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Zika virus in pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081529/zika-virus-induced-microcephaly-and-its-possible-molecular-mechanism
#1
Md Imam Faizan, Mohd Abdullah, Sher Ali, Irshad H Naqvi, Anwar Ahmed, Shama Parveen
Zika virus is an arthropod-borne re-emerging pathogen associated with the global pandemic of 2015-2016. The devastating effect of Zika viral infection is reflected by its neurological manifestations such as microcephaly in newborns. This scenario evoked our interest to uncover the neurotropic localization, multiplication of the virus, and the mechanism of microcephaly. The present report provides an overview of a possible molecular mechanism of Zika virus-induced microcephaly based on recent publications. Transplacental transmission of Zika viral infection from mother to foetus during the first trimester of pregnancy results in propagation of the virus in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), where entry is facilitated by the receptor (AXL protein) leading to the alteration of signalling and immune pathways in host cells...
January 13, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078779/association-between-zika-virus-and-foetopathy-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-french-guiana-preliminary-report
#2
Pomar Léo, Malinger Gustavo, Benoist Guillaume, Carles Gabriel, Ville Yves, Rousset Dominique, Hcini Najeh, Pomar Céline, Jolivet Anne, Lambert Véronique
OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of the present study were to establish the existence of significant differences in the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) anomalies (including microcephaly), signs of congenital infection, or foetal loss between Zika virus (ZIKV)-infected and non-infected pregnant women in western French Guiana. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted between January 1(st) and July 15(th) 2016. We evaluated the clinical and foetal ultrasound (US) examinations of 301 pregnant women with biological confirmation of ZIKV infection and 399 pregnant women who were negative for ZIKV infection...
January 12, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077143/pregnant-women-carrying-microcephaly-foetuses-and-zika-virus-contain-potentially-pathogenic-microbes-and-parasites-in-their-amniotic-fluid
#3
Diogo Antonio Tschoeke, Louisi Souza de Oliveira, Luciana Leomil, Amilcar Tanuri, Fabiano Lopes Thompson
BACKGROUND: Microcephaly has become a major public health problem in Brazil. The total number of newborns with microcephaly was reported to be >4000 in June 2016. Studies suggest that Zika Virus is a major cause of new microcephaly cases in Brazil. Inside the uterus, the foetus is surrounded by the Amniotic Fluid, a proximal fluid that contains foetal and maternal cells as well as microorganisms and where Zika Virus was already found. CASE PRESENTATION: A previous study reported the presence of the Zika Virus in the amniotic fluid (collected in the 28th gestational week) of two pregnant women carrying microcephaly foetuses in Brazil...
January 11, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056005/zika-virus-10-public-health-achievements-in-2016-and-future-priorities
#4
Nadia L Oussayef, Satish K Pillai, Margaret A Honein, C Ben Beard, Beth Bell, Coleen A Boyle, Lars M Eisen, Katrin Kohl, Matthew J Kuehnert, Eva Lathrop, Stacey W Martin, Rebecca Martin, Janet C McAllister, Elizabeth Pantino McClune, Paul Mead, Dana Meaney-Delman, Brett Petersen, Lyle R Petersen, Kara N D Polen, Ann M Powers, Stephen C Redd, James J Sejvar, Tyler Sharp, Julie Villanueva, Denise J Jamieson
The introduction of Zika virus into the Region of the Americas (Americas) and the subsequent increase in cases of congenital microcephaly resulted in activation of CDC's Emergency Operations Center on January 22, 2016, to ensure a coordinated response and timely dissemination of information, and led the World Health Organization to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. During the past year, public health agencies and researchers worldwide have collaborated to protect pregnant women, inform clinicians and the public, and advance knowledge about Zika virus (Figure 1)...
January 6, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056002/announcement-national-birth-defects-prevention-month-and-folic-acid-awareness-week-january-2017
#5
(no author information available yet)
The Zika virus disease outbreak has led to renewed focus on how some birth defects are caused by infection during pregnancy. "Prevent Infections for Baby's Protection" is the theme of January 2017's National Birth Defects Prevention Month. Birth defects are common, costly, and critical, and they affect one in 33 U.S. babies annually (1). Not all birth defects can be prevented, but women can increase their chances of having a healthy baby by reducing their risk for getting an infection during pregnancy.
