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Zika virus in pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542585/highly-efficient-maternal-fetal-zika-virus-transmission-in-pregnant-rhesus-macaques
#1
Sydney M Nguyen, Kathleen M Antony, Dawn M Dudley, Sarah Kohn, Heather A Simmons, Bryce Wolfe, M Shahriar Salamat, Leandro B C Teixeira, Gregory J Wiepz, Troy H Thoong, Matthew T Aliota, Andrea M Weiler, Gabrielle L Barry, Kim L Weisgrau, Logan J Vosler, Mariel S Mohns, Meghan E Breitbach, Laurel M Stewart, Mustafa N Rasheed, Christina M Newman, Michael E Graham, Oliver E Wieben, Patrick A Turski, Kevin M Johnson, Jennifer Post, Jennifer M Hayes, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Michele L Schotzko, Josh A Eudailey, Sallie R Permar, Eva G Rakasz, Emma L Mohr, Saverio Capuano, Alice F Tarantal, Jorge E Osorio, Shelby L O'Connor, Thomas C Friedrich, David H O'Connor, Thaddeus G Golos
Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with human congenital fetal anomalies. To model fetal outcomes in nonhuman primates, we administered Asian-lineage ZIKV subcutaneously to four pregnant rhesus macaques. While non-pregnant animals in a previous study contemporary with the current report clear viremia within 10-12 days, maternal viremia was prolonged in 3 of 4 pregnancies. Fetal head growth velocity in the last month of gestation determined by ultrasound assessment of head circumference was decreased in comparison with biparietal diameter and femur length within each fetus, both within normal range...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539446/infectious-prions-in-the-pregnancy-microenvironment-of-cwd-infected-reeves-muntjac-deer
#2
Amy V Nalls, Erin McNulty, Clare E Hoover, Laura A Pulscher, Edward A Hoover, Candace K Mathiason
Ample evidence exists for the presence of infectious agents at the maternal-fetal interface, often with grave outcomes to the developing fetus (i.e. zika virus, brucella, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasma). While less studied, pregnancy-related transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) have been implicated in several species, including humans. Our previous work has shown that prions can be transferred from mother-to-offspring resulting in the development of clinical TSE disease in offspring born to CWD-infected muntjac dams (64)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536443/diagnostic-accuracy-of-ultrasound-scanning-for-prenatal-microcephaly-in-the-context-of-zika-virus-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Ezinne C Chibueze, Alex J Q Parsons, Katharina da Silva Lopes, Takemoto Yo, Toshiyuki Swa, Chie Nagata, Nobuyuki Horita, Naho Morisaki, Olukunmi O Balogun, Amarjargal Dagvadorj, Erika Ota, Rintaro Mori, Olufemi T Oladapo
To assess the accuracy of ultrasound measurements of fetal biometric parameters for prenatal diagnosis of microcephaly in the context of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, we searched bibliographic databases for studies published until March 3rd, 2016. We extracted the numbers of true positives, false positives, true negatives, and false negatives and performed a meta-analysis to estimate group sensitivity and specificity. Predictive values for ZIKV-infected pregnancies were extrapolated from those obtained for pregnancies unrelated to ZIKV...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535184/maternal-zika-virus-disease-severity-virus-load-prior-dengue-antibodies-and-their-relationship-to-birth-outcomes
#4
U A Halai, K Nielsen-Saines, M E Moreira, P C Sequeira, J P Pereira Junior, A A Zin, J D Cherry, C R Gabaglia, S L Gaw, K Adachi, I Tsui, J H Pilotto, R M Ribeiro Nogueira, A M Bispo de Filippis, P Brasil
Background: Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) syndrome is a newly identified condition resulting from infection during pregnancy. We analyzed outcome data from a mother-infant cohort in Rio de Janeiro in order to assess whether clinical severity of maternal ZIKV infection was associated with maternal virus load, prior dengue antibodies or abnormal pregnancy/infant outcomes. Methods: A clinical severity assessment tool was developed based on duration of fever, severity of rash, multisystem involvement and duration of symptoms during ZIKV infection...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525510/zika-virus-obstetric-and-pediatric-anesthesia-considerations
#5
Jacqueline L Tutiven, Benjamin T Pruden, James S Banks, Mario Stevenson, David J Birnbach
As of November 2016, the Florida Department of Health (FDH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have confirmed more than 4000 travel-related Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in the United States with >700 of those in Florida. There have been 139 cases of locally acquired infection, all occurring in Miami, Florida. Within the US territories (eg, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands), >30,000 cases of ZIKV infection have been reported. The projected number of individuals at risk for ZIKV infection in the Caribbean and Latin America approximates 5 million...
June 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495527/facilitating-state-wide-collaboration-around-family-planning-care-in-the-context-of-zika
#6
Christine Dehlendorf, Loretta Gavin, Jacki Witt, Susan Moskosky
INTRODUCTION: Family planning providers have an important role to play in the response to the public health challenge posed by Zika. In the United States, there are high rates of unintended pregnancy, especially in states most at risk for mosquito-borne transmission of the Zika virus. This paper describes efforts by eight of these states (Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas) to build capacity for quality family planning care in the context of Zika...
