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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185554/evolution-of-transcriptional-networks-in-yeast-alternative-teams-of-transcriptional-factors-for-different-species
#1
Adriana Muñoz, Daniella Santos Muñoz, Aleksey Zimin, James A Yorke
BACKGROUND: The diversity in eukaryotic life reflects a diversity in regulatory pathways. Nocedal and Johnson argue that the rewiring of gene regulatory networks is a major force for the diversity of life, that changes in regulation can create new species. RESULTS: We have created a method (based on our new "ping-pong algorithm) for detecting more complicated rewirings, where several transcription factors can substitute for one or more transcription factors in the regulation of a family of co-regulated genes...
November 11, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143980/lipid-signaling-via-pkh1-2-regulates-fungal-co2-sensing-through-the-kinase-sch9
#2
Susann Pohlers, Ronny Martin, Thomas Krüger, Daniela Hellwig, Frank Hänel, Olaf Kniemeyer, Hans Peter Saluz, Patrick Van Dijck, Joachim F Ernst, Axel Brakhage, Fritz A Mühlschlegel, Oliver Kurzai
: Adaptation to alternating CO2 concentrations is crucial for all organisms. Carbonic anhydrases-metalloenzymes that have been found in all domains of life-enable fixation of scarce CO2 by accelerating its conversion to bicarbonate and ensure maintenance of cellular metabolism. In fungi and other eukaryotes, the carbonic anhydrase Nce103 has been shown to be essential for growth in air (~0.04% CO2). Expression of NCE103 is regulated in response to CO2 availability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, NCE103 is activated by the transcription factor ScCst6, and in Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, it is activated by its homologues CaRca1 and CgRca1, respectively...
January 31, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135328/blocking-two-component-signalling-enhances-candida-albicans-virulence-and-reveals-adaptive-mechanisms-that-counteract-sustained-sapk-activation
#3
Alison M Day, Deborah A Smith, Mélanie A C Ikeh, Mohammed Haider, Carmen M Herrero-de-Dios, Alistair J P Brown, Brian A Morgan, Lars P Erwig, Donna M MacCallum, Janet Quinn
The Ypd1 phosphorelay protein is a central constituent of fungal two-component signal transduction pathways. Inhibition of Ypd1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Cryptococcus neoformans is lethal due to the sustained activation of the 'p38-related' Hog1 stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK). As two-component signalling proteins are not found in animals, Ypd1 is considered to be a prime antifungal target. However, a major fungal pathogen of humans, Candida albicans, can survive the concomitant sustained activation of Hog1 that occurs in cells lacking YPD1...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107178/influence-of-structure-of-lactones-with-the-methylcyclohexene-and-dimethylcyclohexene-ring-on-their-biotransformation-and-antimicrobial-activity
#4
Katarzyna Wińska, Małgorzata Grabarczyk, Wanda Mączka, Barbara Żarowska, Gabriela Maciejewska, Mirosław Anioł
The aim of this article is influence of the structure of lactones with the methylcyclohexene and dimethylcyclohexene ring on their biotransformation and antimicrobial activity. This work was based on the general remark that even the smallest change in the structure of a compound can affect its biological properties. The results of the biotransformation of four bicyclic unsaturated lactones with one or two methyl groups in the cyclohexene ring was tested using fifteen fungal strains (Fusarium species, Penicillium species, Absidia species, Cunninghamella japonica, and Pleurotus ostreatus) and five yeast strains (Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodorula marina, Rhodorula rubra, Candida viswanathii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae)...
January 20, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090278/isolation-and-identification-of-phyllospheric-bacteria-possessing-antimicrobial-activity-from-astragalus-obtusifolius-prosopis-juliflora-xanthium-strumarium-and-hippocrepis-unisiliqousa
#5
Zohreh Mazinani, Marzieh Zamani, Soroush Sardari
BACKGROUND: The widespread utilization of antimicrobial compounds has caused emergence of resistant microorganisms in the world. Hence, the research to probe the products with antimicrobial features has led to finding natural habitats and discovering new pharmaceutical products. METHODS: In this study, an attempt was made to explore the niche of novel habitat to isolate pyllospheric bacteria from the above ground parts (stems and leaves) of Astragalus obtusifolius, Prosopis juliflora, Xanthium strumarium, and Hippocrepis unisiliqousa to evaluate their antimicrobial features...
