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tumor budding colorectal

Jeong Mo Bae, Jung Ho Kim, Hyeon Jeong Oh, Hye Eun Park, Tae Hun Lee, Nam-Yun Cho, Gyeong Hoon Kang
Acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 is an emerging key enzyme for cancer metabolism, which supplies acetyl-CoA for tumor cells by capturing acetate as a carbon source under stressed conditions. However, implications of acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 in colorectal carcinoma may differ from other malignancies, because normal colonocytes use short-chain fatty acids as an energy source, which are supplied by fermentation of the intestinal flora. Here we analyzed acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 mRNA expression by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR in paired normal mucosa and tumor tissues of 12 colorectal carcinomas, and subsequently evaluated acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in 157 premalignant colorectal lesions, including 60 conventional adenomas and 97 serrated polyps, 1,106 surgically resected primary colorectal carcinomas, and 23 metastatic colorectal carcinomas in the liver...
October 7, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Reetesh K Pai, Yuwei Chen, Maureen A Jakubowski, Bonnie L Shadrach, Thomas P Plesec, Rish K Pai
Submucosally invasive colorectal carcinoma (pT1) has the potential to be cured by local excision. In US surgical intervention is reserved for tumors with high-grade morphology, lymphvascular invasion, and close/positive margin. In other countries, particularly Japan, surgical therapy is also recommended for mucinous tumors, tumors with >1000 μm of submucosal invasion, and those with high tumor budding. These histological features have not been well evaluated in a western cohort of pT1 carcinomas. In a cohort of 116 surgically resected pT1 colorectal carcinomas, high tumor budding (P<0...
October 7, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Simona Gurzu, Camelia Silveanu, Annamaria Fetyko, Vlad Butiurca, Zsolt Kovacs, Ioan Jung
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is defined as the transformation of an epithelial cell into a spindle cell with the loss of membrane E-cadherin expression and the gain of mesenchymal markers positivity. In the field of colorectal cancer (CRC), first data about EMT was published in 1995 and more than 400 papers had been written up to March 2016. Most of them are focused on the molecular pathways and experimentally-proved chemoresistance. In the present article, an update in the field of EMT in CRC based on the review of the literature and personal experience of the authors is presented...
August 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
James Alexander, Louise Gildea, Julia Balog, Abigail Speller, James McKenzie, Laura Muirhead, Alasdair Scott, Christos Kontovounisios, Shanawaz Rasheed, Julian Teare, Jonathan Hoare, Kirill Veselkov, Robert Goldin, Paris Tekkis, Ara Darzi, Jeremy Nicholson, James Kinross, Zoltan Takats
BACKGROUND: This pilot study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) in colorectal cancer (CRC) and colonic adenomas. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective surgical resection for CRC were recruited at St. Mary's Hospital London and The Royal Marsden Hospital, UK. Ex vivo analysis was performed using a standard electrosurgery handpiece with aspiration of the electrosurgical aerosol to a Xevo G2-S iKnife QTof mass spectrometer (Waters Corporation)...
August 8, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Thibaud Koessler, Philippe Bichard, Vincent Lepilliez, Giacomo Puppa, Frederic Ris, Arnaud Roth
Colorectal polyps are frequent in the general population. The diagnostic is made by endoscopy. Polyp's characteristics determine the technic to be used to remove them. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery offers an alternative to radical surgery for large rectal polyps or rectal tumors with low risk of node invasion. One peace resection is necessary to evaluate the resection margins. Lymphatic invasion, ≥ 1 mm submucosae invasion, tumor budding and poorly differentiated tumor are the four main risk factors for node invasion...
May 18, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
Keishiro Fukumoto, Eiji Kikuchi, Shuji Mikami, Koichiro Ogihara, Kazuhiro Matsumoto, Akira Miyajima, Mototsugu Oya
Tumor budding has been defined as an isolated single cancer cell or a cluster composed of fewer than five cancer cells scattered in the stroma. It is a strong predictor for lymph node metastasis in T1 colorectal cancer. We introduced this concept to T1 non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and evaluated whether tumor budding could have a prognostic impact on the clinical outcome. We identified 121 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed T1 bladder cancer between 1994 and 2014 at Keio University Hospital. All slides were re-reviewed by a dedicated uropathologist...
