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chromosome condensation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719835/silencing-the-tobacco-gene-for-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-1-and-infection-by-potato-virus-y-cause-remodeling-of-cellular-organelles
#1
Farshad Rakhshandehroo, Saeed Rezaee, Peter Palukaitis
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1) has been shown to be involved in DNA methylation, RNA silencing and regulating expression of other genes. RDR1 gene expression is stimulated by infection with potato virus Y° (PVY). Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants silenced for RDR1 gene expression showed morphological changes in mesophyll cells, associated with remodeling of the nuclei, chloroplasts and mitochondria. RDR1 silencing led to decreased nuclear size, increased heterochromatin content and aggregation, decreased numbers of chloroplasts, plus changes in shape, internal structures and integrity of chloroplasts and mitochondria...
July 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717250/plk1-phosphorylation-of-cap-h2-triggers-chromosome-condensation-by-condensin-ii-at-the-early-phase-of-mitosis
#2
Yuya Kagami, Masaya Ono, Kiyotsugu Yoshida
Condensin complexes play crucial roles in chromosome condensation that is a fundamental process to establish the "rod-like" shape of chromosome structure in mitosis. Failure of the chromosome assembly causes chromosome segregation errors and subsequent genomic instability. However, a molecular mechanism that controls condensin function for the chromosomal organization has not been fully understood. Here, we show that the abundance of CAP-H2, one of the condensin II subunits, is fluctuated during the cell cycle in accordance with Plk1 kinase activity...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715365/analysis-of-the-c-kit-ligand-promoter-using-chromatin-immunoprecipitation
#3
Pingyu Zhang, Andres Rojas, Boris Blechacz
Multiple cellular processes, including DNA replication and repair, DNA recombination, and gene expression, require interactions between proteins and DNA. Therefore, DNA-protein interactions regulate multiple physiological, pathophysiological, and biological functions, such as cell differentiation, cell proliferation, cell cycle control, chromosome stability, epigenetic gene regulation, and cell transformation. In eukaryotic cells, the DNA interacts with histone and nonhistone proteins and is condensed into chromatin...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693160/isoliquiritigenin-induces-apoptosis-of-human-bladder-cancer-t24-cells-via-a-cyclin-dependent-kinase-independent-mechanism
#4
Lingling Si, Xinhui Yang, Xinyan Yan, Yanming Wang, Qiusheng Zheng
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an increase in cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) activity is involved in apoptosis of human bladder cancer T24 cells induced by isoliquiritigenin (ISL). The viability of T24 cells was estimated using a sulforhodamine B assay. Cell morphological changes were examined using Hoechst 33258 staining. The apoptotic rate was determined by staining cells with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide labeling. The mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was measured using 5,5,6,6-tetrachloro-1,1, 3,3-tetraethyl benzimidazole carbocyanine iodide...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684914/regulation-of-apoptosis-through-bcl-2-bax-proteins-expression-and-dna-damage-by-nano-sized-gadolinium-oxide
#5
Saud Alarifi, Huma Ali, Saad Alkahtani, Mohammed S Alessia
Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles (GNPs) are applied in industrial products, for example, additives, optical glass, and catalysis. There are various suggestions of metal nanoparticles paradigm but the underlying basic mechanism about the toxicity of metal nanoparticles, for example GNPs, remains unclear. This experiment was done to measure the effective toxicity of GNPs (10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL) over 24 and 48 h and to evaluate toxicity mechanism in human neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells. GNPs produced reactive oxygen species (ROS), as evaluated by 2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682332/cell-cycle-dynamics-of-chromosomal-organization-at-single-cell-resolution
#6
Takashi Nagano, Yaniv Lubling, Csilla Várnai, Carmel Dudley, Wing Leung, Yael Baran, Netta Mendelson Cohen, Steven Wingett, Peter Fraser, Amos Tanay
Chromosomes in proliferating metazoan cells undergo marked structural metamorphoses every cell cycle, alternating between highly condensed mitotic structures that facilitate chromosome segregation, and decondensed interphase structures that accommodate transcription, gene silencing and DNA replication. Here we use single-cell Hi-C (high-resolution chromosome conformation capture) analysis to study chromosome conformations in thousands of individual cells, and discover a continuum of cis-interaction profiles that finely position individual cells along the cell cycle...
July 5, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659416/haspin-inhibition-reveals-functional-differences-of-interchromatid-axis-localized-aurkb-and-aurkc
#7
Suzanne M Quartuccio, Shweta S Dipali, Karen Schindler
Aneuploidy is the leading genetic abnormality contributing to infertility, and chromosome segregation errors are common during female mammalian meiosis I (MI). Previous results indicate that haspin kinase regulates resumption of meiosis from prophase arrest, chromosome condensation, and kinetochore-microtubule attachments during early prometaphase of MI. Here, we report that haspin inhibition in late prometaphase I causes acceleration of MI, bypass of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), and loss of interchromatid axis localized Aurora kinase C...
