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Health ethics

Sara Farnbach, Anne-Maree Eades, Josephine D Gwynn, Nick Glozier, Maree L Hackett
Objectives and importance of study: Values and ethics: guidelines for ethical conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health research (Values and ethics) describes key values that should underpin Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous)-focused health research. It is unclear how research teams address this document in primary health care research. We systematically review the primary health care literature focusing on Indigenous social and emotional wellbeing (SEWB) to identify how Values and ethics and community preferences for standards of behaviour (local protocols) are addressed during research...
June 14, 2018: Public Health Research & Practice
Adeera Levin
BACKGROUND: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a major public health problem and is increasingly being recognized as an important driver of costs in all health care systems. The diversity of outcomes for people living with CKD is in part due to variability in biology, access to care, environmental factors, and health care system differences. The International Society of Nephrology (ISN), working in collaboration with its partners, has evolved into a philanthropic organization, from a traditional medical society, committed to a vision that sees "a future where all people have access to sustainable kidney health"...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
J Núñez-Aguilar, L-G Oliveros-López, A Fernández-Olavarría, D Torres-Lagares, M-A Serrera-Figallo, A Gutiérrez-Corrales, J-L Gutiérrez-Pérez
BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess, in the population of patients with oral cancer treatment, the influence on the quality of life of two protocols of dental treatment: not ruled hospital treatment versus ruled hospital treatment. Matrial and Methods: A quasi-experimental approach justified on ethical grounds was used. A total of 41 patients were included in the control group (not ruled treatment outpatient health center) and 40 in the experimental group (ruled hospital treatment)...
June 20, 2018: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
Vania Dias Cruz, Silvana Sidney Costa Santos, Jamila Geri Tomaschewski-Barlem, Bárbara Tarouco da Silva, Celmira Lange, Daiane Porto Gautério de Abreu, Flávia Seles Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: To assess the health/functioning of the older adult who consumes psychoactive substances through the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, considering the theory of complexity. METHOD: Qualitative case study, with 11 older adults, held between December 2015 and February 2016 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, using interviews, documents and non-systematic observation. It was approved by the ethics committee. The analysis followed the propositions of the case study, using the complexity of Morin as theoretical basis...
May 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Jia-Jia Wang, Yang Xie, Hu-Lei Zhao, Wei-Hong Han, Xiao-Chun Wang
BACKGROUND: There is a limited evidence concerning the efficacy of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation over acupoints (Acu-TENS) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thus, this review aims to systematically determine the effect of Acu-TENS on COPD. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chongqing VIP, and Wanfang Data will be searched from their inception to May 10, 2018...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
M Hummel, A Stege
The use of high-quality, well-characterized biomaterials and their clinical and demographic information for biomedical research has steadily increased in importance over the last 10 years. There are several reasons for this. On the one hand, several studies have shown that even in high-profile scientific papers the description of the origin and characteristics of the biomaterials used is missing or insufficient. On the other hand, it has become generally accepted that small collections of biomaterials are often created under ethically and legally unclear conditions without quality measures and without sufficient sustainability...
June 19, 2018: Der Pathologe
Eman Alsayegh, Hayley Bos, Kim Campbell, Jon Barrett
A maternal request for an elective CS in the absence of a maternal or fetal indication may raise risk-benefit considerations and ethical concerns for a health care provider. Appropriate counselling of the patient on the risks and benefits in proceeding with a CDMR without medical indication is essential. Providers should have a clear knowledge of the risks and benefits of providing an elective CS without medical indications compared to the risks and benefits of supporting an attempt at vaginal delivery, so that the patient may reach an informed decision...
July 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Mary Ann J Ladia, Olivia T Sison, Cora A Anonuevo, Marissa M Alejandria
OBJECTIVE: This paper's objective was to describe the processes, strategies, and challenges of community-based recruitment to complement hospital-based recruitment for a global clinical outcomes trial on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: To increase the subject recruitment for the clinical research, field staff were trained on community-based recruitment strategies and activities. Courtesy calls and coordination with community organizations were done before recruitment activities...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Leila Bazrafcan, Farnaz Takmil, Nasrin Shokrpour
Problem-based learning (PBL) has become a distinct approach in learning. To assess the effectiveness of PBL in teaching ethics to medical students and the effect it has on their ethical reasoning, we decided to hold a PBL ethics workshop and then evaluate them based on pretest and posttest. This quasi-experimental comparative study in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences was designed based on pretest-posttest nonequivalent groups. After obtaining their consent, 120 health care providers were randomly selected and assigned in 4 groups and then asked to attend the ethics workshop...
June 18, 2018: Health Care Manager
George J Agich
This article discusses the approach of the Clinical Ethics Consultation Advisory Committee (CECA) in developing A Case-Based Study Guide for Addressing Patient-Centered Ethical Issues in Health Care. This article addresses the processes used by the CECA, its use of pivot questions intended to encourage critical reflection, and the target audience of this work. It first considers the salience of case studies in general education and their relevance for training ethics consultants. Second, it discusses the enfolding approach used in presenting the case material designed to engage the trainee in the details of the case while stimulating critical reflection...
