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Infectious diseases in pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196555/dohad-at-the-intersection-of-maternal-immune-activation-and-maternal-metabolic-stress-a-scoping-review
#1
J A Goldstein, S A Norris, D M Aronoff
The prenatal environment is now recognized as a key driver of non-communicable disease risk later in life. Within the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) paradigm, studies are increasingly identifying links between maternal morbidity during pregnancy and disease later in life for offspring. Nutrient restriction, metabolic disorders during gestation, such as diabetes or obesity, and maternal immune activation provoked by infection have been linked to adverse health outcomes for offspring later in life...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168206/passive-immunoprophylaxis-for-the-protection-of-the-mother-and-her-baby-insights-from-in-vivo-models-of-antibody-transport
#2
Yanqun Xu, Iftekhar Mahmood, Lilin Zhong, Pei Zhang, Evi B Struble
Pregnant women are at high risk for infection by pathogens. Vertical transmission of infectious agents, such as Zika, hepatitis B, and cytomegalovirus during pregnancy, remains a public health problem, associated with dire outcomes for the neonate. Thus, a safe prophylactic and therapeutic approach for protecting the mother and the neonate from infections remains a high priority. Our work is focused on better understanding the safety and efficacy determinants of IgG antibody preparations when used during pregnancy to benefit the mother and her baby...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166246/soluble-human-leukocyte-antigen-g-during-pregnancy-and-infancy-in-benin-mother-child-resemblance-and-association-with-the-risk-of-malaria-infection-and-low-birth-weight
#3
Tania C d'Almeida, Ibrahim Sadissou, Jacqueline Milet, Gilles Cottrell, Amandine Mondière, Euripide Avokpaho, Laure Gineau, Audrey Sabbagh, Achille Massougbodji, Kabirou Moutairou, Eduardo A Donadi, Benoit Favier, Edgardo Carosella, Philippe Moreau, Nathalie Rouas-Freiss, David Courtin, André Garcia
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) G is a tolerogenic molecule involved in the maternal-fetal immune tolerance phenomenon. Its expression during some infectious diseases leading to immune evasion has been established. A first study conducted in Benin has shown that the production of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) during the first months of life is strongly correlated with the maternal level at delivery and associated with low birth weight and malaria. However sHLA-G measurements during pregnancy were not available for mothers and furthermore, to date the evolution of sHLA-G in pregnancy is not documented in African populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162192/-the-454th-case-a-29-week-pregnant-woman-with-abdominal-pain-hyperlipemia-and-multiorgan-dysfunction
#4
D Wu, J Xu, J M Peng, L K Ma, S Chen, X G Li, T P Zhang, J M Qian
A 32 year-old woman in the third trimester of pregnancy was admitted for severe acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia. During hospitalization she developed multiorgan dysfunction, infected pancreatic necrosis, abdominal compartment syndrome and intrauterine fetal death. She was successfully treated by multidisciplinary team including department of emergency medicine, ICU, gastroenterology, obstetrics, endocrinology, ultrasonography, radiology, infectious disease, nutrition and surgery.
February 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146163/adherence-to-the-follow-up-of-the-newborn-exposed-to-syphilis-and-factors-associated-with-loss-to-follow-up
#5
Marjorie Cristiane Feliz, Adeli Regina Prizybicien, Andrea Maciel Rossoni, Tony Tahnus, Adriane Miro Vianna Benke Pereira, Cristina Rodrigues
Introduction: All newborns exposed to syphilis in pregnancy must have outpatient follow-up. The interruption of this follow-up especially threatens those children who were not treated at birth. Objective: To describe the clinical, epidemiological, and sociodemographic characteristics of pregnant women with syphilis and their newborns, and to investigate the factors associated with the discontinuation of the follow-up. Methods: This is an observational, descriptive, analytical, and retrospective study of medical records of 254 children exposed to syphilis, who were assisted at the Congenital Infectious Clinic of the university hospital of the Universidade Federal do Paraná, between 2000 and 2010...
October 2016: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130012/prepregnancy-dietary-patterns-are-associated-with-blood-lipid-level-changes-during-pregnancy-a-prospective-cohort-study-inrio-de-janeiro-brazil
#6
Ilana Eshriqui, Ana Beatriz Franco-Sena, Dayana Rodrigues Farias, Ana Amélia Freitas-Vilela, Diana Barbosa Cunha, Erica Guimarães Barros, Pauline M Emmett, Gilberto Kac
BACKGROUND: Physiologic adaptations lead to an increase in blood lipid levels during pregnancy, yet little is known about the influence of prepregnancy dietary patterns. AIM: To identify whether prepregnancy dietary patterns that explain the consumption of fiber, energy, and saturated fat are associated with blood lipid levels throughout pregnancy. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study, with data collection at gestational weeks 5 to 13, 20 to 26, and 30 to 36...
