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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228447/ethical-and-medico-legal-remarks-on-uterus-transplantation-may-it-solve-uterine-factor-infertility
#1
S Zaami, E Marinelli, N M di Luca, G Montanari Vergallo
Uterus transplantation was firstly tested with animal trials sixty-five years ago. Despite several successful attempts in human subjects, the different procedures still lay at the experimental stage, in need of further studies and investigations before they can be considered as standard clinical practices. Uterus transplant cannot be regarded as a life-saving procedure, but rather a method to restore woman ability to procreate, when lost, thus improving her quality of life. Uterus transplant is a complex surgical procedure and presents significant health threats...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226266/the-influence-of-race-and-ethnicity-on-becoming-a-human-subject-factors-associated-with-participation-in-research
#2
Mary A Garza, Sandra Crouse Quinn, Yan Li, Luciana Assini-Meytin, Erica T Casper, Craig S Fryer, James Butler, Natasha A Brown, Kevin H Kim, Stephen B Thomas
INRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to explore factors associated with willingness of African Americans and Latinos to participate in biomedical and public health research and to delineate factors that influences the decision to become a human subject. METHODS: We present results from a 2010 random digit-dial telephone survey of 2,455 African American (N= 1,191) and Latino (N= 1,264) adults. We used standard measures to assess knowledge of research, terminology, informed consent procedures, previous participation in research, health care experiences, social support, risk perception, religiousness, and trust...
September 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225935/gendered-negotiations-for-research-participation-in-community-based-studies-implications-for-health-research-policy-and-practice
#3
Dorcas M Kamuya, Catherine S Molyneux, Sally Theobald
There is a growing literature documenting the complex realities of consent processes in the field, and the negotiations and ethical dilemmas involved. Much has also been written about how gender and power shape household decision-making processes. However, these bodies of literature have rarely been brought together to inform research theory and practice in low-income settings. In this paper, qualitative research (observation, focus group discussions and interviews) were used alongside large clinical community-based studies conducted on the Kenyan Coast to explore how gender and power relations within households and communities and between fieldworkers and communities shape consent processes and interactions...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225934/health-policy-and-systems-research-towards-a-better-understanding-and-review-of-ethical-issues
#4
REVIEW
Valerie Ann Luyckx, Nikola Biller-Andorno, Abha Saxena, Nhan T Tran
Given the focus on health systems in the post-millennium development goal era and moving towards the sustainable development goals, there is a compelling need for a common framework for health policy and systems research ethics to guide researchers and facilitate review by research ethics committees. A consultation of global health policy and systems research and ethics experts was convened to identify ethical considerations relevant to health policy and systems research based on existing knowledge and to identify knowledge gaps through a scoping review and further expert deliberation...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225142/ethical-concerns-regarding-animal-use-mediate-the-relationship-between-variety-of-pets-owned-in-childhood-and-vegetarianism-in-adulthood
#5
Sydney Heiss, Julia M Hormes
Plant-based and vegetarian diets have been shown to have diverse health and environmental benefits and also serve to reduce farmed animal exploitation. It is therefore worthwhile to gain a better understanding of the factors that play a role in the decision to refrain from animal products. Past studies have shown that childhood pet ownership predicts the likelihood of adherence to a vegetarian diet in adulthood. Building on this research, we tested the hypothesis that the number of different types of pets owned in childhood is positively associated with degree of restriction of animal products in adulthood, and that this relationship is mediated by pro-animal attitudes...
December 7, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224784/ethics-based-global-health-research-for-all-including-women-children-indigenous-people-lgbtqi-people-with-disabilities-refugees-and-other-relevant-stakeholders-especially-in-least-developing-countries-and-small-island-developing-states-in-the-global-south
#6
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223940/-when-to-consult-the-institutional-bioethics-committee-the-deliberative-method-for-resolving-possible-dilemmas
#7
Alejandra T Rabadán, Vilma A Tripodoro
In healthcare, an ethical concern that arises during the decision making process is considered to be a bioethical dilemma. It is often the case that in the absence of proper deliberation, the problem is transferred to a bioethics committee, not even representing precisely a dilemma. Bioethics emerged as a discipline in the mid-20th century. It is defined as a support to decision-making in ethical dilemmas centered on two aspects: ethics of clinical investigation, focused on protecting the rights of research subjects, and bioethics in medical practice, of an advisory nature...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223791/towards-more-effective-online-information-support-for-mammography-screening-decisions
#8
Jessica Martucci, Harald Schmidt
We sought to determine the extent to which web-based patient-directed resources of U.S. public health agencies and professional groups offer consistent and relevant information on the benefits and harms of mammography screening. Between August 2016-February 2017, we identified, collected and analyzed information about mammography screening from the websites of 14 well-known governmental public health agencies and professional groups. We recorded and compared the qualitative and quantitative information the sites offered on (1) breast cancer mortality; (2) false-positive results; (3) unnecessary biopsy; and (4) overdetection...
