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electrical physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648659/enterochromaffin-cells-are-gut-chemosensors-that-couple-to-sensory-neural-pathways
#1
Nicholas W Bellono, James R Bayrer, Duncan B Leitch, Joel Castro, Chuchu Zhang, Tracey A O'Donnell, Stuart M Brierley, Holly A Ingraham, David Julius
Dietary, microbial, and inflammatory factors modulate the gut-brain axis and influence physiological processes ranging from metabolism to cognition. The gut epithelium is a principal site for detecting such agents, but precisely how it communicates with neural elements is poorly understood. Serotonergic enterochromaffin (EC) cells are proposed to fulfill this role by acting as chemosensors, but understanding how these rare and unique cell types transduce chemosensory information to the nervous system has been hampered by their paucity and inaccessibility to single-cell measurements...
June 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647752/possible-effects-of-electric-fields-on-a-pair-of-spherical-cells
#2
Yu Zheng, Jing Xue, Yang Gao, Lei Dong, Jun-Rong Dou, Wei Ma
Electric fields (EF) can induce some physiological or biological effects in neural tissues, which have been explored in many applications such as electroporation. The key to understand the possible underlying mechanisms of such effects tend to be the induced transmembrane potential. Although transmembrane potentials have already been the subject of many theoretical studies, most previous works concerning this topic are mainly focused on the situations of isolated cells. In previous studies, cells are often considered to be three-compartment models with different electroconductivities in different regions (the three compartments are often intracellular regions, membrane, and extracellular regions)...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645377/electrical-probes-of-dna-binding-proteins
#3
Jacqueline K Barton, Phillip L Bartels, Yingxin Deng, Elizabeth O'Brien
A DNA electrochemistry platform has been developed to probe proteins bound to DNA electrically. Here gold electrodes are modified with thiol-modified DNA, and DNA charge transport chemistry is used to probe DNA binding and enzymatic reaction both with redox-silent and redox-active proteins. For redox-active proteins, the electrochemistry permits the determination of redox potentials in the DNA-bound form, where comparisons to DNA-free potentials can be made using graphite electrodes without DNA modification...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644070/particulate-matter-disrupts-human-lung-endothelial-cell-barrier-integrity-via-rho-dependent-pathways
#4
Ting Wang, Yuka Shimizu, Xiaomin Wu, Gabriel T Kelly, Xiaoyan Xu, Lichun Wang, Zhongqing Qian, Yin Chen, Joe G N Garcia
Increased exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with elevated morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases and cancer. We and others have shown that PM induces lung microvascular barrier dysfunction which potentially enhances the systemic toxicity of PM. However, the mechanisms by which PM disrupts vascular endothelial integrity remain incompletely explored. We hypothesize that PM induces endothelial cell (EC) cytoskeleton rearrangement via Rho GTPase-dependent pathways to facilitate vascular hyperpermeability...
June 23, 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641799/the-continued-search-for-physiological%C3%A2-pacing-where-are-we-now
#5
REVIEW
Pugazhendhi Vijayaraman, Pierre Bordachar, Kenneth A Ellenbogen
Cardiac pacing is an effective treatment for patients with bradycardia due to sinus node dysfunction or atrioventricular block. Despite decades of technological advances, the optimal ventricular pacing site to mimic normal human ventricular physiology and best hemodynamic response remains elusive. Beginning with atrial synchronous right ventricular (RV) apical pacing, the search has continued through alternate RV pacing sites, minimizing RV pacing, biventricular pacing, left ventricular (LV) pacing, and His-bundle pacing...
