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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109749/glycosylation-of-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-in-health-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Joanna Lazniewska, Norbert Weiss
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are transmembrane proteins that translate electrical activities into intracellular calcium elevations and downstream signaling pathways. They serve essential physiological functions including communication between nerve cells, muscle contraction, cardiac activity, and release of hormones and neurotransmitters. Asparagine-linked glycosylation has emerged as an essential post-translational modification to control the number of channels embedded in the plasma membrane but also their functional gating properties...
January 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108418/intragenus-campylomormyrus-and-intergenus-hybrids-in-mormyrid-fish-physiological-and-histological-investigations-of-the-electric-organ-ontogeny
#2
Frank Kirschbaum, Linh Nguyen, Stephanie Baumgartner, Linda Chi, Rene Wolfart, Khouloud Elarbani, Hari Eppenstein, Yevheniia Korniienko, Lilian Guido-Böhm, Victor Mamonekene, Marianne Vater, Ralph Tiedemann
African weakly electric mormyrid fish show a high diversity of their electric organ discharge (EOD) both across and within genera. Thanks to a recently developed technique of artificial reproduction in mormyrid fish, we were able to perform hybridizations between different genera and within one genus (Campylomormyrus). The hybrids of intergenus hybridizations exhibited different degrees of reduced survival related to the phylogenetic distance of the parent species: hybrids of the crosses between C. rhynchophorus and its sister genus Gnathonemus survived and developed normally...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107804/clinically-relevant-levels-of-4-aminopyridine-strengthen-physiological-responses-in-intact-motor-circuits-in-rats-especially-after-pyramidal-tract-injury
#3
Anil Sindhurakar, Asht M Mishra, Disha Gupta, Jennifer F Iaci, Tom J Parry, Jason B Carmel
BACKGROUND: 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug to improve motor function in people with multiple sclerosis. Preliminary results suggest the drug may act on intact neural circuits and not just on demyelinated ones. OBJECTIVE: To determine if 4-AP at clinically relevant levels alters the excitability of intact motor circuits. METHODS: In anesthetized rats, electrodes were placed over motor cortex and the dorsal cervical spinal cord for electrical stimulation, and electromyogram electrodes were inserted into biceps muscle to measure responses...
January 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106611/time-course-of-copeptin-during-a-model-of-experimental-pain-and-hyperalgesia-a-randomised-volunteer-crossover-trial
#4
Eckhard Mauermann, Claudine A Blum, Giovanna Lurati Buse, Oliver Bandschapp, Wilhelm Ruppen
BACKGROUND: A reliable biomarker for quantifying pain or hyperalgesia has yet to be found. A surrogate marker of arginine vasopressin, copeptin, is elevated in a number of states of physiological and psychological stress and may have a role in quantifying pain and/or hyperalgesia. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate copeptin as a biomarker for pain or hyperalgesia developing after 120 min of sustained electrical stimulation. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomised, double-blinded, crossover trial...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106225/co-immobilization-of-glucose-oxidase-and-catalase-for-enhancing-the-performance-of-a-membraneless-glucose-biofuel-cell-operated-under-physiological-conditions
#5
Marcelinus Christwardana, Yongjin Chung, Yongchai Kwon
Glucose oxidase (GOx)-catalase co-immobilized catalyst (CNT/PEI/(GOx-Cat)) was synthesized, and its catalytic activity and electrical performance were investigated and compared, whereas the amount of immobilized catalase was optochemically inspected by chemiluminescence (CL) assay. With the characterizations, it was confirmed that the catalase was well immobilized on the CNT/PEI surface, whereas both the GOx and catalase play their roles well in the catalyst. According to the measurements of the current density peak of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) redox reaction, electron transfer rate, Michaelis-Menten constants and sensitivity, CNT/PEI/(GOx-Cat) shows the best values, and this is attributed to the excellent catalytic activity of GOx and the H2O2 decomposition capability of the catalase...
