that, in addition, do not cause side effects, stimulating the search for identification of new drug targets, as well as new chemotherapeutic targets. Trypanosomatids contain characteristic structures, such as the nucleus that undergoes a closed mitosis without chromosome formation and variations of chromatin packing in the different protozoa developmental stages...
February 6, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182313/h3k23me1-is-an-evolutionary-conserved-histone-modification-associated-with-cg-dna-methylation-in-arabidopsis
#8
Minerva S Trejo-Arellano, Walid Mahrez, Miyuki Nakamura, Jordi Moreno-Romero, Paolo Nanni, Claudia Köhler, Lars Hennig
Amino-terminal tails of histones are targets for diverse post-translational modifications whose combinatorial action may constitute a code that will be read and interpreted by cellular proteins to define particular transcriptional states. Here, we describe monomethylation of histone H3 lysine 23 (H3K23me1) as a histone modification not previously described in plants. H3K23me1 is an evolutionary conserved mark in diverse flowering plant species. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing in Arabidopsis thaliana showed that H3K23me1 was highly enriched in pericentromeric regions and depleted from chromosome arms...
February 9, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181049/condensin-master-organizer-of-the-genome
#9
REVIEW
Paul Kalitsis, Tao Zhang, Kathryn M Marshall, Christian F Nielsen, Damien F Hudson
A fundamental requirement in nature is for a cell to correctly package and divide its replicated genome. Condensin is a mechanical multisubunit complex critical to this process. Condensin uses ATP to power conformational changes in DNA to enable to correct DNA compaction, organization, and segregation of DNA from the simplest bacteria to humans. The highly conserved nature of the condensin complex and the structural similarities it shares with the related cohesin complex have provided important clues as to how it functions in cells...
February 9, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169375/the-rb1-tumour-suppressor-gene-modifies-telomeric-chromatin-architecture-by-regulating-terra-expression
#10
I Gonzalez-Vasconcellos, R Schneider, N Anastasov, S Alonso-Rodriguez, B Sanli-Bonazzi, J L Fernández, M J Atkinson
The tumour suppressor gene (Rb1) is necessary for the maintenance of telomere integrity in osteoblastic cells. We now show that the compaction of telomeric chromatin and the appropriate histone modifications of telomeric DNA are both dependent upon Rb1-mediated transcription of the telomere-derived long non-coding RNA TERRA. Expression of TERRA was reduced in Rb1 haploinsufficient cells, and further decreased by shRNA-mediated reduction of residual Rb1 expression. Restoration of Rb1 levels through lentiviral transduction was sufficient to reestablish both transcription of TERRA and condensation of telomeric chromatin...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166426/the-elusive-role-of-mitotic-bookmarking-in-transcriptional-regulation-insights-from-sox2
#11
Cédric Deluz, Daniel Strebinger, Elias T Friman, David M Suter
The ability of some transcription factors to remain bound to specific genes on condensed mitotic chromosomes has been suggested to play a role in their rapid transcriptional reactivation upon mitotic exit. We have recently shown that SOX2 and OCT4 remain associated to mitotic chromosomes, and that depletion of SOX2 at the mitosis-G1 (M-G1) transition impairs its ability to maintain pluripotency and drive neuroectodermal commitment. Here we report on the role of SOX2 at the M-G1 transition in regulating transcriptional activity of embryonic stem cells...
February 6, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163220/nano-encapsulation-of-a-novel-anti-ran-gtpase-peptide-for-blockade-of-regulator-of-chromosome-condensation-1-rcc1-function-in-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells
#12
Yusuf A Haggag, Kyle B Matchett, El-Habib Dakir, Paul Buchanan, Mohammed A Osman, Sanaa A Elgizawy, Mohamed El-Tanani, Ahmed M Faheem, Paul A McCarron
Ran is a small ras-related GTPase and is highly expressed in aggressive breast carcinoma. Overexpression induces malignant transformation and drives metastatic growth. We have designed a novel series of anti-Ran-GTPase peptides, which prevents Ran hydrolysis and activation, and although they display effectiveness in silico, peptide activity is suboptimal in vitro due to reduced bioavailability and poor delivery. To overcome this drawback, we delivered an anti-Ran-GTPase peptide using encapsulation in PLGA-based nanoparticles (NP)...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128408/dynamics-of-45s-rdna-sites-in-the-cell-cycle-fragile-sites-and-chromosomal-stability-in-lolium-and-festuca
#13
L C Rocha, G A Silva, F O Bustamante, R A D Silveira, A Mittlemann, V H Techio
Analyses carried out with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in C-metaphases of the Lolium-Festuca complex have shown the occurrence of spontaneous fragile sites (FSs) in 45S rDNA regions. FSs are expressed as gaps but they do not result in breaks or chromosomal fragments in these species. These gaps have high DNA condensation observed as thin chromatin fibers that connect the apparent segments of the fragile chromosome, allowing for genomic stability. Assessing the behavior of these regions in the cell cycle of Lolium and Festuca species may lead to a better understanding of the dynamics that preserve stability during cell division...
