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chemical ecology

Patricia L Sáez, Lohengrin A Cavieres, Jeroni Galmés, Eustaquio Gil-Pelegrín, José Javier Peguero-Pina, Domingo Sancho-Knapik, Mercedes Vivas, Carolina Sanhueza, Constanza F Ramírez, Betsy K Rivera, Luis J Corcuera, León A Bravo
The Antarctic Peninsula has experienced a rapid warming in the last decades. Although recent climatic evidence supports a new tendency towards stabilization of temperatures, the impacts on the biosphere, and specifically on Antarctic plant species, remain unclear. We evaluated the in situ warming effects on photosynthesis, including the underlying diffusive, biochemical and anatomical determinants, and the relative growth of two Antarctic vascular species, Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica, using open top chambers (OTCs) and gas exchange measurements in the field...
April 23, 2018: New Phytologist
Patrick Krapf, Lucia Russo, Wolfgang Arthofer, Markus Möst, Florian M Steiner, Birgit C Schlick-Steiner
Social structure influences animal societies on various levels (e.g., relatedness, behaviour). In ants, both the number of matings per queen and the number of queens per colony can vary strongly. While workers from both monogynous and polygynous colonies often fight fiercely, in supercolonies (an extreme form of polygyny comprising thousands of queens in spatially separated but interconnected nests), non-nestmates interact peacefully. Studies on social and behavioural polymorphism within ant species can help elucidate their influence on genetic diversity and behaviour and the factors triggering variation in social structure and behaviour...
2018: Ethology, Ecology & Evolution
Yanqing Guo, Xiaotian Chen, Yuanyuan Wu, Lu Zhang, Jimin Cheng, Gehong Wei, Yanbing Lin
Revegetation of degraded lands has a profound impact on the maintenance and stability of ecosystem processes. However, the impacts of this land use change on functional diversity of soil microbial communities are poorly understood. Here, using 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we compared the taxonomic and functional communities of soil microbiome, and analyzed the effects of plant diversity and soil chemical properties, in a chronosequence of restored ex-farmland that had been naturally revegetated to grassland over periods of 5, 15 and 30years with adjacent farmland, on the Loess Plateau, China...
April 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Weronika Kozlowska, Charles Wagner, Erin M Moore, Adam Matkowski, Slavko Komarnytsky
Plants were an essential part of foraging for food and health, and for centuries remained the only medicines available to people from the remote mountain regions. Their correct botanical provenance is an essential basis for understanding the ethnic cultures, as well as for chemical identification of the novel bioactive molecules with therapeutic effects. This work describes the use of herbal medicines in the Beskid mountain ranges located south of Krakow and Lviv, two influential medieval centers of apothecary tradition in the region...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Daniel Gebler, Gerhard Wiegleb, Krzysztof Szoszkiewicz
The aim of the study was to develop predictive models of the ecological status of rivers by using artificial neural networks. The relationships between five macrophyte indices and the combined impact of water pollution as well as hydromorphological degradation were examined. The dataset consisted of hydromorphologically modified rivers representing a wide water quality gradient. Three ecological status indices, namely the Macrophyte Index for Rivers (MIR), the Macrophyte Biological Index for Rivers (IBMR) and the River Macrophyte Nutrient Index (RMNI), were tested...
April 7, 2018: Water Research
H Vandenhove, C Bradshaw, N A Beresford, J Vives I Batlle, A Real, J Garnier-Laplace
Risks posed by the presence of radionuclides in the environment require an efficient, balanced, and adaptable assessment for protecting exposed humans and wildlife, and managing the associated radiological risk. Exposure of humans and wildlife originate from the same sources releasing radionuclides to the environment. Environmental concentrations of radionuclides serve as inputs to estimate the dose to man, fauna, and flora, with transfer processes being, in essence, similar, which calls for a common use of transport models...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
Albert Rivas-Ubach, Yina Liu, Thomas Stephen Bianchi, Nikola Toliċ, Christer Jansson, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić
van Krevelen diagrams (O:C vs H:C ratios of elemental formulas) have been widely used in studies to obtain an estimation of the main compound categories present in environmental samples. However, the limits defining a specific compound category based solely on O:C and H:C ratios of elemental formulas have never been accurately listed or proposed to classify metabolites in biological samples. Furthermore, while O:C vs. H:C ratios of elemental formulas can provide an overview of the compound categories, such classification is inefficient because of the large overlap among different compound categories along both axes...
