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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338346/chemical-variability-in-essential-oils-from-ruta-species-among-seasons-and-its-taxonomic-and-ecological-significance
#1
Zineb Bennaoum, Hachemi Benhassaini, Danilo Falconieri, Alessandra Piras, Silvia Porcedda
Leaf essential oils of 11 samples from Ruta montana, Ruta chalepensis subsp. latifolia and Ruta chalepensis subsp. angustifolia collected from two sites have been studied by GC/MS that allowed to identify 22, 25 and 12 components, respectively. The variability in the composition of essential oils among species and seasons was very high, and hence the existence of different chemotypes has been inferred. The major components were 2-undecanone, (E) caryophyllene, 2-nonanone and 2-methyloctyl acetate. Multivariate analysis of the 11 samples suggest that the main factors capable to influence the chemical composition of leaf essential oils was both the collection period and the geographical origin...
March 24, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335814/symbiosis-and-microbiome-flexibility-in-calcifying-benthic-foraminifera-of-the-great-barrier-reef
#2
Martina Prazeres, Tracy Ainsworth, T Edward Roberts, John M Pandolfi, William Leggat
BACKGROUND: Symbiosis is a phenomenon that allows organisms to colonise a wide range of environments and occupy a variety of ecological niches in marine environments. Large benthic foraminifera (LBF) are crucial marine calcifiers that rely on photo-endosymbionts for growth and calcification, yet the influence of environmental conditions in shaping their interactions with prokaryotic and eukaryotic associates is poorly known. RESULTS: Here, we used next-generation sequencing to identify eukaryotic photosynthesizing and prokaryotic microbes associated with the common LBF Amphistegina lobifera across a physio-chemical gradient on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR)...
March 23, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334326/allelopathy-mediated-competition-in-microbial-mats-from-antarctic-lakes
#3
Marc Slattery, Michael P Lesser
Microbial mats are vertically stratified communities that host a complex consortium of microorganisms, dominated by cyanobacteria, that compete for available nutrients and environmental niches, within these extreme habitats. The Antarctic Dry Valleys near McMurdo Sound include a series of lakes within the drainage basin that are bisected by glacial traverses. These lakes are traditionally independent, but recent increases in glacial melting have allowed two lakes (Chad and Hoare) to become connected by a meltwater stream...
February 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334211/effect-of-sweeteners-on-the-survival-of-solenopsis-invicta-hymenoptera-formicidae
#4
Xiaoqiang Zhang, Siqi Chen, Zhiqiang Li, Yijuan Xu
The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, is a serious agricultural, ecological, and public health pest in its invaded range. Chemical insecticides have been widely used for the prevention and control of this notorious pest. To search for novel, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly materials for fire ant control, we tested various sweeteners for their toxicity to S. invicta. The S. invicta that were fed erythritol, aspartame, and saccharin exhibited significantly higher mortality rates than those fed other sweeteners...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334109/comparison-of-biofilm-ecology-supporting-growth-of-individual-naegleria-species-in-a-drinking-water-distribution-system
#5
Geoffrey J Puzon, Jason T Wylie, Tom Walsh, Kalan Braun, Matthew J Morgan
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are common components of microbial communities in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). FLA are of clinical importance both as pathogens and as reservoirs for bacterial pathogens, so identifying the conditions promoting amoebae colonisation of DWDSs is an important public health concern for water utilities. We used high-throughput amplicon sequencing to compare eukaryotic and bacterial communities associated with DWDS biofilms supporting distinct FLA species (N. fowleri, N. lovaniensis or Vermamoeba sp...
