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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772751/what-we-do-not-know-about-fungal-cell-adhesion-molecules
#1
REVIEW
Peter N Lipke
There has been extensive research on structure and function of fungal cell adhesion molecules, but the most of the work has been about adhesins in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These yeasts are members of a single ascomycete order, and adhesion molecules from the six other fungal phyla are only sparsely described in the literature. In these other phyla, most of the research is at the cellular level, rather than at the molecular level, so there has been little characterization of the adhesion molecules themselves...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772300/effect-of-nagilactone-e-on-cell-morphology-and-glucan-biosynthesis-in-budding-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#2
Kengo Hayashi, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Akira Ogita, Toshio Tanaka, Isao Kubo, Ken-Ichi Fujita
Nagilactones are norditerpene dilactones isolated from the root bark of Podocarpus nagi. Although nagilactone E has been reported to show antifungal activities, its activity is weaker than that of antifungals on the market. Nagilactone E enhances the antifungal activity of phenylpropanoids such as anethole and isosafrole against nonpathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae and pathogenic Candida albicans. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying the antifungal activity of nagilactone E itself have not yet been elucidated...
May 14, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727465/biphasic-zinc-compartmentalisation-in-a-human-fungal-pathogen
#3
Aaron C Crawford, Laura E Lehtovirta-Morley, Omran Alamir, Maria J Niemiec, Bader Alawfi, Mohammad Alsarraf, Volha Skrahina, Anna C B P Costa, Andrew Anderson, Sujan Yellagunda, Elizabeth R Ballou, Bernhard Hube, Constantin F Urban, Duncan Wilson
Nutritional immunity describes the host-driven manipulation of essential micronutrients, including iron, zinc and manganese. To withstand nutritional immunity and proliferate within their hosts, pathogenic microbes must express efficient micronutrient uptake and homeostatic systems. Here we have elucidated the pathway of cellular zinc assimilation in the major human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Bioinformatics analysis identified nine putative zinc transporters: four cytoplasmic-import Zip proteins (Zrt1, Zrt2, Zrt3 and orf19...
May 4, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702647/global-analysis-of-genetic-circuitry-and-adaptive-mechanisms-enabling-resistance-to-the-azole-antifungal-drugs
#4
Harley O'Connor Mount, Nicole M Revie, Robert T Todd, Kaitlin Anstett, Cathy Collins, Michael Costanzo, Charles Boone, Nicole Robbins, Anna Selmecki, Leah E Cowen
Invasive fungal infections caused by the pathogen Candida albicans have transitioned from a rare curiosity to a major cause of human mortality. This is in part due to the emergence of resistance to the limited number of antifungals available to treat fungal infections. Azoles function by targeting the biosynthesis of ergosterol, a key component of the fungal cell membrane. Loss-of-function mutations in the ergosterol biosynthetic gene ERG3 mitigate azole toxicity and enable resistance that depends upon fungal stress responses...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696516/isolation-of-yeasts-from-guajillo-pepper-capsicum-annuum-l-fermentation-and-study-of-some-probiotic-characteristics
#5
C E Lara-Hidalgo, L Dorantes-Álvarez, H Hernández-Sánchez, F Santoyo-Tepole, A Martínez-Torres, L Villa-Tanaca, C Hernández-Rodríguez
Three yeast strains were isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of guajillo pepper: Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Wickerhamomyces anomalus, which were identified by amplification of the ITS/5.8S ribosomal DNA. Some probiotic characteristics of these strains were evaluated and compared with one commercial probiotic yeast (Saccharomyces boulardii). The survival percentage of all the yeasts was similar to that of the commercial product. They showed different hydrophobicity characteristics with hydrocarbons, autoaggregation > 90%, and characteristics of co-aggregation with pathogenic microorganisms...