December 6, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223665/guidelines-and-checklists-for-short-term-missions-in-global-pediatric-surgery-recommendations-from-the-american-academy-of-pediatrics-delivery-of-surgical-care-global-health-subcommittee-american-pediatric-surgical-association-global-pediatric-surgery-committee
#9
REVIEW
Marilyn Butler, Elizabeth Drum, Faye M Evans, Tamara Fitzgerald, Jason Fraser, Ai-Xuan Holterman, Howard Jen, J Matthew Kynes, Jenny Kreiss, Craig D McClain, Mark Newton, Benedict Nwomeh, James O'Neill, Doruk Ozgediz, George Politis, Henry Rice, David Rothstein, Julie Sanchez, Mark Singleton, Francine S Yudkowitz
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric surgeons, anesthesia providers, and nurses from North America and other high-income countries (HICs) are increasingly engaged in resource-limited areas, with short-term missions (STMs) as the most common form of involvement. However, consensus recommendations currently do not exist for STMs in pediatric general surgery and associated perioperative care. METHODS: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Delivery of Surgical Care Subcommittee and American Pediatric Surgical Association (APSA) Global Pediatric Surgery Committee, with the American Pediatric Surgical Nurses Association, Inc...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223401/palliative-care-need-and-availability-in-four-referral-hospitals-in-senegal-results-from-a-multi-component-assessment
#10
Hana Hamdi, Oumar Ba, Serigne Niang, Christian Ntizimira, Mouhadou Mbengue, Aminata Sophie Coulbary, Rokhaya Niang, Matthew Parsons, Joseph J Amon, Diederik Lohman
CONTEXT: With prevalence of non-communicable diseases and life expectancy rising in Senegal, the need for palliative care is likely growing. No national palliative care needs assessments have been carried out. OBJECTIVES: To assess the capacity and need for palliative care in Senegal. METHODS: A multi-component assessment of availability and demand for palliative care was conducted in two tertiary and two regional hospitals in Senegal in 2015 with approval from Senegal's National Ethics Committee for Health Research...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221536/exploration-of-global-health-careers-across-the-medical-fields
#11
Ernest Barthélemy, Vanessa Mallol, Alisse Hannaford, Christian Pean, Rehema Kutua, Christopher de Haydu, Natasha Anandaraja, Ramin Asgary, Ebrahim Elahi, Braden Hexom, Philip Landrigan, Taraneh Shirazian, Craig Katz
BACKGROUND: Despite expansion of interest among American medical students in global health (GH), academic medical centers face multiple obstacles to the development of structured GH curricula and career guidance. To meet these demands we sought to provide a systematic analysis of the accounts of GH experts. METHODS: We developed a collaborative, interview-based, qualitative analysis of GH experiences across six career-related themes that are relevant to medical students interested in GH: justification, medical education, economics, research prospects, law and ethics, and work-life balance...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221534/on-becoming-a-global-citizen-transformative-learning-through-global-health-experiences
#12
Debra K Litzelman, Adrian Gardner, Robert M Einterz, Philip Owiti, Charity Wambui, Jordan C Huskins, Kathleen M Schmitt-Wendholt, Geren S Stone, Paul O Ayuo, Thomas S Inui, Rachel A Umoren
BACKGROUND: Globalization has increased the demand for international experiences in medical education. International experiences improve medical knowledge, clinical skills, and self-development; influence career objectives; and provide insights on ethical and societal issues. However, global health rotations can end up being no more than tourism if not structured to foster personal transformation and global citizenship. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a qualitative assessment of trainee-reported critical incidents to more deeply understand the impact of our global health experience on trainees...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221462/ethical-frameworks-for-obtaining-informed-consent-in-tumour-profiling-an-evidence-based-case-for-singapore
#13
Yasmin Bylstra, Tamra Lysaght, Jyothi Thrivikraman, Sangeetha Watson, Patrick Tan
BACKGROUND: Genomic profiling of malignant tumours has assisted clinicians in providing targeted therapies for many serious cancer-related illnesses. Although the characterisation of somatic mutations is the primary aim of tumour profiling for treatment, germline mutations may also be detected given the heterogenous origin of mutations observed in tumours. Guidance documents address the return of germline findings that have health implications for patients and their genetic relations...