September 2016: Cancer Science
Hyunsung Kim, Abdul Rehman, Yumin Chung, Kijong Yi, Young Chan Wi, Yeseul Kim, Kiseok Jang, Se Min Jang, Seung Sam Paik
Background. This study investigated the clinicopathologic significance of extranodal tumor extension in colorectal adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastasis. Method. Included were 419 patients who underwent curative resection for primary colorectal adenocarcinoma. Results. Extranodal tumor extension was observed more frequently in tumors with ulceroinfiltrative gross type (p = 0.026), higher histologic grade (p = 0.012), high grade tumor budding (p = 0.003), vascular invasion (p < 0.001), perineural invasion (p = 0...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Michelle Yang, Aseeb Ur Rehman, Chunlai Zuo, Christine E Sheehan, Edward C Lee, Jingmei Lin, Zijin Zhao, Euna Choi, Hwajeong Lee
The conventional histologic grading of colorectal cancer (CRC) is less suited for resected rectal cancer following neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Enumeration of poorly differentiated clusters (PDC) is a recently proposed histologic grading scheme. We aimed to apply PDC grading to treated rectal cancer and to test the prognostic significance of this novel approach. Archived hematoxylin and eosin slides of 72 rectal adenocarcinomas resected following neoadjuvant treatment were retrieved. PDC, tumor budding, and tumor regression were assessed...
July 2016: Cancer Medicine
Gábor Valcz, Orsolya Galamb, Tibor Krenács, Sándor Spisák, Alexandra Kalmár, Árpád V Patai, Barna Wichmann, Kristóf Dede, Zsolt Tulassay, Béla Molnár
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles that have important roles in transporting a great variety of bioactive molecules between epithelial compartment and their microenvironment during tumor formation including colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence. We tested the mRNA expression of the top 25 exosome-related markers based on ExoCharta database in healthy (n=49), adenoma (n=49) and colorectal carcinoma (n=49) patients using Affymetrix HGU133 Plus2.0 microarrays. Most related genes showed significantly elevated expression including PGK1, PKM, ANXA5, ENO1, HSP90AB1 and MSN during adenoma-carcinoma sequence...
August 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Viktor H Koelzer, Katharina Canonica, Heather Dawson, Lena Sokol, Eva Karamitopoulou-Diamantis, Alessandro Lugli, Inti Zlobec
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play a controversial role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). In particular, the microlocalization, polarization and prognostic impact of TAM in the immediate environment of invading CRC cells has not yet been established. To address this clinically relevant question, intraepithelial (iCD68) and stromal macrophages (sCD68), M1-macrophages (iNOS), M2-macrophages (CD163), cytokeratin-positive cancer cells (tumor buds) and expression of the anti-phagocytic marker CD47 were investigated in primary tumors of 205 well-characterized CRC patients...
April 2016: Oncoimmunology
Federica Lorenzi, Roya Babaei-Jadidi, Jonathan Sheard, Bradley Spencer-Dene, Abdolrahman S Nateri
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the top three cancer-related causes of death worldwide. FBXW7 is a known tumor-suppressor gene, commonly mutated in CRC and in a variety of other epithelial tumors. Low expression of FBXW7 is also associated with poor prognosis. Loss of FBXW7 sensitizes cancer cells to certain drugs, while making them more resistant to other types of chemotherapies. However, is not fully understood how epithelial cells within normal gut and primary tumors respond to potential cancer therapeutics...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Andrew Sundstrom, Elda Grabocka, Dafna Bar-Sagi, Bud Mishra
Hypoxia in tumors signifies resistance to therapy. Despite a wealth of tumor histology data, including anti-pimonidazole staining, no current methods use these data to induce a quantitative characterization of chronic tumor hypoxia in time and space. We use image-processing algorithms to develop a set of candidate image features that can formulate just such a quantitative description of xenographed colorectal chronic tumor hypoxia. Two features in particular give low-variance measures of chronic hypoxia near a vessel: intensity sampling that extends radially away from approximated blood vessel centroids, and multithresholding to segment tumor tissue into normal, hypoxic, and necrotic regions...
2016: PloS One
Tamotsu Sugai, Wataru Habano
The genomic instability in colon cancer can be divided into at least 2 major types: chromosomal instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability(MSI). Although there are some overlaps between the 2 types, these are thought to be mutually exclusive. Colorectal tumors progress through a series of histopathologic grades, ranging from dysplastic crypts through small benign tumors to malignant cancers. This progression is the result of a series of genetic changes that involve activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, ie, the CIN pathway...
March 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Takuma Okamura, Yoshifumi Shimada, Hitoshi Nogami, Hitoshi Kameyama, Takashi Kobayashi, Shin-ichi Kosugi, Toshifumi Wakai, Yoichi Ajioka
BACKGROUND: Tumor budding is recognized as an important risk factor for lymph node metastasis in pT1 colorectal cancer. Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin has the potential to improve the objective diagnosis of tumor budding over detection based on hematoxylin and eosin staining. However, it remains unclear whether tumor budding detected by immunohistochemical staining is a significant predictor of lymph node metastasis in pT1 colorectal cancer. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of tumor budding detected by immunohistochemical staining in comparison with that detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining...