April 25, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695624/new-crispr-mutagenesis-strategies-reveal-variation-in-repair-mechanisms-among-fungi
#6
Valmik K Vyas, G Guy Bushkin, Douglas A Bernstein, Matthew A Getz, Magdalena Sewastianik, M Inmaculada Barrasa, David P Bartel, Gerald R Fink
We have created new vectors for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) mutagenesis in Candida albicans , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Candida glabrata , and Naumovozyma castellii These new vectors permit a comparison of the requirements for CRISPR mutagenesis in each of these species and reveal different dependencies for repair of the Cas9 double-stranded break. Both C. albicans and S. cerevisiae rely heavily on homology-directed repair, whereas C. glabrata and N. castellii use both homology-directed and nonhomologous end-joining pathways...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692547/characterization-of-chickpea-cicer-arietinum-l-lectin-for-biological-activity
#7
Ajay Kumar Gautam, Neha Gupta, Dakshita T Narvekar, Rajni Bhadkariya, Sameer S Bhagyawant
Lectins are proteins that are subject of intense investigations. Information on lectin from chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) with respect to its biological activities are very limited. In this study, we purified lectin from the seeds of chickpea employing DEAE-cellulose and SP-Sephadex ion exchange chromatography and identified its molecular subunit mass as 35 kDa. The free radical scavenging activity of lectin measured by the DPPH assay has IC50 of 0.88 µg/mL. Lectin exerted antifungal activity against Candida krusei , Fusarium oxysporium oxysporium , Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans , while antibacterial activity against E...
May 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691333/community-development-between-porphyromonas-gingivalis-and-candida-albicans-mediated-by-inlj-and-als3
#8
Maryta N Sztukowska, Lindsay C Dutton, Christopher Delaney, Mark Ramsdale, Gordon Ramage, Howard F Jenkinson, Angela H Nobbs, Richard J Lamont
The pleiomorphic yeast Candida albicans is a significant pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. In the oral cavity, C. albicans is an inhabitant of polymicrobial communities, and interspecies interactions promote hyphal formation and biofilm formation. C. albicans colonizes the subgingival area, and the frequency of colonization increases in periodontal disease. In this study, we investigated the interactions between C. albicans and the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis C. albicans and P...
April 24, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677095/milling-the-mistletoe-nanotechnological-conversion-of-african-mistletoe-loranthus-micranthus-intoantimicrobial-materials
#9
Muhammad Sarfraz, Sharoon Griffin, Tamara Gabour Sad, Rama Alhasan, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Muhammad Irfan Masood, Karl Herbert Schäfer, Chukwunonso E C C Ejike, Cornelia M Keck, Claus Jacob, Azubuike P Ebokaiwe
Nanosizing represents a straight forward technique to unlock the biological activity of complex plant materials. The aim of this study was to develop herbal nanoparticles with medicinal value from dried leaves and stems of Loranthus micranthus with the aid of ball-milling, high speed stirring, and high-pressure homogenization techniques. The milled nanoparticles were characterized using laser diffraction analysis, photon correlation spectroscopy analysis, and light microscopy. The average size of leaf nanoparticles was around 245 nm and that of stem nanoparticles was around 180 nm...
April 20, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665954/candida-species-in-tchapalo-and-bangui-two-traditional-alcoholic-beverages-from-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#10
Laurence A N Egue, Florent K N'guessan, Solange Aka-Gbezo, Jean-Paul K M Bouatenin, Marina Koussemon-Camara
The increase of infections due to non-Candida albicans species made it very necessary to conduct adequate characterization to be able to identify the species of Candida isolated from traditional fermented foods. In this study, based on their hue on Candida Chromogenic Agar medium, a total of 136 yeast strains were isolated from tchapalo and bangui. Molecular identification based on PCR-RFLP of internal transcribed spacers of rDNA (ITS) and sequencing of the ITS and the D1/D2 regions allowed us to assign these isolates to seven species: Candida tropicalis, Candida inconspicua, Candida rugosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Trichosporon asahii...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600282/investigating-colonization-of-the-healthy-adult-gastrointestinal-tract-by-fungi
#11
Thomas A Auchtung, Tatiana Y Fofanova, Christopher J Stewart, Andrea K Nash, Matthew C Wong, Jonathan R Gesell, Jennifer M Auchtung, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino
A wide diversity of fungi have been detected in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract with the potential to provide or influence important functions. However, many of the fungi most commonly detected in stool samples are also present in food or the oral cavity. Therefore, to recognize which gut fungi are likely to have a sustained influence on human health, there is a need to separate transient members of the GI tract from true colonizers. To identify colonizing fungi, the eukaryotic rRNA operon's second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) was sequenced from the stool, saliva, and food of healthy adults following consumption of different controlled diets...