June 27, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640451/cardiac-fibrosis-and-arrhythmogenesis
#6
My-Nhan Nguyen, Helen Kiriazis, Xiao-Ming Gao, Xiao-Jun Du
Myocardial injury, mechanical stress, neurohormonal activation, inflammation, and/or aging all lead to cardiac remodeling, which is responsible for cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmogenesis. Of the key histological components of cardiac remodeling, fibrosis either in the form of interstitial, patchy, or dense scars, constitutes a key histological substrate of arrhythmias. Here we discuss current research findings focusing on the role of fibrosis, in arrhythmogenesis. Numerous studies have convincingly shown that patchy or interstitial fibrosis interferes with myocardial electrophysiology by slowing down action potential propagation, initiating reentry, promoting after-depolarizations, and increasing ectopic automaticity...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638364/impact-of-neuronal-membrane-damage-on-the-local-field-potential-in-a-large-scale-simulation-of-cerebral-cortex
#7
David L Boothe, Alfred B Yu, Pawel Kudela, William S Anderson, Jean M Vettel, Piotr J Franaszczuk
Within multiscale brain dynamics, the structure-function relationship between cellular changes at a lower scale and coordinated oscillations at a higher scale is not well understood. This relationship may be particularly relevant for understanding functional impairments after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) when current neuroimaging methods do not reveal morphological changes to the brain common in moderate to severe TBI such as diffuse axonal injury or gray matter lesions. Here, we created a physiology-based model of cerebral cortex using a publicly released modeling framework (GEneral NEural SImulation System) to explore the possibility that performance deficits characteristic of blast-induced mTBI may reflect dysfunctional, local network activity influenced by microscale neuronal damage at the cellular level...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636643/neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-prevents-skeletal-muscle-dysfunction-in-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-rat
#8
Koichi Himori, Daisuke Tatebayashi, Keita Kanzaki, Masanobu Wada, Håkan Westerblad, Johanna T Lanner, Takashi Yamada
Skeletal muscle weakness is a prominent feature in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we investigated whether neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training protects against skeletal muscle dysfunction in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). AIA was produced by intraarticular injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the knees of Wistar rats. For NMES training, dorsiflexor muscles were stimulated via a surface electrode (0.5 ms pulse, 50 Hz, 2 s on/4 s off). NMES training was performed every other day for three weeks and consisted of three sets produced at three min intervals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636017/effect-of-cisplatin-on-the-transport-activity-of-pii-type-atpases
#9
Francesco Tadini-Buoninsegni, Giacomo Sordi, Serena Smeazzetto, Giovanni Natile, Fabio Arnesano
Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichlorido-Pt(ii)) is extensively used as a chemotherapeutic agent against various types of tumors. However, cisplatin administration causes serious side effects, including nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity and neurotoxicity. It has been shown that cisplatin can interact with P-type ATPases, e.g., Cu(+)-ATPases (ATP7A and ATP7B) and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Cisplatin-induced inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase has been related to the nephrotoxic effect of the drug. To investigate the inhibitory effects of cisplatin on the pumping activity of PII-type ATPases, electrical measurements were performed on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase embedded in vesicles/membrane fragments adsorbed on a solid-supported membrane...