2018: Journal of Clinical Ethics
Coutenay R Bruce, Jane Jankowski, Barbara L Chanko, Anne Cordes, Barrie J Humberman, Liza-Marie Johnson, Deborah L Kasman, Aviva Katz, Ellen M Robinson, Katherine Wasson, George E Hardart
The authors of this article are previous or current members of the Clinical Ethics Consultation Affairs (CECA) Committee, a standing committee of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities (ASBH). The committee is composed of seasoned healthcare ethics consultants (HCECs), and it is charged with developing and disseminating education materials for HCECs and ethics committees. The purpose of this article is to describe the educational research and development processes behind our teaching materials, which culminated in a case studies book called A Case-Based Study Guide for Addressing Patient-Centered Ethical Issues in Health Care (hereafter, the Study Guide)...
2018: Journal of Clinical Ethics
Krista L Harrison, Holly A Taylor, Maria W Merritt
This article proposes an action guide to making decisions regarding the ethical allocation of resources that affect access to healthcare services offered by community-based healthcare organizations. Using the filter of empirical data from a study of decision making in two community-based healthcare organizations, we identify potentially relevant conceptual guidance from a review of frameworks and action guides in the public health, health policy, and organizational ethics literature. We describe the development of this action guide...
2018: Journal of Clinical Ethics
Leslie Kuhnel
The broad use of social networking and user-generated content has increased the online footprint of many individuals. A generation of healthcare professionals have grown up with online search activities as part of their everyday lives. Sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram have given the public new ways to share intimate details about their public and private lives and the lives of their friends and families. As a result, careproviders have the ability to find out more about their patients with just the tap of a key or the click of a mouse...
2018: Journal of Clinical Ethics
Giuseppe Taino, Franco Pugliese, Daniela Bonetti, Rossana Astengo, Marcello Imbriani
OBJECTIVES: The topic of appropriateness was defined as the new frontier of development of health interventions. RH Brook in an Editorial published in the BMJ in 1994 defines the appropriateness "… an intervention for which the expected benefits are greater (with a sufficient margin) the possible negative consequences … excluding economic considerations". In workplaces the goal of appropriateness should cover not only the actions of health surveillance and health protocols, but also and primarily all stages of the risk assessment process...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Carlo Petrini, Alessandro Nanni Costa
Comparison is made between the proposals put forward by the "New Charter for Health Care Workers" in the matter of organ transplants and other models of bioethics. The personalist approach adopted by the New Charter is illustrated and the proposals contained in it are finally placed alongside the reference ethical principles underlying the Italian transplant network: they are found to be fully in agreement.
April 2018: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Raghu Durvasula, Janet Kelly, Anneliese Schleyer, Bradley D Anawalt, Shabir Somani, Timothy H Dellit
Background: As healthcare costs rise and reimbursements decrease, healthcare organization leadership and clinical providers must collaborate to provide high-value healthcare. Medications are a key driver of the increasing cost of healthcare, largely as a result of the proliferation of expensive specialty drugs, including biologic agents. Such medications contribute significantly to the inpatient diagnosis-related group payment system, often with minimal or unproved benefit over less-expensive therapies...
April 2018: American Health & Drug Benefits
Anna Marie Jilla, Carole E Johnson, Jeffrey L Danhauer
Limited accessibility to and affordability of hearing health care (HHC) and hearing aids (HAs) are two reasons why people do not seek treatment for their hearing losses. This article is the first in a series of two and discusses affordability issues (i.e., billing models, cost-effectiveness, insurance coverage, and reimbursement) related to and provides a historical context for the Over-the-Counter Hearing Aid Act of 2017. This piece of legislation supports development of a new class of over-the-counter HAs that represents a disruptive technology that may transform the HHC industry by reducing costs specific to the device...
May 2018: Seminars in Hearing
Mona Pettersson, Mariann Hedström, Anna T Höglund
BACKGROUND: DNR decisions are frequently made in oncology and hematology care and physicians and nurses may face related ethical dilemmas. Ethics is considered a basic competence in health care and can be understood as a capacity to handle a task that involves an ethical dilemma in an adequate, ethically responsible manner. One model of ethical competence for healthcare staff includes three main aspects: being, doing and knowing, suggesting that ethical competence requires abilities of character, action and knowledge...
June 19, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
(no author information available yet)
Pekçetin, S., Salar, S., İnal, Ö., & Kayıhan, H. (2018). Validity of the Turkish Occupational Self Assessment for Elderly Individuals. Occupation, Participation and Health, 38, 105-112. DOI: 10.1177/1539449217743457 On page 106 of the above-mentioned article, the institutional details were removed at two instances and left as "removed for blinding purposes." The updated correct sentences are: Ethical approval was obtained from the Trakya University Scientific Research Ethics Committee prior to the study...
July 2018: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
Stella Reiter-Theil, Charlotte Wetterauer, Irena Anna Frei
In Switzerland, the practice of lay right-to-die societies (RTDS) organizing assisted suicide (AS) is tolerated by the state. Patient counseling and accompaniment into the dying process is overtaken by RTDS lay members, while the role of physicians may be restricted to prescribing the mortal dose after a more or less rigorous exploration of the patient’s decisional capacity. However, Swiss health care facilities and professionals are committed to providing suicide prevention. Despite the liberal attitude in society, the legitimacy of organized AS is ethically questioned...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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