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Cristiano Bombardi, Marcello Venzi, Vincenzo Crunelli, Giuseppe Di Giovanni
Absence seizures (ASs) are associated with abnormalities in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission in the thalamus and the cortex. In the present study, we used light microscopy GABA immunocytochemistry to quantify the GABA-immunoreactive (GABA-IR) neurons and neuropil in the thalamic ventral basal (VB) nucleus, the nucleus reticularis thalami (NRT), the dorsal lateral geniculate (dLGN), the primary motor cortex (M1) and perioral region of the somatosensory cortex (S1po) of genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS)...
February 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Trong Nghia Ngo, Cong Thin Vo, Nguyen Kim Tuyen Pham, Nhat Minh Phan, Trong Dat Bui, Quoc Luan Ngo, Van Son Dang, Cong Luan Tran, Dinh Tri Mai, Tan Phat Nguyen
One new cycloartane triterpenoid, named markhacanasin C (1), together with three known triterpenoids, oleanolic acid (2), ursolic acid (3) and 6β,19α-dihydroxyursolic acid (4) were isolated by various chromatographic methods from the most cytotoxic fraction of the ethyl acetate extract of Markhamia stipulata var. canaense V.S. Dang leaves. Among them, 4 was reported for the first time from the genus Markhamia, while 2 and 3 were found for the first time from this species. Their structures were elucidated by IR, UV, HR-ESI-MS and NMR experiments...
February 22, 2018: Natural Product Research
Francis Berthias, Belkis Maatoug, Gary L Glish, Fathi Moussa, Philippe Maitre
Due to their central role in biochemical processes, fast separation and identification of amino acids (AA) is of importance in many areas of the biomedical field including the diagnosis and monitoring of inborn errors of metabolism and biomarker discovery. Due to the large number of AA together with their isomers and isobars, common methods of AA analysis are tedious and time-consuming because they include a chromatographic separation step requiring pre- or post-column derivatization. Here, we propose a rapid method of separation and identification of sarcosine, a biomarker candidate of prostate cancer, from isomers using differential ion mobility spectrometry (DIMS) interfaced with a tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS) instrument...
February 21, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Silvia Ružičková, Dagmar Remeteiová, Vladislava Mičková, Vojtech Dirner
In this work, the matrix characterization (mineralogy, total and local chemical composition, and total organic (TOC) and inorganic carbon (TIC) contents) of different types of sediments from mining- and metallurgy-influenced areas and the assessment of the impact of the matrix on the association of potentially hazardous metals with the mineral phases of these samples, which affect their mobility in the environment, are presented. For these purposes, sediment samples with different origins and from different locations in the environment were analyzed...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Will Buswell, Roland E Schwarzenbacher, Estrella Luna, Matthew Sellwood, Beining Chen, Victor Flors, Pierre Pétriacq, Jurriaan Ton
β-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) induces broad-spectrum disease resistance, but also represses plant growth, which has limited its exploitation in crop protection. BABA perception relies on binding to the aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (AspRS) IBI1, which primes the enzyme for secondary defense activity. This study aimed to identify structural BABA analogues that induce resistance without stunting plant growth. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate that the (l)-aspartic acid-binding domain of IBI1 is critical for BABA perception...
February 21, 2018: New Phytologist
Ke-Xun Lian, Xiao-Qing Zhu, Jie Chen, Gang Liu, Xin-Li Gu
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for human beings and many other forms of life. Organic selenium from natural foods has greater bioavailability and is safer than inorganic selenium species. In this article, the structural properties and antioxidant activities of a Glycyrrhiza uralensis polysaccharide (GUP) after selenylation modification were investigated. The GUP was extracted by water decoction and ethanol precipitation and purified via protein elimination using the trichloroacetic acid method and column chromatography...