June 21, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634611/micro-and-nano-patterned-conductive-graphene-peg-hybrid-scaffolds-for-cardiac-tissue-engineering
#10
Alec S T Smith, Hyok Yoo, Hyunjung Yi, Eun Hyun Ahn, Justin H Lee, Guozheng Shao, Ekaterina Nagornyak, Michael A Laflamme, Charles E Murry, Deok-Ho Kim
A lack of electrical conductivity and structural organization in currently available biomaterial scaffolds limits their utility for generating physiologically representative models of functional cardiac tissue. Here we report on the development of scalable, graphene-functionalized topographies with anisotropic electrical conductivity for engineering the structural and functional phenotypes of macroscopic cardiac tissue constructs. Guided by anisotropic electroconductive and topographic cues, the tissue constructs displayed structural property enhancement in myofibrils and sarcomeres, and exhibited significant increases in the expression of cell-cell coupling and calcium handling proteins, as well as in action potential duration and peak calcium release...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630408/the-cellular-and-circuit-basis-for-evolutionary-change-in-sensory-perception-in-mormyrid-fishes
#11
Alejandro Vélez, Tsunehiko Kohashi, Anan Lu, Bruce A Carlson
Species differences in perception have been linked to divergence in gross neuroanatomical features of sensory pathways. The anatomical and physiological basis of evolutionary change in sensory processing at cellular and circuit levels, however, is poorly understood. Here, we show how specific changes to a sensory microcircuit are associated with the evolution of a novel perceptual ability. In mormyrid fishes, the ability to detect variation in electric communication signals is correlated with an enlargement of the midbrain exterolateral nucleus (EL), and a differentiation into separate anterior (ELa) and posterior (ELp) regions...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630170/characterization-of-aortic-valve-closure-artifact-during-outflow-tract-mapping-correlation-with-hemodynamics-and-mechanical-valves
#12
Jorge Romero, Olujimi Ajijola, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Roderick Tung
BACKGROUND: Premature ventricular contractions originating in the left ventricle outflow tract represent a significant subgroup of patients referred for catheter ablation. Mechanical artifacts from aortic valve leaflet motion may be observed during mapping, although the incidence and characteristics have not been reported. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-eight consecutive patients with left ventricle outflow tract premature ventricular contraction were included. Electric signals recorded on the ablation catheter not coincident with atrial or ventricular depolarization were analyzed on the recording system...
June 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628030/a-novel-flexible-cuff-like-microelectrode-for-dual-purpose-acute-and-chronic-electrical-interfacing-with-the-mouse-cervical-vagus-nerve
#13
April Shawn Caravaca, Téa Tsaava, Laura Goldman, Harold Silverman, Gary Riggott, Sangeeta Chavan, Chad Bouton, Kevin J Tracey, Robert Desimone, Ed Boyden, Harbaljit Singh Sohal, Peder S Olofsson
OBJECTIVE: Neural reflexes establish homeostasis and regulate the immune system. Advances in bioelectronic medicine indicate that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve can be used to treat inflammatory disease, yet the understanding of neural signals that regulate inflammation is incomplete. Current interfaces with the vagus nerve do not permit effective chronic stimulation or recording in mouse models, which is vital to studying the molecular and neurophysiological mechanisms that control inflammation homeostasis in health and disease...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627584/gastric-electrical-stimulation-improves-enteric-neuronal-survival
#14
Nian Wang, Kun Li, Shuangning Song, Jie Chen
Research and clinical experience with vagotomy have confirmed that damage to the central nervous system severely affects physiological movement in the gastrointestinal system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of synchronized dual-pulse gastric electrical stimulation (SGES) on the apoptosis of enteric neurons and the possible pathways involved in these effects in vagotomized rats. For this purpose, Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into a control group, an early subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group (ESDV group), an early subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group with short-term SGES (ESDV + SSGES group), a terminal subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group (TSDV group) and a terminal subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group with long-term SGES (TSDV + LSGES group)...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626522/study-of-para-quinone-methide-precursors-toward-the-realkylation-of-aged-acetylcholinesterase
#15
Ryan J Yoder, Qinggeng Zhuang, Jeremy M Beck, Andrew Franjesevic, Travis G Blanton, Sydney Sillart, Tyler Secor, Leah Guerra, Jason D Brown, Carolyn Reid, Craig A McElroy, Özlem Doğan Ekici, Christopher S Callam, Christopher M Hadad
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an essential enzyme that can be targeted by organophosphorus (OP) compounds, including nerve agents. Following exposure to OPs, AChE becomes phosphylated (inhibited) and undergoes a subsequent aging process where the OP-AChE adduct is dealkylated. The aged AChE is unable to hydrolyze acetylcholine, resulting in accumulation of the neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) and elsewhere. Current therapeutics are only capable of reactivating inhibited AChE. There are no known therapeutic agents to reverse the aging process or treat aged AChE...