January 23, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125646/kif4-is-essential-for-mouse-oocyte-meiosis
#14
Nicole J Camlin, Eileen A McLaughlin, Janet E Holt
Progression through the meiotic cell cycle must be strictly regulated in oocytes to generate viable embryos and offspring. During mitosis, the kinesin motor protein Kif4 is indispensable for chromosome condensation and separation, midzone formation and cytokinesis. Additionally, the bioactivity of Kif4 is dependent on phosphorylation via Aurora Kinase B and Cdk1, which regulate Kif4 function throughout mitosis. Here, we examine the role of Kif4 in mammalian oocyte meiosis. Kif4 localized in the cytoplasm throughout meiosis I and II, but was also observed to have a dynamic subcellular distribution, associating with both microtubules and kinetochores at different stages of development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072566/guard-the-guardian-a-crl4-ligase-stands-watch-over-histone-production
#15
Fabienne Lampert, Mia M L Brodersen, Matthias Peter
Histones are evolutionarily conserved proteins that together with DNA constitute eukaryotic chromatin in a defined stoichiometry. Core histones are dynamic scaffolding proteins that undergo a myriad of post-translational modifications, which selectively engage chromosome condensation, replication, transcription and DNA damage repair. Cullin4-RING ubiquitin E3 ligases are known to hold pivotal roles in a wide spectrum of chromatin biology ranging from chromatin remodeling and transcriptional repression, to sensing of cytotoxic DNA lesions...
January 10, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067213/metallic-copper-nanoparticles-induce%C3%A2-apoptosis-in-a%C3%A2-human-skin-melanoma%C3%A2-a-375-cell-line
#16
Ruchira Chakraborty, Tarakdas Basu
In two earlier communications (Chatterjee et al 2012 Nanotechnology 23 085103, Chatterjee et al 2014 Nanotechnology 25 135101), we reported the development of a simple and unique method of synthesizing highly stable metallic copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) with high antibacterial activity. Here we report on the cytotoxic potency of the NPs against cancer cells. The value of the IC50 dose of the Cu NPs against human skin cancer cell A-375 was found to be 1.71 μg ml(-1) only, which was much less than values reported so far, and this concentration had no cytotoxic effect on normal white blood cells...
March 10, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057211/roles-of-smc-complexes-during-t-lymphocyte-development-and-function
#17
J S Rawlings
T lymphocytes (T cells) comprise a critical component of the immune system charged with diverse functions during an immune response. As a function of maturation in the thymus, T cells become quiescent and remain so until they participate in an immune response in the periphery. Recent work indicates that the control of T cell proliferation is mediated, at least in part, by chromatin architecture. Quiescent T cells possess a condensed chromatin, whereas proliferating T cells have a more open chromatin configuration...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045584/epigenetic-countermarks-in-mitotic-chromosome-condensation
#18
Karel H M van Wely, Carmen Mora Gallardo, Kendra R Vann, Tatiana G Kutateladze
Mitosis in metazoans is characterized by abundant phosphorylation of histone H3 and involves the recruitment of condensin complexes to chromatin. The relationship between the 2 phenomena and their respective contributions to chromosome condensation in vivo remain poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that H3T3 phosphorylation decreases binding of histone readers to methylated H3K4 in vitro and is essential to displace the corresponding proteins from mitotic chromatin in vivo. Together with previous observations, these data provide further evidence for a role of mitotic histone H3 phosphorylation in blocking transcriptional programs or preserving the 'memory' PTMs...
January 3, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007967/aberrant-meiotic-modulation-partially-contributes-to-the-lower-germination-rate-of-pollen-grains-in-maize-zea-mays-l-under-low-nitrogen-supply
#19
Hongyan Zheng, Huamao Wu, Xiaoying Pan, Weiwei Jin, Xuexian Li
Pollen germination is an essential step towards successful pollination during maize reproduction. How low niutrogen (N) affects pollen germination remains an interesting biological question to be addressed. We found that only low N resulted in a significantly lower germination rate of pollen grains after 4 weeks of low N, phosphorus or potassium treatment in maize production. Importantly, cytological analysis showed 7-fold more micronuclei in male meiocytes under the low N treatment than in the control, indicating that the lower germination rate of pollen grains was partially due to numerous chromosome loss events resulting from preceding meiosis...
November 15, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994196/dual-modified-antiphospho-ser10-acetyl-lys14-histone-h3-predominantly-mark-the-pericentromeric-chromatin-during-mitosis-in-monokinetic-plants
#20
Santosh Kumar Sharma, Maki Yamamoto, Yasuhiko Mukai
Epigenetic regulatory posttranslational histone modification marks not only function individually but also capable to act in combination as a unique pattern. A total of 16 plant species belonging to 11 genera of eight families (five dicots and three monocots) including land plants, epiphytes (orchids) and the holokinetic taxa (Drosera spp.) were analysed for chromosomal distribution of dual modified antiphospho (Ser10)-acetyl (K14)-histone H3 (H3S10phK14ac) to understand the combinatorial chromatin dynamics during mitotic cell division in plants...
December 2016: Journal of Genetics
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