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Saccharomyces albicans

Lasse van Wijlick, René Geissen, Jessica S Hilbig, Quentin Lagadec, Pilar D Cantero, Eugen Pfeifer, Mateusz Juchimiuk, Sven Kluge, Stephan Wickert, Paula Alepuz, Joachim F Ernst
In eukaryotes, Dom34 upregulates translation by securing levels of activatable ribosomal subunits. We found that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, Dom34 interacts genetically with Pmt1, a major isoform of protein O-mannosyltransferase. In C. albicans, lack of Dom34 exacerbated defective phenotypes of pmt1 mutants, while they were ameliorated by Dom34 overproduction that enhanced Pmt1 protein but not PMT1 transcript levels. Translational effects of Dom34 required the 5'-UTR of the PMT1 transcript, which bound recombinant Dom34 directly at a CA/AC-rich sequence and regulated in vitro translation...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Richard J Bennett, B Gillian Turgeon
This article provides an overview of sexual reproduction in the ascomycetes, a phylum of fungi that is named after the specialized sacs or "asci" that hold the sexual spores. They have therefore also been referred to as the Sac Fungi due to these characteristic structures that typically contain four to eight ascospores. Ascomycetes are morphologically diverse and include single-celled yeasts, filamentous fungi, and more complex cup fungi. The sexual cycles of many species, including those of the model yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the filamentous saprobes Neurospora crassa, Aspergillus nidulans, and Podospora anserina, have been examined in depth...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Renwen Zhang, Xiaoxue Han, Zhanfeng Xia, Xiaoxia Luo, Chuanxing Wan, Lili Zhang
A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 49605(T), was isolated from a desert soil sample from Lop Nur, Xinjiang, north-west China, and characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain exhibited antifungal activity against the following strains: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium citrinum, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis; Antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus; and no antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli...
October 17, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Tanvi Shekhar-Guturja, Walters Aji Tebung, Harley Mount, Ningning Liu, Julia R Köhler, Malcolm Whiteway, Leah E Cowen
Invasive fungal infections are a leading cause of human mortality. Effective treatment is hindered by the rapid emergence of resistance to the limited number of antifungal drugs, demanding new strategies to treat life-threatening fungal infections. Here, we explore a powerful strategy to enhance antifungal efficacy using the natural product beauvericin against leading human fungal pathogens. We found that beauvericin potentiates the activity of azole antifungals against azole-resistant Candida isolates via inhibition of multidrug efflux, and that beauvericin itself is effluxed via Yor1...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Mohammed Hashim Al-Yasiri, Anne-Cécile Normand, Renaud Piarroux, Stéphane Ranque, Jean-François Mauffrey
Yellow-legged gulls have been reported to carry antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae; however, the gut mycobiota of these birds has not yet been described. In this study, we analyzed the gut yeast communities in five yellow-legged gull breeding colonies along the Mediterranean littoral in southern France. Gull fecal samples were inoculated onto four types of culture media, including one supplemented with itraconazole. Yeast species richness, abundance, and diversity were estimated, and factorial analysis was used to highlight correspondences between breeding colonies...
October 4, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Kevin Felipe Cruz Martho, Amanda Teixeira de Melo, Juliana Possato Fernandes Takahashi, Juliana Mariotti Guerra, Dayane Cristina da Silva Santos, Sônia Ueda Purisco, Márcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Raquel Dos Anjos Fazioli, Clerlune Phanord, Patrícia Sartorelli, Marcelo A Vallim, Renata C Pascon
Fungal opportunistic pathogens colonize various environments, from plants and wood to human and animal tissue. Regarding human pathogens, one great challenge during contrasting niche occupation is the adaptation to different conditions, such as temperature, osmolarity, salinity, pressure, oxidative stress and nutritional availability, which may constitute sources of stress that need to be tolerated and overcome. As an opportunistic pathogen, C. neoformans faces exactly these situations during the transition from the environment to the human host, encountering nutritional constraints...
2016: PloS One
S Mashjoor, M Yousefzadi
Pharmaceutical industries now accept that oceans contain a vast array of organisms with unique biological properties. As investigation of antimicrobial activity, three species of Holothuria sea cucumbers (Holothuria scabra, Holothuria parva and Holothuria leucospilota) from the Persian Gulf, Iran, were obtained, their different organs: gonads (G), body wall (BW), intestine tract (IT), respiratory tree (RT) were isolated and extracted with organic solvents: ethyl acetate and methanol. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of each fraction was estimated with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disk-diffusion method against the number (i...
