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chemical ecology

Jingjing Wen, Xiaoying Cui, Mark Gibson, Zhengyan Li
Triphenyltin (TPT) is one of the most toxic chemicals artificially discharged into aquatic environment with human activities. Due to its intensive use in antifouling paints and adverse effects on non-target species, TPT has aroused wide concern in both saltwater and freshwater environment. Nevertheless, the water quality criteria (WQC) are not available in China, which impedes the risk assessment for this emerging pollutant. This study aims to establish the WQC of TPT for both freshwater and saltwater ecosystems...
June 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Mohsen Falahati-Anbaran, Mitra Mohammadi Bazargani, Jens Rohloff
Conspecific populations of plants in their native range are expected to show considerable variation due to long-term ecological and evolutionary factors. We investigated the levels of secondary metabolites in Heracleum including H. persicum a valuable medicinal plant to depict the magnitude of cryptic variation and the potential significance of novel chemical traits. The essential oil volatiles from fruits of 34 populations from different species of Heracleum in Iranian distribution range and a native and invasive population of H...
June 15, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Tamara Cibic, Cinzia Comici, Claus Falconi, Daniela Fornasaro, Ana Karuza, Marina Lipizer
Biological, hydrological and chemical data were acquired at monthly intervals from March 2006 to February 2007, at the Long-Term Ecological Research site C1 in the Gulf of Trieste, in the northernmost part of the Adriatic Sea. The biological dataset comprises total chl a and phaeopigment concentrations, and the distinction of the total phytoplankton biomass into three photoautotrophic community fractions, i.e. cyanobacteria, nano- and microphytoplankton, collected at discrete depths. Hydrological data encompass the thermohaline properties of the water column (temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts)...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Mahasweta Saha, Franz Goecke, Punyasloke Bhadury
Marine biofouling is a paramount phenomenon in the marine environment and causes serious problems to maritime industries worldwide. Marine algae are known to produce a wide variety of chemical compounds with antibacterial, antifungal, antialgal, and anti-macrofouling properties, inhibiting the settlement and growth of other marine fouling organisms. Significant investigations and progress have been made in this field in the last two decades and several antifouling extracts and compounds have been isolated from micro- and macroalgae...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Rong Jiang, Meie Wang, Weiping Chen, Xuzhi Li
Combined pollution of agrichemicals and heavy metals in urban lawn soils were commonly observed throughout the world, and the co-existed two chemicals could interact with each other both in environment behavior and toxic effect. However, little has been reported on the ecological risk of their combined pollution, especially in field due to lack of systematic methodology. In this study, four soils (C, N1, N2, N3) from two public parks in Beijing, China, with similar properties but contrasting heavy metal contaminated level were chosen to assess the ecological risks of co-existed herbicide siduron and heavy metals...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Henner Hollert, Sarah E Crawford, Werner Brack, Markus Brinkmann, Elske Fischer, Kai Hartmann, Steffen Keiter, Richard Ottermanns, Jacob D Ouellet, Karsten Rinke, Manfred Rösch, Martina Roß-Nickoll, Andreas Schäffer, Christoph Schüth, Tobias Schulze, Anja Schwarz, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Martin Wessels, Matthias Hinderer, Antje Schwalb
Lake ecosystems are sensitive recorders of environmental changes that provide continuous archives at annual to decadal resolution over thousands of years. The systematic investigation of land use changes and emission of pollutants archived in Holocene lake sediments as well as the reconstruction of contamination, background conditions, and sensitivity of lake systems offer an ideal opportunity to study environmental dynamics and consequences of anthropogenic impact that increasingly pose risks to human well-being...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Irshad Ul Haq, Reto Daniel Zwahlen, Pu Yang, Jan Dirk van Elsas
Fungal-associated Paraburkholderia terrae strains in soil have been extensively studied, but their sensing strategies to locate fungi in soil have remained largely elusive. In this study, we investigated the behavior of five mycosphere-isolated P. terrae strains [including the type-3 secretion system negative mutant BS001-Δ sctD and the type strain DSM 17804T ] with respect to their fungal-sensing strategies. The putative role of oxalic acid as a signaling molecule in the chemotaxis toward soil fungi, as well as a potential carbon source, was assessed...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
John J Beck, Hans Alborn, Anna Block, Shawn A Christensen, Charles T Hunter, Caitlin C Rering, Irmgard Seidl-Adams, Charles Stuhl, Baldwyn Torto, James H Tumlinson
The last two decades have witnessed a sustained increase in the study of plant-emitted volatiles and their role in plant-insect, plant-microbe and plant-plant interactions. While each of these binary systems involves complex chemical and biochemical processes between two organisms, the progression of increasing complexity of a ternary system (i.e., plant-insect-microbe), and the study of a ternary system requires non-trivial planning. This planning can include: an experimental design that factors in potential overarching ecological interactions regarding the binary or ternary system; correctly identifying and understanding unexpected observations that may occur during the experiment; and, thorough interpretation of the resultant data...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Dane C Elmquist, Peter J Landolt
We investigated associative learning of food odors by the European paper wasp Polistes dominula Christ (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) because of consistent low rates of attraction to food materials in laboratory assays. We hypothesized that wasps in nature exhibit nonspecific food-finding behavior until locating a suitable food, and then respond more strongly and specifically to odors associated with that food reward. Female P. dominula workers exhibited higher rates of attraction in a flight tunnel to piped odors of fermented fruit purees following previous experience with that puree, compared to wasps with no prior experience with the fermented fruits...
