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electrical physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211795/a-murine-model-of-a-novel-surgical-architecture-for-proprioceptive-muscle-feedback-and-its-potential-application-to-control-of-advanced-limb-prostheses
#1
Tyler R Clites, Matthew Carty, Shriya Srinivasan, Anthony Zorzos, Hugh Herr
<i>Objective:</i> Proprioceptive mechanisms play a critical role in both reflexive and volitional lower extremity control. Significant strides have been made in the development of bionic limbs that are capable of bi-directional communication with the peripheral nervous system, but none of these systems have been capable of providing physiologically-relevant muscle-based proprioceptive feedback through natural neural pathways. In this study, we present the Agonist-antagonist Myoplastic Interface (AMI), a surgical approach with the capacity to provide graded kinesthetic feedback from a prosthesis through mechanical activation of native mechanoreceptors within residual agonist-antagonist muscle pairs...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209743/skeletal-muscle-bioenergetics-during-all-out-exercise-mechanistic-insight-into-the-oxygen-uptake-slow-component-and-neuromuscular-fatigue
#2
Ryan M Broxterman, Gwenael Layec, Thomas J Hureau, Markus Amann, Russell S Richardson
Although commonly used, the physiological mechanisms underlying all-out exercise performance are still unclear and an in-depth assessment of skeletal muscle bioenergetics is lacking. Therefore, phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) was utilized to assess skeletal muscle bioenergetics during a 5-min all-out intermittent isometric knee-extensor protocol in 8 healthy men. The metabolic perturbation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis rates, ATP cost of contraction, and mitochondrial capacity were determined from intramuscular concentrations of phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), diprotonated phosphate (H2PO4⁻ ), and pH...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207576/relationship-between-peripheral-and-psychophysical-measures-of-amplitude-modulation-detection-in-cochlear-implant-users
#3
Viral D Tejani, Paul J Abbas, Carolyn J Brown
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the relationship between electrophysiological and psychophysical measures of amplitude modulation (AM) detection. Prior studies have reported both measures of AM detection recorded separately from cochlear implant (CI) users and acutely deafened animals, but no study has made both measures in the same CI users. Animal studies suggest a progressive loss of high-frequency encoding as one ascends the auditory pathway from the auditory nerve to the cortex...
February 15, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199218/surface-emg-and-muscle-fatigue-multi-channel-approaches-to-the-study-of-myoelectric-manifestations-of-muscle-fatigue
#4
Marco Gazzoni, Alberto Botter, Taian Vieira
On a broad view, fatigue is used to indicate a somewhat degree of weariness. On the muscular level, fatigue posits the reduced capacity of muscle fibres to produce force, even in the presence of motor neuron excitation via either spinal mechanisms or electric pulses applied externally. Prior to decreased force, when sustaining physically demanding tasks, alterations in the muscle electrical properties take place. These alterations, termed myoelectric manifestation of fatigue, can be assessed non-invasively with a pair of surface electrodes positioned appropriately on the target muscle; traditional approach...
February 15, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198817/dynamic-properties-of-calcium-activated-chloride-currents-in-xenopus-laevis-oocytes
#5
Ildefonso M De la Fuente, Iker Malaina, Alberto Pérez-Samartín, María Dolores Boyano, Gorka Pérez-Yarza, Carlos Bringas, Álvaro Villarroel, María Fedetz, Rogelio Arellano, Jesus M Cortes, Luis Martínez
Chloride is the most abundant permeable anion in the cell, and numerous studies in the last two decades highlight the great importance and broad physiological role of chloride currents mediated anion transport. They participate in a multiplicity of key processes, as for instance, the regulation of electrical excitability, apoptosis, cell cycle, epithelial secretion and neuronal excitability. In addition, dysfunction of Cl(-) channels is involved in a variety of human diseases such as epilepsy, osteoporosis and different cancer types...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197543/impedance-spectrum-in-cortical-tissue-implications-for-propagation-of-lfp-signals-on-the-microscopic-level
#6
Stéphanie Miceli, Torbjørn V Ness, Gaute T Einevoll, Dirk Schubert
Brain research investigating electrical activity within neural tissue is producing an increasing amount of physiological data including local field potentials (LFPs) obtained via extracellular in vivo and in vitro recordings. In order to correctly interpret such electrophysiological data, it is vital to adequately understand the electrical properties of neural tissue itself. An ongoing controversy in the field of neuroscience is whether such frequency-dependent effects bias LFP recordings and affect the proper interpretation of the signal...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197119/the-hypothesis-of-connecting-two-spinal-cords-as-a-way-of-sharing-information-between-two-brains-and-nervous-systems
#7
Amílcar Silva-Dos-Santos
Direct communication between different nervous systems has been recently reported through Brain-to-Brain-Interfaces and brainet. Closed loops systems between the brain and the spinal cord from the same individual have also been demonstrated. However, the connection between different nervous systems through the spinal cord has not yet been considered. This paper raises the hypothesis that connecting two spinal cords (spinal cord - spinal cord connection) is an indirect mean for communication of two brains and a direct way of communication between two nervous systems...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194746/stimuli-responsive-polymeric-nanocarriers-for-efficient-gene-delivery
#8
REVIEW
Yingqin Li, Jinbiao Gao, Chao Zhang, Zhong Cao, Du Cheng, Jie Liu, Xintao Shuai
Gene therapy provides an alternative and effective method for treatment of genetic diseases and cancers that are refractory to conventional therapeutics. The success of gene therapy is largely dependent on the development of safe and effective gene delivery vectors for transporting genetic material from the blood stream to the cytoplasm or nucleus. Current gene vectors can be divided into viral and non-viral vectors. Although non-viral gene delivery carriers can offer some advantages, such as safety and facile fabrication, they do not possess the same high gene transfection efficiency as viral vectors due to a lack of functionality to overcome extra- and intracellular gene delivery obstacles...
