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electrical physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921633/spontaneous-mechanical-and-electrical-activities-of-human-calf-musculature-at-rest-assessed-by-repetitive-single-shot-diffusion-weighted-mri-and-simultaneous-surface-electromyography
#1
Martin Schwartz, Günter Steidle, Petros Martirosian, Ander Ramos-Murguialday, Hubert Preißl, Alto Stemmer, Bin Yang, Fritz Schick
PURPOSE: Assessment of temporal and spatial relations between spontaneous mechanical activities in musculature (SMAM) at rest as revealed by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and electrical muscular activities in surface EMG (sEMG). Potential influences of static and radiofrequency magnetic fields on muscular activity on sEMG measurements at rest were examined systematically. METHODS: Series of diffusion-weighted stimulated echo planar imaging were recorded with concurrent sEMG measurements...
September 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919940/calcitox-aging-counterbalanced-by-endogenous-farnesol-like-sesquiterpenoids-an-undervalued-evolutionarily-ancient-key-signaling-pathway
#2
Arnold De Loof
Cells are powerful miniature electrophoresis chambers, at least during part of their life cycle. They die at the moment the voltage gradient over their plasma membrane, and their ability to drive a self-generated electric current carried by inorganic ions through themselves irreversibly collapses. Senescence is likely due to the progressive, multifactorial damage to the cell's electrical system. This is the essence of the "Fading electricity theory of aging" (De Loof et al., Aging Res. Rev. 2013;12:58-66)...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918572/spot-light-on-skeletal-muscles-optogenetic-stimulation-to-understand-and-restore-skeletal-muscle-function
#3
Tobias van Bremen, Thorsten Send, Philipp Sasse, Tobias Bruegmann
Damage of peripheral nerves results in paralysis of skeletal muscle. Currently, the only treatment option to restore proper function is electrical stimulation of the innervating nerve or of the skeletal muscles directly. However this approach has low spatial and temporal precision leading to co-activation of antagonistic muscles and lacks cell-type selectivity resulting in pain or discomfort by stimulation of sensible nerves. In contrast to electrical stimulation, optogenetic methods enable spatially confined and cell-type selective stimulation of cells expressing the light sensitive channel Channelrhodopsin-2 with precise temporal control over the membrane potential...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918265/amorphous-liquid-metal-electrodes-enabled-conformable-electrochemical-therapy-of-tumors
#4
Xuyang Sun, Bo Yuan, Wei Rao, Jing Liu
Electrochemical treatment of tumors (EChT) has recently been identified as a very effective way for local tumor therapy. However, hindered by the limited effective area of a single rigid electrode, multiple electrodes are often recruited when tackling large tumors, where too many electrodes not only complicate the clinical procedures but also aggravate patients' pain. Here we present a new conceptual electric stimulation tumor therapy through introducing the injectable liquid metal electrodes, which can adapt to complex tumor shapes so as to achieve desired therapeutic performance...
September 5, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916793/oligodendroglial-excitability-mediated-by-glutamatergic-inputs-and-nav1-2-activation
#5
Emmanuelle Berret, Tara Barron, Jie Xu, Emily Debner, Eun Jung Kim, Jun Hee Kim
Oligodendrocyte (OL) maturation and axon-glial communication are required for proper myelination in the developing brain. However, physiological properties of OLs remain largely uncharacterized in different brain regions. The roles of oligodendroglial voltage-activated Na(+) channels (Nav) and electrical excitability in relation to maturation to the myelinating stage are controversial, although oligodendroglial excitability is potentially important for promoting axon myelination. Here we show spiking properties of OLs and their role in axon-glial communication in the auditory brainstem...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916492/overcoming-ocular-drug-delivery-barriers-through-the-use-of-physical-forces
#6
Di Huang, Ying-Shan Chen, Ilva D Rupenthal
Overcoming the physiological barriers in the eye remains a key obstacle in the field of ocular drug delivery. While ocular barriers naturally have a protective function, they also limit drug entry into the eye. Various pharmaceutical strategies, such as novel formulations and physical force-based techniques, have been investigated to weaken these barriers and transport therapeutic agents effectively to both the anterior and the posterior segments of the eye. This review summarizes and discusses the recent research progress in the field of ocular drug delivery with a focus on the application of physical methods, including electrical fields, sonophoresis, and microneedles, which can enhance penetration efficiency by transiently disrupting the ocular barriers in a minimally or non-invasive manner...