February 20, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Behzad Darbasizadeh, Hamidreza Motasadizadeh, Behrouz Foroughi-Nia, Hassan Farhadnejad
The present study describes the fabrication of Tripolyphosphate (TPP)-crosslinked nanofibrous mats based on chitosan for use as a floating gastro-retentive delivery system. TPP-crosslinked chitosan (CH)/poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO)- ranitidine hydrochloride (RH) electrospun nanofibers (75.27 ± 2.10 nm) were prepared by electrospinning 70% v/v acetic acid solutions, and followed by crosslinking by TPP anions. The mechanical, structural and morphological properties of the prepared nanofibers were evaluated via tensile testing, XRD, FT-IR, TGA, NMR, AFM and SEM experimental techniques...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
A D Anastasiou, S Strafford, C L Thomson, J Gardy, T J Edwards, M Malinowski, S A Hussain, N K Metzger, A Hassanpour, C T A Brown, A P Brown, M S Duggal, A Jha
A radical new methodology for the exogenous mineralization of hard tissues is demonstrated in the context of laser-biomaterials interaction. The proposed approach is based on the use of femtosecond pulsed lasers (fs) and Fe3+ -doped calcium phosphate minerals (specifically in this work fluorapatite powder containing Fe2 O3 nanoparticles (NP)). A layer of the synthetic powder is applied to the surface of eroded bovine enamel and is irradiated with a fs laser (1040 nm wavelength, 1 GHz repetition rate, 150 fs pulse duration and 0...
February 17, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Li-Ping Tang, Hui-Min Cheng, Shu-Mei Cui, Xin-Rui Wang, Li-Ya Song, Wei Zhou, Shu-Jing Li
DL-mandelic acid (MA) has been intercalated into Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) by an anion-exchange reaction. After intercalation of MA anions, the basal spacing of the LDH increased from 0.75 to 1.46 nm, suggesting that the MA anions were successfully intercalated into the interlayer galleries of the LDH. The structure and the thermal stability of the samples were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TG-DTA. Studies of MA release from ZnAl-MA-LDH in hydrochloric solution (pH = 4) imply that ZnAl-MA-LDH is a better controlled release system than pure MA...
February 12, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
S K Jesudoss, J Judith Vijaya, M Sivachidambaram, L John Kennedy, R Jothiramalingam, Hamad A Al-Lohedan
Hierarchical ordered ZSM-5 zeolites were successfully synthesized by a template-free hydrothermal treatment using rice joints ash as the source of silica. The formation of hierarchical ordered ZSM-5 zeolites and its physicochemical properties were investigated systematically. The mineralogical phases, morphology, surface area and porosity, acidity and thermal stability of the synthesized hierarchical materials were investigated using XRD, FT-IR, HR-SEM, N2 adsorption-desorption (BET) analysis, NH3-TPD and TGA/DTA analysis...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Gao-Fei Xiao, Hong-Yan Zeng, Qing-Jun Huang, Wei Zhang, Jin Ze Du, Heng Zhi Duan, Chao Rong Chen
Mg-Al-NO3 hydrotalcite (p-LDH) was employed as a carrier for the controlled release of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). The p-LDH was pretreated by acid-pretreatment to gain a more stable material (a-LDH) in acid medium for oral administration. It demonstrated that the a-LDH had smaller crystal size, particle sizes and higher permanent charge density (σp) compared with that of the p-LDH by means of XRD, SEM, FT-IR, UV-vis DRS, TG-DSC, BET/BJH and other techniques. The FU/a-LDH and FU/p-LDH delivery systems were obtained using anion-exchange method...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Bigina N R Ginos, Sandi L Navarro, Yvonne Schwarz, Haiwei Gu, Dongfang Wang, Timothy W Randolph, Ali Shojaie, Meredith A J Hullar, Paul D Lampe, Mario Kratz, Marian L Neuhouser, Daniel Raftery, Johanna W Lampe
OBJECTIVE: The effects of diets high in refined grains on biliary and colonic bile acids have been investigated extensively. However, the effects of diets high in whole versus refined grains on circulating bile acids, which can influence glucose homeostasis and inflammation through activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5), have not been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis from a randomized controlled crossover feeding trial (NCT00622661) in 80 healthy adults (40 women/40 men, age 18-45 years) from the greater Seattle Area, half of which were normal weight (BMI 18...
February 16, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Mousumi Barik, Anjali Rawani, Subrata Laskar, Goutam Chandra
The larvicidal potentiality of crude and ethyl acetate extracts of fruits of Acacia auriculiformis was investigated against all the larval instars of JE vector Culex vishnui. The crude extracts showed good results against all the larval instars with highest mortality at 0.09%. Highest mortality was found at 300 ppm of ethyl acetate extract. Lowest LC50 value was obtained at 72 h for third instar larvae. Non target organisms tested, showed no to very less mortality to ethyl acetate solvent extract. Presence of N-H stretching, a C=O stretching, C=C and C-N stretching vibrations of secondary amide or amine group were confirmed from IR analysis...
