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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871802/probiotic-normalization-of-candida-albicans-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-longitudinal-pilot-study
#1
Emily G Severance, Kristin L Gressitt, Cassie R Stallings, Emily Katsafanas, Lucy A Schweinfurth, Christina L G Savage, Maria B Adamos, Kevin M Sweeney, Andrea E Origoni, Sunil Khushalani, Faith B Dickerson, Robert H Yolken
The molecules and pathways of the gut-brain axis represent new targets for developing methods to diagnose and treat psychiatric disorders. Manipulation of the gut microbiome with probiotics may be a therapeutic strategy with the potential to relieve gastrointestinal (GI) comorbidities and improve psychiatric symptoms. Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commensal yeast species, can be imbalanced in the unhealthy human microbiome, and these fungal exposures were previously found elevated in schizophrenia...
November 18, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868254/extensive-functional-redundancy-in-the-regulation-of-candida-albicans-drug-resistance-and-morphogenesis-by-lysine-deacetylases-hos2-hda1-rpd3-and-rpd31
#2
Xinliu Li, Nicole Robbins, Teresa R O'Meara, Leah E Cowen
Current treatment efforts for fungal infections are hampered by the limited availability of antifungal drugs and by the emergence of drug resistance. A powerful strategy to enhance the efficacy of antifungal drugs is to inhibit the molecular chaperone Hsp90. Hsp90 governs drug resistance, morphogenesis, and virulence in a leading fungal pathogen of humans, Candida albicans. Our previous work with Saccharomyces cerevisiae established acetylation as a novel mechanism of posttranslational control of Hsp90 function in fungi...
November 21, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821447/synthetic-organotellurium-compounds-sensitize-drug-resistant-candida-albicans-clinical-isolates-to-fluconazole
#3
L F Reis de Sá, F T Toledo, A C Gonçalves, B A Sousa, A A Dos Santos, P F Brasil, V A Duarte da Silva, A C Tessis, J A Ramos, M A Carvalho, E Lamping, A Ferreira-Pereira
Invasive Candida albicans infections are a serious health threat for immunocompromised individuals. Fluconazole is most commonly used to treat these infections, but resistance due to the overexpression of multidrug efflux pumps is of grave concern. This study evaluated the ability of five synthetic organotellurium compounds to reverse fluconazole resistance of C. albicans clinical isolates. Compounds 1-4, at < 10 μg/ml, ameliorated fluconazole resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains overexpressing the major C...
November 7, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818653/dictyostelium-discoideum-as-a-novel-host-system-to-study-the-interaction-between-phagocytes-and-yeasts
#4
Barbara Koller, Christin Schramm, Susann Siebert, János Triebel, Eric Deland, Anna M Pfefferkorn, Volker Rickerts, Sascha Thewes
The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a well-established model organism to study the interaction between bacteria and phagocytes. In contrast, research using D. discoideum as a host model for fungi is rare. We describe a comprehensive study, which uses D. discoideum as a host model system to investigate the interaction with apathogenic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and pathogenic (Candida sp.) yeast. We show that Dictyostelium can be co-cultivated with yeasts on solid media, offering a convenient test to study the interaction between fungi and phagocytes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807047/candida-albicans-is-resistant-to-polyglutamine-aggregation-and-toxicity
#5
Michelle D Leach, TaeHyung Kim, Sonja DiGregorio, Cathy Collins, Zhaolei Zhang, Martin L Duennwald, Leah E Cowen
Disruption of protein quality control can be detrimental, having toxic effects on single cell organisms, contributing to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's in humans. Here we examined the effects of polyQ aggregation in a major fungal pathogen of humans, Candida albicans, with the goal of identifying new approaches to disable this fungus. However, we discovered that expression of poly-glutamine (polyQ) stretches up to 230Q had no effect on C. albicans ability to grow and withstand proteotoxic stress...