September 15, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Ken-Ichi Fujita, Takayuki Ishikura, Yui Jono, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Akira Ogita, Isao Kubo, Toshio Tanaka
BACKGROUND: trans-Anethole (anethole), a major component of anise oil, has a broad antimicrobial spectrum and a weaker antimicrobial potency than other available antibiotics. When combined with polygodial, nagilactone E, and n-dodecanol, anethole has been shown to exhibit synergistic antifungal activity against a budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a human opportunistic pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans. However, the mechanism underlying this synergistic effect of anethole has not been characterized...
September 12, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Chiraj K Dalal, Ignacio A Zuleta, Kaitlin F Mitchell, David R Andes, Hana El-Samad, Alexander D Johnson
Evolutionary changes in transcription networks are an important source of diversity across species, yet the quantitative consequences of network evolution have rarely been studied. Here we consider the transcriptional 'rewiring' of the three GAL genes that encode the enzymes needed for cells to convert galactose to glucose. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcriptional regulator Gal4 binds and activates these genes. In the human pathogen Candida albicans (which last shared a common ancestor with S. cerevisiae some 300 million years ago), we show that different regulators, Rtg1 and Rtg3, activate the three GAL genes...
September 10, 2016: ELife
Akinori Matsushika, Kanako Negi, Toshihiro Suzuki, Tetsuya Goshima, Tamotsu Hoshino
The use of yeasts tolerant to acid (low pH) and salt stress is of industrial importance for several bioproduction processes. To identify new candidate genes having potential roles in low-pH tolerance, we screened an expression genomic DNA library of a multiple-stress-tolerant yeast, Issatchenkia orientalis (Pichia kudriavzevii), for clones that allowed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to grow under highly acidic conditions (pH 2.0). A genomic DNA clone containing two putative open reading frames was obtained, of which the putative protein-coding gene comprising 1629 bp was retransformed into the host...
2016: PloS One
Emily Chen, Meng S Choy, Katalin Petrényi, Zoltán Kónya, Ferenc Erdődi, Viktor Dombrádi, Wolfgang Peti, Rebecca Page
UNLABELLED: The opportunistic pathogen Candida is one of the most common causes of nosocomial bloodstream infections. Because candidemia is associated with high mortality rates and because the incidences of multidrug-resistant Candida are increasing, efforts to identify novel targets for the development of potent antifungals are warranted. Here, we describe the structure and function of the first member of a family of protein phosphatases that is specific to fungi, protein phosphatase Z1 (PPZ1) from Candida albicans We show that PPZ1 not only is active but also is as susceptible to inhibition by the cyclic peptide inhibitor microcystin-LR as its most similar human homolog, protein phosphatase 1α (PP1α [GLC7 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae])...
2016: MBio
Oksana Sytar, Jurgita Švedienė, Kristina Ložienė, Algimantas Paškevičius, Anatolij Kosyan, Natalija Taran
CONTEXT: The role of hypericin-mediated photodynamic antimicrobial properties on pathogenic fungi and photodynamic therapy for human cancer cells is known. Antifungal properties of Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) and Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. (Polygonaceae) extracts were also studied. The different polarities of solvents can cause complication in the identification of antifungal effects of separate biologically active compounds. In recent experimental work, we compared antifungal properties of purified hypericin, hypericin tetrasulphonic acid (hypericin + S) and fagopyrin, which is analogue of hypericin...
August 26, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Cho X J Chan, Sofiane El-Kirat-Chatel, Ivor G Joseph, Desmond N Jackson, Caleen B Ramsook, Yves F Dufrêne, Peter N Lipke
Many fungal adhesins have short, β-aggregation-prone sequences that play important functional roles, and in the Candida albicans adhesin Als5p, these sequences cluster the adhesins after exposure to shear force. Here, we report that Saccharomyces cerevisiae flocculins Flo11p and Flo1p have similar β-aggregation-prone sequences and are similarly stimulated by shear force, despite being nonhomologous. Shear from vortex mixing induced the formation of small flocs in cells expressing either adhesin. After the addition of Ca(2+), yeast cells from vortex-sheared populations showed greatly enhanced flocculation and displayed more pronounced thioflavin-bright surface nanodomains...
