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electrical physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346077/three-dimensional-graphene-biointerface-with-extremely-high-sensitivity-to-single-cancer-cell-monitoring
#1
Xiahua Wang, Aiping Liu, Yun Xing, Hongwei Duan, Weizhong Xu, Qi Zhou, Huaping Wu, Cen Chen, Benyong Chen
We developed a three-dimensional biointerface of graphene-based electrical impedance sensor for metastatic cancer diagnosis at single-cell resolution. Compared with traditional impedance sensor with two-dimensional interface, the graphene biointerface mimiced the topography and somatotype features of cancer cells, achieving more comprehensive and thorough single cell signals in the three-dimensional space. At the nodes of physiological behavior change of single cell, namely cell capture, adhesion, migration and proliferation, the collected electrical signals from graphene biointerface were about two times stronger than those from the two-dimensional gold interface due to the substantial increase in contact area and significant improvement of topographical interaction between cells and graphene electrode...
January 9, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331649/friend-or-foe-reactive-oxygen-species-production-scavenging-and-signaling-in-plant-response-to-environmental-stresses
#2
Weronika Czarnocka, Stanisław Karpiński
In the natural environment, plants are exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stress conditions that trigger rapid changes in the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The production and scavenging of ROS is compartmentalized, which means that, depending on stimuli type, they can be generated and eliminated in different cellular compartments such as the apoplast, plasma membrane, chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. Although the accumulation of ROS is generally harmful to cells, ROS play an important role in signaling pathways that regulate acclimatory and defense responses in plants, such as systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR)...
January 10, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329909/the-signaling-role-for-chloride-in-the-bidirectional-communication-between-neurons-and-astrocytes
#3
REVIEW
Corinne S Wilson, Alexander A Mongin
It is well known that the electrical signaling in neuronal networks is modulated by chloride (Cl-) fluxes via the inhibitory GABAA and glycine receptors. Here, we discuss the putative contribution of Cl- fluxes and intracellular Cl- to other forms of information transfer in the CNS, namely the bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes. The manuscript (i) summarizes the generic functions of Cl- in cellular physiology, (ii) recaps molecular identities and properties of Cl- transporters and channels in neurons and astrocytes, and (iii) analyzes emerging studies implicating Cl- in the modulation of neuroglial communication...
January 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327334/a-masked-least-squares-smoothing-procedure-for-artifact-reduction-in-scanning-emg-recordings
#4
Íñigo Corera, Adrián Eciolaza, Oliver Rubio, Armando Malanda, Javier Rodríguez-Falces, Javier Navallas
Scanning-EMG is an electrophysiological technique in which the electrical activity of the motor unit is recorded at multiple points along a corridor crossing the motor unit territory. Correct analysis of the scanning-EMG signal requires prior elimination of interference from nearby motor units. Although the traditional processing based on the median filtering is effective in removing such interference, it distorts the physiological waveform of the scanning-EMG signal. In this study, we describe a new scanning-EMG signal processing algorithm that preserves the physiological signal waveform while effectively removing interference from other motor units...
January 11, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325145/anxiety-dependent-modulation-of-motor-responses-to-pain-expectancy
#5
Carlotta Fossataro, Giulia Bucchioni, Federico D'Agata, Valentina Bruno, Rosalba Morese, Pierre Krystkowiak, Francesca Garbarini
The relationship between pain expectancy and motor system plays a crucial role in the human defensive system. Here, we took advantage of the inhibitory modulation of the motor pathway to the muscle of the hand receiving painful stimuli, by recording motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). We employed a classical conditioning paradigm in which neutral (visual and auditory) stimuli were conditioned by pairing either painful or not-painful stimuli (electric shocks) in separated groups...
January 8, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324829/electrode-placement-on-the-forearm-for-selective-stimulation-of-finger-extension-flexion
#6
Xueliang Bao, Yuxuan Zhou, Yunlong Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Xiaoying Lü, Zhigong Wang
It is still challenging to achieve a complex grasp or fine finger control by using surface functional electrical stimulation (FES), which usually requires a precise electrode configuration under laboratory or clinical settings. The goals of this study are as follows: 1) to study the possibility of selectively activating individual fingers; 2) to investigate whether the current activation threshold and selective range of individual fingers are affected by two factors: changes in the electrode position and forearm rotation (pronation, neutral and supination); and 3) to explore a theoretical model for guidance of the electrode placement used for selective activation of individual fingers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322584/effects-of-fixation-on-electrophysiology-and-structure-of-human-jejunal-villi
#7
Anna Casselbrant, Herbert F Helander
The villi of human jejunum vary in size and shape during different functional conditions. In the base the lamina propria is isotonic with blood, in the tip hyperosmotic. Here we study electrophysiological and morphological effects of incubation in hypotonic, isotonic, or hypertonic solutions, and to test various isotonic fixatives for microscopy. Samples of jejunal mucosae, obtained during surgery in obese patients, were studied in Ussing chambers where electrical parameters were registered during incubation in Krebs solution at various osmolarities, and during fixation in formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, or osmium tetroxide (OsO4 )...
