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chromosome condensation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913665/structure-and-function-of-bacterial-h-ns-protein
#1
REVIEW
David C Grainger
The histone-like nucleoid structuring (H-NS) protein is a major component of the folded chromosome in Escherichia coli and related bacteria. Functions attributed to H-NS include management of genome evolution, DNA condensation, and transcription. The wide-ranging influence of H-NS is remarkable given the simplicity of the protein, a small peptide, possessing rudimentary determinants for self-association, hetero-oligomerisation and DNA binding. In this review, I will discuss our understanding of H-NS with a focus on these structural elements...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910894/calcium-ions-function-as-a-booster-of-chromosome-condensation
#2
Rinyaporn Phengchat, Hideaki Takata, Kenichi Morii, Noriko Inada, Hideji Murakoshi, Susumu Uchiyama, Kiichi Fukui
Chromosome condensation is essential for the faithful transmission of genetic information to daughter cells during cell division. The depletion of chromosome scaffold proteins does not prevent chromosome condensation despite structural defects. This suggests that other factors contribute to condensation. Here we investigated the contribution of divalent cations, particularly Ca(2+), to chromosome condensation in vitro and in vivo. Ca(2+) depletion caused defects in proper mitotic progression, particularly in chromosome condensation after the breakdown of the nuclear envelope...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910025/cytogenetics-for-biological-dosimetry
#3
Michelle Ricoul, Tamizh Gnana-Sekaran, Laure Piqueret-Stephan, Laure Sabatier
Cytogenetics is the gold-standard in biological dosimetry for assessing a received dose of ionizing radiation. More modern techniques have recently emerged, but none are as specific as cytogenetic approaches, particularly the dicentric assay. Here, we will focus on the principal cytogenetic techniques used for biological dosimetry: the dicentric assay in metaphase cells, the micronuclei assay in binucleated cells, and the premature condensed chromosome (PCC) assay in interphase cells. New fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques (such as telomere-centromere hybridization) have facilitated the analysis of the dicentric assay and have permitted to assess the dose a long time after irradiation by translocation analysis (such as by Tri-color FISH or Multiplex-FISH)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899975/in-vitro-antitumor-activity-of-latcripin-15-regulator-of-chromosome-condensation-1-domain-protein
#4
Li Tian, Xiaoli Wang, Xingyun Li, Ben Liu, Wei Zhang, Jing Cao, Anhong Ning, Min Huang, Mintao Zhong
Cancer is one of the most significant health problems worldwide and thus the development of novel therapeutic agents with fewer side effects is required. The present study investigated the in vitro anticancer effects of a newly isolated fungal protein. In this study, Latcripin-15 (LP-15) regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1) domain protein, which is obtained from the Lentinula edodes C91-3 fungal strain, was identified, cloned, expressed, purified and re-folded to assess the in vitro antitumor activity of the protein...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861489/characterizing-transcriptional-networks-in-male-rainbow-darter-etheostoma-caeruleum-that-regulate-testis-development-over-a-complete-reproductive-cycle
#5
Paulina A Bahamonde, Mark E McMaster, Mark R Servos, Christopher J Martyniuk, Kelly R Munkittrick
Intersex is a condition that has been associated with exposure to sewage effluents in male rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum). To better understand changes in the transcriptome that are associated with intersex, we characterized annual changes in the testis transcriptome in wild, unexposed fish. Rainbow darter males were collected from the Grand River (Ontario, Canada) in May (spawning), August (post-spawning), October (recrudescence), January (developing) and March (pre-spawning). Histology was used to determine the proportion of spermatogenic cell types that were present during each period of testicular maturation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858158/structure-of-centromere-chromatin-from-nucleosome-to-chromosomal-architecture
#6
REVIEW
Thomas Schalch, Florian A Steiner
The centromere is essential for the segregation of chromosomes, as it serves as attachment site for microtubules to mediate chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. In most organisms, the centromere is restricted to one chromosomal region that appears as primary constriction on the condensed chromosome and is partitioned into two chromatin domains: The centromere core is characterized by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A (also called cenH3) and is required for specifying the centromere and for building the kinetochore complex during mitosis...
November 17, 2016: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858047/how-are-molecular-crowding-and-the-spatial-organization-of-a-biopolymer-interrelated
#7
Chanil Jeon, Changbong Hyeon, Youngkyun Jung, Bae-Yeun Ha
In a crowded cellular interior, dissolved biomolecules or crowders exert excluded volume effects on other biomolecules, which in turn control various processes including protein aggregation and chromosome organization. As a result of these effects, a long chain molecule can be phase-separated into a condensed state, redistributing the surrounding crowders. Using computer simulations and a theoretical approach, we study the interrelationship between molecular crowding and chain organization. In a parameter space of biological relevance, the distributions of monomers and crowders follow a simple relationship: the sum of their volume fractions rescaled by their size remains constant...