July 2016: MSphere
Manuel Wagner, Katja Doehl, Lutz Schmitt
ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are ubiquitous integral membrane proteins catalyzing the active export or import of structurally and functionally unrelated compounds. In humans, these proteins are clinically and economically important, as their dysfunction is responsible for a number of diseases. In the case of multidrug resistance (MDR) ABC exporters, they particularly confer resistance to a broad spectrum of toxic compounds, placing them in the focus of clinical research. However, ABC-mediated drug resistance is not only restricted to humans...
August 20, 2016: Biological Chemistry
Christopher B Rupert, Justin M H Heltzel, Derek J Taylor, Laura N Rusche
Gene duplication promotes the diversification of protein functions in several ways. Ancestral functions can be partitioned between the paralogs, or a new function can arise in one paralog. These processes are generally viewed as unidirectional. However, paralogous proteins often retain related functions and can substitute for one another. Moreover, in the event of gene loss, the remaining paralog might regain ancestral functions that had been shed. To explore this possibility, we focused on the sirtuin deacetylase SIR2 and its homolog HST1 in the CTG clade of yeasts...
October 13, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Martina Avbelj, Jure Zupan, Peter Raspor
This mini-review synthesises the present knowledge of microbial quorum-sensing, with a specific focus on quorum-sensing in yeast, and especially in wine yeast. In vine and wine ecosystems, yeast co-interact with a large variety of microorganisms, thereby affecting the fermentation process and, consequently, the flavour of the wine. The precise connections between microbial interactions and quorum-sensing remain unclear, but we describe here how and when some species start to produce quorum-sensing molecules to synchronously adapt their collective behaviour to new conditions...
September 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Katalin Petrényi, Cristina Molero, Zoltán Kónya, Ferenc Erdődi, Joaquin Ariño, Viktor Dombrádi
Protein phosphatase Z (Ppz) is a fungus specific enzyme that regulates cell wall integrity, cation homeostasis and oxidative stress response. Work on Saccharomyces cerevisiae has shown that the enzyme is inhibited by Hal3/Vhs3 moonlighting proteins that together with Cab3 constitute the essential phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase (PPCDC) enzyme. In Candida albicans CaPpz1 is also involved in the morphological changes and infectiveness of this opportunistic human pathogen. To reveal the CaPpz1 regulatory context we searched the C...
2016: PloS One
Kongara Hanumantha Rao, Swagata Ghosh, Asis Datta
Vesicular dynamics is one of the very important aspects of cellular physiology, an imbalance of which leads to the disorders or diseases in higher eukaryotes. We report the functional characterization of a palmitoylated protein kinase from Candida albicans whose homologue in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been reported to be involved in negative regulation of membrane fusion and was named Env7. However, the downstream target of this protein remains to be identified. Env7 in C. albicans (CaEnv7) could be isolated from the membrane fraction and localized to vesicular structures associated with the Golgi apparatus...
July 2016: MSphere
Yulu Chen, Qilin Yu, Honggang Wang, Yijie Dong, Chang Jia, Bing Zhang, Chenpeng Xiao, Biao Zhang, Laijun Xing, Mingchun Li
The peroxisome plays an essential role in eukaryotic cellular metabolism, including β-oxidation of fatty acids and detoxification of hydrogen peroxide. However, its functions in the important fungal pathogen, C. albicans, remain to be investigated. In this study, we identified a homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisomal protein Pex1 in this pathogen, and explored its functions in stress tolerance. Fluorescence observation revealed that C. albicans Pex1 was localized in the peroxisomes, and its loss led to the defect in peroxisome formation...
October 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Verónica Urrialde, Daniel Prieto, Jesús Pla, Rebeca Alonso-Monge
The Pho4 transcription factor is required for growth under low environmental phosphate concentrations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A characterization of Candida albicans pho4 mutants revealed that these cells are more susceptible to both osmotic and oxidative stress and that this effect is diminished in the presence of 5% CO2 or anaerobiosis, reflecting the relevance of oxygen metabolism in the Pho4-mediated response. A pho4 mutant was as virulent as wild type strain when assayed in the Galleria mellonella infection model and was even more resistant to murine macrophages in ex vivo killing assays...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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