June 8, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622331/in-silico-assessment-of-genetic-variation-in-kcna5-reveals-multiple-mechanisms-of-human-atrial-arrhythmogenesis
#16
Michael A Colman, Haibo Ni, Bo Liang, Nicole Schmitt, Henggui Zhang
A recent experimental study investigating patients with lone atrial fibrillation identified six novel mutations in the KCNA5 gene. The mutants exhibited both gain- and loss-of-function of the atrial specific ultra-rapid delayed rectifier K+ current, IKur. The aim of this study is to elucidate and quantify the functional impact of these KCNA5 mutations on atrial electrical activity. A multi-scale model of the human atria was updated to incorporate detailed experimental data on IKur from both wild-type and mutants...
June 16, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615966/acute-physiological-and-electrical-accentuation-of-vagal-tone-has-no-effect-on-pain-or-gastrointestinal-motility-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#17
Jacob Juel, Christina Brock, Søren S Olesen, Adnan Madzak, Adam D Farmer, Qasim Aziz, Jens B Frøkjær, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
BACKGROUND: The effective management of pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) remains a therapeutic challenge. Analgesic drugs, such as opioids, and the underlying pathology can impair gut function. The autonomic nervous system influences hormone secretion and gut motility. In healthy volunteers, electrical (using noninvasive transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation [t-VNS]) and physiological (using deep slow breathing [DSB]) modulation of parasympathetic tone results in pain attenuation and enhanced gut motility...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611396/coupling-neutron-reflectivity-with-cell-free-protein-synthesis-to-probe-membrane-protein-structure-in-supported-bilayers
#18
Thomas Soranzo, Donald K Martin, Jean-Luc Lenormand, Erik B Watkins
The structure of the p7 viroporin, an oligomeric membrane protein ion channel involved in the assembly and release of the hepatitis C virus, was determined from proteins expressed and inserted directly into supported model lipid membranes using cell-free protein expression. Cell-free protein expression allowed (i ) high protein concentration in the membrane, (ii ) control of the protein's isotopic constitution, and (iii ) control over the lipid environment available to the protein. Here, we used cell-free protein synthesis to directly incorporate the hepatitis C virus (HCV) p7 protein into supported lipid bilayers formed from physiologically relevant lipids (POPC or asolectin) for both direct structural measurements using neutron reflectivity (NR) and conductance measurements using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609330/age-modulates-physiological-responses-during-fan-use-under-extreme-heat-and-humidity
#19
Daniel Gagnon, Steven A Romero, Matthew N Cramer, Ken Kouda, Paula Ys Poh, Hai Ngo, Ollie Jay, Craig G Crandall
PURPOSE: We examined the effect of electric fan use on cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses of nine young (26 ± 3 years) and nine aged (68 ± 4 years) adults exposed to extreme heat and humidity. METHODS: While resting at a temperature of 42°C, relative humidity increased from 30 to 70% in 2% increments every 5 minutes. On randomized days, the protocol was repeated without or with fan use. Heart rate (HR), core (Tcore) and mean skin (Tsk) temperatures were measured continuously...
June 12, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608281/suppression-of-cucumber-stachyose-synthase-gene-cssts-inhibits-phloem-loading-and-reduces-low-temperature-stress-tolerance
#20
Jianguo Lü, Xiaolei Sui, Si Ma, Xin Li, Huan Liu, Zhenxian Zhang
Stachyose is the main transporting sugar in phloem of Raffinose family oligosaccharides-transporting species. Stachyose synthase (STS) is a key enzyme for stachyose biosynthesis, but the gene encoding STS is poorly characterized in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), which is a model plant for studying stachyose metabolism and phloem function. In this research, stachyose synthase gene (CsSTS) from cucumber was isolated and its physiological functions were analyzed. CsSTS expressed mainly in the phloem of the minor veins in mature leaves and localized to companion cells...
June 12, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
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