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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375147/crystal-structures-of-hsp104-n-terminal-domains-from-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-and-candida-albicans-suggest-the-mechanism-for-the-function-of-hsp104-in-dissolving-prions
#1
Peng Wang, Jingzhi Li, Clarissa Weaver, Aaron Lucius, Bingdong Sha
Hsp104 is a yeast member of the Hsp100 family which functions as a molecular chaperone to disaggregate misfolded polypeptides. To understand the mechanism by which the Hsp104 N-terminal domain (NTD) interacts with its peptide substrates, crystal structures of the Hsp104 NTDs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScHsp104NTD) and Candida albicans (CaHsp104NTD) have been determined at high resolution. The structures of ScHsp104NTD and CaHsp104NTD reveal that the yeast Hsp104 NTD may utilize a conserved putative peptide-binding groove to interact with misfolded polypeptides...
April 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373280/heat-shock-protein-104-hsp104-mediated-curing-of-psi-yeast-prions-depends-on-both-psi-conformation-and-the-properties-of-the-hsp104-homologs
#2
Xiaohong Zhao, Ramon Rodriguez, Rebecca E Silberman, Joseph M Ahearn, Sheela Saidha, Kaelyn C Cummins, Daniel Masison, Evan Eisenberg, Lois E Greene
Prions arise from proteins that have two possible conformations: properly folded and non-infectious, or misfolded and infectious. The [PSI (+) ] yeast prion, which is the misfolded, self-propagating form of the translation termination factor eRF3 (Sup35), can be cured of its infectious conformation by overexpression of Hsp104, which helps dissolve the prion seeds. This dissolution depends on the trimming activity of Hsp104, which reduces the size of the prion seeds without increasing their number. To further understand the relationship between trimming and curing, trimming was followed by measuring the loss of GFP-labeled Sup35 foci from both strong and weak [PSI (+) ] variants; the former variant has more seeds and less soluble Sup35 than the latter...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334124/a-newly-identified-amino-acid-substitution-t123i-in-the-14%C3%AE-demethylase-erg11p-of-candida-albicans-confers-azole-resistance
#3
YongQin Wu, Ning Gao, Cui Li, Jing Gao, ChunMei Ying
The increasing prevalence of azole resistance in Candida albicans poses a growing problem for clinical treatment. Amino acid substitution of the 14α-demethylase (Erg11p) encoded by the ERG11 gene is one of the most common mechanisms involved in azole resistance. Although amino acid substitutions of Erg11p have been observed in many clinical isolates, only a few amino acid substitutions have been confirmed to be related to azole resistance. In this study, by amplifying and sequencing the open reading frame of the ERG11 gene from 55 clinical isolates, we identified 27 fluconazole-resistant isolates that harbor a novel amino acid substitution, T123I, in Erg11p, in addition to the previously described homozygous substitution Y132H...
February 25, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289726/regulation-of-the-candida-albicans-hypha-inducing-transcription-factor-ume6-by-the-cdk1-cyclins-cln3-and-hgc1
#4
Sigal Mendelsohn, Mariel Pinsky, Ziva Weissman, Daniel Kornitzer
The ability to switch between proliferation as yeast cells and development into hyphae is a hallmark of Candida albicans. The switch to hyphal morphogenesis depends on external inducing conditions, but its efficiency is augmented in stationary-phase cells. Ume6, a transcription factor that is itself transcriptionally induced under hypha-promoting conditions, is both necessary and sufficient for hyphal morphogenesis. We found that Ume6 is regulated posttranslationally by the cell cycle kinase Cdc28/Cdk1, which reduces Ume6 activity via different mechanisms using different cyclins...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261190/fungal-its1-deep-sequencing-strategies-to-reconstruct-the-composition-of-a-26-species-community-and-evaluation-of-the-gut-mycobiota-of-healthy-japanese-individuals
#5
Daisuke Motooka, Kosuke Fujimoto, Reiko Tanaka, Takashi Yaguchi, Kazuyoshi Gotoh, Yuichi Maeda, Yoki Furuta, Takashi Kurakawa, Naohisa Goto, Teruo Yasunaga, Masashi Narazaki, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Toshihiro Horii, Tetsuya Iida, Kiyoshi Takeda, Shota Nakamura