June 28, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648781/pp2a-controls-genome-integrity-by-integrating-nutrient-sensing-and-metabolic-pathways-with-the-dna-damage-response
#8
Elisa Ferrari, Christopher Bruhn, Marta Peretti, Corinne Cassani, Walter Vincenzo Carotenuto, Mohamed Elgendy, Ghadeer Shubassi, Chiara Lucca, Rodrigo Bermejo, Mario Varasi, Saverio Minucci, Maria Pia Longhese, Marco Foiani
Mec1(ATR) mediates the DNA damage response (DDR), integrating chromosomal signals and mechanical stimuli. We show that the PP2A phosphatases, ceramide-activated enzymes, couple cell metabolism with the DDR. Using genomic screens, metabolic analysis, and genetic and pharmacological studies, we found that PP2A attenuates the DDR and that three metabolic circuits influence the DDR by modulating PP2A activity. Irc21, a putative cytochrome b5 reductase that promotes the condensation reaction generating dihydroceramides (DHCs), and Ppm1, a PP2A methyltransferase, counteract the DDR by activating PP2A; conversely, the nutrient-sensing TORC1-Tap42 axis sustains DDR activation by inhibiting PP2A...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642366/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-red1-protein-exhibits-nonhomologous-dna-end-joining-activity-and-potentiates-hop1-promoted-pairing-of-double-stranded-dna
#9
Rucha Kshirsagar, Indrajeet Ghodke, Kalappa Muniyappa
Elucidation of the function of synaptonemal complex (SC) in <Saccharomyces cerevisiae> has mainly focused on in vivo analysis of recombination-defective meiotic mutants. Consequently, significant gaps remain in the mechanistic understanding of the activities of different SC proteins and the functional relationships among them. S. cerevisiae Hop1 and Red1 are essential structural components of the SC axial/lateral elements. Previous studies have demonstrated that Hop1 is a structure-specific DNA-binding protein that exhibits high affinity for the Holliday junction, promotes DNA bridging, condensation and pairing between duplex DNA molecules...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634865/dynamics-of-tobacco-dna-topoisomerases-ii-in-cell-cycle-regulation-to-manage-topological-constrains-during-replication-transcription-and-mitotic-chromosome-condensation-and-segregation
#10
Badri Nath Singh, V Mohan Murali Achary, Varakumar Panditi, Sudhir K Sopory, Malireddy K Reddy
The topoisomerase II expression varies as a function of cell proliferation. Maximal topoisomerase II expression was tightly coupled to S phase and G2/M phase via both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Investigation in meiosis using pollen mother cells also revealed that it is not the major component of meiotic chromosomes, it seems to diffuse out once meiotic chromosomal condensation is completed. Synchronized tobacco BY-2 cell cultures were used to study the role of topoisomerase II in various stages of the cell cycle...
June 20, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631016/new-insights-into-cohesin-loading
#11
REVIEW
Ireneusz Litwin, Robert Wysocki
Cohesin is a conserved, ring-shaped protein complex that encircles sister chromatids and ensures correct chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. It also plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression, DNA condensation, and DNA repair through both non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. Cohesins are spatiotemporally regulated by the Scc2-Scc4 complex which facilitates cohesin loading onto chromatin at specific chromosomal sites. Over the last few years, much attention has been paid to cohesin and cohesin loader as it became clear that even minor disruptions of these complexes may lead to developmental disorders and cancers...
June 19, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620461/the-enemies-within-regions-of-the-genome-that-are-inherently-difficult-to-replicate
#12
REVIEW
Rahul Bhowmick, Ian D Hickson
An unusual feature of many eukaryotic genomes is the presence of regions that appear intrinsically difficult to copy during the process of DNA replication. Curiously, the location of these difficult-to-replicate regions is often conserved between species, implying a valuable role in some aspect of genome organization or maintenance. The most prominent class of these regions in mammalian cells is defined as chromosome fragile sites, which acquired their name because of a propensity to form visible gaps/breaks on otherwise-condensed chromosomes in mitosis...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608466/crystal-structure-of-human-wbscr16-an-rcc1-like-protein-in-mitochondria
#13
Masako Koyama, Taeko Sasaki, Narie Sasaki, Yoshiyuki Matsuura
WBSCR16 (Williams-Beuren Syndrome Chromosomal Region 16) gene is located in a large deletion region of Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), which is a neurodevelopmental disorder. Although the relationship between WBSCR16 and WBS remains unclear, it has been reported that WBSCR16 is a member of a functional module that regulates mitochondrial 16S rRNA abundance and intra-mitochondrial translation. WBSCR16 has RCC1 (Regulator of Chromosome Condensation 1)-like amino acid sequence repeats but the function of WBSCR16 appears to be different from that of other RCC1 superfamily members...