September 12, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915323/hair-cell-transduction-tuning-and-synaptic-transmission-in-the-mammalian-cochlea
#7
Robert Fettiplace
Sound pressure fluctuations striking the ear are conveyed to the cochlea, where they vibrate the basilar membrane on which sit hair cells, the mechanoreceptors of the inner ear. Recordings of hair cell electrical responses have shown that they transduce sound via submicrometer deflections of their hair bundles, which are arrays of interconnected stereocilia containing the mechanoelectrical transducer (MET) channels. MET channels are activated by tension in extracellular tip links bridging adjacent stereocilia, and they can respond within microseconds to nanometer displacements of the bundle, facilitated by multiple processes of Ca2+-dependent adaptation...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911821/on-the-occurrence-and-enigmatic-functions-of-mixed-chemical-plus-electrical-synapses-in-the-mammalian-cns
#8
REVIEW
James I Nagy, Alberto E Pereda, John E Rash
Electrical synapses with diverse configurations and functions occur at a variety of interneuronal appositions, thereby significantly expanding the physiological complexity of neuronal circuitry over that provided solely by chemical synapses. Gap junctions between apposed dendritic and somatic plasma membranes form "purely electrical" synapses that allow for electrical communication between coupled neurons. In addition, gap junctions at axon terminals synapsing on dendrites and somata allow for "mixed" (dual chemical+electrical) synaptic transmission...
September 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893668/learning-mechanisms-underlying-threat-absence-and-threat-relief-influences-of-trait-anxiety
#9
Marta Andreatta, Paul Pauli
Impaired safety learning has been proposed as a risk factor for anxiety disorders, but safety can be indicated by either threat absence or threat termination (i.e., relief). Here, we investigated the role of trait anxiety for both kinds of safety learning. Ninety-one participants underwent an acquisition phase during which one shape (threatCS) predicted a painful electric shock (unconditioned stimulus, US), one shape (reliefCS) followed the US, and one shape (absenceCS) became never associated with the US. In a following extinction phase, the three cues were presented again plus a control shape (controlCS)...
September 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891501/a-comparison-of-computational-models-for-the-extracellular-potential-of-neurons
#10
Jurgis Pods
The extracellular space has an ambiguous role in neuroscience. It is present in every physiologically relevant system and often used as a measurement site in experimental recordings, but it has received subordinate attention compared to the intracellular domain. In computational modeling, it is often regarded as a passive, homogeneous resistive medium with a constant conductivity, which greatly simplifies the computation of extracellular potentials. However, novel studies have shown that local ionic diffusion and capacitive effects of electrically active membranes can have a substantial impact on the extracellular potential...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891497/a-framework-to-reconcile-frequency-scaling-measurements-from-intracellular-recordings-local-field-potentials-up-to-eeg-and-meg%C3%A2-signals
#11
Claude Bedard, Jean-Marie Gomes, Thierry Bal, Alain Destexhe
In this viewpoint article, we discuss the electric properties of the medium around neurons, which are important to correctly interpret extracellular potentials or electric field effects in neural tissue. We focus on how these electric properties shape the frequency scaling of brain signals at different scales, such as intracellular recordings, the local field potential (LFP), the electroencephalogram (EEG) or the magnetoencephalogram (MEG). These signals display frequency-scaling properties which are not consistent with resistive media...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888021/simultaneous-monitoring-of-single-cell-and-of-micro-organ-activity-by-pedot-pss-covered-multi-electrode-arrays
#12
Dimitrios A Koutsouras, Romain Perrier, Ariana Villarroel Marquez, Antoine Pirog, Eileen Pedraza, Eric Cloutet, Sylvie Renaud, Matthieu Raoux, George G Malliaras, Jochen Lang
Continuous and long-term monitoring of cellular and micro-organ activity is required for new insights into physiology and novel technologies such as Organs-on-Chip. Moreover, recent advances in stem cell technology and especially in the field of diabetes call for non-invasive approaches in quality testing of the large quantities of surrogate pancreatic islets to be generated. Electrical activity of such a micro-organ results in single cell action potentials (APs) of high frequency and in low frequency changes in local field potentials (slow potentials or SPs), reflecting coupled cell activity and overall organ physiology...
December 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885469/bigger-is-better-comparison-of-alternative-devices-for-tension-hemopneumothorax-and-pulseless-electrical-activity-in-a-yorkshire-swine-model
#13
Matthew L Leatherman, Laura M Fluke, Christian S McEvoy, Douglas M Pokorny, Robert L Ricca, Matthew J Martin, Christopher S Gamble, Travis M Polk
BACKGROUND: Tension pneumothorax is a cause of potentially preventable death in pre-hospital and battlefield settings and 14g angiocatheter (14G AC) decompression remains the current treatment standard, despite its high incidence of failure. Traumatic pneumothorax is often associated with hemothorax, but 14G AC has no proven efficacy for associated hemothorax. We sought to compare the 14G AC to three alternative devices for treatment of tension hemopneumothorax (t-H/PTX) in a positive pressure ventilation swine model...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880251/studying-electrotaxis-in-microfluidic-devices
#14
REVIEW
Yung-Shin Sun
Collective cell migration is important in various physiological processes such as morphogenesis, cancer metastasis and cell regeneration. Such migration can be induced and guided by different chemical and physical cues. Electrotaxis, referring to the directional migration of adherent cells under stimulus of electric fields, is believed to be highly involved in the wound-healing process. Electrotactic experiments are conventionally conducted in Petri dishes or cover glasses wherein cells are cultured and electric fields are applied...
