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Infectious diseases in pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922318/vaccination-during-pregnancy-first-line-of-defense-for-expecting-mothers-and-vulnerable-young-infants
#1
Casidhe-Nicole Bethancourt, Tiffany L Wang, Joseph A Bocchini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maternal vaccination is a well-tolerated and effective way to protect mothers, their developing fetuses, and their young infants from infectious diseases. Although influenza vaccine and diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine are recommended for all pregnant women, uptake rates in the United States remain low. This review will focus on the rationale, scientific evidence, and perceptions of vaccination during pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies show that administration of influenza and Tdap vaccines during pregnancy is well tolerated and provides protection to the pregnant woman, her fetus, and young infant...
September 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901005/delivery-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#2
REVIEW
Agustín Ciapponi, Simon Lewin, Cristian A Herrera, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Elizabeth Paulsen, Gabriel Rada, Charles S Wiysonge, Gabriel Bastías, Lilian Dudley, Signe Flottorp, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Claire Glenton, Charles I Okwundu, Blanca Peñaloza, Fatima Suleman, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: Delivery arrangements include changes in who receives care and when, who provides care, the working conditions of those who provide care, coordination of care amongst different providers, where care is provided, the use of information and communication technology to deliver care, and quality and safety systems. How services are delivered can have impacts on the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of health systems. This broad overview of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers and other stakeholders identify strategies for addressing problems and improve the delivery of services...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891463/epidemiology-of-seasonal-influenza-infection-in-pregnant-women-and-its-impact-on-birth-outcomes
#3
A K Regan, H C Moore, S G Sullivan, N DE Klerk, P V Effler
Seasonal influenza can cause significant morbidity in pregnant women. Much of the existing epidemiological evidence on influenza during pregnancy has focused on the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. To measure the epidemiological characteristics of seasonal influenza infection among pregnant women and the impact on infant health, a cohort of 86 779 pregnancies during the influenza season (2012-2014) was established using probabilistic linkage of notifiable infectious disease, hospital admission, and birth information. A total of 192 laboratory-confirmed influenza infections were identified (2·2 per 1000 pregnancies), 14·6% of which were admitted to hospital...
September 11, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883971/vaccination-of-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-implications-for-protection-of-their-young-infants
#4
REVIEW
Ziyaad Dangor, Marta C Nunes, Gaurav Kwatra, Sanjay G Lala, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: The prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV has resulted in reduced burden of pediatric HIV-infection, but the prevalence of maternal HIV infection remains high in sub-Saharan African countries. HIV-exposed-uninfected infants have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases than HIV-unexposed infants, particularly during the first six months of life, which in part might be due to lower levels of pathogen-specific protective antibodies acquired transplacentally from their mothers...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877754/association-between-suspected-zika-virus-disease-during-pregnancy-and-giving-birth-to-a-newborn-with-congenital-microcephaly-a-matched-case-control-study
#5
Ticiane Henriques Santa Rita, Renata Barcelos Barra, Gisele Pasquali Peixoto, Pedro Goes Mesquita, Gustavo Barcelos Barra
OBJECTIVE: In early 2015, an outbreak of an acute exanthematous illness with dengue-like symptoms occurred in northeastern Brazil. By the end of the same year, an unexpected increase in the number of cases of microcephaly was observed in the region. The microcephaly outbreak cause was unknown and rumors pointing to various potential causes arose. Since we were unaware at the time if this scenario would attract the interest of the broader scientific community, due to the neglected regions associated and as often happens with many others health conditions related to infectious diseases in Latin America...
September 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852864/epidemiological-factors-related-to-hospitalization-due-to-influenza-in-children-below-6%C3%A2-months-of-age
#6
J Bustamante, I Calzado, T Sainz, C Calvo, T Del Rosal, A Méndez-Echevarría
The aim of this study was to address the epidemiological factors associated to hospital admissions due to influenza in infants younger than 6 months. A case-control study was performed in a tertiary hospital in Spain. Cases were infants under 6 months of age without comorbidities who were admitted due to influenza between October 2010 and March 2015. Controls were healthy infants younger than 6 months who were hospitalized due to non-respiratory illness or non-infectious diseases (urinary tract infection was included as controls)...
August 29, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835360/chlamydia-trachomatis-the-persistent-pathogen
#7
Steven S Witkin, Evelyn Minis, Aikaterini Athanasiou, Julie Leizer, Iara M Linhares
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium whose only natural host is man. Although asymptomatic in most women, genital tract chlamydial infections are a leading cause of pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal factor infertility and ectopic pregnancy. C. trachomatis has evolved successful mechanisms to avoid destruction by autophagy and the host immune system and persist within host epithelial cells. The intracellular form of this organism, the reticulate body, can enter into a persistent non-replicative but viable state under unfavorable conditions...