January 6, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055221/zika-virus-infections-in-military-health-system-beneficiaries-since-the-introduction-of-the-virus-in-the-western-hemisphere-1-january-2016-through-30-november-2016
#6
Daniela E Poss, James V Writer, Stric Harris
The introduction and rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) across the Western Hemisphere have posed a risk of infection to Military Health System (MHS) beneficiaries. The associated consequences of infection and the dynamics of transmission may place a unique burden on military personnel, their dependents, and the MHS. This article summarizes the impact of ZIKV transmission on MHS beneficiaries between 1 January and 30 November 2016. Cases were identified from a variety of sources, including direct reporting from the services, extraction of laboratory data, and data from the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) Reportable Medical Events database...
December 2016: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045901/zika-virus-infection-as-a-cause-of-congenital-brain-abnormalities-and-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-systematic-review
#7
Fabienne Krauer, Maurane Riesen, Ludovic Reveiz, Olufemi T Oladapo, Ruth Martínez-Vega, Teegwendé V Porgo, Anina Haefliger, Nathalie J Broutet, Nicola Low
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) stated in March 2016 that there was scientific consensus that the mosquito-borne Zika virus was a cause of the neurological disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and of microcephaly and other congenital brain abnormalities based on rapid evidence assessments. Decisions about causality require systematic assessment to guide public health actions. The objectives of this study were to update and reassess the evidence for causality through a rapid and systematic review about links between Zika virus infection and (a) congenital brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, in the foetuses and offspring of pregnant women and (b) GBS in any population, and to describe the process and outcomes of an expert assessment of the evidence about causality...
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045216/zika-virus-and-pregnancy-an-overview
#8
Newton Sérgio de Carvalho, Beatriz Freitas de Carvalho, Bruna Dóris, Evellyn Silverio Biscaia, Cyllian Arias Fugaça, Lúcia de Noronha
In May 2015, the first episodes of Zika virus infection of the Latin America were confirmed in Brazil, where currently 196 976 cases were reported. The main route of transmission occurs by Aedes mosquitoes, and the most common symptoms are maculopapular rash, fever, conjunctivitis, polyarthralgia, and periarticular edema. However, the infection is asymptomatic in 80% of the cases. The congenital infection is characterized when the transmission to the fetus occurs during pregnancy, but the mechanisms of how the virus infects the placenta remain unclear...
January 3, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034741/identification-of-novel-small-molecule-inhibitors-against-ns2b-ns3-serine-protease-from-zika-virus
#9
Hyun Lee, Jinhong Ren, Salvatore Nocadello, Amy J Rice, Isabel Ojeda, Samuel Light, George Minasov, Jason Vargas, Dhanapalan Nagarathnam, Wayne F Anderson, Michael E Johnson
Zika flavivirus infection during pregnancy appears to produce higher risk of microcephaly, and also causes multiple neurological problems such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. The Zika virus is now widespread in Central and South America, and is anticipated to become an increasing risk in the southern United States. With continuing global travel and the spread of the mosquito vector, the exposure is expected to accelerate, but there are no currently approved treatments against the Zika virus. The Zika NS2B/NS3 protease is an attractive drug target due to its essential role in viral replication...
December 26, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997333/presence-and-persistence-of-zika-virus-rna-in-semen-united-kingdom-2016
#10
Barry Atkinson, Fiona Thorburn, Christina Petridou, Daniel Bailey, Roger Hewson, Andrew J H Simpson, Timothy J G Brooks, Emma J Aarons
Zika virus RNA has been detected in semen collected several months after onset of symptoms of infection. Given the potential for sexual transmission of Zika virus and for serious fetal abnormalities resulting from infection during pregnancy, information regarding the persistence of Zika virus in semen is critical for advancing our understanding of potential risks. We tested serial semen samples from symptomatic male patients in the United Kingdom who had a diagnosis of imported Zika virus infection. Among the initial semen samples from 23 patients, Zika virus RNA was detected at high levels in 13 (56...
April 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990321/travel-volume-to-the-united-states-from-countries-and-u-s-territories-with-local-zika-virus-transmission
#11
Bradley Nelson, Stephanie Morrison, Heather Joseph, Abbey Wojno, R Ryan Lash, Yoni Haber, Andre Berro, Martin Cetron, Ardath Grills
INTRODUCTION: Air, land, and sea transportation can facilitate rapid spread of infectious diseases. In May 2015 the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed Zika virus infection in Brazil. As of March 8, 2016, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had issued travel notices for 33 countries and 3 U.S. territories with local Zika virus transmission. METHODS: Using data from five separate datasets from 2014 and 2015, we estimated the annual number of passenger journeys by air and land border crossings to the United States from the 33 countries and 3 U...