April 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Krzysztof Piaskowski, Renata Świderska-Dąbrowska, Paweł K Zarzycki
Synthetic dyes or colorants are key chemicals for various industries producing textiles, food, cosmetics, pharmaceutics, printer inks, leather, and plastics. Nowadays, the textile industry is the major consumer of dyes. The mass of synthetic colorants used by this industry is estimated at the level of 1 ÷ 3 × 105 tons, in comparison with the total annual consumption of around 7 × 105 tons worldwide. Synthetic dyes are relatively easy to detect but difficult to eliminate from wastewater and surface water ecosystems because of their aromatic chemical structure...
April 18, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Boris A Trofimov, Elena Yu Schmidt
In this Account, we briefly discuss the recently discovered and rapidly developing superbase-promoted self-organization reactions of several equivalents of acetylenes and ketones to afford complex compounds that represent promising synthetic building blocks common in natural products. Notably, acetylenes play a special role in these reactions because of their dual (acting as an electrophile and a nucleophile) and flexible reactivity. These unique properties of acetylenes are elegantly expressed in superbasic media, where acetylenes are more deprotonated and their electrophilicity increases as a result of complexation with alkali metal cations, with simultaneous enhancement of the nucleophilic reactants due to desolvation...
April 18, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Débora Pires Paula, Roberto Coiti Togawa, Marcos Mota do Carmo Costa, Priscila Grynberg, Natália Florêncio Martins, David Alan Andow
Constitutive expression of Odorant-Binding Proteins (OBPs) in antennae and other body parts has been examined mainly to infer their involvement in insect olfaction, while their regulation in response to semiochemical stimuli has remained poorly known. Previous studies of semiochemical response were basically done using electrophysiology, which integrates the response of the set of OBPs present in an antenna or sensillum, without revealing the regulation of OBPs or which ones might be involved. In this study we used boll weevil as a model and mined its OBPs by RNA-Seq to study their simultaneous antennal expression by qPCR under controlled semiochemical stimuli with aggregation pheromone and plant volatiles...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tae-Jin Park, Jong-Hyeon Lee, Myung-Sung Lee, Chang-Hee Park, Chang-Hoon Lee, Seong-Dae Moon, Jiwoong Chung, Rongxue Cui, Youn-Joo An, Dong-Hyuk Yeom, Soo-Hyung Lee, Jae-Kwan Lee, Kyung-Duk Zoh
Ammonia is deemed one of the most important pollutants in the freshwater environment because of its highly toxic nature and ubiquity in surface water. This study thus aims to derive the criteria for ammonia in freshwater to protect aquatic life because there are no water quality criteria for ammonia in Korea. Short-term lethal tests were conducted to perform the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method. This method is widely used in ecological risk assessment to determine the chemical concentrations to protect aquatic species...
April 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Fen Wang, Charles S Wong, Da Chen, Xingwen Lu, Fei Wang, Eddy Y Zeng
Occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in the environment has attracted great attention as it has become a global concern. This review aims to systematically demonstrate the role of marine microplastic as a novel medium for environmental partitioning of chemicals in the ocean, which can cause toxic effects in the ecological environment. This review assimilated and analyzed available data published between 1972 and 2017 on the interaction between MPs and selected chemicals. Firstly, the review analyzes the occurrence of chemicals in MPs and outlines their distribution patterns...
April 6, 2018: Water Research
Qifeng Li, Yueqing Zhang, Yonglong Lu, Pei Wang, Sarvajayakesavalu Suriyanarayanan, Jing Meng, Yunqiao Zhou, Ruoyu Liang, Kifayatullah Khan
Xiaoqing River, located in the Laizhou Bay of Bohai Sea, is heavily polluted by various pollutants including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), bisphenol A (BPA) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). The aim of this study is to identify the relative risks of such contaminants that currently affect the coastal ecosystem. The median and highest concentrations of PFAAs and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were 3.23 μg L-1 and 325...
April 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Hideomi Itoh, Kanako Tago, Masahito Hayatsu, Yoshitomo Kikuchi
Covering: up to 2018Insects live in a world full of toxic compounds such as plant toxins and manmade pesticides. To overcome the effects of these toxins, herbivorous insects have evolved diverse, elaborate mechanisms of resistance, such as toxin avoidance, target-site alteration, and detoxification. These resistance mechanisms are thought to be encoded by the insects' own genomes, and in many cases, this holds true. However, recent omics analyses, in conjunction with classic culture-dependent analyses, have revealed that a number of insects possess specific gut microorganisms, some of which significantly contribute to resistance against phytotoxins and pesticides by degrading such chemical compounds...