August 23, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821219/early-congenital-syphilis-recognising-symptoms-of-an-increasingly-prevalent-disease
#8
Nupur U Patel, Elias Oussedik, Erin T Landis, Lindsay C Strowd
BACKGROUND: Congenital syphilis (CS) is an infectious disease resulting from transplacental transmission of Treponema pallidum spirochetes from an infected mother to fetus during pregnancy. While uncommon, CS has shown an increased incidence in Canada and the United States since 2001 and 2012, respectively. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 5-week-old female infant with blistering rash on the palms and soles. The infant displayed decreased movement of the left upper extremity, clinically consistent with Parrot pseudoparalysis...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812192/safety-of-vaccination-against-brucellosis-with-the-rough-strain-in-pregnant-cattle
#9
Adriana Agostini Barbosa, Ana Cristina Silva Figueiredo, Miller Pereira Palhao, Joao Henrique Moreira Viana, Carlos Antonio Carvalho Fernandes
Brucellosis is an infectious and contagious disease that profoundly impacts public health. However, in many countries, disease prevention is restricted to the vaccination of calves, and there is no prophylactic strategy for pregnant heifers and cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of the rough strain vaccine against brucellosis in pregnant cattle. Crossbred cows (N = 96) at three gestational periods (early, mid, or late pregnancy) were randomly allocated into the vaccine treatment group or to the control group...
August 15, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781105/adult-s-onset-still-disease-occurring-during-pregnancy-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Léo Plaçais, Arsène Mekinian, Marie Bornes, Armelle Poujol-Robert, Naiké Bigé, Eric Maury, Olivier Fain
INTRODUCTION: Adult onset Still's disease is a rare affection classified among non-hereditary autoinflammatory diseases. We here report a case of AOSD revealed during pregnancy with a life-threatening presentation along with a review of 19 cases from literature. CASE: A 38-years old woman was treated in our department for diffuse systemic sclerosis and associated Sjögren syndrome. She was pregnant and presented with acute fever and arthralgias. Laboratory data revealed mild liver cytolysis but a large screening for infectious and auto-immune diseases was negative and hepato-biliar imaging was normal...
July 10, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780089/short-communication-prevalence-of-digital-dermatitis-in-canadian-dairy-cattle-classified-as-high-average-or-low-antibody-and-cell-mediated-immune-responders
#11
S L Cartwright, F Malchiodi, K Thompson-Crispi, F Miglior, B A Mallard
Lameness is a major animal welfare issue affecting Canadian dairy producers, and it can lead to production, reproduction, and health problems in dairy cattle herds. Although several different lesions affect dairy cattle hooves, studies show that digital dermatitis is the most common lesion identified in Canadian dairy herds. It has also been shown that dairy cattle classified as having high immune response (IR) have lower incidence of disease compared with those animals with average and low IR; therefore, it has been hypothesized that IR plays a role in preventing infectious hoof lesions...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763018/maternal-immunization-new-perspectives-on-its-application-against-non-infectious-related-diseases-in-newborns
#12
REVIEW
Federica Riccardo, Aline Réal, Claudia Voena, Roberto Chiarle, Federica Cavallo, Giuseppina Barutello
The continuous evolution in preventive medicine has anointed vaccination a versatile, human-health improving tool, which has led to a steady decline in deaths in the developing world. Maternal immunization represents an incisive step forward for the field of vaccination as it provides protection against various life-threatening diseases in pregnant women and their children. A number of studies to improve prevention rates and expand protection against the largest possible number of infections are still in progress...
August 1, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755388/kir-on-the-cusp%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-modern-immunogenetics
#13
REVIEW
Francesco Colucci, James Traherne
Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) and their Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) ligands play a central role in immunity and human health. These molecules are encoded by gene families with copy number variation, extreme levels of sequence diversity and complex expression patterns. The rapid evolution of KIR and HLA genes and their associations with infectious diseases, pregnancy disorders, immunopathologies and outcome of cell transplantation has generated considerable interest from immunologists, geneticists and clinicians...
July 29, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750427/environmental-risk-factors-for-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-development
#14
Boljat Antonela, Gunjača Ivana, Konstantinović Ivan, Vidan Nikolina, Boraska Perica Vesna, Pehlić Marina, Škrabić Veselin, Zemunik Tatijana
Background Although environmental factors induce development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in genetically susceptible individuals, many of those factors have been uncovered. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze associations of T1DM with a wide range of environmental factors. Material and Methods A case-control study was conducted on 249 diabetic and 255 healthy individuals from the Dalmatian region of South Croatia. Data regarding risk factors during pregnancy and early life period of the child were evaluated...
