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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545247/how-does-psychosocial-behavior-contribute-to-cognitive-health-in-old-age
#1
Robert S Wilson, David A Bennett
With the aging of the U.S. population, the number of cognitively disabled persons is expected to substantially increase in coming decades, underscoring the urgent need for effective interventions. Here, we review the current evidence linking psychosocial factors to late-life cognitive loss and consider the study design needed to illuminate the biologic bases of the associations. We then examine an ongoing study that includes several of the key design elements, the Rush Memory and Aging Project. In this longitudinal clinical-pathological cohort study, indicators of personality, social connectedness, and psychological well-being were shown to predict late-life cognitive outcomes...
May 23, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545198/assessing-breast-cancer-awareness-in-thai-women-validation-of-the-breast-cancer-awareness-scale-b-cas
#2
Nitchamon Rakkapao, Supannee Promthet, Malcolm Anthony Moore, Solikhah Solikhah, Cameron Hurst
Background: Raising breast cancer awareness is a well-established first line strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality. A properly validated instrument is needed to gain a better understanding of breast cancer awareness. Objective: The objective of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to assess breast cancer awareness in Thai women. Methods: In this study, we develop and evaluate the validity of the Breast Cancer Awareness Scale (B-CAS). Construct validity was evaluated by using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, and criterion validity was investigated using ROC curves to examine the associations between B-CAS subscales and breast self-examination...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545193/synthesis-characterization-and-cytotoxic-evaluation-of-graphene-oxide-nanosheets-in-vitro-liver-cancer-model
#3
Samah A Loutfy, Taher A Salaheldin, Marwa A Ramadan, Khaled Yehia Farroh, Zeinab F Abdallah, Tareq Youssef Abd Eloahed
Background: Graphene nanosheets have a broad spectrum of biomedical applications. Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is a major health problem in the Egyptian population. Currently, treatment strategies are invasive and have several adverse side effects. Thus, other approaches are required for managing this aggressive type of cancer. Our objective here was to prepare and characterize graphene oxide nanosheets and evaluate cytotoxic effect at the molecular level in an in vitro human liver cancer cell model (HepG2)...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545099/fine-particles-in-homes-of-predominantly-low-income-families-with-children-and-smokers-key-physical-and-behavioral-determinants-to-inform-indoor-air-quality-interventions
#4
Neil E Klepeis, John Bellettiere, Suzanne C Hughes, Benjamin Nguyen, Vincent Berardi, Sandy Liles, Saori Obayashi, C Richard Hofstetter, Elaine Blumberg, Melbourne F Hovell
Children are at risk for adverse health outcomes from occupant-controllable indoor airborne contaminants in their homes. Data are needed to design residential interventions for reducing low-income children's pollutant exposure. Using customized air quality monitors, we continuously measured fine particle counts (0.5 to 2.5 microns) over a week in living areas of predominantly low-income households in San Diego, California, with at least one child (under age 14) and at least one cigarette smoker. We performed retrospective interviews on home characteristics, and particle source and ventilation activities occurring during the week of monitoring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544672/providing-end-of-life-care-in-disability-community-living-services-an-organizational-capacity-building-model-using-a-public-health-approach
#5
Andrea Grindrod, Bruce Rumbold
BACKGROUND: There is broad consensus within the disability field that the end-of-life care offered to people with intellectual disabilities should be of a quality consistent with that advocated by contemporary palliative care. In practice, however, various barriers are encountered when applying palliative care strategies to the end-of-life care of people with intellectual disabilities, particularly those in disability community living services. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach was used...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544608/screening-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-do-guidelines-provide-enough-guidance
#6
REVIEW
B G P Koot, V Nobili
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the industrialized world in children. Its high prevalence and important health risks make NAFLD highly suitable for screening. In practice, screening is widely, albeit not consistently, performed. AIM: To review the recommendations on screening for NAFLD in children. METHOD: Recommendations on screening were reviewed from major paediatric obesity guidelines and NAFLD guidelines...
