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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092865/investigations-on-the-immunosuppressive-activity-of-derivatives-of-mycophenolic-acid-in-immature-dendritic-cells
#1
Dorota Iwaszkiewicz-Grzes, Grzegorz Cholewinski, Agata Kot-Wasik, Piotr Trzonkowski, Krystyna Dzierzbicka
The main activity of mycophenolic acid 1 (MPA) and its analogs is the inhibition of proliferation of T cells. Here, we hypothesized that MPA and its conjugates inhibits also the activity of antigen-presenting cells (APC) including dendritic cells (DCs). We tested the effect of novel amino acid derivatives of MPA and conjugates of MPA with acridines/acridones on DCs by flow cytometry, ELISA and MLR assay. Both acridines/acridone derivatives could inhibit the maturation of DC, as shown by the decreased expression of B7 family receptors...
January 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092803/ox40-structure-and-function-what-questions-remain
#2
REVIEW
Jane Willoughby, Jordana Griffiths, Ivo Tews, Mark S Cragg
OX40 is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein, reported nearly 30 years ago as a cell surface antigen expressed on activated T cells. Since its discovery, it has been validated as a bone fide costimulatory molecule for T cells and member of the TNF receptor family. However, many questions still remain relating to its function on different T cell sub-sets and with recent interest in its utility as a target for antibody-mediated immunotherapy, there is a growing need to gain a better understanding of its biology...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092660/the-role-of-peripheral-immune-cells-in-the-cns-in-steady-state-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Marco Prinz, Josef Priller
The CNS is protected by the immune system, including cells that reside directly within the CNS and help to ensure proper neural function, as well as cells that traffic into the CNS with disease. The CNS-resident immune system is comprised mainly of innate immune cells and operates under homeostatic conditions. These myeloid cells in the CNS parenchyma and at CNS-periphery interfaces are highly specialized but also extremely plastic cells that immediately react to any changes in CNS homeostasis and become reactive in the context of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092402/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-are-indispensable-for-il-23-mediated-protection-against-cona-induced-hepatitis-in-hepatitis-b-virus-transgenic-mice
#4
Ziyu Meng, Jingya Wang, Yifang Yuan, Guangchao Cao, Shuobing Fan, Chao Gao, Li Wang, Zheng Li, Xiaoli Wu, Zhenzhou Wu, Liqing Zhao, Zhinan Yin
Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers are highly susceptible to liver injury triggered by environmental biochemical stimulation. Previously, we have reported an inverse correlation between γδT cells and liver damage in patients with HBV. However, whether γδT cells play a role in regulating the hypersensitivity of HBsAg carriers to biochemical stimulation-induced hepatitis is unknown. In this study, using hepatitis B virus transgenic (HBs-Tg) and HBs-Tg-TCRδ(-/-) mice, we found that mice genetically deficient in γδT cells exhibited more severe liver damage upon ConcanavalinA (ConA) treatment, as indicated by substantially higher serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, further elevated IFN-γ levels and more extensive necrosis...
January 16, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092372/direct-control-of-regulatory-t-cells-by-keratinocytes
#5
Mariko Kashiwagi, Junichi Hosoi, Jen-Feng Lai, Janice Brissette, Steven F Ziegler, Bruce A Morgan, Katia Georgopoulos
Environmental challenges to epithelial cells trigger gene expression changes that elicit context-appropriate immune responses. We found that the chromatin remodeler Mi-2β controls epidermal homeostasis by regulating the genes involved in keratinocyte and immune-cell activation to maintain an inactive state. Mi-2β depletion resulted in rapid deployment of both a pro-inflammatory and an immunosuppressive response in the skin. A key target of Mi-2β in keratinocytes is the pro-inflammatory cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)...
January 16, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092370/api5-confers-cancer-stem-cell-like-properties-through-the-fgf2-nanog-axis
#6
K-H Song, H Cho, S Kim, H-J Lee, S J Oh, S R Woo, S-O Hong, H S Jang, K H Noh, C H Choi, J-Y Chung, S M Hewitt, J-H Kim, M Son, S-H Kim, B I Lee, H-C Park, Y-K Bae, T W Kim
Immune selection drives the evolution of tumor cells toward an immune-resistant and cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype. We reported that apoptosis inhibitor-5 (API5) acts as an immune escape factor, which has a significant role in controlling immune resistance to antigen-specific T cells, but its functional association with CSC-like properties remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that API5 confers CSC-like properties, including NANOG expression, the frequency of CD44-positive cells and sphere-forming capacity...
January 16, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092350/long-term-renal-survival-in-patients-undergoing-t-cell-depleted-versus-conventional-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplants
#7
I G Glezerman, S Devlin, M Maloy, M Bui, E A Jaimes, S A Giralt, A A Jakubowski
Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-sparing T-cell depleted (TCD) hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) are presumed to be less nephrotoxic than conventional HSCTs. We evaluated incidence and risk factors for kidney failure and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in 231 TCD and 212 conventional HSCT recipients. Kidney failure required a median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) for ⩾100 days anytime after 180-days post-HSCT. Two-year cumulative incidence (CI) of kidney failure was 42% in the conventional versus 31% in the TCD group (P=0...