January 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104799/muscles-innervated-by-a-single-motor-neuron-exhibit-divergent-synaptic-properties-on-multiple-time-scales
#6
Dawn M Blitz, Amy E Pritchard, John K Latimer, Andrew T Wakefield
Adaptive changes in the output of neural circuits underlying rhythmic behaviors are relayed to muscles via motor neuron activity. Pre- and postsynaptic properties of neuromuscular junctions can impact the transformation from motor neuron activity to muscle response. Further, synaptic plasticity occurring on the time scale of inter-spike intervals can differ between multiple muscles innervated by the same motor neuron. In rhythmic behaviors, motor neuron bursts can elicit additional synaptic plasticity. However, it is unknown if plasticity regulated by the longer time scale of inter-burst intervals also differs between synapses from the same neuron, and whether any such distinctions occur across a physiological activity range...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096491/expressing-the-geobacter-metallireducens-pila-in-geobacter-sulfurreducens-yields-pili-with-exceptional-conductivity
#7
Yang Tan, Ramesh Y Adhikari, Nikhil S Malvankar, Joy E Ward, Trevor L Woodard, Kelly P Nevin, Derek R Lovley
: The electrically conductive pili (e-pili) of Geobacter sulfurreducens serve as a model for a novel strategy for long-range extracellular electron transfer. e-pili are also a new class of bioelectronic materials. However, the only other Geobacter pili previously studied, which were from G. uraniireducens, were poorly conductive. In order to obtain more information on the range of pili conductivities in Geobacter species, the pili of G. metallireducens were investigated. Heterologously expressing the PilA gene of G...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094880/milk-ejection-patterns-remain-consistent-during-the-first-and-second-lactations
#8
Hazel Gardner, Jacqueline C Kent, Danielle K Prime, Ching-Tat Lai, Peter E Hartmann, Donna T Geddes
OBJECTIVE: Milk ejection is a critical physiological process for successful lactation in humans and without it little milk can be removed. Individual milk ejection patterns have been shown to remain consistent between breasts at different lactation stages and using different vacuum patterns with an electric breast pump. Little is known about the milk ejection characteristics during the second lactation period in the same mother. The objective of this study was to examine milk ejection characteristics in the same woman over two lactations...
January 17, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094801/electronegative-ldl-mediated-cardiac-electrical-remodeling-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
An-Sheng Lee, Wei-Yu Chen, Hua-Chen Chan, Ching-Hu Chung, Hsien-Yu Peng, Chia-Ming Chang, Ming-Jai Su, Chu-Huang Chen, Kuan-Cheng Chang
The mechanisms underlying chronic kidney disease (CKD)-associated higher risks for life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias remain poorly understood. In rats subjected to unilateral nephrectomy (UNx), we examined cardiac electrophysiological remodeling and relevant mechanisms predisposing to ventricular arrhythmias. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent UNx (n = 6) or sham (n = 6) operations. Eight weeks later, the UNx group had higher serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and a longer electrocardiographic QTc interval than did the sham group...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093303/chlorogenic-acid-rescues-sensorineural-auditory-function-in-a-diabetic-animal-model
#10
Bin Na Hong, Youn Hee Nam, Sang Ho Woo, Tong Ho Kang
Recently, many studies have reported that sensorineural hearing impairment related to neurological disorders may be caused by diabetes mellitus. However, to date, only a small number of studies have investigated the treatment of sensorineural hearing impairment. In the present study, the effects of chlorogenic acid on diabetic auditory pathway impairment were evaluated by neuro-electrical physiological measurements and morphological investigations. We have shown that CA efficiently prevents the progression of auditory pathway dysfunction caused by DM using auditory brainstem responses and auditory middle latency responses in mice...
January 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092108/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-the-injectable-formulation-of-methadone-hydrochloride-and-methadone-in-lipid-nanocarriers-administered-orally-to-horses
#11
N Crosignani, S P Luna, T Dalla Costa, E L Pimenta, C B Detoni, S S Guterres, J N Puoli Filho, J C Pantoja, M C Pigatto
We investigated the thermal, electrical and mechanical antinociceptive and physiological effects (heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, head height and abdominal auscultation score), and pharmacokinetics, of 0.5 mg/kg of the injectable formulation (ORAL) or nanoparticulated methadone (NANO) given orally, in six adult mares, using a crossover, blind and prospective design. Repeated-measure models were used to compare parametric data between and within treatments, followed by Tukey's test. Nonparametric data were analysed with Wilcoxon signed-rank, adjusted by Bonferroni tests...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087529/resilience-dynamics-and-interactions-within-a-multi-species-exoelectrogenic-model-biofilm-community
#12
Anna Prokhorova, Katrin Sturm-Richter, Andreas Doetsch, Johannes Gescher
: Anode-associated multi-species exoelectrogenic biofilms are essential to the function of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). The individual activities of anode associated organisms and physiological responses resulting from co-culturing are often hard to assess due to the high microbial diversity in these systems. Therefore, we developed a model multispecies biofilm of the three exoelectrogenic proteobacteria Shewanella oneidensis, Geobacter sulfurreducens and Geobacter metallireducens with the aim to study in detail the biofilm formation dynamics, the interactions between the organisms and the overall activity of an exoelectrogenic biofilm as a consequence of the applied anode potential...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086991/does-waterfall-aerosol-influence-mucosal-immunity-and-chronic-stress-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#13
Carina Grafetstätter, Martin Gaisberger, Johanna Prossegger, Markus Ritter, Predrag Kolarž, Christina Pichler, Josef Thalhamer, Arnulf Hartl
BACKGROUND: The specific microclimate of alpine waterfalls with high levels of ionized water aerosols has been suggested to trigger beneficial immunological and psychological effects. In the present three-armed randomized controlled clinical study, we focused on effects on (i) immunological reagibility, on (ii) physiological stress responses, and on (iii) stress-related psychological parameters. METHODS: People with moderate to high stress levels (n = 65) spent an active sojourn with daily hiking tours in the National Park Hohe Tauern (Großkirchheim, Austria)...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086779/the-effect-of-electrical-conductivity-of-myocardium-on-cardiac-pumping-efficacy-a-computational-study
#14
Ana Rahma Yuniarti, Ki Moo Lim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The existence of non-excitable cells in the myocardium leads to the increasing conduction non-uniformity and decreasing myocardial electrical conductivity. Slowed myocardial conduction velocity (MCV) believed to enhance the probability of cardiac arryhthmia and alter the cardiac mechanical pumping efficacy, even in sinus rhythm. Though several studies on the correlation between MCV and cardiac electrical instabilities exist, there has been no study concerning correlation or causality between MCV and cardiac mechanical pumping efficacy, due to the limitation in clinical methods to document and evaluate cardiac mechanical responses directly...
