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Infectious diseases in pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116316/characteristics-and-factors-associated-with-hospitalization-in-early-childhood-2004-pelotas-brazil-birth-cohort
#1
Vera Lucia Schmidt da Silva, Giovanny Vinícius Araújo de França, Iná S Santos, Fernando C Barros, Alícia Matijasevich
Hospitalization is a frequent event in early childhood. In Brazil, the National Household Sample Survey of 2008 showed a 9% hospitalization rate among children in the first four years of life. The study aimed to describe the characteristics of hospitalization in the first six years of life and analyze the early factors associated with hospitalization in a birth cohort in southern Brazil. A zero-inflated Poisson model was used to simultaneously examine the effects of co-variables for the occurrence of a given event and to count events...
November 6, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089129/effects-of-prenatal-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-exposure-on-childhood-allergies-and-infectious-diseases-the-hokkaido-study-on-environment-and-children-s-health
#2
Yu Ait Bamai, Chihiro Miyashita, Atsuko Araki, Tamie Nakajima, Seiko Sasaki, Reiko Kishi
Phthalates are widely used in consumer products, and experimental studies suggest that exposure to phthalates increase the risk of allergies. However, epidemiologic evidence on the associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and allergies/infectious diseases and cord blood immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between maternal mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) levels and cord blood IgE levels at birth (n=127), as well as the risk of allergies/infectious diseases in participants up to 7years of age; the participants were 1...
October 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081673/a-3-year-retrospective-review-of-mortality-in-women-of-reproductive-age-in-a-tertiary-health-facility-in-port-harcourt-nigeria
#3
Ngozi C Orazulike, Justina O Alegbeleye, Christopher C Obiorah, Tamunomie K Nyengidiki, Samuel A Uzoigwe
PURPOSE: To determine the causes of death and associated risk factors among women of reproductive age (WRA) in a tertiary institution in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective survey of all deaths in women aged 15-49 years at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital that occurred from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015. Data retrieved from ward registers, death registers, and death certificates were analyzed with Epi Info version 7...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072305/life-history-theory-hypotheses-on-child-growth-potential-implications-for-short-and-long-term-child-growth-development-and-health
#4
EDITORIAL
Rihlat Said-Mohamed, John M Pettifor, Shane A Norris
Life history theory integrates ecological, physiological, and molecular layers within an evolutionary framework to understand organisms' strategies to optimize survival and reproduction. Two life history hypotheses and their implications for child growth, development, and health (illustrated in the South African context) are reviewed here. One hypothesis suggests that there is an energy trade-off between linear growth and brain growth. Undernutrition in infancy and childhood may trigger adaptive physiological mechanisms prioritizing the brain at the expense of body growth...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055723/proteomics-and-metabolomics-characterizing-the-pathophysiology-of-adaptive-reactions-to-the-metabolic-challenges-during-the-transition-from-late-pregnancy-to-early-lactation-in-dairy-cows
#5
Fabrizio Ceciliani, Cristina Lecchi, Christiane Urh, Helga Sauerwein
The transition from late pregnancy to early lactation is a critical period in a dairy cow's life due to the rapidly increasing drain of nutrients from the maternal organism towards the foetus and into colostrum and milk. In order to cope with the challenges of parturition and lactation, comprehensive adaptive reactions comprising the endocrine and the immune system need to be accomplished. There is high variation in this coping ability and both metabolic and infectious diseases, summarized as "production diseases", such as hypocalcaemia (milk fever), fatty liver syndrome, laminitis and ketosis, may occur and impact welfare, productive lifespan and economic outcomes...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029270/does-active-oral-sex-contribute-to-female-infertility
#6
Patrik M Bavoil, Patricia X Marques, Rebecca Brotman, Jacques Ravel
Based on recent, historical, and circumstantial evidence, we present a multifactorial hypothesis that has potential direct implications on the epidemiology and management of chlamydial infection and disease in humans. We propose that (1) like its veterinary relatives, the oculogenital pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis evolved as a commensal organism of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract primarily transmissible via the fecal-oral route; (2) in the modern era, C. trachomatis causes "opportunistic" infection at non-GI sites under conditions driven by improved sanitation/hygiene and reduced fecal-oral transmission; and (3) the rise in the practice of oral sex is contributing to the increased prevalence of C...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026637/a-review-of-selected-arboviruses-during-pregnancy
#7
REVIEW
Penélope Saldanha Marinho, Antonio José Cunha, Joffre Amim Junior, Arnaldo Prata-Barbosa