January 16, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092349/recipient-donor-hla-and-cmv-matching-in-recipients-of-t-cell-depleted-unrelated-donor-haematopoietic-cell-transplants
#8
B E Shaw, N P Mayor, R M Szydlo, W P Bultitude, C Anthias, K Kirkland, J Perry, A Clark, S Mackinnon, D I Marks, A Pagliuca, M N Potter, N H Russell, K Thomson, J A Madrigal, S G E Marsh
Improving haematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes by selection of an HLA-matched unrelated donor is best practice; however, donor selection by secondary characteristics is controversial. We studied 1271 recipients with haematological malignancies who underwent T-cell-depleted allografts and had complete data on HLA-matching status for six loci (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1, -DPB1) and clinical outcome data. Five-year overall survival was 40.6%. HLA mismatching (at HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1) relative risk (RR) 1...
January 16, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091904/effects-of-release-active-antibodies-to-cd4-receptor-on-the-level-of-lck-kinase-in-cultured-mononuclear-cells-from-human-peripheral-blood
#9
A G Emel'yanova, V V Grechenko, N V Petrova, I P Shilovskii, E A Gorbunov, S A Tarasov, M R Khaitov, S G Morozov, O I Epshtein
For evaluation of effects of release-active antibodies to CD4 on cultured lymphocytes from human peripheral blood, we measured intracellular content of lck-kinase cell-based ELISA. In cells treated with release-active antibodies to CD4, the content of intracellular lck-kinase significantly (p<0.01) decreased in comparison with the control (purified water processed in a similar way). Phytohemagglutinin had no effect on the concentration of lck-kinase in cells. The decrease in the content of CD4-associated lck protein suggests that the preparation enhanced intracellular coupling of lck-kinase with T-cell receptor and potentiated T-cell immune response...
January 14, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091781/a-semifluorinated-alkane-f4h5-as-novel-carrier-for-cyclosporine-a-a-promising-therapeutic-and-prophylactic-option-for-topical-treatment-of-dry-eye
#10
Uta Gehlsen, Tobias Braun, Maria Notara, Sonja Krösser, Philipp Steven
PURPOSE: Cyclosporine A (Cs) has been used as effective topical therapy for inflammatory dry eye disease since more than a decade. However, due to its lipophilic character, Cs is formulated as emulsions or oily solutions for topical application. This experimental study aimed to test if the use of semifluorinated alkanes (SFAs) as a preservative-free, well-tolerated non-stinging or burning vehicle maintains or even improves the benefits of Cs in the topical therapy of dry-eye disease. METHODS: Desiccating stress was applied to C57BL/6 mice for 14 consecutive days to induce experimental dry-eye...
January 14, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091735/comprehensive-assessment-of-peripheral-blood-tcr%C3%AE-repertoire-in-infectious-mononucleosis-and-chronic-active-ebv-infection-patients
#11
Shenglin Liu, Qian Zhang, Dongli Huang, Wenli Zhang, Fengluan Zhong, Jia Feng, Xueru Chen, Qingxiang Meng, Xiaofan Chen, Wei Zhang, Hongyu Zhang
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) primary infection is usually asymptomatic, but it sometimes progresses to infectious mononucleosis (IM). Occasionally, some people develop chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) with underlying immunodeficiency, which belongs to a continuous spectrum of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV(+) LPD) with heterogeneous clinical presentations and high mortality. It has been well established that T cell-mediated immune response plays a critical role in the disease evolution of EBV infection...