The study of mycobiota remains relatively unexplored due to the lack of sufficient available reference strains and databases compared to those of bacterial microbiome studies. Deep sequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions is the de facto standard for fungal diversity analysis. However, results are often biased because of the wide variety of sequence lengths in the ITS regions and the complexity of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies. In this study, a curated ITS database, ntF-ITS1, was constructed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260588/utilization-of-size-polymorphism-in-its1-and-its2-regions-for-identification-of-pathogenic-yeast-species
#6
Hossein Khodadadi, Ladan Karimi, Nilufar Jalalizand, Hassan Adin, Hossein Mirhendi
PURPOSE: Despite the existence of a variety of available yeast-identification strategies, easier and more cost-effective methods are required for routine use in clinical laboratories. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA genes exhibit variable sizes depending on the yeast species. In the present study, fragment size polymorphism (FSP) analysis of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions for identification of the clinically most important yeast species was assessed. METHODOLOGY: The ITS1 and ITS2 regions of 190 strains, including isolates of 31 standard strains and 159 clinical isolates, were separately PCR amplified with two primer sets: ITS1-ITS2 and ITS3-ITS4...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250014/the-pivotal-role-of-protein-phosphorylation-in-the-control-of-yeast-central-metabolism
#7
Panayotis Vlastaridis, Athanasios Papakyriakou, Anargyros Chaliotis, Efstratios Stratikos, Stephen G Oliver, Grigorios D Amoutzias
Protein phosphorylation is the most frequent eukaryotic post-translational modification and can act as either a molecular switch or rheostat for protein functions. The deliberate manipulation of protein phosphorylation has great potential for regulating specific protein functions with surgical precision, rather than the gross effects gained by the over/underexpression or complete deletion of a protein-encoding gene. In order to assess the impact of phosphorylation on central metabolism, and thus its potential for biotechnological and medical exploitation, a compendium of highly confident protein phosphorylation sites (p-sites) for the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been analyzed together with two more datasets from the fungal pathogen Candida albicans Our analysis highlights the global properties of the regulation of yeast central metabolism by protein phosphorylation, where almost half of the enzymes involved are subject to this sort of post-translational modification...
April 3, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185554/evolution-of-transcriptional-networks-in-yeast-alternative-teams-of-transcriptional-factors-for-different-species
#8
Adriana Muñoz, Daniella Santos Muñoz, Aleksey Zimin, James A Yorke
BACKGROUND: The diversity in eukaryotic life reflects a diversity in regulatory pathways. Nocedal and Johnson argue that the rewiring of gene regulatory networks is a major force for the diversity of life, that changes in regulation can create new species. RESULTS: We have created a method (based on our new "ping-pong algorithm) for detecting more complicated rewirings, where several transcription factors can substitute for one or more transcription factors in the regulation of a family of co-regulated genes...
November 11, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143980/lipid-signaling-via-pkh1-2-regulates-fungal-co2-sensing-through-the-kinase-sch9
#9
Susann Pohlers, Ronny Martin, Thomas Krüger, Daniela Hellwig, Frank Hänel, Olaf Kniemeyer, Hans Peter Saluz, Patrick Van Dijck, Joachim F Ernst, Axel Brakhage, Fritz A Mühlschlegel, Oliver Kurzai
Adaptation to alternating CO2 concentrations is crucial for all organisms. Carbonic anhydrases-metalloenzymes that have been found in all domains of life-enable fixation of scarce CO2 by accelerating its conversion to bicarbonate and ensure maintenance of cellular metabolism. In fungi and other eukaryotes, the carbonic anhydrase Nce103 has been shown to be essential for growth in air (~0.04% CO2). Expression of NCE103 is regulated in response to CO2 availability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, NCE103 is activated by the transcription factor ScCst6, and in Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, it is activated by its homologues CaRca1 and CgRca1, respectively...
