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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088616/patient-agency-and-contested-notions-of-disability-in-social-assistance-applications-in-south-africa
#1
Gabrielle Kelly
Problems in fairly allocating welfare and health resources are very often located in the spaces where citizens interact directly with state workers. This study draws on observations of doctor-patient encounters in disability assessments for the South African disability grant (DG) to examine how doctor-patient interactions and patient agency shape social welfare allocation in a context of high poverty and inequality. Data were gathered via interviews with healthcare workers and observations of doctor-patient interactions in twelve clinics and three hospitals in the Western Cape province between October 2013 and August 2014...
January 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088253/integration-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-and-western-medicine-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#2
EDITORIAL
Wen-Jian Wang, Teng Zhang
Precision medicine has received growing recognition from clinicians, health systems, and the pharmaceutical industry, as well as patients and policymakers, which will leave a major impact on the practice of medicine. Interestingly, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) provides personalized medical treatment based on the theory of TCM characterized by holistic concept and pattern differentiation. This, to some extent, is similar to the personalized medical treatment of precision medicine. In China, TCM as well as Western medicine (WM) plays an important role in healthcare...
January 2017: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088199/strategies-to-reduce-the-stigma-toward-people-with-mental-disorders-in-iran-stakeholders-perspectives
#3
Arsia Taghva, Zahra Farsi, Yavar Javanmard, Afsaneh Atashi, Ahmad Hajebi, Ahmad Ali Noorbala
BACKGROUND: Stigma affects all aspects of mental disorders, and is the most important risk factor for promoting mental health. The aim of this study was to explore strategies effective in reducing the stigma toward people with mental disorders in Iran. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted from 2013 to 2016. All participants were recruited by purposive sampling method. The majority of them were stakeholders of mental health in Iran. Data were collected through eight individual interviews, two focus groups, and six written narratives...
January 14, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088067/tuning-neural-circuits-by-turning-the-interneuron-knob
#4
REVIEW
Nathalie Dehorter, Nicolás Marichal, Oscar Marín, Benedikt Berninger
Interneurons play a critical role in sculpting neuronal circuit activity and their dysfunction can result in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. To temporally structure and balance neuronal activity in the adult brain interneurons display a remarkable degree of subclass-specific plasticity, of which the underlying molecular mechanisms have recently begun to be elucidated. Grafting new interneurons to pre-existing neuronal networks allows for amelioration of circuit dysfunction in rodent models of neurological disease and can reopen critical windows for circuit plasticity...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088058/has-the-symptom-severity-inclusion-requirement-narrowed-the-definition-of-major-depressive-disorder-in-antidepressant-efficacy-trials
#5
Mark Zimmerman, Emily Walsh, Iwona Chelminski, Kristy Dalrymple
BACKGROUND: The inclusion criteria of all placebo-controlled studies of antidepressants have required a minimum level of severity on standardized measures of symptoms of depression. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project we examined the association between scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the number of criteria met for MDD, as well as the impact of different HAMD cutoff scores on the distribution of the number of DSM-IV criteria met...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088008/instruments-evaluating-the-quality-of-the-clinical-learning-environment-in-nursing-education-a-systematic-review-of-psychometric-properties
#6
REVIEW
Irene Mansutti, Luisa Saiani, Luca Grassetti, Alvisa Palese
BACKGROUND: The clinical learning environment is fundamental to nursing education paths, capable of affecting learning processes and outcomes. Several instruments have been developed in nursing education, aimed at evaluating the quality of the clinical learning environments; however, no systematic review of the psychometric properties and methodological quality of these studies has been performed to date. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were: 1) to identify validated instruments evaluating the clinical learning environments in nursing education; 2) to evaluate critically the methodological quality of the psychometric property estimation used; and 3) to compare psychometric properties across the instruments available...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087804/clinical-selection-strategies-to-identify-ischemic-stroke-patients-with-large-anterior-vessel-occlusion-results-from-sits-istr-safe-implementation-of-thrombolysis-in-stroke-international-stroke-thrombolysis-registry
#7
Jan F Scheitz, Azmil H Abdul-Rahim, Rachael L MacIsaac, Charith Cooray, Heidi Sucharew, Dawn Kleindorfer, Pooja Khatri, Joseph P Broderick, Heinrich J Audebert, Niaz Ahmed, Nils Wahlgren, Matthias Endres, Christian H Nolte, Kennedy R Lees
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) correlates with presence of large anterior vessel occlusion (LAVO). However, the application of the full NIHSS in the prehospital setting to select patients eligible for treatment with thrombectomy is limited. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of simple clinical selection strategies. METHODS: Data from the Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke International Stroke Thrombolysis Registry (January 2012-May 2014) were analyzed retrospectively...