June 9, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Alastair Brown, Chris Hauton, Tanja Stratmann, Andrew Sweetman, Dick van Oevelen, Daniel O B Jones
Recent analyses of metabolic rates in fishes, echinoderms, crustaceans and cephalopods have concluded that bathymetric declines in temperature- and mass-normalized metabolic rate do not result from resource-limitation (e.g. oxygen or food/chemical energy), decreasing temperature or increasing hydrostatic pressure. Instead, based on contrasting bathymetric patterns reported in the metabolic rates of visual and non-visual taxa, declining metabolic rate with depth is proposed to result from relaxation of selection for high locomotory capacity in visual predators as light diminishes...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Jesse P Harrison, Carl Boardman, Kenneth O'Callaghan, Anne-Marie Delort, Jim Song
Plastic litter is encountered in aquatic ecosystems across the globe, including polar environments and the deep sea. To mitigate the adverse societal and ecological impacts of this waste, there has been debate on whether 'biodegradable' materials should be granted exemptions from plastic bag bans and levies. However, great care must be exercised when attempting to define this term, due to the broad and complex range of physical and chemical conditions encountered within natural ecosystems. Here, we review existing international industry standards and regional test methods for evaluating the biodegradability of plastics within aquatic environments (wastewater, unmanaged freshwater and marine habitats)...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Donald Lucas, Sara M Petty, Olya Keen, Bob Luedeka, Martin Schlummer, Roland Weber, Morton Barlaz, Ramin Yazdani, Brian Riise, James Rhodes, Dave Nightingale, Miriam L Diamond, John Vijgen, Avery Lindeman, Arlene Blum, Catherine P Koshland
Flame retardants (FRs) are added to foams and plastics to comply with flammability standards and test requirements in products for household and industrial uses. When these regulations were implemented, potential health and environmental impacts of FR use were not fully recognized or understood. Extensive research in the past decades reveal that exposure to halogenated FRs, such as those used widely in furniture foam, is associated with and/or causally related to numerous health effects in animals and humans...
June 1, 2018: Environmental Engineering Science
Daniel R Lammel, Gabriel Barth, Otso Ovaskainen, Leonardo M Cruz, Josileia A Zanatta, Masahiro Ryo, Emanuel M de Souza, Fábio O Pedrosa
BACKGROUND: pH is frequently reported as the main driver for prokaryotic community structure in soils. However, pH changes are also linked to "spillover effects" on other chemical parameters (e.g., availability of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu) and plant growth, but these indirect effects on the microbial communities are rarely investigated. Usually, pH also co-varies with some confounding factors, such as land use, soil management (e.g., tillage and chemical inputs), plant cover, and/or edapho-climatic conditions...