February 19, 2018: Natural Product Research
Qiuling Wang, Jinhuan Wang, Haixia Lin, Xuechen Huo, Qiaoling Zhu, Min Zhang
This study sought to investigate any correlation between fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) expression and the severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In total 110 patients newly diagnosed with T2DM in the outpatient department of Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital between September 2016 and March 2017 were selected as study subjects and were divided into severe (58 cases) and mild groups (52 cases) according to T2DM severity. Patients in the severe group were followed up for 12 weeks. An additional 60 healthy individuals were selected to serve as the normal control group...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Rong Tang, Jie Hao, Ruijie Zong, Fangxia Wu, Yangyang Zeng, Zhenqing Zhang
In this study, the TEMPO-mediated (TEMPO/NaBr/NaClO) oxidation pattern of curdlan was investigated through comprehensively structural analysis of the corresponding oxidized products. During the structural analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography tandem multiple angle laser scattering (GPC-MALS) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS) were applied. As a result, the homogenous β1-3 polyglucuronic acids (MW, 49...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Abirami R Ganesan, M Shanmugam, Rajeev Bhat
Edible films were developed from seaweed polysaccharides (Kappaphycus alvarezii and Ulva fasciata). The total extracted yield of semi refined carrageenan (SRC) and ulvan polysaccharide was 31.55%, and 28.86%, with total carbohydrate being 78.08% and 82.43% in SRC and ulvan polysaccharides. Results of viscometric studies revealed molecular weight to be 210 kDa and 72 kDa for SRC and ulvan polysaccharides. Proton NMR studies showed presence of anhydro-d-galactopyranose and glucosidic linkages in SRC, while ulvan polysaccharide had rhamnose-3-sulfate, glucosyl and β-d-glucuronic acid...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Narges Nobakht, Mohammad Ali Faramarzi, Abbas Shafiee, Mehdi Khoobi, Ezzat Rafiee
Iron-carboxylate (MIL-100(Fe)) and HKUST-1 (Cu3 (BTC)2 , BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid) as nanoporous metal organic framework supports were compared for immobilization of porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL). These immobilizations improved thermal, pH and operational stability of PPL compared to the soluble enzyme. Stability of MIL-100(Fe) was better than HKUST-1 as support. MIL-100(Fe) encapsulated Keggin phosphotungstic acid H3 PW12 O40 (PW) (PW@MIL-100(Fe)) was synthesized to develop novel enzyme immobilized system and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Barrett Joyner Halenda (BJH) analysis...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Khairia M Al-Ahmary, Moustafa M Habeeb, Areej H Al-Obidan
New charge transfer complex (CTC) between the electron donor 2,3-diaminopyridine (DAP) with the electron acceptor chloranilic (CLA) acid has been synthesized and characterized experimentally and theoretically using a variety of physicochemical techniques. The experimental work included the use of elemental analysis, UV-vis, IR and 1 H NMR studies to characterize the complex. Electronic spectra have been carried out in different hydrogen bonded solvents, methanol (MeOH), acetonitrile (AN) and 1:1 mixture from AN-MeOH...
February 10, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Roghayeh Karimirad, Mahdi Behnamian, Sara Dezhsetan
The aim of present study was to design a controlled release system using Cuminum cyminum essential oil loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CEO-CSNPs) and evaluate its effect on catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POD) activity and ascorbic acid content of Agaricus bisporus fruit bodies during 20 days of storage at 4 °C. The success of encapsulation was evaluated through TEM, DLS, FT-IR and spectrophotometry and its release behavior was studied in buffer solutions with different pH. The CEO-CSNPs exhibited an average size of 30 to 80 nm with a spherical shape...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Haiying She, Xiaochen Ma, Ganggang Chang
An adsorbent with multiple interaction sites for the adsorption of nitrogen-containing compounds (NCCs) has been realized in a silver ion functionalized Cr 3+ based metal-organic framework (Cr)-MIL-101-SO 3 Ag. The adsorptive denitrogenation performance of (Cr)-MIL-101-SO 3 Ag was evaluated in a batch adsorption system in terms of both its adsorption capacity and selectivity, of which, quinoline and indole were selected as representative organonitrogen contaminants in liquid fuels. (Cr)-MIL-101-SO 3 Ag could interact with NCCs through multiple ways simultaneously, which exhibited about 50% higher adsorption capacity compared to (Cr)-MIL-101-SO 3 H, and a still high level of adsorption amount could be remained even in a model fuel where toluene (15% v) was added as a co-solvent and benzothiophene (BT) was added as a competitive adsorbate...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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