January 13, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087612/biofilm-formation-and-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-cows-with-mastitis-in-argentina
#8
Mariela E Srednik, Yannick D N Tremblay, Josée Labrie, Marie Archambault, Mario Jacques, Fernández Cirelli Alicia, Elida R Gentilini
Mastitis affects the health and welfare of dairy cows worldwide. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are known to form biofilms and are increasingly recognized as a cause of persistent bovine intramammary infections. A total of 90 CNS isolated from cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis in Argentina from 2008-2014 were identified by PCR-RFLP using the gap gene. Standard microtiter plate assays were used to assess CNS biofilm formation and Staphylococcus haemolyticus species formed the strongest biofilms...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087585/standard-based-comprehensive-detection-of-adverse-drug-reaction-signals-from-nursing-statements-and-laboratory-results-in-electronic-health-records
#9
Suehyun Lee, Jiyeob Choi, Hun-Sung Kim, Grace Juyun Kim, Kye Hwa Lee, Chan Hee Park, Jongsoo Han, Dukyong Yoon, Man Young Park, Rae Woong Park, Hye-Ryun Kang, Ju Han Kim
OBJECTIVE: We propose 2 Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities-enabled pharmacovigilance algorithms, MetaLAB and MetaNurse, powered by a per-year meta-analysis technique and improved subject sampling strategy. MATRIALS AND METHODS: This study developed 2 novel algorithms, MetaLAB for laboratory abnormalities and MetaNurse for standard nursing statements, as significantly improved versions of our previous electronic health record (EHR)-based pharmacovigilance method, called CLEAR...
January 13, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087551/cost-effectiveness-of-superficial-femoral-artery-endovascular-interventions-in-the-uk-and-germany-a-modelling-study
#10
Benjamin C Kearns, Steven M Thomas
OBJECTIVES: To assess the lifetime costs and cost-effectiveness of 5 endovascular interventions to treat superficial femoral arterial disease. DESIGN: A model-based health economic evaluation. An existing decision analytical model was used, with updated effectiveness data taken from the literature, and updated costs based on purchasing prices. SETTING: UK and German healthcare perspectives were considered. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with intermittent claudication of the femoropopliteal arteries eligible for endovascular treatment...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087549/engaging-stakeholders-and-target-groups-in-prioritising-a-public-health-intervention-the-creating-active-school-environments-case-online-delphi-study
#11
Katie L Morton, Andrew J Atkin, Kirsten Corder, Marc Suhrcke, David Turner, Esther M F van Sluijs
OBJECTIVES: Stakeholder engagement and public involvement are considered as integral to developing effective public health interventions and is encouraged across all phases of the research cycle. However, limited guidelines and appropriate tools exist to facilitate stakeholder engagement-especially during the intervention prioritisation phase. We present the findings of an online 'Delphi' study that engaged stakeholders (including young people) in the process of prioritising secondary school environment-focused interventions that aim to increase physical activity...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087545/predictors-of-public-support-for-nutrition-focused-policy-systems-and-environmental-change-strategies-in-los-angeles-county-2013
#12
Brenda Robles, Tony Kuo
BACKGROUND: Since 2010, federal and local agencies have invested broadly in a variety of nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change (PSE) initiatives in Los Angeles County (LAC). To date, little is known about whether the public supports such efforts. We address this gap in the literature by examining predictors of support for a variety of PSEs. METHODS: Voters residing in LAC (n=1007) were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional telephone survey commissioned by the LAC Department of Public Health...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087544/children-s-experiences-of-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-cfs-me-a-systematic-review-and-meta-ethnography-of-qualitative-studies
#13
Roxanne M Parslow, Sarah Harris, Jessica Broughton, Adla Alattas, Esther Crawley, Kirstie Haywood, Alison Shaw
OBJECTIVE: To synthesis the qualitative studies of children's experiences of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-ethnography. BACKGROUND: CFS/ME is an important disabling illness, with uncertain cause and prognosis. As a result, children with CFS/ME can find themselves living with greater uncertainty and stigma, exacerbating the impact of the condition. There is a growing body of qualitative research in CFS/ME, yet there has been no attempt to systematically synthesis the studies involving children...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087467/positive-childhood-experiences-and-ideal-cardiovascular-health-in-midlife-associations-and-mediators
#14
Natalie Slopen, Ying Chen, Jennifer L Guida, Michelle A Albert, David R Williams
In 2010, the American Heart Association introduced a new conceptual framework to encourage a focus on primary prevention and provided a definition for "ideal cardiovascular health". In this study we examined the relationship between positive childhood experience and ideal cardiovascular health in mid-life, and the extent to which education, depression, and social support mediate this association. Data are from participants in the Midlife and Aging in the United States study who completed a clinic-based assessment of health (N=1255, aged 34-84years, 2004-2005)...