Arboviruses are emerging infectious diseases with the ability to expand geographically and rapidly affect large populations. The recent epidemic caused by the Zika virus in the Americas and congenital Zika syndrome associated with maternal infection has called out attention to the importance of studying arboviruses during pregnancy. This is a review on selected arboviruses infections during gestation, including Zika, Chikungunya, Dengue and Yellow Fever viruses. Issues such as historical overview, pathogenesis, transmission, clinical conditions, diagnosis, treatment and prevention are addressed...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024971/early-predictors-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-the-life-course-of-women
#8
Nathalie Auger, Caroline Quach, Jessica Healy-Profitós, Trish Dinh, Michaël Chassé
Background: We sought to determine if immune disorders early in life were associated with the later risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder thought to be infection-related. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study with 16 108 819 person-years of follow-up for a population of 1 108 541 parous women in Quebec, Canada (1989-2014). The outcome was Guillain-Barré syndrome. We identified women with potential risk factors for future Guillain-Barré syndrome, including immune-mediated and rheumatological diseases, cancer, transfusion, surgical procedures and pregnancy-specific disorders...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022569/syphilis
#9
REVIEW
Rosanna W Peeling, David Mabey, Mary L Kamb, Xiang-Sheng Chen, Justin D Radolf, Adele S Benzaken
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum) causes syphilis via sexual exposure or via vertical transmission during pregnancy. T. pallidum is renowned for its invasiveness and immune-evasiveness; its clinical manifestations result from local inflammatory responses to replicating spirochaetes and often imitate those of other diseases. The spirochaete has a long latent period during which individuals have no signs or symptoms but can remain infectious. Despite the availability of simple diagnostic tests and the effectiveness of treatment with a single dose of long-acting penicillin, syphilis is re-emerging as a global public health problem, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income and middle-income countries...
October 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016317/malaria-is-more-prevalent-than-iron-deficiency-among-anemic-pregnant-women-at-the-first-antenatal-visit-in-rural-south-kivu
#10
Esto Bahizire, P Lundimu Tugirimana, Michèle Dramaix, Déogratias Zozo, Mugisho Bahati, Andrew Mwale, Sylvain Meuris, Philippe Donnen
Anemia is common during pregnancy and is associated with poor outcomes. Objectives were not only 1) to determine the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency (ID) but also 2) to identify other factors associated with anemia in pregnant women from South Kivu province, in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Between December 2013 and March 2014, 531 women attending the first antenatal visit in their second trimester of pregnancy were recruited. Sociodemographic, clinical, and biological data were collected...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922318/vaccination-during-pregnancy-first-line-of-defense-for-expecting-mothers-and-vulnerable-young-infants
#11
Casidhe-Nicole Bethancourt, Tiffany L Wang, Joseph A Bocchini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maternal vaccination is a well-tolerated and effective way to protect mothers, their developing fetuses, and their young infants from infectious diseases. Although influenza vaccine and diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine are recommended for all pregnant women, uptake rates in the United States remain low. This review will focus on the rationale, scientific evidence, and perceptions of vaccination during pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies show that administration of influenza and Tdap vaccines during pregnancy is well tolerated and provides protection to the pregnant woman, her fetus, and young infant...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901005/delivery-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#12
REVIEW
Agustín Ciapponi, Simon Lewin, Cristian A Herrera, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Elizabeth Paulsen, Gabriel Rada, Charles S Wiysonge, Gabriel Bastías, Lilian Dudley, Signe Flottorp, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Claire Glenton, Charles I Okwundu, Blanca Peñaloza, Fatima Suleman, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: Delivery arrangements include changes in who receives care and when, who provides care, the working conditions of those who provide care, coordination of care amongst different providers, where care is provided, the use of information and communication technology to deliver care, and quality and safety systems. How services are delivered can have impacts on the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of health systems. This broad overview of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers and other stakeholders identify strategies for addressing problems and improve the delivery of services...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891463/epidemiology-of-seasonal-influenza-infection-in-pregnant-women-and-its-impact-on-birth-outcomes
#13
A K Regan, H C Moore, S G Sullivan, N DE Klerk, P V Effler
Seasonal influenza can cause significant morbidity in pregnant women. Much of the existing epidemiological evidence on influenza during pregnancy has focused on the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. To measure the epidemiological characteristics of seasonal influenza infection among pregnant women and the impact on infant health, a cohort of 86 779 pregnancies during the influenza season (2012-2014) was established using probabilistic linkage of notifiable infectious disease, hospital admission, and birth information. A total of 192 laboratory-confirmed influenza infections were identified (2·2 per 1000 pregnancies), 14·6% of which were admitted to hospital...