January 11, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317466/the-relationship-between-form-and-function-throughout-the-history-of-excitation-contraction-coupling
#8
REVIEW
Clara Franzini-Armstrong
The concept of excitation-contraction coupling is almost as old as Journal of General Physiology It was understood as early as the 1940s that a series of stereotyped events is responsible for the rapid contraction response of muscle fibers to an initial electrical event at the surface. These early developments, now lost in what seems to be the far past for most young investigators, have provided an endless source of experimental approaches. In this Milestone in Physiology, I describe in detail the experiments and concepts that introduced and established the field of excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle...
January 9, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317289/baroreflex-stimulation-attenuates-central-but-not-peripheral-inflammation-in-conscious-endotoxemic-rats
#9
Fernanda Brognara, Jaci A Castania, Daniel P M Dias, Alexandre H Lopes, Rubens Fazan, Alexandre Kanashiro, Luis Ulloa, Helio C Salgado
We previously reported that activation of the baroreflex, a critical physiological mechanism controlling cardiovascular homeostasis, through electrical stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve attenuates joint inflammation in experimental arthritis. However, it is unknown whether baroreflex activation can control systemic inflammation. Here, we investigate whether baroreflex activation controls systemic inflammation in conscious endotoxemic rats. Animals underwent sham or electrical aortic depressor nerve stimulation initiated 10 min prior to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, while inflammatory cytokine levels were measured in the blood, spleen, heart and hypothalamus 90 min after LPS treatment...
January 6, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306448/fulminant-giant-cell-myocarditis-on-mechanical-circulatory-support-management-and-outcomes-of-a-french-multicentre-cohort
#10
Santiago Montero, Nadia Aissaoui, Jean-Marc Tadié, Philippe Bizouarn, Vincent Scherrer, Romain Persichini, Clément Delmas, Florence Rolle, Emmanuel Besnier, Alexandre Le Guyader, Alain Combes, Matthieu Schmidt
AIMS: Giant-cell myocarditis (GCM) is a rare and often fatal form of myocarditis. Only a few reports have focused on fulminant forms. We describe the clinical characteristics, management and outcomes of GCM patients rescued by mechanical circulatory support (MCS). METHODS AND RESULTS: The clinical features, diagnoses, treatments and outcomes of MCS-treated patients in refractory cardiogenic shock secondary to fulminant GCM admitted to eight French intensive care units (2002-2016) were analysed...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306083/fabrication-and-characterization-of-highly-porous-barium-titanate-based-scaffold-coated-by-gel-ha-nanocomposite-with-high-piezoelectric-coefficient-for-bone-tissue-engineering-applications
#11
Arian Ehterami, Mansure Kazemi, Bahareh Nazari, Payam Saraeian, Mahmoud Azami
It is well established that the piezoelectric effect plays an important physiological role in bone growth, remodeling and fracture healing. Barium titanate, as a well-known piezoelectric ceramic, is especially an attractive material as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. In this regard, we tried to fabricate a highly porous barium titanate based scaffolds by foam replication method and polarize them by applying an external electric field. In order to enhance the mechanical and biological properties, polarized/non-polarized scaffolds were coated with gelatin and nanostructured HA and characterized for their morphologies, porosities, piezoelectric and mechanical properties...
December 30, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305705/voltage-gated-and-stretch-activated-potassium-channels-in-the-human-heart-pathophysiological-and-clinical-significance
#12
REVIEW
Constanze Schmidt, Rémi Peyronnet
Ion channels are essential for electrical signaling and contractility in cardiomyocytes. Detailed knowledge about the molecular function and regulation of cardiac ion channels is crucial for understanding cardiac physiology and pathophysiology especially in the field of arrhythmias. This review aims at providing a general overview on the identity, functional characteristics, and roles of voltage-gated as well as stretch-activated potassium selective channels in the heart. In particular, we will highlight potential therapeutic targets as well as the emerging fields of future investigations...
January 5, 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304733/cobalt-chloride-compromises-transepithelial-barrier-properties-of-caco-2-bbe-human-gastrointestinal-epithelial-cell-layers
#13
K M DiGuilio, M C Valenzano, E Rybakovsky, J M Mullin
BACKGROUND: Elevation of the transcription factor HIF-1 is a prominent mediator of not only processes that accompany hypoxia, but also the tumor microenvironment and tissue regeneration. This study uses mediators of "chemical hypoxia" to ask the question whether HIF-1α elevation in a healthy epithelial cell layer leads to leakiness in its tight junctional seals. METHODS: Transepithelial electrical resistance and transepithelial diffusion of 14C-D-mannitol and other radiolabeled probes are used as indicators of transepithelial barrier function of CaCo-2 BBe human gastrointestinal epithelial cell layers cultured on permeable supports...
