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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734222/species-sensitivity-distribution-for-pentachlorophenol-to-aquatic-organisms-based-on-interval-ecotoxicological-data
#1
Jinsong Zhao, Run Zhang
Species sensitivity distribution (SSD) model is often used to extrapolate the chemicals' effects from the ecotoxicological data on individual species to ecosystems, and is widely applied to derive water quality criteria or to assess ecological risk. Because of the influence of various factors, the ecotoxicological data of a specific chemicals to an individual usually exist in a range. The feasibility of interval ecotoxicological data directly applied to build SSD model has not been clearly stated. In the present study, by means of Bayesian statistics, the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of pentachlorophenol (PCP) to 161 aquatic organisms, which were organized into 7 groups, i...
July 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732049/testing-the-optimal-defense-hypothesis-in-nature-variation-for-glucosinolate-profiles-within-plants
#2
Rose A Keith, Thomas Mitchell-Olds
Plants employ highly variable chemical defenses against a broad community of herbivores, which vary in their susceptibilities to specific compounds. Variation in chemical defenses within the plant has been found in many species; the ecological and evolutionary influences on this variation, however, are less well-understood. One central theory describing the allocation of defenses in the plant is the Optimal Defense Hypothesis (ODH), which predicts that defenses will be concentrated in tissues that are of high fitness value to the plant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731210/ecological-guild-and-enzyme-activities-of-rhizosphere-soil-microbial-communities-associated-with-bt-maize-cultivation-under-field-conditions-in-north-west-province-of-south-africa
#3
Deidré A B van Wyk, Rasheed Adeleke, Owen H J Rhode, Carlos C Bezuidenhout, Charlotte Mienie
Insecticidal proteins expressed by genetically modified Bt maize may alter the enzymatic and microbial communities associated with rhizosphere soil. This study investigated the structure and enzymatic activity of rhizosphere soil microbial communities associated with field grown Bt and non-Bt maize. Rhizosphere soil samples were collected from Bt and non-Bt fields under dryland and irrigated conditions. Samples were subjected to chemical tests, enzyme analyses, and next generation sequencing. Results showed that nitrate and phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher in non-Bt maize dryland soils, while organic carbon was significantly higher in non-Bt maize irrigated field soil...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729898/draft-genome-sequences-of-strains-salinicola-socius-smb35-t-salinicola-sp-mh3r3-1-and-chromohalobacter-sp-smb17-from-the-verkhnekamsk-potash-mining-region-of-russia
#4
Björn E Olsson, Ekaterina S Korsakova, Lyudmila N Anan'ina, Anna A Pyankova, Olga V Mavrodi, Elena G Plotnikova, Dmitri V Mavrodi
Halomonads are moderately halophilic bacteria that are studied as models of prokaryotic osmoadaptation and sources of enzymes and chemicals for biotechnological applications. Despite the progress in understanding the diversity of these organisms, our ability to explain ecological, metabolic, and biochemical traits of halomonads at the genomic sequence level remains limited. This study addresses this gap by presenting draft genomes of Salinicola socius SMB35(T), Salinicola sp. MH3R3-1 and Chromohalobacter sp...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728116/response-of-soil-physico-chemical-properties-to-restoration-approaches-and-submergence-in-the-water-level-fluctuation-zone-of-the-danjiangkou-reservoir-china
#5
Xiao Shu, KeRong Zhang, QuanFa Zhang, WeiBo Wang
With the completion of the Danjiangkou Dam, the impoundment and drainage of dams can significantly alter shorelines, hydrological regime, and sediment and can result in the loss of soil and original riparian vegetation. Revegetation may affect soil properties and have broad important implications both for ecological services and soil recovery. In this work, we investigated the soil properties under different restoration approaches, and before and after submergence in the water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) of the Danjiangkou Reservoir...
July 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727420/bio-inspired-development-of-p-st-maa-avermectins-nanoparticles-with-high-affinity-for-foliage-to-enhance-folia-retention
#6
Jie Liang, Manli Yu, Liya Guo, Bo Cui, Xiang Zhao, Changjiao Sun, Yan Wang, Guoqiang Liu, Haixin Cui, Zhanghua Zeng
Pesticides are chemical or biological substances to control pests and protect crop yield. Most pesticides suffering from large amounts of losses in the environment, lead to damage of ecological systems and food pollution. To reduce their losses and increase utilization rate, we have developed a bio-inspired by mussel avermectins nanoparticles (P(St-MAA)-Av-Cat) with strong adhesion to crop foliage by emulsion-solvent evaporation method and chemical modification. They were near spheres sharpness with a diameter around 120 nm...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725367/the-effect-of-seed-traits-on-geographic-variation-in-body-size-and-sexual-size-dimorphism-of-the-seed-feeding-beetle-acanthoscelides-macrophthalmus
#7
Eloísa B Haga, Marcelo N Rossi
Explaining large-scale patterns of variation in body size has been considered a central question in ecology and evolutionary biology because several life-history traits are directly linked to body size. For ectothermic organisms, little is known about what processes influence geographic variation in body size. Changes in body size and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) have been associated with environmental variables, particularly for Bruchinae insects, which feed exclusively on seeds during the larval stage. However, the effect of important seed traits on body size variation has rarely been investigated, and whether SSD varies substantially among populations within bruchine species is poorly known...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724220/influence-of-temperature-in-pollution-induced-community-tolerance-approaches-used-to-assess-effects-of-copper-on-freshwater-phototrophic-periphyton
#8
Anne Sophie Lambert, Aymeric Dabrin, Arnaud Foulquier, Soizic Morin, Christophe Rosy, Marina Coquery, Stéphane Pesce
By measuring levels of tolerance to toxicants in microbial communities using functional toxicity tests under controlled conditions, pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) approaches offer an effect-based tool to assess the ecological risk of chemicals in aquatic systems. However, induced tolerance of exposed microbial communities cannot always be attributed solely to the presence of toxicants as various environmental factors, such as temperature, can also be involved. Several PICT studies have been conducted to assess the effects of copper (Cu) on phototrophic periphyton, but little is known about the influence of temperature on the response of these microbial communities to acute and chronic exposure to Cu...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721506/interaction-between-a-bacterivorous-ciliate-aspidisca-cicada-and-a-rotifer-lecane-inermis-doozers-and-fraggles-in-aquatic-flocs
#9
Aleksandra Walczyńska, Mateusz Sobczyk, Edyta Fiałkowska, Agnieszka Pajdak-Stós, Janusz Fyda, Krzysztof Wiąckowski
Activated sludge is a semi-natural habitat composed of macroaggregates made by flocculating bacteria and inhabited by numerous protozoans and metazoans, creating a complicated interactome. The activated sludge resembles the biological formation of naturally occurring floc habitats, such as "marine snow." So far, these two types of habitat have been analyzed separately, despite their similarities. We examined the effect of a bacterivorous ciliate, Aspidisca cicada, on the quality of the macroaggregate ecosystem by estimating (i) the floc characteristics, (ii) the proliferation of other bacterivores (rotifers), and (iii) the chemical processes...