June 11, 2018: Microbiome
Suk-Ling Wee, Thelma Peek, Anthony R Clarke
The males of different species of Bactrocera and Zeugodacus fruit flies are commonly attracted to plant-derived phenylpropanoids (e.g. methyl eugenol (ME)) or phenylbutanoids (e.g. raspberry ketone (RK)) but almost never to both. However, one particular plant-derived phenylbutanoid, zingerone (ZN), which possesses an intermediate chemical structure between ME and RK, weakly attracts both ME- and RK-responding fruit fly species. Bactrocera jarvisi, an Australian fruit fly species, is weakly attracted to cue lure (an analogue of RK) but strongly attracted to ZN...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Weiwu Ren, Regine Gries, Catherine McCaughey, Nathan Derstine, Santosh Alamsetti, Kenji Kurita, Lorna Tu, Roger Linington, Robert Britton, Gerhard J Gries
Yellowjackets in the genera Vespula and Dolichovespula are prevalent eusocial insects of great ecological and economic significance but the chemical signals of their sexual communication systems have defied structural elucidation. Herein, we report the identification of sex attractant pheromone components of virgin bald-faced hornet queens (Dolichovespula maculata). We analyzed body surface extract of queens by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), isolated the compounds that elicited responses from male antennae by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and identified these components by GC-mass spectrometry (MS), HPLC-MS and NMR spectroscopy...
June 11, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Biljana D Škrbić, Kiwao Kadokami, Igor Antić
This study demonstrates the occurrence of 940 organic micro-pollutants in surface water of four rivers, one irrigation canal system, and two lakes in Vojvodina Province, the northern part of Serbia, summing in total eighteen samples. The number of detected chemicals ranged from 22 to 84, with 127 micro-pollutants detected at least once, representing 13% of the studied substances. The targeted compounds include n-alkanes, sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, pharmaceutical active compounds, industrial chemicals, plasticizers, etc...
June 7, 2018: Environmental Research
Clare T Muller, Michael J Moore, Zoë Feder, Helene Tiley, Rebecca E Drenovsky
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Gypsum endemism in plants (gypsophily) is common on gypsum outcrops worldwide, but little is known about the functional ecology of Chihuahuan Desert gypsophiles. We investigated whether leaf chemistry of gypsophile lineages from the northern Chihuahuan Desert are similar to leaves of related nonendemic (gypsovag) species relative to their soil chemistry. We expected widely distributed gypsophiles (hypothesized to be older lineages on gypsum) would have distinct leaf chemistry from narrowly distributed, relatively younger lineages endemic to gypsum and gypsovags, reflecting adaptation to gypsum...
October 2017: American Journal of Botany
E Bourtsoukidis, T Behrendt, A M Yañez-Serrano, H Hellén, E Diamantopoulos, E Catão, K Ashworth, A Pozzer, C A Quesada, D L Martins, M Sá, A Araujo, J Brito, P Artaxo, J Kesselmeier, J Lelieveld, J Williams
The Amazon rainforest is the world's largest source of reactive volatile isoprenoids to the atmosphere. It is generally assumed that these emissions are products of photosynthetically driven secondary metabolism and released from the rainforest canopy from where they influence the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. However, recent measurements indicate that further sources of volatiles are present. Here we show that soil microorganisms are a strong, unaccounted source of highly reactive and previously unreported sesquiterpenes (C15 H24 ; SQT)...
June 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Zhenmin Cheng, Yuansong Wei, Qingqing Zhang, Junya Zhang, Tiedong Lu, Yuanmei Pei
In controlled ecological life support system (CELSS), 100% water recycle efficiency is needed. Both water and nutrients in wastewater needs reclaiming. In an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) designed to hydrolyze organic matters and convert organic nitrogen, accumulation of anionic surfactants and organic compounds was observed in the supernatant. To solve the problem, microaeration which had rarely been reported to enhance surfactants biodegradation in anaerobic process was introduced and it was proved to be an effective approach that resulted in concentrations of surfactants and soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) in the supernatant decreasing from 9000 mg/L and 40000 mg/L to 2000 mg/L and 10000 mg/L, respectively...
June 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Ying Peng, Wendi Fang, Martin Krauss, Werner Brack, Zhihao Wang, Feilong Li, Xiaowei Zhang
Increased synthetic chemical production and diversification in developing countries caused serious aquatic pollution worldwide with emerging organic pollutants (EOPs) detected in surface water rising health concerns to human and aquatic ecosystem even at low ng/L concentration with long-term exposure. The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) area serves agriculture and industry for people in eastern China. However, the current knowledge on the occurrence and ecological risk of diverse EOPs which are present in the aquatic environment is limited...
June 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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