January 10, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087268/a-review-of-effective-youth-engagement-strategies-for-mental-health-and-substance-use-interventions
#15
REVIEW
Tom Dunne, Lisa Bishop, Susan Avery, Stephen Darcy
The majority of adult mental health and substance use (MH&SU) conditions emerge in adolescence. Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment programs targeting this age group have a unique opportunity to significantly impact the well-being of the future generation of adults. At the same time, youth are reluctant to seek treatment and have high rates of dropout from interventions. An emphasis on youth engagement in prevention and treatment interventions for MH&SU results in better health outcomes for those youth. This literature review was undertaken to evaluate opportunities to improve youth engagement in MH&SU programs...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087222/revisiting-the-refeeding-syndrome-results-of-a-systematic-review
#16
Natalie Friedli, Zeno Stanga, Lubos Sobotka, Alison Culkin, Jens Kondrup, Alessandro Laviano, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
OBJECTIVE: Although described >70 y ago, the refeeding syndrome (RFS) remains understudied with lack of standardized definition and treatment recommendations. The aim of this systematic review was to gather evidence regarding standardized definition, incidence rate and time course of occurrence, association with adverse clinical outcomes, risk factors, and therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat this condition. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for interventional and observational clinical trials focusing on RFS, excluding case reports and reviews...
June 8, 2016: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087163/clinical-studies-of-ex-vivo-expansion-to-accelerate-engraftment-after-umbilical-cord-blood-transplantation-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Jeffrey Kiernan, Pauline Damien, Madeline Monaghan, Risa Shorr, Lauralyn McIntyre, Dean Fergusson, Alan Tinmouth, David Allan
Cell dose limits greater use of umbilical cord blood (UCB) in hematopoietic cell transplantation. The clinical benefits of ex vivo expansion need clarity to understand its potential impact. A systematic search of studies addressing UCB ex vivo expansion was conducted. Fifteen clinical studies (349 transplanted patients) and 13 registered trials were identified. The co-infusion of an expanded unit and a second unmanipulated unit (8 studies), the fractional expansion of 12% to 60% of a single unit (5 studies), and the infusion of a single expanded unit (2 studies) were reported...
December 23, 2016: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087129/childhood-maltreatment-and-unprotected-sex-among-female-juvenile-offenders-evidence-of-mediation-by-substance-abuse-and-psychological-distress
#18
Kristen Clements-Nolle, Sandra Larson, Aliya Buttar, Lindsey Dermid-Gray
PURPOSE: Research has shown that childhood maltreatment is associated with sexual risk taking among female juvenile offenders; however, the mechanisms by which maltreatment influences sexual risk remain poorly understood. We assessed whether substance abuse, psychological distress, and dating violence mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and unprotected sex. METHODS: Sexually active female juvenile offenders (13-17 years of age) completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews (n = 232)...
January 10, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087090/quantifying-exposure-of-wild-bumblebees-to-mixtures-of-agrochemicals-in-agricultural-and-urban-landscapes
#19
Cristina Botías, Arthur David, Elizabeth M Hill, Dave Goulson
The increased use of pesticides has caused concern over the possible direct association of exposure to combinations of these compounds with bee health problems. There is growing proof that bees are regularly exposed to mixtures of agrochemicals, but most research has been focused on managed bees living in farmland, whereas little is known about exposure of wild bees, both in farmland and urban habitats. To determine exposure of wild bumblebees to pesticides in agricultural and urban environments through the season, specimens of five different species were collected from farms and ornamental urban gardens in three sampling periods...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086983/mailed-hpv-self-sampling-for-cervical-cancer-screening-among-underserved-minority-women-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Erin Kobetz, Julia Seay, Anthony Amofah, Larry Pierre, Jordan Baeker Bispo, Dinah Trevil, Martha Gonzalez, Martine Poitevien, Tulay Koru-Sengul, Olveen Carrasquillo
BACKGROUND: Underserved ethnic minority women experience significant disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality, mainly due to lack of cervical cancer screening. Barriers to Pap smear screening include lack of knowledge, lack of health insurance and access, and cultural beliefs regarding disease prevention. In our previous SUCCESS trial, we demonstrated that HPV self-sampling delivered by a community health worker (CHW) is efficacious in circumventing these barriers. This approach increased screening uptake relative to navigation to Pap smear screening...
January 13, 2017: Trials
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