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Infectious diseases in pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433705/maternal-immunisation-collaborating-with-mother-nature
#1
REVIEW
Arnaud Marchant, Manish Sadarangani, Mathieu Garand, Nicolas Dauby, Valerie Verhasselt, Lenore Pereira, Gordean Bjornson, Christine E Jones, Scott A Halperin, Kathryn M Edwards, Paul Heath, Peter J Openshaw, David W Scheifele, Tobias R Kollmann
Maternal immunisation has the potential to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases after birth. The success of tetanus, influenza, and pertussis immunisation during pregnancy has led to consideration of additional maternal immunisation strategies to prevent group B streptococcus and respiratory syncytial virus infections, among others. However, many gaps in knowledge regarding the immunobiology of maternal immunisation prevent the optimal design and application of this successful public health intervention...
April 19, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432664/human-perinatal-immunity-in-physiological-conditions-and-during-infection
#2
REVIEW
Gijs T J van Well, Leonie A Daalderop, Tim Wolfs, Boris W Kramer
The intrauterine environment was long considered sterile. However, several infectious threats are already present during fetal life. This review focuses on the postnatal immunological consequences of prenatal exposure to microorganisms and related inflammatory stimuli. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems of the fetus and neonate are immature, which makes them highly susceptible to infections. There is good evidence that prenatal infections are a primary cause of preterm births. Additionally, the association between antenatal inflammation and adverse neonatal outcomes has been well established...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428164/zika-in-twitter-temporal-variations-of-locations-actors-and-concepts
#3
Anthony Stefanidis, Emily Vraga, Georgios Lamprianidis, Jacek Radzikowski, Paul L Delamater, Kathryn H Jacobsen, Dieter Pfoser, Arie Croitoru, Andrew Crooks
BACKGROUND: The recent Zika outbreak witnessed the disease evolving from a regional health concern to a global epidemic. During this process, different communities across the globe became involved in Twitter, discussing the disease and key issues associated with it. This paper presents a study of this discussion in Twitter, at the nexus of location, actors, and concepts. OBJECTIVE: Our objective in this study was to demonstrate the significance of 3 types of events: location related, actor related, and concept related, for understanding how a public health emergency of international concern plays out in social media, and Twitter in particular...
April 20, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407272/the-relative-effects-of-reproductive-condition-stress-and-seasonality-on-patterns-of-parasitism-in-wild-female-black-howler-monkeys-alouatta-pigra
#4
Rodolfo Martínez-Mota, Paul A Garber, Rupert Palme, Thomas R Gillespie
Parasitic infections in wildlife are shaped by host-related traits including individual reproductive condition. It has been argued that female primates are more susceptible to infectious diseases during pregnancy due to short-term changes in immune function that result in reduced ability to combat infections. Likewise, lactation, which is the most energetically expensive state, may affect immunity and infection risk due to tradeoffs between milk production and maintenance of immune function. Here, we examine the degree to which parasite prevalence and parasite richness are affected by female reproductive condition and stress levels in wild female black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra)...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398429/antiphospholipid-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#5
Ryan E O'Leary, Jennifer L Hsiao, Scott D Worswick
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune condition characterized by a thrombotic event and/or pregnancy morbidity in the presence of persistently elevated antiphospholipid (aPL) antibody titers, which are most prevalent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus but also have been associated with other autoimmune, malignant, and infectious diseases. In contrast to the clear correlation between high aPL antibody titers and thrombotic events in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, the pathogenic role of these autoantibodies in association with other diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is not as well defined...
March 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397205/assessment-of-the-implementation-of-the-infectious-diseases-screening-programmes-among-pregnant-women-in-the-lesser-poland-region-and-comparison-with-similar-programmes-conducted-in-other-european-union-countries
#6
Małgorzata Radoń-Pokracka, Maciej Piasecki, Alicja Lachowska, Sebastian Baczkowski, Joanna Spaczyńska, Magdalena Górecka, Magdalena Nowak, Hubert Huras
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the level of implementation of recommendations of the Ministry of Health regarding infectious disease screening during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 477 patients who were admitted to the delivery room between December 2015 and February 2016. Data on screening test results were collected based on medical records covering the period before the admission. RESULTS: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) screening was conducted in 410 (86%)...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392064/prenatal-exposure-to-perfluoroalkyl-acids-and-prevalence-of-infectious-diseases-up-to-4years-of-age
#7
Houman Goudarzi, Chihiro Miyashita, Emiko Okada, Ikuko Kashino, Chi-Jen Chen, Sachiko Ito, Atsuko Araki, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Hideyuki Matsuura, Reiko Kishi
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are synthetic chemicals with ability to repel oils and water, and have been widely used in many industrial and household applications such as adhesives and water- and stain-repellent surfaces to nonstick coatings. Animal studies have shown that PFAAs have immunotoxic effects. However, few epidemiological studies have investigated the effects of PFAAs on infectious diseases occurrence. We examined the relationship between prenatal exposure to PFAAs and prevalence of infectious diseases up to 4years of life...