November 18, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855781/a-dynamic-mode-of-mitotic-bookmarking-by-transcription-factors
#8
Sheila S Teves, Luye An, Anders S Hansen, Liangqi Xie, Xavier Darzacq, Robert Tjian
During mitosis, transcription is shut off, chromatin condenses, and most transcription factors (TFs) are reported to be excluded from chromosomes. How do daughter cells re-establish the original transcription program? Recent discoveries that a select set of TFs remain bound on mitotic chromosomes suggest a potential mechanism for maintaining transcriptional programs through the cell cycle termed mitotic bookmarking. Here we report instead that many TFs remain associated with chromosomes in mouse embryonic stem cells, and that the exclusion previously described is largely a fixation artifact...
November 18, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855777/successful-transmission-and-transcriptional-deployment-of-a-human-chromosome-via-mouse-male-meiosis
#9
Christina Ernst, Jeremy Pike, Sarah J Aitken, Hannah K Long, Nils Eling, Lovorka Stojic, Frances Connor, Tim F Rayner, Margus Lukk, Robert J Klose, Claudia Kutter, Duncan T Odom
Most human aneuploidies originate maternally, due in part to the presence of highly stringent checkpoints during male meiosis. Indeed, male sterility is common among aneuploid mice used to study chromosomal abnormalities, and male germline transmission of exogenous DNA has been rarely reported. Here we show that despite aberrant testis architecture, males of the aneuploid Tc1 mouse strain produce viable sperm and transmit human chromosome 21 to create aneuploid offspring. In these offspring, we mapped transcription, transcriptional initiation, enhancer activity, non-methylated DNA and transcription factor binding in adult tissues...
November 18, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854341/sept12-ndc1-complexes-are-required-for-mammalian-spermiogenesis
#10
Tsung-Hsuan Lai, Ying-Yu Wu, Ya-Yun Wang, Mei-Feng Chen, Pei Wang, Tsung-Ming Chen, Yi-No Wu, Han-Sun Chiang, Pao-Lin Kuo, Ying-Hung Lin
Male factor infertility accounts for approximately 50 percent of infertile couples. The male factor-related causes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection failure include the absence of sperm, immotile sperm, immature sperm, abnormally structured sperm, and sperm with nuclear damage. Our knockout and knock-in mice models demonstrated that SEPTIN12 (SEPT12) is vital for the formation of sperm morphological characteristics during spermiogenesis. In the clinical aspect, mutated SEPT12 in men results in oligozoospermia or teratozoospermia or both...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854019/characterization-of-individual-histone-posttranslational-modifications-and-their-combinatorial-patterns-by-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics-strategies
#11
Simone Sidoli, Benjamin A Garcia
Histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) play an essential role in chromatin biology, as they model chromatin structure and recruit enzymes involved in gene regulation, DNA repair, and chromosome condensation. Such PTMs are mostly localized on histone N-terminal tails where, as single units or in a combinatorial manner, they influence chromatin reader protein binding and fine-tune the abovementioned activities. Mass spectrometry (MS) is currently the most adopted strategy to characterize proteins and protein PTMs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834954/strong-antitumor-synergy-between-dna-crosslinking-and-hsp90-inhibition-causes-massive-premitotic-dna-fragmentation-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#12
Daniela Kramer, Nadine Stark, Ramona Schulz-Heddergott, Norman Erytch, Shelley Edmunds, Laura Roßmann, Holger Bastians, Nicole Concin, Ute M Moll, Matthias Dobbelstein
All current regimens for treating ovarian cancer center around carboplatin as standard first line. The HSP90 inhibitor ganetespib is currently being assessed in advanced clinical oncology trials. Thus, we tested the combined effects of ganetespib and carboplatin on a panel of 15 human ovarian cancer lines. Strikingly, the two drugs strongly synergized in cytotoxicity in tumor cells lacking wild-type p53. Mechanistically, ganetespib and carboplatin in combination, but not individually, induced persistent DNA damage causing massive global chromosome fragmentation...
November 11, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826868/cdc14-and-chromosome-condensation-evaluation-of-the-recruitment-of-condensin-to-genomic-regions
#13
Facundo Ramos, Joanne Leonard, Andrés Clemente-Blanco, Luis Aragón
Chromosome condensation is an essential morphological event required for successful DNA segregation during mitosis. The high level of genome compaction achieved during this process is attained by the evolutionary conserved condensin complex. Recently, several lines of evidences have demonstrated that the mitotic phosphatase Cdc14 is required to ensure condensin loading onto chromosomes. To date several approaches have been used in order to characterize condensin activity and regulation, however these techniques are time-consuming and require complex equipment...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813725/dose-assessment-intercomparisons-within-the-reneb-network-using-g0-lymphocyte-prematurely-condensed-chromosomes-pcc-assay
#14
Georgia I Terzoudi, Gabriel Pantelias, Firouz Darroudi, Katarzyna Barszczewska, Iwona Buraczewska, Julie Depuydt, Dimka Georgieva, Valeria Hadjidekova, Vasiliki I Hatzi, Ioanna Karachristou, Maria Karakosta, Roberta Meschini, Radhia M'Kacher, Alegria Montoro, Fabrizio Palitti, Antonio Pantelias, Gaetano Pepe, Michelle Ricoul, Laure Sabatier, Natividad Sebastià, Sylwester Sommer, Anne Vral, Demetre Zafiropoulos, Andrzej Wojcik
PURPOSE: Dose assessment intercomparisons within the RENEB network were performed for triage biodosimetry analyzing G0-lymphocyte PCC for harmonization, standardization and optimization of the PCC assay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Comparative analysis among different partners for dose assessment included shipment of PCC-slides and captured images to construct dose-response curves for up to 6 Gy γ-rays. Accident simulation exercises were performed to assess the suitability of the PCC assay by detecting speed of analysis and minimum number of cells required for categorization of potentially exposed individuals...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810970/the-drosophila-chromosomal-protein-mst77f-is-processed-to-generate-an-essential-component-of-mature-sperm-chromatin
#15
Shuhei Kimura, Benjamin Loppin
In most animals, the bulk of sperm DNA is packaged with sperm nuclear basic proteins (SNBPs), a diverse group of highly basic chromosomal proteins notably comprising mammalian protamines. The replacement of histones with SNBPs during spermiogenesis allows sperm DNA to reach an extreme level of compaction, but little is known about how SNBPs actually function in vivo Mst77F is a Drosophila SNBP with unique DNA condensation properties in vitro, but its role during spermiogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that Mst77F is required for the compaction of sperm DNA and the production of mature sperm, through its cooperation with protamine-like proteins Mst35Ba/b...
