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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072566/guard-the-guardian-a-crl4-ligase-stands-watch-over-histone-production
#1
Fabienne Lampert, Mia M L Brodersen, Matthias Peter
Histones are evolutionarily conserved proteins that together with DNA constitute eukaryotic chromatin in a defined stoichiometry. Core histones are dynamic scaffolding proteins that undergo a myriad of post-translational modifications, which selectively engage chromosome condensation, replication, transcription and DNA damage repair. Cullin4-RING ubiquitin E3 ligases are known to hold pivotal roles in a wide spectrum of chromatin biology ranging from chromatin remodeling and transcriptional repression, to sensing of cytotoxic DNA lesions...
January 10, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067213/metallic-copper-nanoparticle-induces-apoptosis-in-human-skin-melanoma-a-375-cell-line
#2
Ruchira Chakraborty, Tarakdas Basu
In earlier two communications [Chatterjee et al., 2012; Chatterjee et al., 2014], we reported to develop a simple and unique method of synthesis of highly stable metallic copper nanoparticle (Cu-NP) with high antibacterial potency. Here we report about the cytotoxic potency of the NP against cancer cells. The value of the IC50 dose of the Cu-NP against human skin cancer cell A-375 was found to be 1.71��g/ml only, which was much less than the values reported so far and this concentration had no cytotoxic effect on normal WBC...
January 9, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057211/roles-of-smc-complexes-during-t-lymphocyte-development-and-function
#3
J S Rawlings
T lymphocytes (T cells) comprise a critical component of the immune system charged with diverse functions during an immune response. As a function of maturation in the thymus, T cells become quiescent and remain so until they participate in an immune response in the periphery. Recent work indicates that the control of T cell proliferation is mediated, at least in part, by chromatin architecture. Quiescent T cells possess a condensed chromatin, whereas proliferating T cells have a more open chromatin configuration...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045584/epigenetic-countermarks-in-mitotic-chromosome-condensation
#4
Karel H M van Wely, Carmen Mora Gallardo, Kendra R Vann, Tatiana G Kutateladze
Mitosis in metazoans is characterized by abundant phosphorylation of histone H3 and involves the recruitment of condensin complexes to chromatin. The relationship between the 2 phenomena and their respective contributions to chromosome condensation in vivo remain poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that H3T3 phosphorylation decreases binding of histone readers to methylated H3K4 in vitro and is essential to displace the corresponding proteins from mitotic chromatin in vivo. Together with previous observations, these data provide further evidence for a role of mitotic histone H3 phosphorylation in blocking transcriptional programs or preserving the 'memory' PTMs...
January 3, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007967/aberrant-meiotic-modulation-partially-contributes-to-the-lower-germination-rate-of-pollen-grains-in-maize-zea-mays-l-under-low-nitrogen-supply
#5
Hongyan Zheng, Huamao Wu, Xiaoying Pan, Weiwei Jin, Xuexian Li
Pollen germination is an essential step towards successful pollination during maize reproduction. How low niutrogen (N) affects pollen germination remains an interesting biological question to be addressed. We found that only low N resulted in a significantly lower germination rate of pollen grains after 4 weeks of low N, phosphorus or potassium treatment in maize production. Importantly, cytological analysis showed 7-fold more micronuclei in male meiocytes under the low N treatment than in the control, indicating that the lower germination rate of pollen grains was partially due to numerous chromosome loss events resulting from preceding meiosis...
November 15, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994196/dual-modified-antiphospho-ser10-acetyl-lys14-histone-h3-predominantly-mark-the-pericentromeric-chromatin-during-mitosis-in-monokinetic-plants
#6
Santosh Kumar Sharma, Maki Yamamoto, Yasuhiko Mukai
Epigenetic regulatory posttranslational histone modification marks not only function individually but also capable to act in combination as a unique pattern. A total of 16 plant species belonging to 11 genera of eight families (five dicots and three monocots) including land plants, epiphytes (orchids) and the holokinetic taxa (Drosera spp.) were analysed for chromosomal distribution of dual modified antiphospho (Ser10)-acetyl (K14)-histone H3 (H3S10phK14ac) to understand the combinatorial chromatin dynamics during mitotic cell division in plants...
December 2016: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993155/the-genome-of-the-gulf-pipefish-enables-understanding-of-evolutionary-innovations
#7
C M Small, S Bassham, J Catchen, A Amores, A M Fuiten, R S Brown, A G Jones, W A Cresko
BACKGROUND: Evolutionary origins of derived morphologies ultimately stem from changes in protein structure, gene regulation, and gene content. A well-assembled, annotated reference genome is a central resource for pursuing these molecular phenomena underlying phenotypic evolution. We explored the genome of the Gulf pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli), which belongs to family Syngnathidae (pipefishes, seahorses, and seadragons). These fishes have dramatically derived bodies and a remarkable novelty among vertebrates, the male brood pouch...