January 31, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135328/blocking-two-component-signalling-enhances-candida-albicans-virulence-and-reveals-adaptive-mechanisms-that-counteract-sustained-sapk-activation
#10
Alison M Day, Deborah A Smith, Mélanie A C Ikeh, Mohammed Haider, Carmen M Herrero-de-Dios, Alistair J P Brown, Brian A Morgan, Lars P Erwig, Donna M MacCallum, Janet Quinn
The Ypd1 phosphorelay protein is a central constituent of fungal two-component signal transduction pathways. Inhibition of Ypd1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Cryptococcus neoformans is lethal due to the sustained activation of the 'p38-related' Hog1 stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK). As two-component signalling proteins are not found in animals, Ypd1 is considered to be a prime antifungal target. However, a major fungal pathogen of humans, Candida albicans, can survive the concomitant sustained activation of Hog1 that occurs in cells lacking YPD1...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107178/influence-of-structure-of-lactones-with-the-methylcyclohexene-and-dimethylcyclohexene-ring-on-their-biotransformation-and-antimicrobial-activity
#11
Katarzyna Wińska, Małgorzata Grabarczyk, Wanda Mączka, Barbara Żarowska, Gabriela Maciejewska, Mirosław Anioł
The aim of this article is influence of the structure of lactones with the methylcyclohexene and dimethylcyclohexene ring on their biotransformation and antimicrobial activity. This work was based on the general remark that even the smallest change in the structure of a compound can affect its biological properties. The results of the biotransformation of four bicyclic unsaturated lactones with one or two methyl groups in the cyclohexene ring was tested using fifteen fungal strains (Fusarium species, Penicillium species, Absidia species, Cunninghamella japonica, and Pleurotus ostreatus) and five yeast strains (Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodorula marina, Rhodorula rubra, Candida viswanathii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae)...
January 20, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090278/isolation-and-identification-of-phyllospheric-bacteria-possessing-antimicrobial-activity-from-astragalus-obtusifolius-prosopis-juliflora-xanthium-strumarium-and-hippocrepis-unisiliqousa
#12
Zohreh Mazinani, Marzieh Zamani, Soroush Sardari
BACKGROUND: The widespread utilization of antimicrobial compounds has caused emergence of resistant microorganisms in the world. Hence, the research to probe the products with antimicrobial features has led to finding natural habitats and discovering new pharmaceutical products. METHODS: In this study, an attempt was made to explore the niche of novel habitat to isolate pyllospheric bacteria from the above ground parts (stems and leaves) of Astragalus obtusifolius, Prosopis juliflora, Xanthium strumarium, and Hippocrepis unisiliqousa to evaluate their antimicrobial features...
January 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079132/critical-role-for-cafen1-and-cafen12-of-candida-albicans-in-cell-wall-integrity-and-biofilm-formation
#13
Md Alfatah, Vinay K Bari, Anubhav S Nahar, Swati Bijlani, K Ganesan
Sphingolipids are involved in several cellular functions, including maintenance of cell wall integrity. To gain insight into the role of individual genes of sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway, we have screened Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains deleted in these genes for sensitivity to cell wall perturbing agents calcofluor white and congo red. Only deletants of FEN1 and SUR4 genes were found to be sensitive to both these agents. Candida albicans strains deleted in their orthologs, CaFEN1 and CaFEN12, respectively, also showed comparable phenotypes, and a strain deleted for both these genes was extremely sensitive to cell wall perturbing agents...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071802/essential-oils-against-pathogen-and-spoilage-microorganisms-of-fruit-juices-use-of-versatile-antimicrobial-delivery-systems
#14
Valentina Trinetta, Mark T Morgan, John N Coupland, Umut Yucel
Essential oils (EO) are increasingly used as natural antimicrobial compounds, however the effect of delivery system to enhance their antimicrobial activity has not been widely studied. Limonene (0 to 10 μL/mL) was added to microbial suspensions (∼10(5) CFU/mL) of selected foodborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus), and spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus plantarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans). S...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068213/utilization-of-size-polymorphism-in-its1-and-its2-regions-for-identification-of-pathogenic-yeast-species
#15
Hossein Khodadadi, Ladan Karimi, Niloufar Jalali-Zand, Hassan Adin, Hossein Mirhendi
Despite the existence of a variety of available yeast identification strategies, easier and more cost-effective methods are required for routine use in clinical laboratories. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA genes exhibit variable sizes depending on the yeast species. In the present study, fragment size polymorphism (FSP) analysis of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions for identification of the clinically most important yeast species was assessed. The ITS1 and ITS2 regions of 190 strains, including isolates of 31 standard strains and 159 clinical isolates, were separately PCR-amplified with two primer sets: ITS1-ITS2 and ITS3-ITS4...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040776/genome-wide-screen-for-haploinsufficient-cell-size-genes-in-the-opportunistic-yeast-candida-albicans
#16
Julien Chaillot, Michael A Cook, Jacques Corbeil, Adnane Sellam
One of the most critical but still poorly understood aspects of eukaryotic cell proliferation is the basis for commitment to cell division in late G1 phase called Start in yeast and the Restriction Point in metazoans. In all species, a critical cell size threshold coordinates cell growth with cell division and thereby establishes a homeostatic cell size. While a comprehensive survey of cell size genetic determinism has been performed in the saprophytic yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, very little is known in pathogenic fungi...