November 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807046/the-p150n-domain-of-chromatin-assembly-factor-1-regulates-ki-67-accumulation-on-the-mitotic-perichromosomal-layer
#16
Timothy D Matheson, Paul D Kaufman
Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1) deposits histones during DNA synthesis. The p150 subunit of human CAF-1 contains an N-terminal domain (p150N) that is dispensable for histone deposition but which promotes the localization of specific loci (Nucleolar-Associated Domains, or "NADs") and proteins to the nucleolus during interphase. One of the p150N-regulated proteins is proliferation antigen Ki-67, whose depletion also decreases the nucleolar association of NADs. Ki-67 is also a fundamental component of the perichromosomal layer (PCL), a sheath of proteins surrounding condensed chromosomes during mitosis...
November 2, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807043/hjurp-interaction-with-the-condensin-ii-complex-during-g1-promotes-cenp-a-deposition
#17
Meghan C Barnhart-Dailey, Prasad Trivedi, P Todd Stukenberg, Daniel R Foltz
Centromeric chromatin is required for kinetochore assembly during mitosis and accurate chromosome segregation. A unique nucleosome containing the histone H3-specific variant CENP-A is the defining feature of centromeric chromatin. In humans, CENP-A nucleosome deposition occurs in early G1 just following mitotic exit at the time when the CENP-A deposition machinery localizes to centromeres. The mechanism by which CENP-A is deposited onto an existing, condensed chromatin template is not understood. Here, we identify the selective association of the CENP-A chaperone HJURP with the condensin II complex and not condensin I...
November 2, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797084/a-protocol-for-measuring-mitotic-chromosome-condensation-quantitatively-in-fission-yeast-cells
#18
Christoph Schiklenk, Boryana Petrova, Christian H Haering
Even though the formation of compact cylindrical chromosomes early during mitosis or meiosis is a prerequisite for the successful segregation of eukaryotic genomes, little is known about the molecular basis of this chromosome condensation process. Here, we describe in detail the protocol for a quantitative chromosome condensation assay in fission yeast cells, which is based on precise time-resolved measurements of the distances between two fluorescently labeled positions on the same chromosome. In combination with an automated computational analysis pipeline, this assay enables the study of various candidate proteins for their roles in regulating genome topology during cell divisions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792460/condensin-recruitment-to-chromatin-is-inhibited-by-chk2-kinase-in-response-to-dna-damage
#19
Tao Zhang, San Ling Si-Hoe, Damien F Hudson, Uttam Surana
The DNA damage checkpoint, when activated in response to genotoxic damage during S phase, arrests cells in G2 phase of the cell cycle. ATM, ATR, Chk1 and Chk2 kinases are the main effectors of this checkpoint pathway. The checkpoint kinases prevent the onset of mitosis by eliciting well characterized inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1. Since Cdk1 is required for the recruitment of condensin, it is thought that upon DNA damage the checkpoint also indirectly blocks chromosome condensation via Cdk1 inhibition...
October 28, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788132/maintenance-of-xist-imprinting-depends-on-chromatin-condensation-state-and-rnf12-dosage-in-mice
#20
Atsushi Fukuda, Atsushi Mitani, Toshiyuki Miyashita, Takashi Sado, Akihiro Umezawa, Hidenori Akutsu
In female mammals, activation of Xist (X-inactive specific transcript) is essential for establishment of X chromosome inactivation. During early embryonic development in mice, paternal Xist is preferentially expressed whereas maternal Xist (Xm-Xist) is silenced. Unlike autosomal imprinted genes, Xist imprinting for Xm-Xist silencing was erased in cloned or parthenogenetic but not fertilized embryos. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the variable nature of Xm-Xist imprinting is poorly understood. Here, we revealed that Xm-Xist silencing depends on chromatin condensation states at the Xist/Tsix genomic region and on Rnf12 expression levels...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
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