April 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193153/molecular-evolution-of-globin-genes-in-gymnotiform-electric-fishes-relation-to-hypoxia-tolerance
#9
Ran Tian, Mauricio Losilla, Ying Lu, Guang Yang, Harold Zakon
BACKGROUND: Nocturnally active gymnotiform weakly electric fish generate electric signals for communication and navigation, which can be energetically taxing. These fish mainly inhabit the Amazon basin, where some species prefer well-oxygenated waters and others live in oxygen-poor, stagnant habitats. The latter species show morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations for hypoxia-tolerance. However, there have been no studies of hypoxia tolerance on the molecular level. Globins are classic respiratory proteins...
February 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192083/anatomical-and-spiral-wave-reentry-in-a-simplified-model-for-atrial-electrophysiology
#10
Yvonne Richter, Pedro G Lind, Gunnar Seemann, Philipp Maass
For modeling the propagation of action potentials in the human atria, various models have been developed in the past, which take into account in detail the influence of the numerous ionic currents flowing through the cell membrane. Aiming at a simplified description, the Bueno-Orovio-Cherry-Fenton (BOCF) model for electric wave propagation in the ventricle has been adapted recently to atrial physiology. Here, we study this adapted BOCF (aBOCF) model with respect to its capability to accurately generate spatio-temporal excitation patterns found in anatomical and spiral wave reentry...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188741/molecular-dynamics-study-of-ion-transport-through-an-open-model-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channel
#11
Yang Li, Ruining Sun, Huihui Liu, Haipeng Gong
Voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels are critical in the signal transduction of excitable cells. In this work, we modeled the open conformation for the pore domain of a prokaryotic NaV channel (NaVRh), and used molecular dynamics simulations to track the translocation of dozens of Na(+) ions through the channel in the presence of a physiological transmembrane ion concentration gradient and a transmembrane electrical field that was closer to the physiological one than previous studies. Channel conductance was then estimated from simulations on the wide-type and DEKA mutant of NaVRh...
February 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188253/frailty-physical-activity-and-mobility-in-patients-with-cardiac-implantable-electrical-devices
#12
Daniel B Kramer, Timothy Tsai, Poorna Natarajan, Elise Tewksbury, Susan L Mitchell, Thomas G Travison
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring frailty in patients with cardiac implantable electrical devices while validating the physiologic significance of device-detected physical activity by evaluating its association with frailty and mobility. METHODS AND RESULTS: Outpatients with cardiac implantable electrical devices compatible with physical activity analysis with at least 7 days of data were eligible. Office testing included frailty status (Study of Osteoporotic Fractures instrument), gait speed (m/s), mobility according to the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test (seconds), and daily physical activity (h/d) as measured by cardiac implantable electrical device...
February 10, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188197/teaching-a-changing-paradigm-in-physiology-a-historical-perspective-on-gut-interstitial-cells
#13
REVIEW
Bernard T Drumm, Salah A Baker
The study and teaching of gastrointestinal (GI) physiology necessitates an understanding of the cellular basis of contractile and electrical coupling behaviors in the muscle layers that comprise the gut wall. Our knowledge of the cellular origin of GI motility has drastically changed over the last 100 yr. While the pacing and coordination of GI contraction was once thought to be solely attributable to smooth muscle cells, it is now widely accepted that the motility patterns observed in the GI tract exist as a result of a multicellular system, consisting of not only smooth muscle cells but also enteric neurons and distinct populations of specialized interstitial cells that all work in concert to ensure proper GI functions...