November 2, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796871/trehalose-6-phosphate-as-a-potential-lead-candidate-for-the-development-of-tps1-inhibitors-insights-from-the-trehalose-biosynthesis-pathway-in-diverse-yeast-species
#6
Rayne S S Magalhães, Karina C De Lima, Diego S G de Almeida, Joelma F De Mesquita, Elis C A Eleutherio
In some pathogens, trehalose biosynthesis is induced in response to stress as a protection mechanism. This pathway is an attractive target for antimicrobials as neither the enzymes, Tps1, and Tps2, nor is trehalose present in humans. Accumulation of T6P in Candida albicans, achieved by deletion of TPS2, resulted in strong reduction of fungal virulence. In this work, the effect of T6P on Tps1 activity was evaluated. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, C. albicans, and Candida tropicalis were used as experimental models...
October 29, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790424/efficacy-of-aqueous-and-methanolic-extracts-of-rheum-spiciformis-against-pathogenic-bacterial-and-fungal-strains
#7
Khalid Bashir Dar, Aashiq Hussain Bhat, Shajrul Amin, Suhail Anees, Akbar Masood, Mohammed Iqbal Zargar, Showkat Ahmad Ganie
INTRODUCTION: Rheum spiciformis is a newly identified edible medicinal plant of genus Rheum. The plant is used to treat various diseases on traditional levels in Kashmir Valley, India. AIM: To evaluate the phytochemical screening, antibacterial and antifungal potential of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Rheum spiciformis, a traditionally used edible medicinal plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methanolic and aqueous extracts of Rheum spiciformis were tested for their antimicrobial activities against six bacterial strains namely Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli and four fungal strains Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771809/identification-of-a-second-pad1-in-brettanomyces-bruxellensis-lamap2480
#8
Camila González, Liliana Godoy, Ma Angélica Ganga
Volatile phenols are aromatic compounds produced by some yeasts of the genus Brettanomyces as defense against the toxicity of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid). The origin of these compounds in winemaking involves the sequential action of two enzymes: coumarate decarboxylase and vinylphenol reductase. The first one converts hydroxycinnamic acids into hydroxystyrenes, which are then reduced to ethyl derivatives by vinylphenol reductase. Volatile phenols derived from p-coumaric acid (4-vinylphenol and 4-ethylphenol) have been described as the major contributors to self-defeating aromas associated with stable, gouache, wet mouse, etc...
October 22, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768707/dom34-links-translation-to-protein-o-mannosylation
#9
Lasse van Wijlick, René Geissen, Jessica S Hilbig, Quentin Lagadec, Pilar D Cantero, Eugen Pfeifer, Mateusz Juchimiuk, Sven Kluge, Stephan Wickert, Paula Alepuz, Joachim F Ernst
In eukaryotes, Dom34 upregulates translation by securing levels of activatable ribosomal subunits. We found that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, Dom34 interacts genetically with Pmt1, a major isoform of protein O-mannosyltransferase. In C. albicans, lack of Dom34 exacerbated defective phenotypes of pmt1 mutants, while they were ameliorated by Dom34 overproduction that enhanced Pmt1 protein but not PMT1 transcript levels. Translational effects of Dom34 required the 5'-UTR of the PMT1 transcript, which bound recombinant Dom34 directly at a CA/AC-rich sequence and regulated in vitro translation...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763253/fungal-sex-the-ascomycota
#10
Richard J Bennett, B Gillian Turgeon
This article provides an overview of sexual reproduction in the ascomycetes, a phylum of fungi that is named after the specialized sacs or "asci" that hold the sexual spores. They have therefore also been referred to as the Sac Fungi due to these characteristic structures that typically contain four to eight ascospores. Ascomycetes are morphologically diverse and include single-celled yeasts, filamentous fungi, and more complex cup fungi. The sexual cycles of many species, including those of the model yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the filamentous saprobes Neurospora crassa, Aspergillus nidulans, and Podospora anserina, have been examined in depth...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752797/streptomyces-luozhongensis-sp-nov-a-novel-actinomycete-with-antifungal-activity-and-antibacterial-activity
#11
Renwen Zhang, Xiaoxue Han, Zhanfeng Xia, Xiaoxia Luo, Chuanxing Wan, Lili Zhang
A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 49605(T), was isolated from a desert soil sample from Lop Nur, Xinjiang, north-west China, and characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain exhibited antifungal activity against the following strains: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium citrinum, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis; Antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus; and no antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli...
