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Infectious diseases in pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315889/patterns-of-growth-in-early-childhood-and-infectious-disease-and-nutritional-determinants
#1
Robert E Black
The physical growth of young children in low- and middle-income countries is reduced compared to international standards. The deviations in growth in both weight and height are greatest in the first 2 years of life and this has serious consequences for child mortality, development, adult stature, and health. The determinants of these patterns of growth faltering include intergenerational factors, such as maternal height, short birth interval, and conditions in pregnancy, including maternal underweight and anemia...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301842/early-life-nutritional-programming-of-health-and-disease-in-the-gambia
#2
Sophie E Moore
BACKGROUND: Exposures during early life are increasingly being recognised as factors that play an important role in the aetiology of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The "Developmental Origins of Health and Disease" (DOHaD) hypothesis asserts that adverse early-life exposures - most notably unbalanced nutrition - leads to an increased risk for a range of NCDs and that disease risk is highest when there is a "mismatch" between the early- and later-life environments. Thus, the DOHaD hypothesis would predict highest risk in settings undergoing a rapid nutrition transition...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272734/safety-and-benefits-of-antenatal-oral-iron-supplementation-in-low-income-countries-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Martin N Mwangi, Andrew M Prentice, Hans Verhoef
The World Health Organization recommends universal iron supplementation of 30-60 mg/day in pregnancy but coverage is low in most countries. Its efficacy is uncertain, however, and there has been a vigorous debate in the last decade about its safety, particularly in areas with a high burden of malaria and other infectious diseases. We reviewed the evidence on the safety and efficacy of antenatal iron supplementation in low-income countries. We found no evidence that daily supplementation at a dose of 60 mg leads to increased maternal Plasmodium infection risk...
March 8, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251544/-malaria-and-intestinal-parasitosis-in-pregnant-woman-at-abobo-district-abidjan-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#4
G Coulibaly, K P Yao, M Koffi, B A Ahouty, L K Louhourignon, M N'Cho, E K N'Goran
A prospective study was carried out from 2010 to 2012 at the Hôpital Général d'Abobo (HGA) in Abidjan, in order to determine the impact of infectious and parasitic diseases on child cognitive development. Blood samples were examined by means of thick drop and blood smear; as for stool by direct examination and concentration by formalin-ether method. We evaluated the prevalence, the parasite load of malaria and gastrointestinal parasites; then we investigated the risk factors for these disorders. Overall, 331 pregnant women in the last trimester of their pregnancy were enrolled...
March 1, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249811/crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-in-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-and-case-series-from-russia-kazakhstan-and-turkey
#5
Natalia Yurievna Pshenichnaya, Hakan Leblebicioglu, Ilkay Bozkurt, Irina Viktorovna Sannikova, Gulzhan Narkenovna Abuova, Andrey Sergeevich Zhuravlev, Sener Barut, Mutabar Bekovna Shermetova, Tom E Fletcher
BACKGROUND: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is acute viral infection and a major emerging infectious diseases threat, affecting a large geographical area. There is no proven antiviral therapy and it has a case fatality rate of 4-30%. The natural history of disease and outcomes of CCHF in pregnant women is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the characteristics of CCHF in pregnancy, and report a case series of 8 CCHF cases in pregnant women from Russia, Kazakhstan and Turkey...
February 26, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249007/safety-evaluation-of-a-vaccine-effect-in-maternal-reproductive-outcome-and-fetal-anomaly-frequency-in-rats-using-a-leishmanial-vaccine-as-a-model
#6
Rafaianne Q Moraes-Souza, Ana Paula Reinaque, Thaigra S Soares, Ana Luiza T Silva, Rodolfo C Giunchetti, Maria A S Takano, Milena A Akamatsu, Flávia S Kubrusly, Fernanda Lúcio-Macarini, Isaias Raw, Dmitri Iourtov, Paulo Lee Ho, Lilian L Bueno, Ricardo T Fujiwara, Gustavo T Volpato
While the immunogenic potential of the vaccination against infectious diseases was extensively shown, data on the safety assessment of recombinant proteins in vaccine formulations administered during pregnancy are still scarce. In the current study, the antigenicity of a vaccine against leishmaniasis (based on Leishmania braziliensis recombinant protein peroxidoxin) during pregnancy and possible maternal reproductive outcomes and fetal anomalies after immunization with a leishmanial vaccine or adjuvant alone (Bordetella pertussis derived MPLA adjuvant) were assessed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244707/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-in-pregnant-women-during-preterm-labor
#7
Nalina Bhupornvivat, Vorapong Phupong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy complications hypothesized to be related to vitamin D include preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, low birth weight, preterm delivery, Cesarean section and infectious disease. There have been a few studies which have demonstrated maternal serum vitamin D to be associated with preterm labor. The objective was to evaluate the serum vitamin D concentrations in Thai pregnant women with and without preterm labor and to find the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in both groups...