March 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531709/chemical-signaling-and-insect-attraction-is-a-conserved-trait-in-yeasts
#12
Paul G Becher, Arne Hagman, Vasiliki Verschut, Amrita Chakraborty, Elżbieta Rozpędowska, Sébastien Lebreton, Marie Bengtsson, Gerhard Flick, Peter Witzgall, Jure Piškur
Yeast volatiles attract insects, which apparently is of mutual benefit, for both yeasts and insects. However, it is unknown whether biosynthesis of metabolites that attract insects is a basic and general trait, or if it is specific for yeasts that live in close association with insects. Our goal was to study chemical insect attractants produced by yeasts that span more than 250 million years of evolutionary history and vastly differ in their metabolism and lifestyle. We bioassayed attraction of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster to odors of phylogenetically and ecologically distinct yeasts grown under controlled conditions...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515531/-nsg2-orf19-273-encoding-protein-controls-sensitivity-of-candida-albicans-to-azoles-through-regulating-the-synthesis-of-c14-methylated-sterols
#13
Quan-Zhen Lv, Yu-Lin Qin, Lan Yan, Liang Wang, Chuyue Zhang, Yuan-Ying Jiang
Antifungal azole drugs inhibit the synthesis of ergosterol and cause the accumulation of sterols containing a 14α-methyl group, which is related to the properties of cell membrane. Due to the frequent recurrence of fungal infections and clinical long-term prophylaxis, azole resistance is increasing rapidly. In our research, Nsg2p, encoded by the ORF19.273 in Candida albicans , is found to be involved in the inhibition of 14α-methylated sterols and resistance to azoles. Under the action of fluconazole, nsg2 Δ/Δ mutants are seriously damaged in the integrity and functions of cell membranes with a decrease of ergosterol ratio and an increase of both obtusifoliol and 14α-methylfecosterol ratio...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476824/functional-characterization-of-the-sporothrix-schenckii-ktr4-and-ktr5-mannosyltransferases-involved-in-the-n-linked-glycosylation-pathway
#14
Luz A López-Ramírez, Nahúm V Hernández, Nancy E Lozoya-Pérez, Leila M Lopes-Bezerra, Héctor M Mora-Montes
Sporothrix schenckii is one of the causative agents of the deep-seated mycosis sporotrichosis, a fungal infection with worldwide distribution. Fungus-specific molecules and biosynthetic pathways are potential targets for the development of new antifungal drugs. The MNT1/KRE2 gene family is a group of genes that encode fungus-specific Golgi-resident mannosyltransferases that participate in the synthesis of O-linked and N-linked glycans. While this family is composed of five and nine members in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, the S...
April 2018: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395731/evolutionary-transition-of-gal-regulatory-circuit-from-generalist-to-specialist-function-in-ascomycetes
#15
REVIEW
Baharul I Choudhury, Malcolm Whiteway
The Gal4 transcription factor (TF) controls gene expression by binding the DNA sequence motif CGG(N11 )CCG. Well studied versions regulate metabolism of glucose in Candida albicans and galactose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gal4 is also found within Aspergillus species and shows a wide range of potential binding targets. Members of the CTG clade that reassigned CUG codons from leucine to serine lack the Gal80 binding domain of Gal4, and they use the TF to regulate only glycolytic genes. In this clade, the galactose catabolic pathway (also known as the Leloir pathway) genes are regulated by Rtg1/Rtg3...