October 17, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736764/beauvericin-potentiates-azole-activity-via-inhibition-of-multidrug-efflux-blocks-c-albicans-morphogenesis-and-is-effluxed-via-yor1-and-circuitry-controlled-by-zcf29
#12
Tanvi Shekhar-Guturja, Walters Aji Tebung, Harley Mount, Ningning Liu, Julia R Köhler, Malcolm Whiteway, Leah E Cowen
Invasive fungal infections are a leading cause of human mortality. Effective treatment is hindered by the rapid emergence of resistance to the limited number of antifungal drugs, demanding new strategies to treat life-threatening fungal infections. Here, we explore a powerful strategy to enhance antifungal efficacy using the natural product beauvericin against leading human fungal pathogens. We found that beauvericin potentiates the activity of azole antifungals against azole-resistant Candida isolates via inhibition of multidrug efflux, and that beauvericin itself is effluxed via Yor1...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703020/gut-yeast-communities-in-larus-michahellis-from-various-breeding-colonies
#13
Mohammed Hashim Al-Yasiri, Anne-Cécile Normand, Renaud Piarroux, Stéphane Ranque, Jean-François Mauffrey
Yellow-legged gulls have been reported to carry antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae; however, the gut mycobiota of these birds has not yet been described. In this study, we analyzed the gut yeast communities in five yellow-legged gull breeding colonies along the Mediterranean littoral in southern France. Gull fecal samples were inoculated onto four types of culture media, including one supplemented with itraconazole. Yeast species richness, abundance, and diversity were estimated, and factorial analysis was used to highlight correspondences between breeding colonies...
October 4, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695080/amino-acid-permeases-and-virulence-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#14
Kevin Felipe Cruz Martho, Amanda Teixeira de Melo, Juliana Possato Fernandes Takahashi, Juliana Mariotti Guerra, Dayane Cristina da Silva Santos, Sônia Ueda Purisco, Márcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Raquel Dos Anjos Fazioli, Clerlune Phanord, Patrícia Sartorelli, Marcelo A Vallim, Renata C Pascon
Fungal opportunistic pathogens colonize various environments, from plants and wood to human and animal tissue. Regarding human pathogens, one great challenge during contrasting niche occupation is the adaptation to different conditions, such as temperature, osmolarity, salinity, pressure, oxidative stress and nutritional availability, which may constitute sources of stress that need to be tolerated and overcome. As an opportunistic pathogen, C. neoformans faces exactly these situations during the transition from the environment to the human host, encountering nutritional constraints...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641487/holothurians-antifungal-and-antibacterial-activity-to-human-pathogens-in-the-persian-gulf
#15
S Mashjoor, M Yousefzadi
Pharmaceutical industries now accept that oceans contain a vast array of organisms with unique biological properties. As investigation of antimicrobial activity, three species of Holothuria sea cucumbers (Holothuria scabra, Holothuria parva and Holothuria leucospilota) from the Persian Gulf, Iran, were obtained, their different organs: gonads (G), body wall (BW), intestine tract (IT), respiratory tree (RT) were isolated and extracted with organic solvents: ethyl acetate and methanol. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of each fraction was estimated with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disk-diffusion method against the number (i...