May 31, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977645/preliminary-report-of-microcephaly-potentially-associated-with-zika-virus-infection-during-pregnancy-colombia-january-november-2016
#12
Esther Liliana Cuevas, Van T Tong, Nathaly Rozo, Diana Valencia, Oscar Pacheco, Suzanne M Gilboa, Marcela Mercado, Christina M Renquist, Maritza González, Elizabeth C Ailes, Carolina Duarte, Valerie Godoshian, Christina L Sancken, Angelica Maria Rico Turca, Dinorah L Calles, Martha Ayala, Paula Morgan, Erika Natalia Tolosa Perez, Hernan Quijada Bonilla, Ruben Caceres Gomez, Ana Carolina Estupiñan, Maria Luz Gunturiz, Dana Meaney-Delman, Denise J Jamieson, Margaret A Honein, Martha Lucia Ospina Martínez
In Colombia, approximately 105,000 suspected cases of Zika virus disease (diagnosed based on clinical symptoms, regardless of laboratory confirmation) were reported during August 9, 2015-November 12, 2016, including nearly 20,000 in pregnant women (1,2). Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a known cause of microcephaly and serious congenital brain abnormalities and has been associated with other birth defects related to central nervous system damage (3). Colombia's Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) maintains national surveillance for birth defects, including microcephaly and other central nervous system defects...
December 16, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960197/birth-defects-among-fetuses-and-infants-of-us-women-with-evidence-of-possible-zika-virus-infection-during-pregnancy
#13
Margaret A Honein, April L Dawson, Emily E Petersen, Abbey M Jones, Ellen H Lee, Mahsa M Yazdy, Nina Ahmad, Jennifer Macdonald, Nicole Evert, Andrea Bingham, Sascha R Ellington, Carrie K Shapiro-Mendoza, Titilope Oduyebo, Anne D Fine, Catherine M Brown, Jamie N Sommer, Jyoti Gupta, Philip Cavicchia, Sally Slavinski, Jennifer L White, S Michele Owen, Lyle R Petersen, Coleen Boyle, Dana Meaney-Delman, Denise J Jamieson
Importance: Understanding the risk of birth defects associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy may help guide communication, prevention, and planning efforts. In the absence of Zika virus, microcephaly occurs in approximately 7 per 10 000 live births. Objective: To estimate the preliminary proportion of fetuses or infants with birth defects after maternal Zika virus infection by trimester of infection and maternal symptoms. Design, Setting, and Participants: Completed pregnancies with maternal, fetal, or infant laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection and outcomes reported in the continental United States and Hawaii from January 15 to September 22, 2016, in the US Zika Pregnancy Registry, a collaboration between the CDC and state and local health departments...
3, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959260/zika-virus-rna-replication-and-persistence-in-brain-and-placental-tissue
#14
Julu Bhatnagar, Demi B Rabeneck, Roosecelis B Martines, Sarah Reagan-Steiner, Yokabed Ermias, Lindsey B C Estetter, Tadaki Suzuki, Jana Ritter, M Kelly Keating, Gillian Hale, Joy Gary, Atis Muehlenbachs, Amy Lambert, Robert Lanciotti, Titilope Oduyebo, Dana Meaney-Delman, Fernando Bolaños, Edgar Alberto Parra Saad, Wun-Ju Shieh, Sherif R Zaki
Zika virus is causally linked with congenital microcephaly and may be associated with pregnancy loss. However, the mechanisms of Zika virus intrauterine transmission and replication and its tropism and persistence in tissues are poorly understood. We tested tissues from 52 case-patients: 8 infants with microcephaly who died and 44 women suspected of being infected with Zika virus during pregnancy. By reverse transcription PCR, tissues from 32 (62%) case-patients (brains from 8 infants with microcephaly and placental/fetal tissues from 24 women) were positive for Zika virus...