December 30, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028545/characterization-of-the-candida-albicans-amino-acid-permease-family-gap2-is-the-only-general-amino-acid-permease-and-gap4-is-an-s-adenosylmethionine-sam-transporter-required-for-sam-induced-morphogenesis
#17
Lucie Kraidlova, Sanne Schrevens, Hélène Tournu, Griet Van Zeebroeck, Hana Sychrova, Patrick Van Dijck
Amino acids are key sources of nitrogen for growth of Candida albicans. In order to detect and take up these amino acids from a broad range of different and changing nitrogen sources inside the host, this fungus must be able to adapt via its expression of genes for amino acid uptake and further metabolism. We analyzed six C. albicans putative general amino acid permeases based on their homology to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gap1 general amino acid permease. We generated single- and multiple-deletion strains and found that, based on growth assays and transcriptional or posttranscriptional regulation, Gap2 is the functional orthologue to ScGap1, with broad substrate specificity...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987234/deciphering-fungal-dimorphism-farnesol-s-unanswered-questions
#18
Kenneth W Nickerson, Audrey L Atkin
Candida albicans excretes E,E-farnesol as a virulence factor and quorum sensing molecule that prevents the yeast to hyphal conversion. Polke et al. (2016) identified eed1Δ/Δ as the first farnesol hypersensitive mutant of C. albicans. eed1Δ/Δ also excretes 10X more farnesol and while able to form hyphae, it cannot maintain hyphae. This mutant enables new research into unanswered questions, including the existence of potential farnesol receptors and transporters, regulation of farnesol synthesis, and relationships among farnesol, germ tube formation and hyphal maintenance...
December 17, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871802/probiotic-normalization-of-candida-albicans-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-longitudinal-pilot-study
#19
Emily G Severance, Kristin L Gressitt, Cassie R Stallings, Emily Katsafanas, Lucy A Schweinfurth, Christina L G Savage, Maria B Adamos, Kevin M Sweeney, Andrea E Origoni, Sunil Khushalani, Faith B Dickerson, Robert H Yolken
The molecules and pathways of the gut-brain axis represent new targets for developing methods to diagnose and treat psychiatric disorders. Manipulation of the gut microbiome with probiotics may be a therapeutic strategy with the potential to relieve gastrointestinal (GI) comorbidities and improve psychiatric symptoms. Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commensal yeast species, can be imbalanced in the unhealthy human microbiome, and these fungal exposures were previously found elevated in schizophrenia...
May 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868254/extensive-functional-redundancy-in-the-regulation-of-candida-albicans-drug-resistance-and-morphogenesis-by-lysine-deacetylases-hos2-hda1-rpd3-and-rpd31
#20
Xinliu Li, Nicole Robbins, Teresa R O'Meara, Leah E Cowen
Current treatment efforts for fungal infections are hampered by the limited availability of antifungal drugs and by the emergence of drug resistance. A powerful strategy to enhance the efficacy of antifungal drugs is to inhibit the molecular chaperone Hsp90. Hsp90 governs drug resistance, morphogenesis and virulence in a leading fungal pathogen of humans, Candida albicans. Our previous work with Saccharomyces cerevisiae established acetylation as a novel mechanism of posttranslational control of Hsp90 function in fungi...
February 2017: Molecular Microbiology
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