September 15, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632201/anethole-potentiates-dodecanol-s-fungicidal-activity-by-reducing-pdr5-expression-in-budding-yeast
#16
Ken-Ichi Fujita, Takayuki Ishikura, Yui Jono, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Akira Ogita, Isao Kubo, Toshio Tanaka
BACKGROUND: trans-Anethole (anethole), a major component of anise oil, has a broad antimicrobial spectrum and a weaker antimicrobial potency than other available antibiotics. When combined with polygodial, nagilactone E, and n-dodecanol, anethole has been shown to exhibit synergistic antifungal activity against a budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a human opportunistic pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans. However, the mechanism underlying this synergistic effect of anethole has not been characterized...
September 12, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614020/transcriptional-rewiring-over-evolutionary-timescales-changes-quantitative-and-qualitative-properties-of-gene-expression
#17
Chiraj K Dalal, Ignacio A Zuleta, Kaitlin F Mitchell, David R Andes, Hana El-Samad, Alexander D Johnson
Evolutionary changes in transcription networks are an important source of diversity across species, yet the quantitative consequences of network evolution have rarely been studied. Here we consider the transcriptional 'rewiring' of the three GAL genes that encode the enzymes needed for cells to convert galactose to glucose. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcriptional regulator Gal4 binds and activates these genes. In the human pathogen Candida albicans (which last shared a common ancestor with S. cerevisiae some 300 million years ago), we show that different regulators, Rtg1 and Rtg3, activate the three GAL genes...
September 10, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589271/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-issatchenkia-orientalis-gpi-anchored-protein-iogas1-required-for-resistance-to-low-ph-and-salt-stress
#18
Akinori Matsushika, Kanako Negi, Toshihiro Suzuki, Tetsuya Goshima, Tamotsu Hoshino
The use of yeasts tolerant to acid (low pH) and salt stress is of industrial importance for several bioproduction processes. To identify new candidate genes having potential roles in low-pH tolerance, we screened an expression genomic DNA library of a multiple-stress-tolerant yeast, Issatchenkia orientalis (Pichia kudriavzevii), for clones that allowed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to grow under highly acidic conditions (pH 2.0). A genomic DNA clone containing two putative open reading frames was obtained, of which the putative protein-coding gene comprising 1629 bp was retransformed into the host...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578752/molecular-insights-into-the-fungus-specific-serine-threonine-protein-phosphatase-z1-in-candida-albicans
#19
Emily Chen, Meng S Choy, Katalin Petrényi, Zoltán Kónya, Ferenc Erdődi, Viktor Dombrádi, Wolfgang Peti, Rebecca Page
UNLABELLED: The opportunistic pathogen Candida is one of the most common causes of nosocomial bloodstream infections. Because candidemia is associated with high mortality rates and because the incidences of multidrug-resistant Candida are increasing, efforts to identify novel targets for the development of potent antifungals are warranted. Here, we describe the structure and function of the first member of a family of protein phosphatases that is specific to fungi, protein phosphatase Z1 (PPZ1) from Candida albicans We show that PPZ1 not only is active but also is as susceptible to inhibition by the cyclic peptide inhibitor microcystin-LR as its most similar human homolog, protein phosphatase 1α (PP1α [GLC7 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae])...
2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564138/antifungal-properties-of-hypericin-hypericin-tetrasulphonic-acid-and-fagopyrin-on-pathogenic-fungi-and-spoilage-yeasts
#20
Oksana Sytar, Jurgita Švedienė, Kristina Ložienė, Algimantas Paškevičius, Anatolij Kosyan, Natalija Taran
CONTEXT: The role of hypericin-mediated photodynamic antimicrobial properties on pathogenic fungi and photodynamic therapy for human cancer cells is known. Antifungal properties of Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) and Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. (Polygonaceae) extracts were also studied. The different polarities of solvents can cause complication in the identification of antifungal effects of separate biologically active compounds. In recent experimental work, we compared antifungal properties of purified hypericin, hypericin tetrasulphonic acid (hypericin + S) and fagopyrin, which is analogue of hypericin...
August 26, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
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