March 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932442/contraceptive-sales-in-the-setting-of-the-zika-virus-epidemic
#15
Luis Bahamondes, Moazzam Ali, Ilza Monteiro, Arlete Fernandes
STUDY QUESTION: Has there been any influence of the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak on the sales of contraceptive methods in Brazil? SUMMARY ANSWER: Contraceptive sales in the 24 months of evaluation showed little variation and no significant change has been observed since the ZIKV outbreak. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Transmission of ZIKV is primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes; however, sexual transmission has also been described. The association of several birth defects and the ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been established, and it was estimated in Bahia, Brazil that the infection rate could range from 10% to 80%...
January 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920162/-hey-everybody-don-t-get-pregnant-zika-who-and-an-ethical-framework-for-advising
#16
Katie Byron, Dana Howard
WHO recently issued new guidance on the prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus. The updated guidance states that '[c]ountry health programmes should ensure that… [i]n order to prevent adverse pregnancy and fetal outcomes, men and women of reproductive age, living in areas where local transmission of Zika virus is known to occur, be correctly informed and oriented to consider delaying pregnancy'. While the media has reported this advice as WHO telling couples in Zika-affected regions to avoid pregnancy, WHO states that they are not doing that...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919154/-many-doubts-about-the-relationship-between-cases-of-microcephaly-and-zika-virus-in-brazil
#17
Roberto Ronchetti, Pietro Massimiliano Bianco
During the last few years, Zika virus rapidly spread across Central and South America and in the last months has spread also across Southern States of USA. As the epidemic began in Brazil, an increase of microcephaly cases was registered, causing concern and inducing the World Health Organization to raise an alarm. Certainly, the Zika virus, as many other viruses, has the capacity to induce severe cerebral lesions in foetuses of women infected during the first months of pregnancy. Moreover, more than 80% of cases of craniostenosys that verisimilarly took place in Brazil from September 2015 up to now were registered in few states of North- Eastern Brazil, where peaks of this malformation were registered several years before the appearance of Zika virus...
November 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912091/genetic-ablation-of-axl-does-not-protect-human-neural-progenitor-cells-and-cerebral-organoids-from-zika-virus-infection
#18
Michael F Wells, Max R Salick, Ole Wiskow, Daniel J Ho, Kathleen A Worringer, Robert J Ihry, Sravya Kommineni, Bilada Bilican, Joseph R Klim, Ellen J Hill, Liam T Kane, Chaoyang Ye, Ajamete Kaykas, Kevin Eggan
Zika virus (ZIKV) can cross the placental barrier, resulting in infection of the fetal brain and neurological defects including microcephaly. The cellular tropism of ZIKV and the identity of attachment factors used by the virus to gain access to key cell types involved in pathogenesis are under intense investigation. Initial studies suggested that ZIKV preferentially targets neural progenitor cells (NPCs), providing an explanation for the developmental phenotypes observed in some pregnancies. The AXL protein has been nominated as a key attachment factor for ZIKV in several cell types including NPCs...
December 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911847/zika-virus-cell-tropism-in-the-developing-human-brain-and-inhibition-by-azithromycin
#19
Hanna Retallack, Elizabeth Di Lullo, Carolina Arias, Kristeene A Knopp, Matthew T Laurie, Carmen Sandoval-Espinosa, Walter R Mancia Leon, Robert Krencik, Erik M Ullian, Julien Spatazza, Alex A Pollen, Caleigh Mandel-Brehm, Tomasz J Nowakowski, Arnold R Kriegstein, Joseph L DeRisi
The rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its association with abnormal brain development constitute a global health emergency. Congenital ZIKV infection produces a range of mild to severe pathologies, including microcephaly. To understand the pathophysiology of ZIKV infection, we used models of the developing brain that faithfully recapitulate the tissue architecture in early to midgestation. We identify the brain cell populations that are most susceptible to ZIKV infection in primary human tissue, provide evidence for a mechanism of viral entry, and show that a commonly used antibiotic protects cultured brain cells by reducing viral proliferation...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902502/zika-virus-and-patient-blood-management
#20
Lawrence T Goodnough, Marisa B Marques
Sporadic Zika virus infections had only occurred in Africa and Asia until an outbreak in Micronesia (Oceania) in 2007. In 2013 to 2014, several outer Pacific Islands reported local outbreaks. Soon thereafter, the virus was likely introduced in Brazil from competing athletes from French Polynesia and other countries that participated in a competition there. Transmission is thought to have occurred through mosquito bites and spread to the immunologically naive population. Being also a flavivirus, the Zika virus is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito that is endemic in South and Central America that is also the vector of West Nile virus, dengue, and chikungunya...
January 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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