September 7, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878030/the-hyperpolarization-activated-cyclic-nucleotide-gated-channels-from-biophysics-to-pharmacology-of-a-unique-family-of-ion-channels
#15
REVIEW
Laura Sartiani, Guido Mannaioni, Alessio Masi, Maria Novella Romanelli, Elisabetta Cerbai
Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are important members of the voltage-gated pore loop channels family. They show unique features: they open at hyperpolarizing potential, carry a mixed Na/K current, and are regulated by cyclic nucleotides. Four different isoforms have been cloned (HCN1-4) that can assemble to form homo- or heterotetramers, characterized by different biophysical properties. These proteins are widely distributed throughout the body and involved in different physiologic processes, the most important being the generation of spontaneous electrical activity in the heart and the regulation of synaptic transmission in the brain...
October 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870837/post-tetanic-transcranial-motor-evoked-potentials-augments-the-amplitude-of-compound-muscle-action-potentials-recorded-from-innervated-and-non-innervated-muscles
#16
Hideki Shigematsu, Masahiko Kawaguchi, Hironobu Hayashi, Tsunenori Takatani, Eiichiro Iwata, Masato Tanaka, Akinori Okuda, Yasuhiko Morimoto, Keisuke Masuda, Yuusuke Yamamoto, Yasuhito Tanaka
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Transcranial electrical stimulation used to produce motor evoked potentials (TES-MEP) and subsequent compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recording is widely used to monitor motor function during surgery when there is risk of damaging the spinal cord. Nonetheless, some muscles do not produce CMAP amplitudes sufficient for intraoperative monitoring. PURPOSE: To investigate the utility of tetanic stimulation at single and multiple peripheral nerve sites for augmenting CMAP amplitudes recorded from innervated and non-innervated muscles...
September 1, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870526/drug-repurposing-strategy-against-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-assessment-of-the-activity-of-metronidazole-in-mono-and-combined-therapy
#17
M R Simões-Silva, J S De Araújo, G M Oliveira, K C Demarque, R B Peres, I D'Almeida-Melo, D G J Batista, C F Da Silva, C Cardoso-Santos, P B Da Silva, M M Batista, M T Bahia, M N C Soeiro
Metronidazole (Mtz) is a commercial broad-spectrum nitroimidazolic derivative with relevant antimicrobial activity and relative safety profile. Therefore, it is fair to consider Mtz a candidate for drug repurposing for other neglected conditions such as Chagas disease (CD), a parasitic pathology caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. CD is treated only with benznidazole (Bz) and nifurtimox, both introduced in clinics decades ago despite important limitations, including low efficacy on the later disease stage (chronic form) and severe side effects...
September 1, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863136/differential-receptive-field-organizations-give-rise-to-nearly-identical-neural-correlations-across-three-parallel-sensory-maps-in-weakly-electric-fish
#18
Volker Hofmann, Maurice J Chacron
Understanding how neural populations encode sensory information thereby leading to perception and behavior (i.e., the neural code) remains an important problem in neuroscience. When investigating the neural code, one must take into account the fact that neural activities are not independent but are actually correlated with one another. Such correlations are seen ubiquitously and have a strong impact on neural coding. Here we investigated how differences in the antagonistic center-surround receptive field (RF) organization across three parallel sensory maps influence correlations between the activities of electrosensory pyramidal neurons...
September 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861930/electrical-pulse-stimulation-an-in-vitro-exercise-model-for-the-induction-of-human-skeletal-muscle-cell-hypertrophy-a-proof-of-concept-study
#19
Janelle Tarum, Mattias Folkesson, Philip J Atherton, Fawzi Kadi
Electrical Pulse Stimulation (EPS) of muscle cells has previously been used as an in vitro exercise model. The present study aims to establish an EPS protocol promoting the hypertrophy of human muscle cells, which represents a major physiological endpoint to resistance exercise in humans. We hypothesized that adding a resting period after EPS would be critical for the occurrence of the morphological change. Myoblasts obtained from human muscle biopsies (n = 5) were differentiated into multinucleated myotubes and exposed to 8 h EPS consisting of 2 ms pulses at 12 V with a frequency of 1 Hz...
August 31, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861611/the-maize-wrky-transcription-factor-zmwrky17-negatively-regulates-salt-stress-tolerance-in-transgenic-arabidopsis-plants
#20
Ronghao Cai, Wei Dai, Congsheng Zhang, Yan Wang, Min Wu, Yang Zhao, Qing Ma, Yan Xiang, Beijiu Cheng
We cloned and characterized the ZmWRKY17 gene from maize. Overexpression of ZmWRKY17 in Arabidopsis led to increased sensitivity to salt stress and decreased ABA sensitivity through regulating the expression of some ABA- and stress-responsive genes. The WRKY transcription factors have been reported to function as positive or negative regulators in many different biological processes including plant development, defense regulation and stress response. This study isolated a maize WRKY gene, ZmWRKY17, and characterized its role in tolerance to salt stress by generating transgenic Arabidopsis plants...
August 31, 2017: Planta
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