January 24, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116589/identifying-health-experiences-of-domestically-sex-trafficked-women-in-the-usa-a-qualitative-study-in-rikers-island-jail
#7
Anita Ravi, Megan Rose Pfeiffer, Zachary Rosner, Judy A Shea
While sex trafficking in the USA is a significant medical and public health issue, there is sparse data on the healthcare needs of and access for this population. This study was designed to identify experiences of domestically sex-trafficked women regarding healthcare access, reproductive health, and infectious diseases while trafficked. Trafficking survivors incarcerated in New York City's Rikers Island women's jail participated in audio-recorded interviews between July and September 2015. Recordings were transcribed, and a content analysis was completed to identify health-related themes...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109589/effects-of-precalving-body-condition-and-prepartum-feeding-level-on-gene-expression-in-circulating-neutrophils
#8
M A Crookenden, C G Walker, A Heiser, A Murray, V S R Dukkipati, J K Kay, S Meier, K M Moyes, M D Mitchell, J J Loor, J R Roche
Extensive metabolic, physiological, and immunological changes are associated with calving and the onset of lactation. As a result, cows transitioning between pregnancy and lactation are at a greater risk of metabolic and infectious diseases. The ability of neutrophils to mount an effective immune response to an infection is critical for its resolution, and increasing evidence indicates that precalving nutrition affects postpartum neutrophil function. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the effect of 2 precalving body condition scores (BCS; 4 vs...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103920/ovarian-cycling-and-reproductive-state-shape-the-vaginal-microbiota-in-wild-baboons
#9
Elizabeth A Miller, Joshua A Livermore, Susan C Alberts, Jenny Tung, Elizabeth A Archie
BACKGROUND: The vaginal microbiome is an important site of bacterial-mammalian symbiosis. This symbiosis is currently best characterized for humans, where lactobacilli dominate the microbial community and may help defend women against infectious disease. However, lactobacilli do not dominate the vaginal microbiota of any other mammal studied to date, raising key questions about the forces that shape the vaginal microbiome in non-human mammals. RESULTS: We used Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to investigate variation in the taxonomic composition of the vaginal microbiota in 48 baboons (Papio cynocephalus), members of a well-studied wild population in Kenya...
January 19, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013100/the-impact-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-on-obstetric-conditions-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Hannah M Sebitloane, Dhayendre Moodley
HIV is the leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in resource constrained countries. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) initiated in pregnancy has now almost eliminated mother to child transmission of the virus, and is beginning to show the desired effect of reducing HIV related maternal mortality. By modulating host immunological responses HAART has the potential to alter infections during pregnancy, in addition to modifying clinical conditions such as preeclampsia. There is increasing evidence of the benefits of HAART given to pregnant women, however there is paucity of data that distinguishes HIV or HAART as the cause or exacerbation of pre-existing medical conditions or conditions specific to pregnancy...
December 9, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011960/visceral-leishmaniasis-in-immunocompromised-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-approach-and-evaluation-of-the-recently-released-idsa-guidelines
#11
Pasquale Pagliano, Tiziana Ascione, Giusy Di Flumeri, Giovanni Boccia, Francesco De Caro
Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic infectious disease endemic in tropical and sub-tropical areas including the Mediterranean basin, caused by a group of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Typically, VL is classified as a zoonotic infection when Leishmania infantum is the causative agent and as an anthroponotic one when L. donovani is the causative agent. Immunocompromised patients, in particular HIV positive, are considered at risk of VL. They may present atypical signs and poor response to the treatment due to a compromission of T-helper and regulatory cells activity...
1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009318/indicators-of-phagocytic-component-and-secretory-iga-in-children-with-bronchial-asthma-secondary-to-undifferentiated-connective-tissue-dysplasia
#12
V Semianchuk, L Haridzhuk, O Bobrykovych
Its aim is to improve the diagnostics and treatment of Bronchial Asthma. There were examined 93 children with bronchial asthma at the age of 6-10 years. All patients were diagnosed with partially controlled or uncontrolled clinical course of bronchial asthma and manifestations of undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia. The control group included 21 practically healthy children of the same age. The diagnosis of bronchial asthma was made, and the clinical course was determined in accordance with the criteria approved by the Order of Ministry of Health of Ukraine of October 08, 2013 No 868 "Unified clinical protocol of primary, secondary (specialized) medical care "Bronchial Asthma in Children" and GINA criteria (updated in 2015)...
November 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990321/travel-volume-to-the-united-states-from-countries-and-u-s-territories-with-local-zika-virus-transmission
#13
Bradley Nelson, Stephanie Morrison, Heather Joseph, Abbey Wojno, R Ryan Lash, Yoni Haber, Andre Berro, Martin Cetron, Ardath Grills
INTRODUCTION: Air, land, and sea transportation can facilitate rapid spread of infectious diseases. In May 2015 the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed Zika virus infection in Brazil. As of March 8, 2016, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had issued travel notices for 33 countries and 3 U.S. territories with local Zika virus transmission. METHODS: Using data from five separate datasets from 2014 and 2015, we estimated the annual number of passenger journeys by air and land border crossings to the United States from the 33 countries and 3 U...