April 6, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383378/emerging-infectious-diseases-in-pregnancy
#8
Richard H Beigi
It has been recognized for centuries that pregnant women have unique susceptibilities to many infectious diseases that predispose them to untoward outcomes compared with the general adult population. It is thought a combination of adaptive alterations in immunity to allow for the fetal allograft combined with changes in anatomy and physiology accompanying pregnancy underlie these susceptibilities. Emerging infectious diseases are defined as those whose incidence in humans has increased in the past two decades or threaten to increase in the near future...
May 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381688/epstein-barr-virus-associated-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-during-pregnancy
#9
Masahiro Ikeda, Rina Oba, Yumiko Yoshiki, Sumito Shingaki, Tomomi Takei, Kanji Miyazaki, Yu Abe, Nobuhiro Tsukada, Tadao Ishida, Kenshi Suzuki
An 11-week pregnant, 32-year-old Japanese woman who had recovered from infectious mononucleosis visited our center due to fever, anorexia, and bilateral hypochondrial pain. Blood tests revealed leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and elevated ferritin. She was diagnosed with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). A high viral load of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was recognized, indicating EBV-HLH. She was treated with a single dose of dexamethasone to protect the fetus. However, the disease was uncontrollable, necessitating etoposide and cyclosporine administration...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367735/severe-vivax-malaria-a-prospective-exploration-at-a-tertiary-healthcare-centre-in-southwestern-india
#10
Rishikesh Kumar, Kavitha Saravu
Plasmodium vivax is recognized to cause severe malaria and mortality. We aimed to determine the proportion of disease severity, the spectrum of complications, underlying non-infectious comorbidities and predictors of severity in monoinfection P. vivax malaria among adults at a tertiary healthcare centre in Southwestern India. A prospective cohort study was conducted among microscopically confirmed monoinfection P. vivax acute malaria patients aged, ≥18 years. Cases with pregnancy and concomitant febrile illnesses including mixed malaria were excluded...
April 3, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361961/exposure-to-paternal-tobacco-smoking-increased-child-hospitalization-for-lower-respiratory-infections-but-not-for-other-diseases-in-vietnam
#11
Reiko Miyahara, Kensuke Takahashi, Nguyen Thi Hien Anh, Vu Dinh Thiem, Motoi Suzuki, Hiroshi Yoshino, Le Huu Tho, Hiroyuki Moriuchi, Sharon E Cox, Lay Myint Yoshida, Dang Duc Anh, Koya Ariyoshi, Michio Yasunami
Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an important modifiable risk factor for child hospitalization, although its contribution is not well documented in countries where ETS due to maternal tobacco smoking is negligible. We conducted a birth cohort study of 1999 neonates between May 2009 and May 2010 in Nha Trang, Vietnam, to evaluate paternal tobacco smoking as a risk factor for infectious and non-infectious diseases. Hospitalizations during a 24-month observation period were identified using hospital records...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315889/patterns-of-growth-in-early-childhood-and-infectious-disease-and-nutritional-determinants
#12
Robert E Black
The physical growth of young children in low- and middle-income countries is reduced compared to international standards. The deviations in growth in both weight and height are greatest in the first 2 years of life and this has serious consequences for child mortality, development, adult stature, and health. The determinants of these patterns of growth faltering include intergenerational factors, such as maternal height, short birth interval, and conditions in pregnancy, including maternal underweight and anemia...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301842/early-life-nutritional-programming-of-health-and-disease-in-the-gambia
#13
Sophie E Moore
BACKGROUND: Exposures during early life are increasingly being recognised as factors that play an important role in the aetiology of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The "Developmental Origins of Health and Disease" (DOHaD) hypothesis asserts that adverse early-life exposures - most notably unbalanced nutrition - leads to an increased risk for a range of NCDs and that disease risk is highest when there is a "mismatch" between the early- and later-life environments. Thus, the DOHaD hypothesis would predict highest risk in settings undergoing a rapid nutrition transition...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272734/safety-and-benefits-of-antenatal-oral-iron-supplementation-in-low-income-countries-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Martin N Mwangi, Andrew M Prentice, Hans Verhoef
The World Health Organization recommends universal iron supplementation of 30-60 mg/day in pregnancy but coverage is low in most countries. Its efficacy is uncertain, however, and there has been a vigorous debate in the last decade about its safety, particularly in areas with a high burden of malaria and other infectious diseases. We reviewed the evidence on the safety and efficacy of antenatal iron supplementation in low-income countries. We found no evidence that daily supplementation at a dose of 60 mg leads to increased maternal Plasmodium infection risk...