January 10, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078187/bioelectric-field-enhancement-the-influence-on-membrane-potential-and-cell-migration-in-vitro
#15
Marcy C Purnell, Terence J Skrinjar
Objective: The extracellular matrix consists of critical components that affect fibroblast polarization and migration. The existence of both intrinsic and extrinsic electrical signals that play essential roles in the development, physiology, regeneration, and pathology of cells was discovered over a century ago. In this study, we study how the Bioelectric Field Enhancement (BEFE) device and its generated electromagnetic field (EMF) by continuous direct current (DC) significantly affect the membrane potential and cell migration of fibroblasts in vitro...
December 1, 2016: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077389/enhanced-oxidative-capacity-of-ground-squirrel-brain-mitochondria-during-hibernation
#16
Mallory A Ballinger, Christine Schwartz, Matthew T Andrews
During hibernation, thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) regularly cycle between bouts of torpor and interbout arousal (IBA).  Most of the brain is electrically quiescent during torpor, but regains activity quickly upon arousal to IBA resulting in extreme oscillations in energy demand during hibernation.  We predicted increased functional capacity of brain mitochondria during hibernation compared to spring to accommodate the variable energy demands of hibernation.  To address this hypothesis, we examined mitochondrial bioenergetics in the ground squirrel brain across three time points: spring (SP), torpor (TOR), and IBA...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076883/in-vivo-feasibility-test-using-transparent-carbon-nanotube-coated-polydimethylsiloxane-sheet-at-brain-tissue-and-sciatic-nerve
#17
Caifeng Wang, Sangjin Oh, Hyun Ah Lee, Jieun Kang, Ki-Jae Jeong, Seon Woo Kang, Dae Youn Hwang, Jaebeom Lee
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), with their unique and outstanding properties, such as strong mechanical strength and high electrical conductivity, have become very popular for the repair of tissues, particularly for those requiring electrical stimuli. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based elastomers have been used in a wide range of biomedical applications because of their optical transparency, physiological inertness, blood compatibility, non-toxicity, and gas permeability. In present study, most of artificial nerve guidance conduits (ANGCs) are not transparent...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074656/atomistic-modeling-of-ion-conduction-through-the-voltage-sensing-domain-of-the-shaker-k-ion-channel
#18
Mona L Wood, J Alfredo Freites, Francesco Tombola, Douglas J Tobias
Voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) are modular membrane protein units that sense changes in the membrane electrostatic potential, and through conformational changes, regulate a specific function. The VSDs of voltage-dependent K+, Na+, and Ca2+ channels do not conduct ions under physiological conditions, but they can become ion-permeable under pathological conditions through mutations in the voltage sensor, particularly of basic residues (mostly arginines) in the S4 helix. Relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms of conduction through VSDs...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071133/effect-of-transcutaneous-acupoint-electrical-stimulation-on-post-hemorrhoidectomy-associated-pain-anxiety-and-heart-rate-variability
#19
Mei-Ling Yeh, Yu-Chu Chung, Lun-Chia Hsu, Shuo-Hui Hung
Hemorrhoidectomy is the current best treatment for severe hemorrhoids, but it causes significant postoperative pain and anxiety, which is associated with heart rate variability (HRV). Transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation (TAES) was assumed to alleviate pain and anxiety, and modify the autonomic nervous system. This study aimed to examine the effects of TAES intervention on postoperative pain, anxiety, and HRV in patients who received a hemorrhoidectomy. A randomized-controlled trial with five repeated measures was conducted...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068288/monitoring-of-breath-vocs-and-electrical-impedance-tomography-under-pulmonary-recruitment-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#20
Beate Brock, Svend Kamysek, Josephine Silz, Phillip Trefz, Jochen K Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch
Analysis of exhaled VOCs can provide information on physiology, metabolic processes, oxidative stress and lung diseases. In critically ill patients, VOC analysis may be used to gain complimentary information beyond global clinical parameters. This seems especially attractive in mechanically ventilated patients frequently suffering from impairment of gas exchange. This study was intended to assess (a) the effects of recruitment maneuvers onto VOC profiles, (b) the correlations between electrical impedance tomography (EIT) data and VOC profiles and (c) the effects of recruitment onto distribution of ventilation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
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