February 21, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334073/do-distinct-biomes-influence-the-cuticular-chemical-profile-in-orchid-bees
#6
A B Santos, F S Nascimento
Cuticular chemical profiles of Euglossa cordata L. males were analyzed to test whether ecological predictors affect their composition and relative proportion. Males were collected in areas of Caatinga and Atlantic Forest from Brazil during two distinct seasonal periods. We found 48 compounds from the cuticular extracts of males, which consisted of hydrocarbons (71.39%), acetates (16.79%), esters (10.5%), alcohols and others (1.31%). We verified that when specimens were separated between biomes, they did not show a qualitative differentiation, but a small quantitative variation of compounds was found between some alkanes...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331586/how-to-induce-defense-responses-in-wild-plant-populations-using-bilberry-vaccinium-myrtillus-as-example
#7
Tarald Seldal, Stein Joar Hegland, Knut Rydgren, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Joachim Paul Töpper
Inducible plant defense is a beneficial strategy for plants, which imply that plants should allocate resources from growth and reproduction to defense when herbivores attack. Plant ecologist has often studied defense responses in wild populations by biomass clipping experiments, whereas laboratory and greenhouse experiments in addition apply chemical elicitors to induce defense responses. To investigate whether field ecologists could benefit from methods used in laboratory and greenhouse studies, we established a randomized block-design in a pine-bilberry forest in Western Norway...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330235/antimicrobial-activities-of-a-promising-glycolipid-biosurfactant-from-a-novel-marine-staphylococcus-saprophyticus-sbps-15
#8
P Mani, G Dineshkumar, T Jayaseelan, K Deepalakshmi, C Ganesh Kumar, S Senthil Balan
Biosurfactants have gained a renewed interest in the recent years for their commercial application in diverse research areas. Recent evidences suggest that the antimicrobial activities exhibited by biosurfactants make them promising molecules for the application in the field of therapeutics. Marine microbes are well known for their unique metabolic and functional properties; however, few reports are available till date regarding their biosurfactant production and antimicrobial potential. In an ongoing survey for bioactive microbial metabolites from microbes isolated from diverse ecological niches, a marine Staphylococcus saprophyticus SBPS 15 isolated from the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated coastal site, Puducherry, India, was identified as a promising biosurfactant producer based on multiple screening methods...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328933/water-borne-pharmaceuticals-reduce-phenotypic-diversity-and-response-capacity-of-natural-phytoplankton-communities
#9
Francesco Pomati, Jukka Jokela, Sara Castiglioni, Mridul K Thomas, Luca Nizzetto
Chemical micropollutants occur worldwide in the environment at low concentrations and in complex mixtures, and how they affect the ecology of natural systems is still uncertain. Dynamics of natural communities are driven by the interaction between individual organisms and their growth environment, which is mediated by the organisms' expressed phenotypic traits. We tested whether exposure to a mixture of 12 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) influences phenotypic trait diversity in lake phytoplankton communities and their ability to regulate biomass production to fit environmental changes (response capacity)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328079/intraspecific-chemical-communication-in-microalgae
#10
REVIEW
Marianna Venuleo, John A Raven, Mario Giordano
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. References SUMMARY: The relevance of infochemicals in the relationships between organisms is emerging as a fundamental aspect of aquatic ecology. Exchanges of chemical cues are likely to occur not only between organisms of different species, but also between conspecific individuals. Especially intriguing is the investigation of chemical communication in microalgae, because of the relevance of these organisms for global primary production and their key role in trophic webs...
March 22, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323544/host-diet-affects-the-morphology-of-a-butterfly-parasite
#11
Kevin Ming-Kong Hoang, Leiling Tao, Jacobus C de Roode, Mark D Hunter
Understanding host-parasite interactions is essential for ecological research, wildlife conservation and health management. While most studies focus on numerical traits of parasite groups, such as changes in parasite load, less focus is placed on the traits of individual parasites, such as parasite size and shape (parasite morphology). Parasite morphology has significant effects on parasite fitness, such as initial colonization of hosts, avoidance of host immune defenses, and the availability of resources for parasite replication...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321263/the-tree-drought-emission-monitor-tree-demon-an-innovative-system-for-assessing-biogenic-volatile-organic-compounds-emission-from-plants
#12
Marvin Lüpke, Rainer Steinbrecher, Michael Leuchner, Annette Menzel
BACKGROUND: Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emitted by plants play an important role for ecological and physiological processes, for example as response to stressors. These emitted compounds are involved in chemical processes within the atmosphere and contribute to the formation of aerosols and ozone. Direct measurement of BVOC emissions requires a specialized sample system in order to obtain repeatable and comparable results. These systems need to be constructed carefully since BVOC measurements may be disturbed by several side effects, e...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321009/energy-metabolism-during-anaerobic-methane-oxidation-in-anme-archaea
#13
Shawn E McGlynn
Anaerobic methane oxidation in archaea is often presented to operate via a pathway of "reverse methanogenesis". However, if the cumulative reactions of a methanogen are run in reverse there is no apparent way to conserve energy. Recent findings suggest that chemiosmotic coupling enzymes known from their use in methylotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens-in addition to unique terminal reductases-biochemically facilitate energy conservation during complete CH4 oxidation to CO2. The apparent enzyme modularity of these organisms highlights how microbes can arrange their energy metabolisms to accommodate diverse chemical potentials in various ecological niches, even in the extreme case of utilizing "reverse" thermodynamic potentials...
March 17, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317363/-periodontal-inflammation-affects-the-mechanical-and-immune-barrier-functions-of-mice-gut
#14
Xie Meilian, Yu Ting, Zhuo Ying, Huang Xin, Xie Baoyi, Xuan Dongying, Zhang Jincai
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of periodontal inflammation on the functions of gut barrier (ecological barrier, mechanical barrier, and immune barrier) in mice. METHODS: Twenty male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into perio-dontitis (P) or control (C) groups. The P group was subjected under a 10-day ligation with Porphyromonas gingivalis to induce periodontitis, whereas the C group was ligated with sham. Maxillae were obtained to assess alveolar bone loss...