December 20, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959790/epstein-barr-virus-nuclear-antigen-1-ebna1-interacts-with-regulator-of-chromosome-condensation-rcc1-dynamically-throughout-the-cell-cycle
#8
Thibaut Deschamps, Bazot Quentin, Derek M Leske, Ruth MacLeod, Dimitri Mompelat, Lionel Tafforeau, Vincent Lotteau, Vincent Maréchal, George S Baillie, Henri Gruffat, Joanna B Wilson, Evelyne Manet
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is a sequence-specific DNA binding protein which plays an essential role in viral episome replication and segregation, by recruiting the cellular complex of DNA replication onto the origin (oriP) and by tethering the viral DNA onto the mitotic chromosomes. Whereas the mechanisms of viral DNA replication are well documented, those involved in tethering EBNA1 to the cellular chromatin are far from being understood. Here, we have identified Regulator of Chromosome Condensation 1 (RCC1) as a novel cellular partner for EBNA1...
December 12, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918550/selective-y-centromere-inactivation-triggers-chromosome-shattering-in-micronuclei-and-repair-by-non-homologous-end-joining
#9
Peter Ly, Levi S Teitz, Dong H Kim, Ofer Shoshani, Helen Skaletsky, Daniele Fachinetti, David C Page, Don W Cleveland
Chromosome missegregation into a micronucleus can cause complex and localized genomic rearrangements known as chromothripsis, but the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. Here we developed an inducible Y centromere-selective inactivation strategy by exploiting a CENP-A/histone H3 chimaera to directly examine the fate of missegregated chromosomes in otherwise diploid human cells. Using this approach, we identified a temporal cascade of events that are initiated following centromere inactivation involving chromosome missegregation, fragmentation, and re-ligation that span three consecutive cell cycles...
January 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913665/structure-and-function-of-bacterial-h-ns-protein
#10
REVIEW
David C Grainger
The histone-like nucleoid structuring (H-NS) protein is a major component of the folded chromosome in Escherichia coli and related bacteria. Functions attributed to H-NS include management of genome evolution, DNA condensation, and transcription. The wide-ranging influence of H-NS is remarkable given the simplicity of the protein, a small peptide, possessing rudimentary determinants for self-association, hetero-oligomerisation and DNA binding. In this review, I will discuss our understanding of H-NS with a focus on these structural elements...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910894/calcium-ions-function-as-a-booster-of-chromosome-condensation
#11
Rinyaporn Phengchat, Hideaki Takata, Kenichi Morii, Noriko Inada, Hideji Murakoshi, Susumu Uchiyama, Kiichi Fukui
Chromosome condensation is essential for the faithful transmission of genetic information to daughter cells during cell division. The depletion of chromosome scaffold proteins does not prevent chromosome condensation despite structural defects. This suggests that other factors contribute to condensation. Here we investigated the contribution of divalent cations, particularly Ca(2+), to chromosome condensation in vitro and in vivo. Ca(2+) depletion caused defects in proper mitotic progression, particularly in chromosome condensation after the breakdown of the nuclear envelope...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910025/cytogenetics-for-biological-dosimetry
#12
Michelle Ricoul, Tamizh Gnana-Sekaran, Laure Piqueret-Stephan, Laure Sabatier
Cytogenetics is the gold-standard in biological dosimetry for assessing a received dose of ionizing radiation. More modern techniques have recently emerged, but none are as specific as cytogenetic approaches, particularly the dicentric assay. Here, we will focus on the principal cytogenetic techniques used for biological dosimetry: the dicentric assay in metaphase cells, the micronuclei assay in binucleated cells, and the premature condensed chromosome (PCC) assay in interphase cells. New fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques (such as telomere-centromere hybridization) have facilitated the analysis of the dicentric assay and have permitted to assess the dose a long time after irradiation by translocation analysis (such as by Tri-color FISH or Multiplex-FISH)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899975/in-vitro-antitumor-activity-of-latcripin-15-regulator-of-chromosome-condensation-1-domain-protein
#13
Li Tian, Xiaoli Wang, Xingyun Li, Ben Liu, Wei Zhang, Jing Cao, Anhong Ning, Min Huang, Mintao Zhong
Cancer is one of the most significant health problems worldwide and thus the development of novel therapeutic agents with fewer side effects is required. The present study investigated the in vitro anticancer effects of a newly isolated fungal protein. In this study, Latcripin-15 (LP-15) regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1) domain protein, which is obtained from the Lentinula edodes C91-3 fungal strain, was identified, cloned, expressed, purified and re-folded to assess the in vitro antitumor activity of the protein...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861489/characterizing-transcriptional-networks-in-male-rainbow-darter-etheostoma-caeruleum-that-regulate-testis-development-over-a-complete-reproductive-cycle
#14
Paulina A Bahamonde, Mark E McMaster, Mark R Servos, Christopher J Martyniuk, Kelly R Munkittrick
Intersex is a condition that has been associated with exposure to sewage effluents in male rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum). To better understand changes in the transcriptome that are associated with intersex, we characterized annual changes in the testis transcriptome in wild, unexposed fish. Rainbow darter males were collected from the Grand River (Ontario, Canada) in May (spawning), August (post-spawning), October (recrudescence), January (developing) and March (pre-spawning). Histology was used to determine the proportion of spermatogenic cell types that were present during each period of testicular maturation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858158/structure-of-centromere-chromatin-from-nucleosome-to-chromosomal-architecture
#15
REVIEW
Thomas Schalch, Florian A Steiner
The centromere is essential for the segregation of chromosomes, as it serves as attachment site for microtubules to mediate chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. In most organisms, the centromere is restricted to one chromosomal region that appears as primary constriction on the condensed chromosome and is partitioned into two chromatin domains: The centromere core is characterized by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A (also called cenH3) and is required for specifying the centromere and for building the kinetochore complex during mitosis...