January 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079132/critical-role-for-cafen1-and-cafen12-of-candida-albicans-in-cell-wall-integrity-and-biofilm-formation
#6
Md Alfatah, Vinay K Bari, Anubhav S Nahar, Swati Bijlani, K Ganesan
Sphingolipids are involved in several cellular functions, including maintenance of cell wall integrity. To gain insight into the role of individual genes of sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway, we have screened Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains deleted in these genes for sensitivity to cell wall perturbing agents calcofluor white and congo red. Only deletants of FEN1 and SUR4 genes were found to be sensitive to both these agents. Candida albicans strains deleted in their orthologs, CaFEN1 and CaFEN12, respectively, also showed comparable phenotypes, and a strain deleted for both these genes was extremely sensitive to cell wall perturbing agents...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071802/essential-oils-against-pathogen-and-spoilage-microorganisms-of-fruit-juices-use-of-versatile-antimicrobial-delivery-systems
#7
Valentina Trinetta, Mark T Morgan, John N Coupland, Umut Yucel
Essential oils (EO) are increasingly used as natural antimicrobial compounds, however the effect of delivery system to enhance their antimicrobial activity has not been widely studied. Limonene (0 to 10 μL/mL) was added to microbial suspensions (∼10(5) CFU/mL) of selected foodborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus), and spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus plantarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans). S...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068213/utilization-of-size-polymorphism-in-its1-and-its2-regions-for-identification-of-pathogenic-yeast-species
#8
Hossein Khodadadi, Ladan Karimi, Niloufar Jalali-Zand, Hassan Adin, Hossein Mirhendi
Despite the existence of a variety of available yeast identification strategies, easier and more cost-effective methods are required for routine use in clinical laboratories. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA genes exhibit variable sizes depending on the yeast species. In the present study, fragment size polymorphism (FSP) analysis of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions for identification of the clinically most important yeast species was assessed. The ITS1 and ITS2 regions of 190 strains, including isolates of 31 standard strains and 159 clinical isolates, were separately PCR-amplified with two primer sets: ITS1-ITS2 and ITS3-ITS4...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040776/genome-wide-screen-for-haploinsufficient-cell-size-genes-in-the-opportunistic-yeast-candida-albicans
#9
Julien Chaillot, Michael A Cook, Jacques Corbeil, Adnane Sellam
One of the most critical but still poorly understood aspects of eukaryotic cell proliferation is the basis for commitment to cell division in late G1 phase called Start in yeast and the Restriction Point in metazoans. In all species, a critical cell size threshold coordinates cell growth with cell division and thereby establishes a homeostatic cell size. While a comprehensive survey of cell size genetic determinism has been performed in the saprophytic yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, very little is known in pathogenic fungi...
December 30, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028545/characterization-of-the-candida-albicans-amino-acid-permease-family-gap2-is-the-only-general-amino-acid-permease-and-gap4-is-an-s-adenosylmethionine-sam-transporter-required-for-sam-induced-morphogenesis
#10
Lucie Kraidlova, Sanne Schrevens, Hélène Tournu, Griet Van Zeebroeck, Hana Sychrova, Patrick Van Dijck
Amino acids are key sources of nitrogen for growth of Candida albicans. In order to detect and take up these amino acids from a broad range of different and changing nitrogen sources inside the host, this fungus must be able to adapt via its expression of genes for amino acid uptake and further metabolism. We analyzed six C. albicans putative general amino acid permeases based on their homology to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gap1 general amino acid permease. We generated single- and multiple-deletion strains and found that, based on growth assays and transcriptional or posttranscriptional regulation, Gap2 is the functional orthologue to ScGap1, with broad substrate specificity...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987234/deciphering-fungal-dimorphism-farnesol-s-unanswered-questions
#11
Kenneth W Nickerson, Audrey L Atkin
Candida albicans excretes E,E-farnesol as a virulence factor and quorum sensing molecule that prevents the yeast to hyphal conversion. Polke et al. (2016) identified eed1Δ/Δ as the first farnesol hypersensitive mutant of C. albicans. eed1Δ/Δ also excretes 10X more farnesol and while able to form hyphae, it cannot maintain hyphae. This mutant enables new research into unanswered questions, including the existence of potential farnesol receptors and transporters, regulation of farnesol synthesis, and relationships among farnesol, germ tube formation and hyphal maintenance...