May 31, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968954/childhood-leukemia-and-primary-prevention
#14
Todd P Whitehead, Catherine Metayer, Joseph L Wiemels, Amanda W Singer, Mark D Miller
Leukemia is the most common pediatric cancer, affecting 3800 children per year in the United States. Its annual incidence has increased over the last decades, especially among Latinos. Although most children diagnosed with leukemia are now cured, many suffer long-term complications, and primary prevention efforts are urgently needed. The early onset of leukemia-usually before 5 years of age-and the presence at birth of "pre-leukemic" genetic signatures indicate that pre- and postnatal events are critical to the development of the disease...
October 2016: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965958/a-dormant-microbial-component-in-the-development-of-preeclampsia
#15
REVIEW
Douglas B Kell, Louise C Kenny
Preeclampsia (PE) is a complex, multisystem disorder that remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnancy. Four main classes of dysregulation accompany PE and are widely considered to contribute to its severity. These are abnormal trophoblast invasion of the placenta, anti-angiogenic responses, oxidative stress, and inflammation. What is lacking, however, is an explanation of how these themselves are caused. We here develop the unifying idea, and the considerable evidence for it, that the originating cause of PE (and of the four classes of dysregulation) is, in fact, microbial infection, that most such microbes are dormant and hence resist detection by conventional (replication-dependent) microbiology, and that by occasional resuscitation and growth it is they that are responsible for all the observable sequelae, including the continuing, chronic inflammation...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959327/the-evolution-of-sex-specific-virulence-in-infectious-diseases
#16
Francisco Úbeda, Vincent A A Jansen
Fatality rates of infectious diseases are often higher in men than women. Although this difference is often attributed to a stronger immune response in women, we show that differences in the transmission routes that the sexes provide can result in evolution favouring pathogens with sex-specific virulence. Because women can transmit pathogens during pregnancy, birth or breast-feeding, pathogens adapt, evolving lower virulence in women. This can resolve the long-standing puzzle on progression from Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) infection to lethal Adult T-cell Leukaemia (ATL); a progression that is more likely in Japanese men than women, while it is equally likely in Caribbean women and men...
December 13, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938369/achieving-development-goals-for-hiv-tuberculosis-and-malaria-in-sub-saharan-africa-through-integrated-antenatal-care-barriers-and-challenges
#17
EDITORIAL
Freya J I Fowkes, Bridget L Draper, Margaret Hellard, Mark Stoové
BACKGROUND: The global health community is currently transitioning from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Unfortunately, progress towards maternal, newborn and infant health MDGs has lagged significantly behind other key health goals, demanding a renewed global effort in this key health area. The World Health Organization and other institutions heralded integrated antenatal care (ANC) as the best way to address the inter-related health issues of HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria in the high risk groups of pregnant women and infants; integrated ANC services also offer a mechanism to address slow progress towards improved maternal health...
December 12, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931054/-tb-screening-of-pregnant-women-in-accordance-with-the-german-protection-against-infection-act
#18
(no author information available yet)
Pregnant women should be tested with immune tests for tuberculosis when they undergo TB screening according to the German Infectious Diseases Protection Act. Interferon Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) should be the priority tests used for pregnant refugees and asylum seekers, especially when migrating from high incidence countries (> 20 cases/100.000 population according to the ECDC) or when they fled from crisis regions; positive tuberculin skin tests should be veryfied with IGRA. Once immunological tests are suggesting a latent tuberculosis infection it should be considered that pregnant women have an increased risk of developing active tuberculosis with potential health threats for the unborn child...
December 2016: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929742/why-when-and-for-what-diseases-pregnant-and-new-mothers-should-be-vaccinated
#19
Giovanni Gabutti, Giorgio Conforti, Alberto Tomasi, Parvanè Kuhdari, Paolo Castiglia, Rosa Prato, Silvia Memmini, Chiara Azzari, Giovanni Vitali Rosati, Paolo Bonanni
Immunological and serological changes that occur during pregnancy can alter the susceptibility of both the mother and the fetus against various infectious diseases. The pregnant woman has an altered immune response and, for some pathologies, is at increased risk of infection and of developing complications and serious outcomes. In addition, maternal infections can result in congenital anomalies, malformations or severe neonatal diseases. Vaccination of pregnant women can therefore have a double goal: to protect the mother from diseases that could have an impact on her health and to avoid infection/disease transmission to the fetus or the newborn...
December 8, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908227/improved-infant-hemoglobin-hb-and-blood-glucose-concentrations-the-beneficial-effect-of-maternal-vitamin-a-supplementation-of-malaria-infected-mothers-in-ebonyi-state-nigeria
#20
Michael O Elom, Joseph E Eyo, Fabian C Okafor, Amos Nworie, Victor U Usanga, Gerald N Attamah, Chibueze C Igwe
One hundred and fifty-two malaria-infected pregnant women whose pregnancies had advanced to the 6th month were randomised into two study groups - supplemented and placebo groups, after obtaining their approved consents. Ten thousand international units of vitamin A soft gels were administered to the supplemented group three times per week. Vitamin A soft gels devoid of their active ingredients were administered thrice weekly to the placebo group. Two hundred thousand international units of vitamin A was administered to the supplemented groups within 8 weeks postpartum...
February 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
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