May 8, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494237/microbial-vertical-transmission-during-human-pregnancy
#7
REVIEW
Nitin Arora, Yoel Sadovsky, Terence S Dermody, Carolyn B Coyne
Congenital infections with pathogens such as Zika virus, Toxoplasma gondii, Listeria monocytogenes, Treponema pallidium, parvovirus, HIV, varicella zoster virus, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpesviruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the devastating impact of microbial infections on the developing fetus, relatively little is known about how pathogens associated with congenital disease breach the placental barrier to transit vertically during human pregnancy. In this Review, we focus on transplacental transmission of pathogens during human gestation...
May 10, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493351/human-zika-and-west-nile-virus-neurological-infections-what-is-the-difference
#8
REVIEW
Clayton A Wiley, Leila Chimelli
The recent epidemic of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in the United States was associated with severe neurological disease in immunocompromised hosts, while the emergence of Zika virus infection in the Americas has been notable for an association with increased microcephaly in the fetuses of infected mothers. Rare autopsies of WNV infected humans have shown multiple organ involvement with a clear neurotropism. We have recently had the opportunity to examine the distribution of Zika virus in autopsies of newborns from infected pregnancies...
May 11, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492766/clinical-epidemiological-description-of-live-births-with-microcephaly-in-the-state-of-sergipe-brazil-2015
#9
Cibelle Mendes Cabral, Martha Elizabeth Brasil da Nóbrega, Priscila Leal E Leite, Mércia Simone Feitosa de Souza, Daniela Cabral Pizzi Teixeira, Taíse Ferreira Cavalcante, Raulinna Gomes de Souza Lima, Lúcia Maria Sayde de Azevedo Tavares, Priscila Bochi de Souza, Eduardo Saad
OBJECTIVE: to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of microcephaly cases in live births in Sergipe, Brazil, and to calculate the prevalence in its municipalities. METHODS: this is a descriptive study on live births from September 1st to November 30th, 2015, with data from medical records and interviews with mothers. RESULTS: 83 cases of microcephaly were confirmed, with three deaths; prevalence in the 26 municipalities with confirmed cases ranged from 18 to 185/10,000 live births; the median of head circumference was 31 cm (range: 22...
April 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486369/zika-risk-and-pregnancy-in-clinical-practice-ongoing-experience-as-the-outbreak-evolves
#10
Rashmi Rao, Stephanie L Gaw, Christina S Han, Lawrence D Platt, Neil S Silverman
OBJECTIVE: To describe a single U.S. perinatal center's ongoing experience with evaluating pregnant patients with potential exposure to Zika virus infection. METHODS: This is an institutional review board-approved longitudinal observational study from January to August 2016 from a single perinatal referral center. Patients who had traveled to or had sexual contact with a person who traveled to a region with documented local Zika virus transmission were included in the study...
June 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444557/overview-on-the-current-status-of-zika-virus-pathogenesis-and-animal-related-research
#11
REVIEW
Shashank S Pawitwar, Supurna Dhar, Sneham Tiwari, Chet Raj Ojha, Jessica Lapierre, Kyle Martins, Alexandra Rodzinski, Tiyash Parira, Iru Paudel, Jiaojiao Li, Rajib Kumar Dutta, Monica R Silva, Ajeet Kaushik, Nazira El-Hage
There is growing evidence that Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is linked with activation of Guillan-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults infected with the virus and microcephaly in infants following maternal infection. With the recent outpour in publications by numerous research labs, the association between microcephaly in newborns and ZIKV has become very apparent in which large numbers of viral particles were found in the central nervous tissue of an electively aborted microcephalic ZIKV-infected fetus. However, the underlying related mechanisms remain poorly understood...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442561/spread-of-zika-virus-in-the-americas
#12
Qian Zhang, Kaiyuan Sun, Matteo Chinazzi, Ana Pastore Y Piontti, Natalie E Dean, Diana Patricia Rojas, Stefano Merler, Dina Mistry, Piero Poletti, Luca Rossi, Margaret Bray, M Elizabeth Halloran, Ira M Longini, Alessandro Vespignani
We use a data-driven global stochastic epidemic model to analyze the spread of the Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas. The model has high spatial and temporal resolution and integrates real-world demographic, human mobility, socioeconomic, temperature, and vector density data. We estimate that the first introduction of ZIKV to Brazil likely occurred between August 2013 and April 2014 (90% credible interval). We provide simulated epidemic profiles of incident ZIKV infections for several countries in the Americas through February 2017...