September 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740268/the-association-between-periodontal-disease-and-preterm-low-birthweight-in-kosovo
#15
Kastriot Meqa, Fatmir Dragidella, Metush Disha, Zana Sllamniku-Dalipi
OBJECTIVE: Periodontal diseases have a high prevalence worldwide. Existing evidence support the concept that gingivitis and periodontitis are potentially infectious and they present inflammatory reservoirs that can be threatening to the fetoplacental unit. The objective of this study was to compare the periodontal status between women with normal delivery and those with preterm low-birthweight delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 200 postpartum women whose periodontal and obstetrical parameters were taken...
March 2017: Acta Stomatologica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729112/no-208-guidelines-for-the-management-of-herpes-simplex-virus-in-pregnancy
#16
Deborah M Money, Marc Steben
OBJECTIVE: To provide recommendations for the management of genital herpes infection in women who want to get pregnant or are pregnant and for the management of genital herpes in pregnancy and strategies to prevent transmission to the infant. OUTCOMES: More effective management of complications of genital herpes in pregnancy and prevention of transmission of genital herpes from mother to infant. EVIDENCE: Medline was searched for articles published in French or English related to genital herpes and pregnancy...
August 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729110/no-211-screening-and-management-of-bacterial-vaginosis-in-pregnancy
#17
Mark H Yudin, Deborah M Money
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence and provide recommendations on screening for and management of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. OPTIONS: The clinical practice options considered in formulating the guideline. OUTCOMES: Outcomes evaluated include antibiotic treatment efficacy and cure rates, and the influence of the treatment of bacterial vaginosis on the rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm labour and delivery and preterm premature rupture of membranes...
August 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721347/peliosis-hepatis-complicating-pregnancy-a-rare-entity
#18
Muhammad Osama Butt, Nasir Hassan Luck, Syed Mujahid Hassan, Zaigham Abbas, Muhammed Mubarak
Peliosis hepatis (PH) is a rare, benign condition of the liver characterized by the presence of blood-filled lacunar spaces in the parenchyma. It usually has a chronic presentation and is a rare cause of portal hypertension reported in adult patients. Its etiology is diverse and ranges from infectious agents to tumors to toxic substances and anabolic steroids; however, the cause remains unclear in 25-50% of patients. Similarly, the symptomatology and imaging findings are diverse. Biopsy is the definitive test to diagnose the condition...
June 2017: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716074/evaluation-of-record-linkage-of-two-large-administrative-databases-in-a-middle-income-country-stillbirths-and-notifications-of-dengue-during-pregnancy-in-brazil
#19
Enny S Paixão, Katie Harron, Kleydson Andrade, Maria Glória Teixeira, Rosemeire L Fiaccone, Maria da Conceição N Costa, Laura C Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Due to the increasing availability of individual-level information across different electronic datasets, record linkage has become an efficient and important research tool. High quality linkage is essential for producing robust results. The objective of this study was to describe the process of preparing and linking national Brazilian datasets, and to compare the accuracy of different linkage methods for assessing the risk of stillbirth due to dengue in pregnancy. METHODS: We linked mothers and stillbirths in two routinely collected datasets from Brazil for 2009-2010: for dengue in pregnancy, notifications of infectious diseases (SINAN); for stillbirths, mortality (SIM)...
July 17, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715931/understanding-and-acting-on-the-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-in-africa-would-improve-health-across-generations
#20
Shane A Norris, Abdallah Daar, Dorairajan Balasubramanian, Peter Byass, Elizabeth Kimani-Murage, Andrew Macnab, Christoff Pauw, Atul Singhal, Chittaranjan Yajnik, James Akazili, Naomi Levitt, Jihene Maatoug, Nolwazi Mkhwanazi, Sophie E Moore, Moffat Nyirenda, Juliet R C Pulliam, Tamsen Rochat, Rihlat Said-Mohamed, Soraya Seedat, Eugene Sobngwi, Mark Tomlinson, Elona Toska, Cari van Schalkwyk
Data from many high- and low- or middle-income countries have linked exposures during key developmental periods (in particular pregnancy and infancy) to later health and disease. Africa faces substantial challenges with persisting infectious disease and now burgeoning non-communicable disease.This paper opens the debate to the value of strengthening the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) research focus in Africa to tackle critical public health challenges across the life-course. We argue that the application of DOHaD science in Africa to advance life-course prevention programmes can aid the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, and assist in improving health across generations...
2017: Global Health Action
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