January 25, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386353/the-candida-albicans-eno1-gene-encodes-a-transglutaminase-involved-in-growth-cell-division-morphogenesis-and-osmotic-protection
#16
Elizabeth Reyna-Beltrán, María Iranzo, Karla Grisel Calderón-González, Ricardo Mondragón-Flores, María Luisa Labra-Barrios, Salvador Mormeneo, Juan Pedro Luna-Arias
Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungus that is part of the normal microflora commonly found in the human digestive tract and the normal mucosa or skin of healthy individuals. However, in immunocompromised individuals, it becomes a serious health concern and a threat to their lives and is ranked as the leading fungal infection in humans worldwide. As existing treatments for this infection are non-specific or under threat of developing resistance, there is a dire necessity to find new targets for designing specific drugs to defeat this fungus...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380641/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-based-probiotic-as-novel-anti-fungal-and-anti-inflammatory-agent-for-therapy-of-vaginal-candidiasis
#17
E Gabrielli, E Pericolini, N Ballet, E Roselletti, S Sabbatini, P Mosci, A Cayzeele Decherf, F Pélerin, S Perito, P Jüsten, A Vecchiarelli
Previously we demonstrated that the treatment with live Saccharomyces cerevisiae exerts beneficial therapeutic effects against vaginal candidiasis. Here, we address potential mechanisms particularly examining the probiotic capacity to modulate both fungus and host-related factors. We show that the S. cerevisiae-based probiotic markedly affects the expression of virulence traits of Candida albicans such as aspartyl proteinases (SAPs) as well as hyphae-associated proteins Hwp1 and Ece1 in the vaginal cavity. On the host side, the probiotic suppression of the influx of neutrophils caused by the fungus into the vaginas of the mice is likely related to: (1) lower production of interleukin-8; and (2) inhibition of SAPs expression...
February 27, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370854/dual-function-of-active-constituents-from-bark-of-ficus-racemosa-l-in-wound-healing
#18
Nisansala Swarnamali Bopage, G M Kamal Bandara Gunaherath, Kithsiri Hector Jayawardena, Sushila Chandrani Wijeyaratne, Ajita Mahendra Abeysekera, Seneviratne Somaratne
BACKGROUND: Different parts including the latex of Ficus racemosa L. has been used as a medicine for wound healing in the Ayurveda and in the indigenous system of medicine in Sri Lanka. This plant has been evaluated for its wound healing potential using animal models. The aim of this study was to obtain an insight into the wound healing process and identify the potential wound healing active substance/s present in F. racemosa L. bark using scratch wound assay (SWA) as the in-vitro assay method...
January 25, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340656/antagonistic-effect-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-ktp-and-issatchenkia-occidentalis-apc-on-hyphal-development-and-adhesion-of-candida-albicans
#19
K Lohith, K A Anu-Appaiah
The morphological transition from yeast to a hyphal form, as well as the adhesion capability to the gastrointestinal tract, are implicated virulent determinant in Candida albicans and could be potential targets for prevention of the opportunistic pathogen. Based on this rationale, two yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae KTP and Issatchenkia occidentalis ApC along with reference strain Saccharomyces boulardii NCDC 363 were screened for the probiotic potential. Characters like pH, temperature, bile, simulated gastrointestinal juice tolerance tests, and Caco-2 cell line adhesion assay were determined in the present study...
January 11, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331410/implementing-crispr-cas-technologies-in-conventional-and-non-conventional-yeasts-current-state-and-future-prospects
#20
REVIEW
Hana Raschmanová, Astrid Weninger, Anton Glieder, Karin Kovar, Thomas Vogl
Within five years, the CRISPR-Cas system has emerged as the dominating tool for genome engineering, while also changing the speed and efficiency of metabolic engineering in conventional (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and non-conventional (Yarrowia lipolytica, Pichia pastoris syn. Komagataella phaffii, Kluyveromyces lactis, Candida albicans and C. glabrata) yeasts. Especially in S. cerevisiae, an extensive toolbox of advanced CRISPR-related applications has been established, including crisprTFs and gene drives...
January 10, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
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