November 17, 2016: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858047/how-are-molecular-crowding-and-the-spatial-organization-of-a-biopolymer-interrelated
#16
Chanil Jeon, Changbong Hyeon, Youngkyun Jung, Bae-Yeun Ha
In a crowded cellular interior, dissolved biomolecules or crowders exert excluded volume effects on other biomolecules, which in turn control various processes including protein aggregation and chromosome organization. As a result of these effects, a long chain molecule can be phase-separated into a condensed state, redistributing the surrounding crowders. Using computer simulations and a theoretical approach, we study the interrelationship between molecular crowding and chain organization. In a parameter space of biological relevance, the distributions of monomers and crowders follow a simple relationship: the sum of their volume fractions rescaled by their size remains constant...
December 6, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855781/a-dynamic-mode-of-mitotic-bookmarking-by-transcription-factors
#17
Sheila S Teves, Luye An, Anders S Hansen, Liangqi Xie, Xavier Darzacq, Robert Tjian
During mitosis, transcription is shut off, chromatin condenses, and most transcription factors (TFs) are reported to be excluded from chromosomes. How do daughter cells re-establish the original transcription program? Recent discoveries that a select set of TFs remain bound on mitotic chromosomes suggest a potential mechanism for maintaining transcriptional programs through the cell cycle termed mitotic bookmarking. Here we report instead that many TFs remain associated with chromosomes in mouse embryonic stem cells, and that the exclusion previously described is largely a fixation artifact...
November 19, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855777/successful-transmission-and-transcriptional-deployment-of-a-human-chromosome-via-mouse-male-meiosis
#18
Christina Ernst, Jeremy Pike, Sarah J Aitken, Hannah K Long, Nils Eling, Lovorka Stojic, Michelle C Ward, Frances Connor, Timothy F Rayner, Margus Lukk, Robert J Klose, Claudia Kutter, Duncan T Odom
Most human aneuploidies originate maternally, due in part to the presence of highly stringent checkpoints during male meiosis. Indeed, male sterility is common among aneuploid mice used to study chromosomal abnormalities, and male germline transmission of exogenous DNA has been rarely reported. Here we show that, despite aberrant testis architecture, males of the aneuploid Tc1 mouse strain produce viable sperm and transmit human chromosome 21 to create aneuploid offspring. In these offspring, we mapped transcription, transcriptional initiation, enhancer activity, non-methylated DNA, and transcription factor binding in adult tissues...
November 18, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854341/sept12-ndc1-complexes-are-required-for-mammalian-spermiogenesis
#19
Tsung-Hsuan Lai, Ying-Yu Wu, Ya-Yun Wang, Mei-Feng Chen, Pei Wang, Tsung-Ming Chen, Yi-No Wu, Han-Sun Chiang, Pao-Lin Kuo, Ying-Hung Lin
Male factor infertility accounts for approximately 50 percent of infertile couples. The male factor-related causes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection failure include the absence of sperm, immotile sperm, immature sperm, abnormally structured sperm, and sperm with nuclear damage. Our knockout and knock-in mice models demonstrated that SEPTIN12 (SEPT12) is vital for the formation of sperm morphological characteristics during spermiogenesis. In the clinical aspect, mutated SEPT12 in men results in oligozoospermia or teratozoospermia or both...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854019/characterization-of-individual-histone-posttranslational-modifications-and-their-combinatorial-patterns-by-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics-strategies
#20
Simone Sidoli, Benjamin A Garcia
Histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) play an essential role in chromatin biology, as they model chromatin structure and recruit enzymes involved in gene regulation, DNA repair, and chromosome condensation. Such PTMs are mostly localized on histone N-terminal tails where, as single units or in a combinatorial manner, they influence chromatin reader protein binding and fine-tune the abovementioned activities. Mass spectrometry (MS) is currently the most adopted strategy to characterize proteins and protein PTMs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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