April 12, 2018: Natural Product Reports
P Palma, C Matos, P Alvarenga, M Köck-Schulmeyer, I Simões, D Barceló, M J López de Alda
The objective of the study was to assess the integrated use of macroinvertebrate indexes and ecotoxicological parameters in the evaluation of the ecological status of a temporary stream with a strong agricultural influence. Water quality was analysed at two sampling sites along the stream, considering: chemical supporting parameters; hazardous substances (pesticides); benthic macroinvertebrate communities, through quality (Iberian Biological Monitoring Working Party and Iberian Average Score Per Taxon) and multi-metric indices (Southern Portuguese Index of Invertebrates and Ecological Quality Ratio); and ecotoxicological responses using lethal and sub-lethal bioassays...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Derek G Bolser, David A Dreier, Erchao Li, Kevin J Kroll, Christopher J Martyniuk, Nancy D Denslow
Chemical contaminants present in the environment can affect mitochondrial bioenergetics in aquatic organisms and can have substantial effects on individual fitness. As early life stages of fish are particularly vulnerable to environmental contaminants, they are ideal models for examining the relationship between impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics (ATP-dependent respiration, basal oxidative respiration) and apical endpoints such as growth. Here, early life stages of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), an ecologically relevant North American species, were used to investigate the relationship between mitochondrial bioenergetics and growth following perturbation with model mitochondrial toxicants 2,4-dinitrophenol and octylamine...
April 3, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Inmaculada Izquierdo-Bueno, Javier Moraga, Rosa E Cardoza, Laura Lindo, James R Hanson, Santiago Gutiérrez, Isidro G Collado
The fungus Trichoderma arundinaceum (Ta37) has a significant biocontrol application which has been related to the production of the trichothecene, harzianum A (2). Previous studies with a strain of T. arundinaceum which was blocked for the production of 2, revealed the existence of a chemical cross-regulation between the biocontrol fungus and its target organism. A study of the secondary metabolome of a single culture of a mutant of T. arundinaceum TaΔTri4 which produces trichothecene biosynthetic intermediates, has now been carried out...
April 6, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Evgenios Agathokleous, Mitsutoshi Kitao, Chu Qingnan, Costas J Saitanis, Elena Paoletti, William J Manning, Toshihiro Watanabe, Takayoshi Koike
Ground-level ozone (O3 ) concentrations have been elevating in the last century. While there has been a notable progress in understanding O3 effects on vegetation, O3 effects on ecological stoichiometry remain unclear, especially early in the oxidative stress. Ethyelenediurea (EDU) is a chemical compound widely applied in research projects as protectant of plants against O3 injury, however its mode of action remains unclear. To investigate O3 and EDU effects early in the stress, we sprayed willow (Salix sachalinensis) plants with 0, 200 or 400 mg EDU L-1 , and exposed them to either low ambient O3 (AOZ) or elevated O3 (EOZ) levels during the daytime, for about one month, in a free air O3 controlled exposure (FACE); EDU treatment was repeated every nine days...
April 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Nadia Ruocco, Susan Costantini, Valerio Zupo, Chiara Lauritano, Davide Caramiello, Adrianna Ianora, Alfredo Budillon, Giovanna Romano, Genoveffa Nuzzo, Giuliana D'Ippolito, Angelo Fontana, Maria Costantini
Diatoms are unicellular algae playing a key role as photosynthetic organisms in the world's ocean food webs. The chemical ecology of planktonic diatoms is well documented, but few studies have reported on the effects of benthic diatoms on their consumers, also due to difficulties in the collection, quantification and massive culturing of benthic species. Here for the first time we investigate the effects of feeding on two abundantly occurring benthic diatoms, Nanofrustulum shiloi and Cylindrotheca closterium, isolated from the leaves of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, on the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sarah C J Jorgensen, Nicholas J Mercuro, Susan L Davis, Michael J Rybak
Delafloxacin (formerly WQ-3034, ABT492, RX-3341) is a novel fluoroquinolone chemically distinct from currently marketed fluoroquinolones with the absence of a protonatable substituent conferring a weakly acidic character to the molecule. This property results in increased intracellular penetration and enhanced bactericidal activity under acidic conditions that characterize the infectious milieu at a number of sites. The enhanced potency and penetration in low pH environments contrast what has been observed for other zwitterionic fluoroquinolones, which tend to lose antibacterial potency under acidic conditions, and may be particularly advantageous against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, for which the significance of the intracellular mode of survival is increasingly being recognized...
March 31, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
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