May 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544554/concept-analysis-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#7
Bikram Sekhon
PURPOSE: Mental health nursing is not the same as psychiatry, so it is important for nurses to have an understanding of the defining attributes, antecedents, consequences, model cases, and empirical referents of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: Walker and Avant's (2005) method is used to guide this concept analysis of PTSD. FINDINGS: Four attributes arise from this concept analysis, which are addressed through both the DSM-IV and DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, /): triggering event or events, re-experiencing, fear, and helplessness...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Knowledge
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544416/global-analysis-of-strategies-to-tackle-antimicrobial-resistance
#8
Funke Adeniji
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health issue driven by inappropriate use of antimicrobials resulting in decreased efficacy on the background of an extremely limited pipeline for new antibiotics. We sought to analyse the effectiveness of key policies and strategies in tackling AMR globally and identify gaps in these. METHOD: The scope, magnitude, history and drivers of AMR were reviewed using supporting evidence. Our methodology included a literature review and semi-structured survey, whilst the analyses process was guided by an adapted health policy analyses framework...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544356/older-people-s-experiences-of-falling-and-perceived-risk-of-falls-in-the-community-a-narrative-synthesis-of-qualitative-research
#9
REVIEW
Siobhan Gardiner, Margaret Glogowska, Catherine Stoddart, Sarah Pendlebury, Daniel Lasserson, Debra Jackson
AIM: To examine qualitative research exploring older people's experiences of falling and the perceived risk of falling in the community. This will contribute new insights into how falling is perceived by the older community. BACKGROUND: Falls are a major problem for older people and healthcare services across the world. Accidental falls in the community are a persistent problem that is generally recognised as an intrinsic risk of ageing. This review provides a new synthesis of evidence that considers older people's perception of falls in the community as new insights are needed if the increasing problems of falls are to be addressed...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Older People Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544130/adaptation-of-a-scale-to-measure-coping-strategies-in-informal-primary-caregivers-a-case-of-validation-with-small-samples
#10
Francisco Javier Rosas-Santiago, María Luisa Marván Garduño, Roberto Lagunes-Córdoba
BACKGROUND: The recovery process of a psychiatric patient is related to his primary informal caregiver's style of coping with stress. There is insufficient literature on validations of instruments that measure coping styles in this population. OBJECTIVE: To adapt and validate a scale to measure coping strategies in primary informal caregivers. METHOD: The adapted scale was based on the Extreme Coping Scale of López-Vázquez and Marván. Items from that scale were adapted for application to informal caregivers...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544076/challenges-in-measuring-individual-differences-in-functional-connectivity-using-fmri-the-case-of-healthy-aging
#11
Linda Geerligs, Kamen A Tsvetanov, Cam-Can, Richard N Henson
Many studies report individual differences in functional connectivity, such as those related to age. However, estimates of connectivity from fMRI are confounded by other factors, such as vascular health, head motion and changes in the location of functional regions. Here, we investigate the impact of these confounds, and pre-processing strategies that can mitigate them, using data from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing & Neuroscience (www.cam-can.com). This dataset contained two sessions of resting-state fMRI from 214 adults aged 18-88...
May 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544066/type-2-diabetes-and-glucose-intolerance-in-a-population-with-intellectual-disabilities-the-stop-diabetes-cross-sectional-screening-study
#12
A J Dunkley, F Tyrer, L J Gray, S Bhaumik, R Spong, Y Chudasama, S-A Cooper, S Ganghadaran, M Davies, K Khunti
BACKGROUND: Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) may be at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, due to lifestyle factors, medications and other diagnosed conditions. Currently, there is lack of evidence on prevalence and prevention in this population. The aim of this study was to conduct a diabetes screening programme to determine prevalence of previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose regulation in people with ID. METHODS: Screening was conducted in a variety of community settings in Leicestershire, UK...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543873/effect-of-surgery-vs-observation-skeletal-5-year-outcomes-in-a-randomized-trial-of-patients-with-primary-hpt-the-siph-study
#13
Karolina Lundstam, Ansgar Heck, Kristin Godang, Charlotte Mollerup, Marek Baranowski, Ylva Pernow, Turid Aas, Ola Hessman, Thord Rosén, Jörgen Nordenström, Svante Jansson, Mikael Hellström, Jens Bollerslev
Mild primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is known to affect the skeleton, even though patients usually are asymptomatic. Treatment strategies have been widely discussed. However, long-term randomized studies comparing parathyroidectomy to observation are lacking. The objective was to study the effect of parathyroidectomy (PTX) compared to observation (OBS) on bone mineral density (BMD) in g/cm(2) and T-scores, and on biochemical markers of bone turnover (P1NP and CTX-1), in a prospective randomized controlled study of patients with mild PHPT after 5 years of follow-up...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543651/the-past-present-and-future-of-mexico-s-national-bioethics-commission
#14
Manuel Ruiz de Chavez, Aidee Orozco, Gustavo Olaiz
The establishment of Mexico's National Bioethics Commission (Comisión Nacional de Bioética), in 1992, was conceived within the context of a global movement aimed at raising awareness of the ethical implications of technological and scientific development, especially in biomedicine. In 2005, a new decree put the commission under the scope of the Secretariat of Health and granted it technical and operational autonomy, allowing it to become a regulatory agency aimed at promoting a culture of bioethics, encouraging reflection on human health, and developing guidelines for health care, research, and education, through a global, secular, and democratic perspective...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543585/a-score-test-for-genetic-class-level-association-with-nonlinear-biomarker-trajectories
#15
Jing Qian, Sara Nunez, Soohyun Kim, Muredach P Reilly, Andrea S Foulkes
Emerging data suggest that the genetic regulation of the biological response to inflammatory stress may be fundamentally different to the genetic underpinning of the homeostatic control (resting state) of the same biological measures. In this paper, we interrogate this hypothesis using a single-SNP score test and a novel class-level testing strategy to characterize protein-coding gene and regulatory element-level associations with longitudinal biomarker trajectories in response to stimulus. Using the proposed class-level association score statistic for longitudinal data, which accounts for correlations induced by linkage disequilibrium, the genetic underpinnings of evoked dynamic changes in repeatedly measured biomarkers are investigated...