January 14, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091576/adjuvant-and-carrier-protein-dependent-t-cell-priming-promotes-a-robust-antibody-response-against-the-plasmodium-falciparum-pfs25-vaccine-candidate
#12
Andrea J Radtke, Charles F Anderson, Nicolas Riteau, Kelly Rausch, Puthupparampil Scaria, Emily R Kelnhofer, Randall F Howard, Alan Sher, Ronald N Germain, Patrick Duffy
Humoral immune responses have the potential to maintain protective antibody levels for years due to the immunoglobulin-secreting activity of long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs). However, many subunit vaccines under development fail to generate robust LLPC responses, and therefore a variety of strategies are being employed to overcome this limitation, including conjugation to carrier proteins and/or formulation with potent adjuvants. Pfs25, an antigen expressed on malaria zygotes and ookinetes, is a leading transmission blocking vaccine (TBV) candidate for Plasmodium falciparum...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091550/imbalance-of-th17-treg-cells-in-pathogenesis-of-patients-with-human-leukocyte-antigen-b27-associated-acute-anterior-uveitis
#13
Zhenchao Zhuang, Yuqin Wang, Gejing Zhu, Yunfeng Gu, Liping Mao, Meng Hong, Yali Li, Meiqin Zheng
Th17 and regulatory T cells, involved in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, are new lineages of CD4+ T helper cells. However, the role of their imbalance in human leukocyte antigen B27-associated acute anterior uveitis has not been elucidated. In our study, the percentages of Th17 and Treg cells, their molecular markers and related factors in peripheral blood of patients and healthy controls were measured by flow cytometry, real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. We observed a remarkable increase of CD4+ and CD4+IL-17+ T cells in peripheral blood of patients compared to controls...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090796/impact-of-c-rel-inhibition-of-cord-blood-derived-b-t-and-nk-cells
#14
Shirin Fallahi, Seyede Momeneh Mohammadi, Hamid Tayefi Nasrabadi, Alireza Alihemmati, Naser Samadi, Sanaz Gholami, Dariush Shanehbandi, Hojjatollah Nozad Charoudeh
The c-Rel transcription factor is a unique member of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB family that has a role in curtailing the proliferation, differentiation, cytokine production, and overall activity of B- and T-cells. In addition, c-Rel is a key regulator of apoptosis in that it influences the expression of anti-apoptotic genes such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL; conversely, inhibition of c-Rel increases cell apoptosis. To better understand the relationship between c-Rel expression and effects on B- and T-cell expansion, the current study evaluated c-Rel expression in cord blood mononuclear cells...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090785/thymic-cytoarchitecture-changes-in-mice-exposed-to-vanadium
#15
Martha Ustarroz-Cano, Isabel Garcia-Pelaez, Silvana Cervantes-Yepez, Nelly Lopez-Valdez, Teresa I Fortoul
The thymus is a vital immune system organ wherein selection of T-lymphocytes occurs in a process regulated by dendritic and epithelial thymic cells. Previously, we have reported that in a mouse model of vanadium inhalation, a decrease in CD11c dendritic cells was observed. In the present study, we report on a thymic cortex-medulla distribution distortion in these hosts due to apparent effects of the inhaled vanadium on cytokeratin-5 (K5(+)) epithelial cells in the same mouse model - after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of exposure - by immunohistochemistry...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090624/current-strategies-for-the-immunotherapy-of-multiple-myeloma
#16
REVIEW
Tim Luetkens, Sara Yousef, Sabarinath Venniyil Radhakrishnan, Djordje Atanackovic
The introduction of cellular immunotherapies using genetically modified T cells has revolutionized the treatment of patients with B-cell lymphomas. However, despite the progress made in this field, similarly effective immunotherapeutic approaches have not yet been identified for patients with solid tumors or other hematologic malignancies such as multiple myeloma. Here we outline the most promising novel cellular immune strategies for patients with multiple myeloma. In addition, we highlight combinatorial approaches that, it is hoped, will further optimize cellular immunotherapies for myeloma and lead to deep and durable responses and, possibly, even cures...
January 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090369/belinostat-for-relapsed-or-refractory-peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma
#17
REVIEW
Katelyn Hood, Arpita Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090323/high-thioredoxin-1-levels-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-diminish-binding-and-signalling-of-the-monoclonal-antibody-tregalizumab
#18
Katharina Heim, Benjamin Dälken, Stefanie Faust, Faiza Rharbaoui, Andre Engling, Holger Wallmeier, Theodor Dingermann, Heinfried H Radeke, Jörg Schüttrumpf, Marcus Gutscher
The humanized non-depleting anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody Tregalizumab (BT-061) is able to selectively activate the suppressive function of regulatory T cells and has been investigated up to phase IIb in clinical trials in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model based on clinical data from RA and healthy volunteers, which used the cell surface CD4 downmodulation as marker of activity, confirmed a stronger effect in healthy volunteers compared with RA patients...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090322/vaccination-to-gain-humoral-immune-memory
#19
REVIEW
Jana Sarkander, Shintaro Hojyo, Koji Tokoyoda
The concept of immune memory forms the biological basis for vaccination programs. Despite advancements in the field of immune memory and vaccination, most current vaccines are evaluated by magnitude of antigen-specific antibody titers in serum or mucosa after vaccination. It has been shown, however, that antibody-mediated humoral immune memory is established regardless of the magnitude and duration of immune reactions, suggesting that assessment of vaccine efficacy should be performed for several years after vaccination...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090321/gm-csf-signalling-blockade-and-chemotherapeutic-agents-act-in-concert-to-inhibit-the-function-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-vitro
#20
Tessa Gargett, Susan N Christo, Timothy R Hercus, Nazim Abbas, Nimit Singhal, Angel F Lopez, Michael P Brown
Immune evasion is a recently defined hallmark of cancer, and immunotherapeutic approaches that stimulate an immune response to tumours are gaining recognition. However tumours may evade the immune response and resist immune-targeted treatment by promoting an immune-suppressive environment and stimulating the differentiation or recruitment of immunosuppressive cells. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have been identified in a range of cancers and are often associated with tumour progression and poor patient outcomes...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
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