December 8, 2017: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218967/call-for-national-dialogue-adapting-standards-of-care-in-extreme-events-we-are-not-ready
#14
Lynette Cusack, Kristine Gebbie
Clinical practices are based on a common understanding of nursing's professional standards in all aspects of patient care, no matter what the circumstances are. Circumstances can however, change dramatically due to emergencies, disasters, or pandemics and may make it difficult to meet the standard of care in the way nurses are accustomed. The Australian nursing profession has not yet facilitated a broad discussion and debate at the professional and institutional level about adapting standards of care under extreme conditions, a dialogue which goes beyond the content of basic emergency and disaster preparedness...
2017: Collegian: Journal of the Royal College of Nursing, Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218819/a-conceptual-model-of-the-risk-of-elder-abuse-posed-by-incontinence-and-care-dependence
#15
Joan Ostaszkiewicz
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe and critically analyse the thinking that led to the concept of an association between incontinence, care dependence and elder abuse. BACKGROUND: Coercive or abusive continence care practices include chastising a person for their incontinence and overriding their attempts to resist continence care. Neglect in continence care is characterised by withholding or delaying responding to requests for help to maintain continence or to manage incontinence, and restricting a person's access to toileting assistance, incontinence aids or hygiene care...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Older People Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218304/from-invention-to-innovation-risk-analysis-to-integrate-one-health-technology-in-the-dairy-farm
#16
Andrea Lombardo, Carlo Boselli, Simonetta Amatiste, Simone Ninci, Chiara Frazzoli, Roberto Dragone, Alberto De Rossi, Gerardo Grasso, Alberto Mantovani, Giovanni Brajon
Current Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) approaches mainly fit for food industry, while their application in primary food production is still rudimentary. The European food safety framework calls for science-based support to the primary producers' mandate for legal, scientific, and ethical responsibility in food supply. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary project ALERT pivots on the development of the technological invention (BEST platform) and application of its measurable (bio)markers-as well as scientific advances in risk analysis-at strategic points of the milk chain for time and cost-effective early identification of unwanted and/or unexpected events of both microbiological and toxicological nature...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217723/-at-risk-individuals-responses-to-direct-to-consumer-advertising-of-prescription-drugs-a-nationally-representative-cross-sectional-study
#17
Neda Khalil Zadeh, Kirsten Robertson, James A Green
OBJECTIVES: The factors determining individuals' self-reported behavioural responses to direct to consumer advertising of prescription drugs were explored with an emphasis on 'at-risk' individuals' responses. DESIGN: Nationally representative cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Community living adults in New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: 2057 adults (51% women). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported behavioural responses to drug advertising (asking a physician for a prescription, asking a physician for more information about an illness, searching the internet for more information regarding an illness and asking a pharmacist for more information about a drug)...
December 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216830/factors-associated-with-birth-preparedness-and-complication-readiness-in-southern-ethiopia-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study
#18
Eshetu Andarge, Aderajew Nigussie, Mekitie Wondafrash
BACKGROUND: Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) is a strategy to promote use of skilled maternal and neonatal care so that they can get timely skilled care, particularly during child birth. There is minimal evidence on the factors associated with BP/CR among pregnant women in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess the factors influencing BP/CR among pregnant women in Southern Ethiopia for the purpose of improving utilization of skilled attendant at birth. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 707 pregnant women in Southern Ethiopia in March 2015...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216738/perspective-medical-assistance-in-dying-and-mental-health-a-legal-ethical-and-clinical-analysis
#19
Alexander I F Simpson
Medical assistance in dying (MAiD) legislation is now over a year old in Canada, and consideration is turning to whether MAiD should be extended to include serious mental illness as the sole qualifying condition for being eligible for MAiD. This article considers this question from ethical and clinical perspectives. It argues that extending the eligibility for MAiD to include those with a serious mental illness as the sole eligibility criterion is not ethical, necessary, or supported current psychiatric practice or opinion...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216596/understanding-social-and-behavioral-drivers-and-impacts-of-air-quality-sensor-use
#20
Bryan J Hubbell, Amanda Kaufman, Louie Rivers, Kayla Schulte, Gayle Hagler, Jane Clougherty, Wayne Cascio, Dan Costa
BACKGROUND: Lower-cost air quality sensors (hundreds to thousands of dollars) are now available to individuals and communities. This technology is undergoing a rapid and fragmented evolution, resulting in sensors that have uncertain data quality, measure different air pollutants and possess a variety of design attributes. Why and how individuals and communities choose to use sensors is arguably influenced by social context. For example, community experiences with environmental exposures and health effects and related interactions with industry and government can affect trust in traditional air quality monitoring...
December 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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