June 12, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606921/overexpression-of-rcc2-enhances-cell-motility-and-promotes-tumor-metastasis-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-by-inducing-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#14
Bo Pang, Nan Wu, Rongwei Guan, Lin Pang, Xinlei Li, Su Li, Liudi Tang, Ying Guo, Jialei Chen, Donglin Sun, Haiming Sun, Jialin Dai, Jing Bai, Guohua Ji, Peng Liu, An Liu, Qiushi Wang, Sheng Xiao, Songbin Fu, Yan Jin
Investigate the role of regulator of chromosome condensation 2 (RCC2) on lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) metastasis.<br /><br />Experimental Design: Clinical specimens were used to assess the impact of RCC2 on LUAD metastasis. Mouse models, cytobiology and molecular biology assays were performed to elucidate the function and underlying mechanisms of RCC2 in LUAD.<br /><br />Results: RCC2 expression was frequently increased in LUADs (88/122, 72.13%). It was confirmed by analysis of a larger cohort of TCGA RNA-seq data containing 488 LUADs and 58 normal lung tissues (P<0...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596964/oxidative-stress-induced-dna-damage-by-manganese-dioxide-nanoparticles-in-human-neuronal-cells
#15
Saud Alarifi, Daoud Ali, Saad Alkahtani
Metal nanoparticles have been extensively used in industry as well as in biomedical application. In this work, we have evaluated the toxic potential of manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanoparticles (MNPs) on human neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells. Cellular toxicity due to MNPs (0, 10, 30, and 60 μg/ml) on the SH-SY5Y cell was observed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) tests. MNPs produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and declined in mitochondrial membrane potential in the SH-SY5Y cell in dose and duration dependent manner...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588601/in-favor-of-establishment-regulation-of-chromatid-cohesion-in-plants
#16
REVIEW
Pablo Bolaños-Villegas, Kuntal De, Mónica Pradillo, Desheng Liu, Christopher A Makaroff
In eukaryotic organisms, the correct regulation of sister chromatid cohesion, whereby sister chromatids are paired and held together, is essential for accurate segregation of the sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes into daughter cells during mitosis and meiosis, respectively. Sister chromatid cohesion requires a cohesin complex comprised of structural maintenance of chromosome adenosine triphosphatases and accessory proteins that regulate the association of the complex with chromosomes or that are involved in the establishment or release of cohesion...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584481/sex-determination-efficacy-of-papanicolaou-and-acriflavine-schiff-stains-in-buccal-smears
#17
Tibin Kaithappillil Baby, Priya Thomas, Jayanthi Palani, Rekha Krishna Pillai, Bindhu Pushparajan Ramakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Barr body is formed from random inactivation and condensation of one of the two female chromosomes in virtually all the somatic cells of female mammals. Buccal smears have been reported to be potential sources of Barr bodies. AIM: This study was done to assess the efficacy of acriflavine (AF) Schiff and Papanicolaou (PAP) stains in sex determination by identifying Barr bodies in buccal smears of both sexes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two samples of buccal smears, collected from thirty males and thirty females in the age group of 16-60 years were used to demonstrate Barr bodies using AF Schiff and PAP stains, respectively...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583210/long-read-sequencing-improves-assembly-of-trichinella-genomes-10-fold-revealing-substantial-synteny-between-lineages-diverged-over-7-million-years
#18
Peter C Thompson, Dante S Zarlenga, Ming-Yuan Liu, Benjamin M Rosenthal
Genome assemblies can form the basis of comparative analyses fostering insight into the evolutionary genetics of a parasite's pathogenicity, host-pathogen interactions, environmental constraints and invasion biology; however, the length and complexity of many parasite genomes has hampered the development of well-resolved assemblies. In order to improve Trichinella genome assemblies, the genome of the sylvatic encapsulated species Trichinella murrelli was sequenced using third-generation, long-read technology and, using syntenic comparisons, scaffolded to a reference genome assembly of Trichinella spiralis, markedly improving both...
June 6, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574395/-evaluation-of-genomic-parameters-in-ductal-breast-cancer-patients-and-the-ability-of-it-s-correction
#19
T Jokhadze, M Gaiozishvili, T Buadze, T Sigua, E Namchelvadze, T Lezhava
The level of DNA single strand breaks, chromosomal abnormalities and sister chromatid exchanges and the possibility of its normalization with oligopeptide bioregulator Livagen and cobalt ions in the lymphocyte culture from patients with breast cancer have been studied. The results show that the genome of ductal breast cancer patients is characterized by the high density of DNA single strand breaks, high frequency of chromosomal abnormalities and increased levels of chromatin condensation. The usage of Livagen and cobalt in the form of modifying agents has a protective effect by all studied parameters...
April 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562324/prolonged-mitotic-arrest-induced-by-wee1-inhibition-sensitizes-breast-cancer-cells-to-paclitaxel
#20
Cody W Lewis, Zhigang Jin, Dawn Macdonald, Wenya Wei, Xu Jing Qian, Won Shik Choi, Ruicen He, Xuejun Sun, Gordon Chan
Wee1 kinase is a crucial negative regulator of Cdk1/cyclin B1 activity and is required for normal entry into and exit from mitosis. Wee1 activity can be chemically inhibited by the small molecule MK-1775, which is currently being tested in phase I/II clinical trials in combination with other anti-cancer drugs. MK-1775 promotes cancer cells to bypass the cell-cycle checkpoints and prematurely enter mitosis. In our study, we show premature mitotic cells that arise from MK-1775 treatment exhibited centromere fragmentation, a morphological feature of mitotic catastrophe that is characterized by centromeres and kinetochore proteins that co-cluster away from the condensed chromosomes...
May 13, 2017: Oncotarget
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