May 23, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543428/health-workforce-characteristics-quality-of-life-and-intention-to-leave-the-fit-for-the-future-survey-of-australian-nurses-and-midwives
#16
Lin Perry, Xiaoyue Xu, Christine Duffield, Robyn Gallagher, Rachel Nicholls, David Sibbritt
AIM: To examine the quality of life of nurses and midwives in New South Wales, Australia and compare values with those of the Australian general population; to determine the influence of workforce, health and work life characteristics on quality of life and its effect on workforce intention to leave. BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined nurses' and midwives' quality of life and little is known of its effects on workforce longevity. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2014-2015...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543391/medication-discrepancies-in-the-dental-record-and-impact-of-pharmacist-led-intervention
#17
Hailey J Choi, Autumn L Stewart, Chunhao Tu
BACKGROUND: Patients frequently use medications with potential implications for oral health and dental procedures, yet little is known about the accuracy of medication lists available to dentists. The aims of this study were to describe the frequency and clinical implications of medication discrepancies in the dental record (phase 1) and to evaluate the impact of pharmacist intervention on medication reconciliation processes in dental practice (phase 2). METHODS: A prospective, single-centre study evaluating adults receiving dental care was conducted...
May 20, 2017: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543355/nurse-versus-physician-led-care-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-trials
#18
REVIEW
Fengqiu Gong, Xiaojun Chen, Yaoye Wu, Dianye Yao, Lihong Xie, Qiuyi Ouyang, Ping Wang, Gang Niu
AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of nurse-led care for obstructive sleep apnoea compared with physician-led care. BACKGROUND: The incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea is increasing worldwide. There is a need for cost-effective care models to ease off the pressure on tertiary care centres and divert care to the community. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: We searched major electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, HMIC, PsycINFO, Health Business Elite and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials CENTRAL) from inception till December 2016 using a structured search strategy for all randomised trials evaluating nurse-led treatment interventions for adults with obstructive sleep apnoea compared with physician-led ones...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543269/building-expert-agreement-on-the-importance-and-feasibility-of-workplace-health-promotion-interventions-for-nurses-and-midwives-a-modified-delphi-consultation
#19
Lin Perry, Rachel Nicholls, Christine Duffield, Robyn Gallagher
AIM: To use a Delphi panel to determine the relative importance and feasibility of workplace health promotion interventions to promote and support the health of the Australian nursing and midwifery workforce BACKGROUND: The nursing workforce experiences rates of ill health above that of other workforces yet there is little investment in workplace health promotion. DESIGN: The study used a modified Delphi design conducted between September - November 2015. METHODS: Eleven of 19 purposively selected expert panellists discussed, rated and provided feedback through two rounds of an electronic questionnaire about the relative importance and feasibility of 46 workplace health promotion interventions and processes for nurses and midwives...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543168/a-new-tool-to-tackle-the-opioid-epidemic-description-utility-and-results-from-the-maine-diversion-alert-program
#20
Brian J Piper, Clare E Desrosiers, Harriet C Fisher, Kenneth L McCall, Stephanie D Nichols
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The opioid epidemic continues to impact the United States, and new strategies are needed to combat this epidemic. The objective of this study was to analyze 2015 drug arrest data from Maine's Diversion Alert program (diversionalert. org), compare arrest data between the first quarters of 2015 and 2016, and provide an analysis of the sex differences in the arrests as well as information about DA use. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based, descriptive study using data from the Maine Diversion Alert Program...
May 19, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
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