March 8, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251544/-malaria-and-intestinal-parasitosis-in-pregnant-woman-at-abobo-district-abidjan-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#15
G Coulibaly, K P Yao, M Koffi, B A Ahouty, L K Louhourignon, M N'Cho, E K N'Goran
A prospective study was carried out from 2010 to 2012 at the Hôpital Général d'Abobo (HGA) in Abidjan, in order to determine the impact of infectious and parasitic diseases on child cognitive development. Blood samples were examined by means of thick drop and blood smear; as for stool by direct examination and concentration by formalin-ether method. We evaluated the prevalence, the parasite load of malaria and gastrointestinal parasites; then we investigated the risk factors for these disorders. Overall, 331 pregnant women in the last trimester of their pregnancy were enrolled...
March 1, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249811/crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-in-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-and-case-series-from-russia-kazakhstan-and-turkey
#16
Natalia Yurievna Pshenichnaya, Hakan Leblebicioglu, Ilkay Bozkurt, Irina Viktorovna Sannikova, Gulzhan Narkenovna Abuova, Andrey Sergeevich Zhuravlev, Sener Barut, Mutabar Bekovna Shermetova, Tom E Fletcher
BACKGROUND: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is acute viral infection and a major emerging infectious diseases threat, affecting a large geographical area. There is no proven antiviral therapy and it has a case fatality rate of 4-30%. The natural history of disease and outcomes of CCHF in pregnant women is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the characteristics of CCHF in pregnancy, and report a case series of 8 CCHF cases in pregnant women from Russia, Kazakhstan and Turkey...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249007/safety-evaluation-of-a-vaccine-effect-in-maternal-reproductive-outcome-and-fetal-anomaly-frequency-in-rats-using-a-leishmanial-vaccine-as-a-model
#17
Rafaianne Q Moraes-Souza, Ana Paula Reinaque, Thaigra S Soares, Ana Luiza T Silva, Rodolfo C Giunchetti, Maria A S Takano, Milena A Akamatsu, Flávia S Kubrusly, Fernanda Lúcio-Macarini, Isaias Raw, Dmitri Iourtov, Paulo Lee Ho, Lilian L Bueno, Ricardo T Fujiwara, Gustavo T Volpato
While the immunogenic potential of the vaccination against infectious diseases was extensively shown, data on the safety assessment of recombinant proteins in vaccine formulations administered during pregnancy are still scarce. In the current study, the antigenicity of a vaccine against leishmaniasis (based on Leishmania braziliensis recombinant protein peroxidoxin) during pregnancy and possible maternal reproductive outcomes and fetal anomalies after immunization with a leishmanial vaccine or adjuvant alone (Bordetella pertussis derived MPLA adjuvant) were assessed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244707/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-in-pregnant-women-during-preterm-labor
#18
Nalina Bhupornvivat, Vorapong Phupong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy complications hypothesized to be related to vitamin D include preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, low birth weight, preterm delivery, Cesarean section and infectious disease. There have been a few studies which have demonstrated maternal serum vitamin D to be associated with preterm labor. The objective was to evaluate the serum vitamin D concentrations in Thai pregnant women with and without preterm labor and to find the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in both groups...
March 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216442/a-seven-day-course-of-tmp-smx-may-be-as-effective-as-a-seven-day-course-of-ciprofloxacin-for-the-treatment-of-pyelonephritis
#19
Miriam T Fox, Michael T Melia, Rebecca G Same, Anna T Conley, Pranita D Tamma
BACKGROUND: The Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines recommend either 14 days of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) or 7 days of ciprofloxacin for the treatment of pyelonephritis. Antibiotic courses of 7 days of TMP-SMX vs 7 days of ciprofloxacin for pyelonephritis have not been previously compared. We evaluated the odds of a subsequent, symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) for women with Escherichia coli pyelonephritis receiving a 7-day course of TMP-SMX vs a 7-day course of ciprofloxacin...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215397/clinical-mimics-an-emergency-medicine-focused-review-of%C3%A2-influenza-mimics
#20
Erica Simon, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Given the wide range of symptoms, emergency physicians must maintain a broad differential diagnosis in the evaluation and treatment of patients presenting with influenza-like illnesses. OBJECTIVE: This review addresses objective and subjective symptoms commonly associated with influenza and discusses important mimics of influenza viruses, while offering a practical approach to their clinical evaluation and treatment...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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