March 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216442/a-seven-day-course-of-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-may-be-as-effective-as-a-seven-day-course-of-ciprofloxacin-for-the-treatment-of-pyelonephritis
#8
Miriam T Fox, Michael T Melia, Rebecca G Same, Anna T Conley, Pranita D Tamma
INTRODUCTION: The Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines recommend either 14 days of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) or 7 days of ciprofloxacin for the treatment of pyelonephritis. Antibiotic courses of 7 days of TMP-SMX versus 7 days of ciprofloxacin for pyelonephritis have not been previously compared. We evaluated the odds of a subsequent, symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) for women with E. coli pyelonephritis receiving a 7-day course of TMP-SMX versus a 7-day course of ciprofloxacin...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215397/clinical-mimics-an-emergency-medicine-focused-review-of%C3%A2-influenza-mimics
#9
Erica Simon, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Given the wide range of symptoms, emergency physicians must maintain a broad differential diagnosis in the evaluation and treatment of patients presenting with influenza-like illnesses. OBJECTIVE: This review addresses objective and subjective symptoms commonly associated with influenza and discusses important mimics of influenza viruses, while offering a practical approach to their clinical evaluation and treatment...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196555/dohad-at-the-intersection-of-maternal-immune-activation-and-maternal-metabolic-stress-a-scoping-review
#10
J A Goldstein, S A Norris, D M Aronoff
The prenatal environment is now recognized as a key driver of non-communicable disease risk later in life. Within the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) paradigm, studies are increasingly identifying links between maternal morbidity during pregnancy and disease later in life for offspring. Nutrient restriction, metabolic disorders during gestation, such as diabetes or obesity, and maternal immune activation provoked by infection have been linked to adverse health outcomes for offspring later in life...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168206/passive-immunoprophylaxis-for-the-protection-of-the-mother-and-her-baby-insights-from-in-vivo-models-of-antibody-transport
#11
Yanqun Xu, Iftekhar Mahmood, Lilin Zhong, Pei Zhang, Evi B Struble
Pregnant women are at high risk for infection by pathogens. Vertical transmission of infectious agents, such as Zika, hepatitis B, and cytomegalovirus during pregnancy, remains a public health problem, associated with dire outcomes for the neonate. Thus, a safe prophylactic and therapeutic approach for protecting the mother and the neonate from infections remains a high priority. Our work is focused on better understanding the safety and efficacy determinants of IgG antibody preparations when used during pregnancy to benefit the mother and her baby...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166246/soluble-human-leukocyte-antigen-g-during-pregnancy-and-infancy-in-benin-mother-child-resemblance-and-association-with-the-risk-of-malaria-infection-and-low-birth-weight
#12
Tania C d'Almeida, Ibrahim Sadissou, Jacqueline Milet, Gilles Cottrell, Amandine Mondière, Euripide Avokpaho, Laure Gineau, Audrey Sabbagh, Achille Massougbodji, Kabirou Moutairou, Eduardo A Donadi, Benoit Favier, Edgardo Carosella, Philippe Moreau, Nathalie Rouas-Freiss, David Courtin, André Garcia
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) G is a tolerogenic molecule involved in the maternal-fetal immune tolerance phenomenon. Its expression during some infectious diseases leading to immune evasion has been established. A first study conducted in Benin has shown that the production of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) during the first months of life is strongly correlated with the maternal level at delivery and associated with low birth weight and malaria. However sHLA-G measurements during pregnancy were not available for mothers and furthermore, to date the evolution of sHLA-G in pregnancy is not documented in African populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162192/-the-454th-case-a-29-week-pregnant-woman-with-abdominal-pain-hyperlipemia-and-multiorgan-dysfunction
#13
D Wu, J Xu, J M Peng, L K Ma, S Chen, X G Li, T P Zhang, J M Qian
A 32 year-old woman in the third trimester of pregnancy was admitted for severe acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia. During hospitalization she developed multiorgan dysfunction, infected pancreatic necrosis, abdominal compartment syndrome and intrauterine fetal death. She was successfully treated by multidisciplinary team including department of emergency medicine, ICU, gastroenterology, obstetrics, endocrinology, ultrasonography, radiology, infectious disease, nutrition and surgery.
February 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146163/adherence-to-the-follow-up-of-the-newborn-exposed-to-syphilis-and-factors-associated-with-loss-to-follow-up
#14
Marjorie Cristiane Feliz, Adeli Regina Prizybicien, Andrea Maciel Rossoni, Tony Tahnus, Adriane Miro Vianna Benke Pereira, Cristina Rodrigues
Introduction: All newborns exposed to syphilis in pregnancy must have outpatient follow-up. The interruption of this follow-up especially threatens those children who were not treated at birth. Objective: To describe the clinical, epidemiological, and sociodemographic characteristics of pregnant women with syphilis and their newborns, and to investigate the factors associated with the discontinuation of the follow-up. Methods: This is an observational, descriptive, analytical, and retrospective study of medical records of 254 children exposed to syphilis, who were assisted at the Congenital Infectious Clinic of the university hospital of the Universidade Federal do Paraná, between 2000 and 2010...