May 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Motohiro Kojima, Atsushi Ochiai
Clinical outcomes of colorectal cancer are influenced not by tumor size, but by spread into the bowel wall. Although assessment of serosal involvement is an important pathological feature for classification of colon cancer, its diagnostic consistency has been questioned. Using elastic staining, we assessed elastic laminal invasion (ELI) for more objective stratification of deep tumor invasion around the peritoneal surface. In addition, pathological characteristic features of marked tumor budding, fibrosis, and macrophage infiltration in the tumor area with ELI was elucidated...
January 27, 2016: Pathology International
Nan-Peng Chen, Borhan Uddin, Renate Voit, Elmar Schiebel
Cell adhesion and migration are highly dynamic biological processes that play important roles in organ development and cancer metastasis. Their tight regulation by small GTPases and protein phosphorylation make interrogation of these key processes of great importance. We now show that the conserved dual-specificity phosphatase human cell-division cycle 14A (hCDC14A) associates with the actin cytoskeleton of human cells. To understand hCDC14A function at this location, we manipulated native loci to ablate hCDC14A phosphatase activity (hCDC14A(PD)) in untransformed hTERT-RPE1 and colorectal cancer (HCT116) cell lines and expressed the phosphatase in HeLa FRT T-Rex cells...
January 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hideyuki Miyachi, Shin-Ei Kudo, Katsuro Ichimasa, Tomokazu Hisayuki, Hiromasa Oikawa, Shingo Matsudaira, Yuta Kouyama, Yui Jennifer Kimura, Masashi Misawa, Yuichi Mori, Noriyuki Ogata, Toyoki Kudo, Kenta Kodama, Takemasa Hayashi, Kunihiko Wakamura, Atsushi Katagiri, Toshiyuki Baba, Eiji Hidaka, Fumio Ishida, Kenichi Kohashi, Shigeharu Hamatani
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent advances in endoscopic technology have allowed many T1 colorectal carcinomas to be resected endoscopically with negative margins. However, the criteria for curative endoscopic resection remain unclear. We aimed to identify risk factors for nodal metastasis in T1 carcinoma patients and hence establish the indication for additional surgery with lymph node dissection. METHODS: Initial or additional surgery with nodal dissection was performed in 653 T1 carcinoma cases...
June 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Takaaki Kobayashi, Tadahiko Masaki, Eriko Nozaki, Masanori Sugiyama, Fumio Nagashima, Junji Furuse, Hiroaki Onishi, Takashi Watanabe, Yasuo Ohkura
Budding or the presence poorly differentiated clusters at the boundary of cancer tissue is a pathologically important finding and serves as a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. However, few studies have examined the cancer tissue boundary in clinical samples. The purpose of the present study was to examine gene expression at the tumor front of colon cancer in surgically resected samples. Cancer tissues were obtained by laser microdissection of 20 surgically resected specimens. Genes with significantly different microarray signals between the tumor front and the tumor center were identified...
December 2015: Anticancer Research
Qingzhu Wei, Xiaoping Huang, Bo Fu, Jianghuan Liu, Ling Zhong, Qiao Yang, Tong Zhao
IMP3 is associated with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage and is a good independent prognostic biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the expression status and clinical implication of IMP3 in biopsy specimens have not yet been studied. We aim to address whether the presence of IMP3 expression in preoperative biopsies of CRC could predict lymph node metastasis and TNM stage. In this study, we examined IMP3 expression in paired biopsy and resection specimens of 71 CRC and analyzed the correlation of IMP3 expression with clinicopathological parameters...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Luciano Delgado-Plasencia, Hugo Álvarez-Argüelles, Eduardo Salido-Ruiz, M Elisa Castro-Peraza, Alberto Bravo-Gutiérrez, Antonia Fernández-Peralta, Juan González-Aguilera, Antonio Alarcó-Hernández, Vicente Medina-Arana
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a key role in folate metabolism, and folate is implicated in carcinogenesis due to its role in DNA methylation, repair and synthesis. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with decreased risk of CRC and increased sensitivity to 5-FU treatment. The present study addressed the relationship between this polymorphism and histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of prognostic significance in 50 patients from the Canary Islands. No differences were found between the MTHFR C677T genotypes with respect to tumor budding, tumor necrosis, desmoplastic fibrosis and tumoral eosinophilia...
December 2015: Pathology, Research and Practice
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