March 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186124/algal-cell-response-to-pulsed-waved-stimulation-and-its-application-to-increase-algal-lipid-production
#14
Oleksandra Savchenko, Jida Xing, Xiaoyan Yang, Quanrong Gu, Mohamed Shaheen, Min Huang, Xiaojian Yu, Robert Burrell, Prabir Patra, Jie Chen
Generating renewable energy while sequestering CO2 using algae has recently attracted significant research attention, mostly directing towards biological methods such as systems biology, genetic engineering and bio-refining for optimizing algae strains. Other approaches focus on chemical screening to adjust culture conditions or culture media. We report for the first time the physiological changes of algal cells in response to a novel form of mechanical stimulation, or a pulsed wave at the frequency of 1.5 MHz and the duty cycle of 20%...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185267/regulation-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cell-orientation-and-motility-in-2d-and-3d-cultures-by-direct-current-electrical-field
#15
Gang Yang, Haiyan Long, Xiaomei Ren, Kunlong Ma, Zhenghua Xiao, Ying Wang, Yingqiang Guo
Cell alignment and motility play a critical role in a variety of cell behaviors, including cytoskeleton reorganization, membrane-protein relocation, nuclear gene expression, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Direct current electric field (EF) in vitro can direct many types of cells to align vertically to EF vector. In this work, we investigated the effects of EF stimulation on rat adipose-tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) in 2D-culture on plastic culture dishes and in 3D-culture on various scaffold materials, including collagen hydrogels, chitosan hydrogels and poly(L-lactic acid)/gelatin electrospinning fibers...
February 10, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181535/nanoscale-diffusion-in-the-synaptic-cleft-and-beyond-measured-with-time-resolved-fluorescence-anisotropy-imaging
#16
Kaiyu Zheng, Thomas P Jensen, Leonid P Savtchenko, James A Levitt, Klaus Suhling, Dmitri A Rusakov
Neural activity relies on molecular diffusion within nanoscopic spaces outside and inside nerve cells, such as synaptic clefts or dendritic spines. Measuring diffusion on this small scale in situ has not hitherto been possible, yet this knowledge is critical for understanding the dynamics of molecular events and electric currents that shape physiological signals throughout the brain. Here we advance time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging combined with two-photon excitation microscopy to map nanoscale diffusivity in ex vivo brain slices...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181236/ca-2-tunneling-through-the-er-lumen-as-a-mechanism-for-delivering-ca-2-entering-via-store-operated-ca-2-channels-to-specific-target-sites
#17
Ole H Petersen, Raphael Courjaret, Khaled Machaca
Ca(2+) signalling is perhaps the most universal and versatile mechanism regulating a wide range of cellular processes. Because of the many different calcium-binding proteins distributed throughout cells, signalling precision requires localized rises in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. In electrically non-excitable cells, for example epithelial cells, this is achieved by primary release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum via Ca(2+) release channels placed close to the physiological target. Because any rise in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration activates Ca(2+) extrusion, and in order for cells not to run out of Ca(2+) , there is a need for compensatory Ca(2+) uptake from the extracellular fluid...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179167/mri-and-mrs-of-the-human-brain-at-magnetic-fields-of-14t-to-20t-technical-feasibility-safety-and-neuroscience-horizons
#18
Thomas F Budinger, Mark D Bird
The three goals of this paper are: 1) to evaluate the improvements in technology for increasing magnetic flux density (magnetic field) to 14T in the next few years and eventually to 20T; 2) to highlight neuroscience opportunities enabled by these advances; and, 3) to evaluate the physiological and biophysical effects associated with MRI at very high performance levels. Substantial recent advances in magnet technology including superconductor developments enable neuroscience goals that are not obtainable at contemporary magnetic fields...
February 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177708/the-effect-of-caffeine-on-skeletal-muscle-anabolic-signaling-and-hypertrophy
#19
Timothy M Moore, Xavier M Mortensen, Conrad K Ashby, Alexander M Harris, Karson J Kump, David W Laird, Aaron J Adams, Jeremy K Bray, Ting Chen, David M Thomson
Caffeine is a widely-consumed stimulant with the potential to enhance physical performance through multiple mechanisms. However, recent in vitro findings have suggested that caffeine may block skeletal muscle anabolic signaling through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. This could negatively affect protein synthesis and the capacity for muscle growth. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effect of caffeine on in vivo AMPK and mTOR pathway signaling, protein synthesis and muscle growth...
January 26, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177156/from-maxwell-s-equations-to-the-theory-of-current-source-density-analysis
#20
Sergey L Gratiy, Geir Halnes, Daniel Denman, Michael J Hawrylycz, Christof Koch, Gaute T Einevoll, Costas A Anastassiou
Despite the widespread use of current-source density (CSD) analysis of extracellular potential recordings in the brain, the physical mechanisms responsible for the generation of the signal are still debated. While the extracellular potential is thought to be exclusively generated by the transmembrane currents, recent studies suggest that extracellular diffusive, advective and displacement currents-traditionally neglected-may also contribute considerably towards extracellular potential recordings. Here, we first justify the application of the electro-quasistatic approximation of Maxwell's equations to describe the electromagnetic field of physiological origin...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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