April 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429036/a-review-of-zika-virus-infections-in-pregnancy-and-implications-for-antenatal-care-in-singapore
#13
Harvard Zhenjia Lin, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah, Eu Leong Yong, Arijit Biswas, Shiao-Yng Chan
Given the consensus that there is a causal relationship between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnancy and congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), clinicians must be prepared to manage affected patients despite the numerous gaps in current knowledge. The clinical course in pregnancy appears similar to that in non-pregnant women, although viraemia may be prolonged. ZIKV infection can be diagnosed by serum and urine reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, but commercially available serological tests are currently unreliable in dengue-endemic regions...
April 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421065/zika-virus-infection-during-pregnancy-and-congenital-abnormalities
#14
REVIEW
Irfan A Rather, Jameel B Lone, Vivek K Bajpai, Yong-Ha Park
The presence of the Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has gone ahead to be a threat to people based on its adverse impacts. More specifically, the pregnant women have been discouraged from traveling to the areas affected by the ZIKV because of the likelihood of the virus causing congenital abnormalities especially the microcephaly. The pregnant women probably attracted the virus during their first trimester while visiting ZIKV affected territories. Although the ZIKV infected cases have reduced in some parts of countries, the global risk assessment has not been changed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418539/ophthalmic-manifestations-of-congenital-zika-syndrome-in-colombia-and-venezuela
#15
Juan B Yepez, Felipe A Murati, Michele Pettito, Carlos F Peñaranda, Jazmin de Yepez, Gladys Maestre, J Fernando Arevalo
Importance: The ocular manifestations and sequelae of Zika virus infection are not well known. Recently, the World Health Organization changed the declaration of Zika as a public health emergency and designated the viral outbreak and related microcephaly clusters as a long-term program of work. This change indicates the urgent need to evaluate and document ophthalmic manifestations in patients for timely management of this disease. In addition, confirmation whether the public health problem in Brazil extends to other regions in South America is needed...
May 1, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410349/zika-virus-and-assisted-reproduction
#16
Christina N Cordeiro, Rashda Bano, Chantel I Washington Cross, James H Segars
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Due to the fact that the Zika virus can be sexually transmitted, there is a potential risk for disease transmission at several stages of assisted reproduction. Such a possibility poses a serious challenge to couples pursing fertility with reproductive technologies. Here, we discuss what is known regarding Zika virus infection with respect to sexual transmission and correlate this knowledge with recent recommendations in the realm of infertility treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Zika virus can be transmitted from infected men and women through vaginal, oral or anal intercourse...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409618/zika-virus-common-questions-and-answers
#17
Irogue I Igbinosa, Ingrid B Rabe, Titilope Oduyebo, Sonja A Rasmussen
Since local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in early 2015, the virus has spread rapidly, with active transmission reported in at least 61 countries and territories worldwide, including the United States. Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe brain anomalies. The virus is transmitted primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito, but other routes of transmission include sexual, mother-to-fetus during pregnancy, mother-to-infant at delivery, laboratory exposure, and, possibly, transfusion of blood products...
April 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402153/maternal-fetal-transmission-of-zika-virus-routes-and-signals-for-infection
#18
Bin Cao, Michael S Diamond, Indira U Mysorekar
The emerging mosquito-borne virus, Zika virus (ZIKV), has been causally associated with adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, including miscarriage, microcephaly, serious brain abnormalities, and other birth defects indicative of a congenital ZIKV syndrome. In this review, we highlight work from human and animal studies on routes of infection in pregnancy that lead to adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes. A number of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms and signaling molecules that may have key roles in ZIKV infection pathogenesis are discussed along with putative viral entry pathways...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399888/a-guinea-pig-model-of-zika-virus-infection
#19
Mukesh Kumar, Keeton K Krause, Francine Azouz, Eileen Nakano, Vivek R Nerurkar
BACKGROUND: Animal models are critical to understand disease and to develop countermeasures for the ongoing epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV). Here we report that immunocompetent guinea pigs are susceptible to infection by a contemporary American strain of ZIKV. METHODS: Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were inoculated with 10(6) plaque-forming units of ZIKV via subcutaneous route and clinical signs were observed. Viremia, viral load in the tissues, anti-ZIKV neutralizing antibody titer, and protein levels of multiple cytokine and chemokines were analyzed using qRT-PCR, plaque assay, plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and multiplex immunoassay...
April 11, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398684/studying-the-effects-of-emerging-infections-on-the-fetus-experience-with-west-nile-and-zika-viruses
#20
Sonja A Rasmussen, Dana M Meaney-Delman, Lyle R Petersen, Denise J Jamieson
Emerging infections have the potential to produce adverse effects on the pregnant woman or her fetus; however, studying these effects is often challenging. We review our experiences with investigating the prenatal effects of two mosquito-borne infections that emerged in the past 2 decades, West Nile virus (WNV) and Zika virus. Concerns regarding teratogenicity were raised about both viruses; Zika virus has been confirmed to be teratogenic, while WNV appears not to increase the risk for adverse outcomes, although teratogenicity has not been excluded...
March 15, 2017: Birth Defects Res
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