December 17, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871802/probiotic-normalization-of-candida-albicans-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-longitudinal-pilot-study
#12
Emily G Severance, Kristin L Gressitt, Cassie R Stallings, Emily Katsafanas, Lucy A Schweinfurth, Christina L G Savage, Maria B Adamos, Kevin M Sweeney, Andrea E Origoni, Sunil Khushalani, Faith B Dickerson, Robert H Yolken
The molecules and pathways of the gut-brain axis represent new targets for developing methods to diagnose and treat psychiatric disorders. Manipulation of the gut microbiome with probiotics may be a therapeutic strategy with the potential to relieve gastrointestinal (GI) comorbidities and improve psychiatric symptoms. Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commensal yeast species, can be imbalanced in the unhealthy human microbiome, and these fungal exposures were previously found elevated in schizophrenia...
November 18, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868254/extensive-functional-redundancy-in-the-regulation-of-candida-albicans-drug-resistance-and-morphogenesis-by-lysine-deacetylases-hos2-hda1-rpd3-and-rpd31
#13
Xinliu Li, Nicole Robbins, Teresa R O'Meara, Leah E Cowen
Current treatment efforts for fungal infections are hampered by the limited availability of antifungal drugs and by the emergence of drug resistance. A powerful strategy to enhance the efficacy of antifungal drugs is to inhibit the molecular chaperone Hsp90. Hsp90 governs drug resistance, morphogenesis and virulence in a leading fungal pathogen of humans, Candida albicans. Our previous work with Saccharomyces cerevisiae established acetylation as a novel mechanism of posttranslational control of Hsp90 function in fungi...
February 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821447/synthetic-organotellurium-compounds-sensitize-drug-resistant-candida-albicans-clinical-isolates-to-fluconazole
#14
L F Reis de Sá, F T Toledo, A C Gonçalves, B A Sousa, A A Dos Santos, P F Brasil, V A Duarte da Silva, A C Tessis, J A Ramos, M A Carvalho, E Lamping, A Ferreira-Pereira
Invasive Candida albicans infections are a serious health threat for immunocompromised individuals. Fluconazole is most commonly used to treat these infections, but resistance due to the overexpression of multidrug efflux pumps is of grave concern. This study evaluated the ability of five synthetic organotellurium compounds to reverse the fluconazole resistance of C. albicans clinical isolates. Compounds 1 to 4, at <10 μg/ml, ameliorated the fluconazole resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains overexpressing the major C...
January 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818653/dictyostelium-discoideum-as-a-novel-host-system-to-study-the-interaction-between-phagocytes-and-yeasts
#15
Barbara Koller, Christin Schramm, Susann Siebert, János Triebel, Eric Deland, Anna M Pfefferkorn, Volker Rickerts, Sascha Thewes
The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a well-established model organism to study the interaction between bacteria and phagocytes. In contrast, research using D. discoideum as a host model for fungi is rare. We describe a comprehensive study, which uses D. discoideum as a host model system to investigate the interaction with apathogenic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and pathogenic (Candida sp.) yeast. We show that Dictyostelium can be co-cultivated with yeasts on solid media, offering a convenient test to study the interaction between fungi and phagocytes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807047/candida-albicans-is-resistant-to-polyglutamine-aggregation-and-toxicity
#16
Michelle D Leach, TaeHyung Kim, Sonja E DiGregorio, Cathy Collins, Zhaolei Zhang, Martin L Duennwald, Leah E Cowen
Disruption of protein quality control can be detrimental, having toxic effects on single cell organisms and contributing to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's in humans. Here, we examined the effects of polyglutamine (polyQ) aggregation in a major fungal pathogen of humans, Candida albicans, with the goal of identifying new approaches to disable this fungus. However, we discovered that expression of polyQ stretches up to 230Q had no effect on C. albicans ability to grow and withstand proteotoxic stress...