January 5, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304511/walking-measures-to-evaluate-assistive-technology-for-foot-drop-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review-of-psychometric-properties
#14
REVIEW
Georgia Andreopoulou, Thomas H Mercer, Marietta L van der Linden
BACKGROUND: Foot drop in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) often managed with assistive technologies, such as functional electrical stimulation and ankle foot orthoses. No evidence synthesis exists for the psychometric properties of outcomes used to evaluate the efficacy of these interventions. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to identify the outcome measures reported to assess the benefits of assistive technology for pwMS and then synthesize the psychometric evidence in pwMS for a subset of these measures...
December 25, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301848/physiologic-pathologic-and-therapeutic-paracrine-modulation-of-cardiac-excitation-contraction-coupling
#15
REVIEW
Joshua Mayourian, Delaine K Ceholski, David M Gonzalez, Timothy J Cashman, Susmita Sahoo, Roger J Hajjar, Kevin D Costa
Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) is the orchestrated process of initial myocyte electrical excitation, which leads to calcium entry, intracellular trafficking, and subsequent sarcomere shortening and myofibrillar contraction. Neurohumoral β-adrenergic signaling is a well-established mediator of ECC; other signaling mechanisms, such as paracrine signaling, have also demonstrated significant impact on ECC but are less well understood. For example, resident heart endothelial cells are well-known physiological paracrine modulators of cardiac myocyte ECC mainly via NO and endothelin-1...
January 5, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299220/the-road-to-cybathlon-2016-functional-electrical-stimulation-cycling-team-irpt-spz
#16
Marco Laubacher, Efe Anil Aksöz, Ines Bersch, Kenneth James Hunt
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) provides a good possibility to activate paralysed muscles and it has been shown to elicit substantial physiological and health benefits. For successful application of FES, a perfect symbiosis of the bike and the pilot has to be achieved. The road to the Cybathlon 2016 describes the different pieces needed for FES cycling in spinal cord injury. The systematic optimisation of the stimulation parameters and the Cybatrike, and sophisticated training contributed to the team's success as the fastest surface-electrode team in the competition...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296630/high-speed-spatial-frequency-domain-imaging-of-rat-cortex-detects-dynamic-optical-and-physiological-properties-following-cardiac-arrest-and-resuscitation
#17
Robert H Wilson, Christian Crouzet, Mohammad Torabzadeh, Afsheen Bazrafkan, Maryam H Farahabadi, Babak Jamasian, Dishant Donga, Juan Alcocer, Shuhab M Zaher, Bernard Choi, Yama Akbari, Bruce J Tromberg
Quantifying rapidly varying perturbations in cerebral tissue absorption and scattering can potentially help to characterize changes in brain function caused by ischemic trauma. We have developed a platform for rapid intrinsic signal brain optical imaging using macroscopically structured light. The device performs fast, multispectral, spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI), detecting backscattered light from three-phase binary square-wave projected patterns, which have a much higher refresh rate than sinusoidal patterns used in conventional SFDI...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296629/alterations-in-neurovascular-coupling-following-acute-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Hyounguk Jang, Stanley Huang, Daniel X Hammer, Lin Wang, Harmain Rafi, Meijun Ye, Cristin G Welle, Jonathan A N Fisher
Following acute traumatic brain injury (TBI), timely transport to a hospital can significantly improve the prognosis for recovery. There is, however, a dearth of quantitative biomarkers for brain injury that can be rapidly acquired and interpreted in active, field environments in which TBIs are frequently incurred. We explored potential functional indicators for TBI that can be noninvasively obtained through portable detection modalities, namely optical and electrophysiological approaches. By combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy with colocalized electrophysiological measurements in a mouse model of TBI, we observed concomitant alterations in sensory-evoked cerebral blood flow (CBF) and electrical potentials following controlled cortical impact...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290797/engineered-microenvironments-for-maturation-of-stem-cell-derived-cardiac-myocytes
#19
Rachel R Besser, Matthew Ishahak, Vera Mayo, Daniel Carbonero, Isabella Claure, Ashutosh Agarwal
Through the use of stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes, tissue-engineered human myocardial constructs are poised for modeling normal and diseased physiology of the heart, as well as discovery of novel drugs and therapeutic targets in a human relevant manner. This review highlights the recent bioengineering efforts to recapitulate microenvironmental cues to further the maturation state of newly differentiated cardiac myocytes. These techniques include long-term culture, co-culture, exposure to mechanical stimuli, 3D culture, cell-matrix interactions, and electrical stimulation...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290035/endosymbionts-differentially-alter-exploratory-probing-behavior-of-a-nonpersistent-plant-virus-vector
#20
G Angelella, V Nalam, P Nachappa, J White, I Kaplan
Insect endosymbionts (hereafter, symbionts) can modify plant virus epidemiology by changing the physiology or behavior of vectors, but their role in nonpersistent virus pathosystems remains uninvestigated. Unlike propagative and circulative viruses, nonpersistent plant virus transmission occurs via transient contamination of mouthparts, making direct interaction between symbiont and virus unlikely. Nonpersistent virus transmission occurs during exploratory intracellular punctures with styletiform mouthparts when vectors assess potential host-plant quality prior to phloem feeding...
December 30, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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