August 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316899/water-quality-assessment-in-the-german-river-of-the-years-2014-2015-how-a-case-study-on-the-impact-of-a-storm-water-sedimentation-basin-displayed-impairment-of-fish-health-in-the-argen-river-southern-germany
#15
Paul Thellmann, Bertram Kuch, Karl Wurm, Heinz-R Köhler, Rita Triebskorn
BACKGROUND: The present work investigates the impact of discharges from a storm water sedimentation basin (SSB) receiving runoff from a connected motorway in southern Germany. The study lasted for almost two years and was aimed at assessing the impact of the SSB on the fauna of the Argen River, which is a tributary of Lake Constance. Two sampling sites were examined up- and downstream of the SSB effluent. A combination of different diagnostic methods (fish embryo test with the zebrafish, histopathology, micronucleus test) was applied to investigate health impairment and genotoxic effects in indigenous fish as well as embryotoxic potentials in surface water and sediment samples of the Argen River, respectively, in samples of the SSB effluent...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316094/predicting-herbicide-mixture-effects-on-multiple-algal-species-using-mixture-toxicity-models
#16
Takashi Nagai
The validity of the application of mixture toxicity models, concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA), to species sensitivity distribution (SSD) for calculation of multi-substance potentially affected fraction (msPAF) was examined in laboratory experiments. Toxicity assays of herbicide mixtures using 5 species of periphytic algae were conducted. Two mixture experiments were designed: a mixture of 5 herbicides with similar mode of action (MoA) and a mixture of 5 herbicides with dissimilar MoA, corresponding to the assumptions of the CA and IA models, respectively...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314230/toxicity-of-diatom-polyunsaturated-aldehydes-to-marine-bacterial-isolates-reveals-their-mode-of-action
#17
Milva Pepi, Hermann J Heipieper, Cecilia Balestra, Marco Borra, Elio Biffali, Raffaella Casotti
Diatoms produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) during senescence in culture and at the end of blooms in nature and these compounds play different ecological roles, as infochemicals, allelochemicals and pheromones In order to elucidate the toxic effects of PUAs, we isolated six bacterial strains from the Mediterranean Sea during a diatom bloom and tested their tolerance to PUA in terms of growth and cell membrane properties. Based upon 16S rRNA sequencing, these bacteria were assigned to the genera Pseudomonas, Sufflavibacter, Halomonas, Vibrio, Idiomarina, and Labrenzia...
March 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303527/chemical-ecology-of-cave-dwelling-millipedes-defensive-secretions-of-the-typhloiulini-diplopoda-julida-julidae
#18
Slobodan E Makarov, Michaela Bodner, Doris Reineke, Ljubodrag V Vujisić, Marina M Todosijević, Dragan Ž Antić, Boyan Vagalinski, Luka R Lučić, Bojan M Mitić, Plamen Mitov, Boban D Anđelković, Sofija Pavković Lucić, Vlatka Vajs, Vladimir T Tomić, Günther Raspotnig
Cave animals live under highly constant ecological conditions and in permanent darkness, and many evolutionary adaptations of cave-dwellers have been triggered by their specific environment. A similar "cave effect" leading to pronounced chemical interactions under such conditions may be assumed, but the chemoecology of troglobionts is mostly unknown. We investigated the defensive chemistry of a largely cave-dwelling julid group, the controversial tribe "Typhloiulini", and we included some cave-dwelling and some endogean representatives...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301560/a-systematic-review-of-ecological-attributes-that-confer-resilience-to-climate-change-in-environmental-restoration
#19
Britta L Timpane-Padgham, Tim Beechie, Terrie Klinger
Ecological restoration is widely practiced as a means of rehabilitating ecosystems and habitats that have been degraded or impaired through human use or other causes. Restoration practices now are confronted by climate change, which has the potential to influence long-term restoration outcomes. Concepts and attributes from the resilience literature can help improve restoration and monitoring efforts under changing climate conditions. We systematically examined the published literature on ecological resilience to identify biological, chemical, and physical attributes that confer resilience to climate change...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299588/chemical-cues-which-include-amino-acids-mediate-species-specific-feeding-behavior-in-invasive-filter-feeding-bigheaded-carps
#20
Aaron W Claus, Peter W Sorensen
This study tested whether and how dissolved chemicals might assist food recognition in two filter-feeding fishes, the silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and the bighead carp (H. nobilis). These species evolved in Asia, are now invasive in the Mississippi River, and feed voraciously on microparticles including plankton. The food habits and biology of these carps are broadly similar to many filter-feeding fish, none of whose chemical ecology has been examined. We conducted five experiments. First, we demonstrated that buccal-pharngeal pumping (BPP), a behavior in which fish pump water into their buccal cavities, is responsible for sampling food: BPP activity in both silver and bighead carps was low and increased nearly 25-fold after exposure to a filtrate of a planktonic food mixture (P < 0...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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