January 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796871/trehalose-6-phosphate-as-a-potential-lead-candidate-for-the-development-of-tps1-inhibitors-insights-from-the-trehalose-biosynthesis-pathway-in-diverse-yeast-species
#17
Rayne S S Magalhães, Karina C De Lima, Diego S G de Almeida, Joelma F De Mesquita, Elis C A Eleutherio
In some pathogens, trehalose biosynthesis is induced in response to stress as a protection mechanism. This pathway is an attractive target for antimicrobials as neither the enzymes, Tps1, and Tps2, nor is trehalose present in humans. Accumulation of T6P in Candida albicans, achieved by deletion of TPS2, resulted in strong reduction of fungal virulence. In this work, the effect of T6P on Tps1 activity was evaluated. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, C. albicans, and Candida tropicalis were used as experimental models...
October 29, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790424/efficacy-of-aqueous-and-methanolic-extracts-of-rheum-spiciformis-against-pathogenic-bacterial-and-fungal-strains
#18
Khalid Bashir Dar, Aashiq Hussain Bhat, Shajrul Amin, Suhail Anees, Akbar Masood, Mohammed Iqbal Zargar, Showkat Ahmad Ganie
INTRODUCTION: Rheum spiciformis is a newly identified edible medicinal plant of genus Rheum. The plant is used to treat various diseases on traditional levels in Kashmir Valley, India. AIM: To evaluate the phytochemical screening, antibacterial and antifungal potential of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Rheum spiciformis, a traditionally used edible medicinal plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methanolic and aqueous extracts of Rheum spiciformis were tested for their antimicrobial activities against six bacterial strains namely Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli and four fungal strains Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771809/identification-of-a-second-pad1-in-brettanomyces-bruxellensis-lamap2480
#19
Camila González, Liliana Godoy, Ma Angélica Ganga
Volatile phenols are aromatic compounds produced by some yeasts of the genus Brettanomyces as defense against the toxicity of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid). The origin of these compounds in winemaking involves the sequential action of two enzymes: coumarate decarboxylase and vinylphenol reductase. The first one converts hydroxycinnamic acids into hydroxystyrenes, which are then reduced to ethyl derivatives by vinylphenol reductase. Volatile phenols derived from p-coumaric acid (4-vinylphenol and 4-ethylphenol) have been described as the major contributors to self-defeating aromas associated with stable, gouache, wet mouse, etc...
February 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768707/dom34-links-translation-to-protein-o-mannosylation
#20
Lasse van Wijlick, René Geissen, Jessica S Hilbig, Quentin Lagadec, Pilar D Cantero, Eugen Pfeifer, Mateusz Juchimiuk, Sven Kluge, Stephan Wickert, Paula Alepuz, Joachim F Ernst
In eukaryotes, Dom34 upregulates translation by securing levels of activatable ribosomal subunits. We found that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, Dom34 interacts genetically with Pmt1, a major isoform of protein O-mannosyltransferase. In C. albicans, lack of Dom34 exacerbated defective phenotypes of pmt1 mutants, while they were ameliorated by Dom34 overproduction that enhanced Pmt1 protein but not PMT1 transcript levels. Translational effects of Dom34 required the 5'-UTR of the PMT1 transcript, which bound recombinant Dom34 directly at a CA/AC-rich sequence and regulated in vitro translation...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
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