October 2016: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130012/prepregnancy-dietary-patterns-are-associated-with-blood-lipid-level-changes-during-pregnancy-a-prospective-cohort-study-inrio-de-janeiro-brazil
#15
Ilana Eshriqui, Ana Beatriz Franco-Sena, Dayana Rodrigues Farias, Ana Amélia Freitas-Vilela, Diana Barbosa Cunha, Erica Guimarães Barros, Pauline M Emmett, Gilberto Kac
BACKGROUND: Physiologic adaptations lead to an increase in blood lipid levels during pregnancy, yet little is known about the influence of prepregnancy dietary patterns. AIM: To identify whether prepregnancy dietary patterns that explain the consumption of fiber, energy, and saturated fat are associated with blood lipid levels throughout pregnancy. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study, with data collection at gestational weeks 5 to 13, 20 to 26, and 30 to 36...
January 24, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116589/identifying-health-experiences-of-domestically-sex-trafficked-women-in-the-usa-a-qualitative-study-in-rikers-island-jail
#16
Anita Ravi, Megan Rose Pfeiffer, Zachary Rosner, Judy A Shea
While sex trafficking in the USA is a significant medical and public health issue, there is sparse data on the healthcare needs of and access for this population. This study was designed to identify experiences of domestically sex-trafficked women regarding healthcare access, reproductive health, and infectious diseases while trafficked. Trafficking survivors incarcerated in New York City's Rikers Island women's jail participated in audio-recorded interviews between July and September 2015. Recordings were transcribed, and a content analysis was completed to identify health-related themes...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109589/effects-of-precalving-body-condition-and-prepartum-feeding-level-on-gene-expression-in-circulating-neutrophils
#17
M A Crookenden, C G Walker, A Heiser, A Murray, V S R Dukkipati, J K Kay, S Meier, K M Moyes, M D Mitchell, J J Loor, J R Roche
Extensive metabolic, physiological, and immunological changes are associated with calving and the onset of lactation. As a result, cows transitioning between pregnancy and lactation are at a greater risk of metabolic and infectious diseases. The ability of neutrophils to mount an effective immune response to an infection is critical for its resolution, and increasing evidence indicates that precalving nutrition affects postpartum neutrophil function. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the effect of 2 precalving body condition scores (BCS; 4 vs...
March 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103920/ovarian-cycling-and-reproductive-state-shape-the-vaginal-microbiota-in-wild-baboons
#18
Elizabeth A Miller, Joshua A Livermore, Susan C Alberts, Jenny Tung, Elizabeth A Archie
BACKGROUND: The vaginal microbiome is an important site of bacterial-mammalian symbiosis. This symbiosis is currently best characterized for humans, where lactobacilli dominate the microbial community and may help defend women against infectious disease. However, lactobacilli do not dominate the vaginal microbiota of any other mammal studied to date, raising key questions about the forces that shape the vaginal microbiome in non-human mammals. RESULTS: We used Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to investigate variation in the taxonomic composition of the vaginal microbiota in 48 baboons (Papio cynocephalus), members of a well-studied wild population in Kenya...
January 19, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013100/the-impact-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-on-obstetric-conditions-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Hannah M Sebitloane, Dhayendre Moodley
HIV is the leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in resource constrained countries. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) initiated in pregnancy has now almost eliminated mother to child transmission of the virus, and is beginning to show the desired effect of reducing HIV related maternal mortality. By modulating host immunological responses HAART has the potential to alter infections during pregnancy, in addition to modifying clinical conditions such as preeclampsia. There is increasing evidence of the benefits of HAART given to pregnant women, however there is paucity of data that distinguishes HIV or HAART as the cause or exacerbation of pre-existing medical conditions or conditions specific to pregnancy...
December 9, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011960/visceral-leishmaniasis-in-immunocompromised-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-approach-and-evaluation-of-the-recently-released-idsa-guidelines
#20
Pasquale Pagliano, Tiziana Ascione, Giusy Di Flumeri, Giovanni Boccia, Francesco De Caro
Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic infectious disease endemic in tropical and sub-tropical areas including the Mediterranean basin, caused by a group of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Typically, VL is classified as a zoonotic infection when Leishmania infantum is the causative agent and as an anthroponotic one when L. donovani is the causative agent. Immunocompromised patients, in particular HIV positive, are considered at risk of VL. They may present atypical signs and poor response to the treatment due to a compromission of T-helper and regulatory cells activity...
December 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
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