October 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883971/vaccination-of-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-implications-for-protection-of-their-young-infants
#14
REVIEW
Ziyaad Dangor, Marta C Nunes, Gaurav Kwatra, Sanjay G Lala, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: The prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV has resulted in reduced burden of pediatric HIV-infection, but the prevalence of maternal HIV infection remains high in sub-Saharan African countries. HIV-exposed-uninfected infants have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases than HIV-unexposed infants, particularly during the first six months of life, which in part might be due to lower levels of pathogen-specific protective antibodies acquired transplacentally from their mothers...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877754/association-between-suspected-zika-virus-disease-during-pregnancy-and-giving-birth-to-a-newborn-with-congenital-microcephaly-a-matched-case-control-study
#15
Ticiane Henriques Santa Rita, Renata Barcelos Barra, Gisele Pasquali Peixoto, Pedro Goes Mesquita, Gustavo Barcelos Barra
OBJECTIVE: In early 2015, an outbreak of an acute exanthematous illness with dengue-like symptoms occurred in northeastern Brazil. By the end of the same year, an unexpected increase in the number of cases of microcephaly was observed in the region. The microcephaly outbreak cause was unknown and rumors pointing to various potential causes arose. Since we were unaware at the time if this scenario would attract the interest of the broader scientific community, due to the neglected regions associated and as often happens with many others health conditions related to infectious diseases in Latin America...
September 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852864/epidemiological-factors-related-to-hospitalization-due-to-influenza-in-children-below-6%C3%A2-months-of-age
#16
J Bustamante, I Calzado, T Sainz, C Calvo, T Del Rosal, A Méndez-Echevarría
The aim of this study was to address the epidemiological factors associated to hospital admissions due to influenza in infants younger than 6 months. A case-control study was performed in a tertiary hospital in Spain. Cases were infants under 6 months of age without comorbidities who were admitted due to influenza between October 2010 and March 2015. Controls were healthy infants younger than 6 months who were hospitalized due to non-respiratory illness or non-infectious diseases (urinary tract infection was included as controls)...
October 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835360/chlamydia-trachomatis-the-persistent-pathogen
#17
REVIEW
Steven S Witkin, Evelyn Minis, Aikaterini Athanasiou, Julie Leizer, Iara M Linhares
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium whose only natural host is humans. Although presenting as asymptomatic in most women, genital tract chlamydial infections are a leading cause of pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal factor infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. C. trachomatis has evolved successful mechanisms to avoid destruction by autophagy and the host immune system and persist within host epithelial cells. The intracellular form of this organism, the reticulate body, can enter into a persistent nonreplicative but viable state under unfavorable conditions...
October 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821219/early-congenital-syphilis-recognising-symptoms-of-an-increasingly-prevalent-disease
#18
Nupur U Patel, Elias Oussedik, Erin T Landis, Lindsay C Strowd
BACKGROUND: Congenital syphilis (CS) is an infectious disease resulting from transplacental transmission of Treponema pallidum spirochetes from an infected mother to fetus during pregnancy. While uncommon, CS has shown an increased incidence in Canada and the United States since 2001 and 2012, respectively. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 5-week-old female infant with blistering rash on the palms and soles. The infant displayed decreased movement of the left upper extremity, clinically consistent with Parrot pseudoparalysis...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812192/safety-of-vaccination-against-brucellosis-with-the-rough-strain-in-pregnant-cattle
#19
Adriana Agostini Barbosa, Ana Cristina Silva Figueiredo, Miller Pereira Palhao, Joao Henrique Moreira Viana, Carlos Antonio Carvalho Fernandes
Brucellosis is an infectious and contagious disease that profoundly impacts public health. However, in many countries, disease prevention is restricted to the vaccination of calves, and there is no prophylactic strategy for pregnant heifers and cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of the rough strain vaccine against brucellosis in pregnant cattle. Crossbred cows (N = 96) at three gestational periods (early, mid, or late pregnancy) were randomly allocated into the vaccine treatment group or to the control group...
August 15, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781105/adult-s-onset-still-disease-occurring-during-pregnancy-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Léo Plaçais, Arsène Mekinian, Marie Bornes, Armelle Poujol-Robert, Naiké Bigé, Eric Maury, Olivier Fain
INTRODUCTION: Adult onset Still's disease is a rare affection classified among non-hereditary autoinflammatory diseases. We here report a case of AOSD revealed during pregnancy with a life-threatening presentation along with a review of 19 cases from literature. CASE: A 38-years old woman was treated in our department for diffuse systemic sclerosis and associated Sjögren syndrome. She was pregnant and presented with acute fever and arthralgias. Laboratory data revealed mild liver cytolysis but a large screening for infectious and auto-immune diseases was negative and hepato-biliar imaging was normal...
July 10, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
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