July 19, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719870/effects-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-on-estrogen-receptor-alpha-and-heat-shock-protein-60-gene-expression-in-primary-cultures-of-loggerhead-sea-turtle-caretta-caretta-erythrocytes
#10
Paolo Cocci, Martina Capriotti, Gilberto Mosconi, Francesco Alessandro Palermo
The loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) can be considered a good indicator species for studying the ecological impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on wildlife. However, the effect of these environmental pollutants on nuclear steroid hormone signaling has not yet been addressed in sea turtles mainly due to the legal constraints of their endangered status. Here we describe the use of primary erythrocyte cell cultures as in vitro models for evaluating the effects of different EDCs on the expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα)...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719144/maximizing-the-stability-of-metabolic-engineering-derived-whole-cell-biocatalysts
#11
REVIEW
Marvin Kadisch, Christian Willrodt, Michael Hillen, Bruno Bühler, Andreas Schmid
A systematic and powerful knowledge-based framework exists for improving the activity and stability of chemical catalysts and for empowering the commercialization of respective processes. In contrast, corresponding biotechnological processes are still scarce and characterized by case-by-case development strategies. A systematic understanding of parameters affecting biocatalyst efficiency, that is, biocatalyst activity and stability, is essential for a rational generation of improved biocatalysts. Today, systematic approaches only exist for increasing the activity of whole-cell biocatalysts...
July 18, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715772/stability-of-single-dispersed-silver-nanoparticles-in-natural-and-synthetic-freshwaters-effects-of-dissolved-oxygen
#12
Xiaoyan Zou, Penghui Li, Jie Lou, Xiaoyan Fu, Hongwu Zhang
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly used in various commercial products. This increased use raises ecological concerns because of the large release of AgNPs into the environment. Once released, the local water chemistry has the potential to influence the environmental fates and behaviors of AgNPs. The impacts of dissolved oxygen and natural organic matter (NOM) on the dissolution and stability of AgNPs were investigated in synthetic and natural freshwaters for 7 days. In synthetic freshwater, the aggregation of AgNPs occurred due to the compression of the electric double layer, accompanied by the dissolution of AgNPs...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704671/long-term-cultivation-of-bt-rice-expressing-the-cry1ab-1ac-gene-reduced-phytoparasitic-nematode-abundance-but-did-not-affect-other-nematode-parameters-in-paddy-fields
#13
Qunying Chen, Bing Yang, Xianghui Liu, Fajun Chen, Feng Ge
The uncertainty of ecological risks and the effects of growing transgenic Bt rice on the environment hamper its commercial production. Here, soil nematode communities were used as an indicator of soil health and soil food web structure to evaluate the potential effects of growing Bt rice without chemical insecticides for 3years in the paddy field. The nematodes and soil physicochemical properties of Bt rice fields were compared to the near-isogenic control, non-Bt rice fields. A total of 108,363 specimens belonging to 28 different genera were enumerated...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704049/phylogenomics-of-2-4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing-pseudomonas-and-novel-antiglycation-endophytes-from-piper-auritum
#14
Karina Gutiérrez-García, Adriana Neira-González, Rosa Martha Pérez-Gutiérrez, Giovana Granados-Ramírez, Ramon Zarraga, Kazimierz Wrobel, Francisco Barona-Gómez, Luis B Flores-Cotera
2,4-Diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) (1) is a phenolic polyketide produced by some plant-associated Pseudomonas species, with many biological activities and ecological functions. Here, we aimed at reconstructing the natural history of DAPG using phylogenomics focused at its biosynthetic gene cluster or phl genes. In addition to around 1500 publically available genomes, we obtained and analyzed the sequences of nine novel Pseudomonas endophytes isolated from the antidiabetic medicinal plant Piper auritum. We found that 29 organisms belonging to six Pseudomonas species contain the phl genes at different frequencies depending on the species...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699558/beyond-efficacy-in-water-containers-temephos-and-household-entomological-indices-in-six-studies-between-2005-and-2013-in-managua-nicaragua
#15
Jorge Arosteguí, Josefina Coloma, Carlos Hernández-Alvarez, Harold Suazo-Laguna, Angel Balmaseda, Eva Harris, Neil Andersson, Robert J Ledogar
BACKGROUND: A cluster-randomized controlled trial of community mobilisation for dengue prevention in Mexico and Nicaragua reported, as a secondary finding, a higher risk of dengue virus infection in households where inspectors found temephos in water containers. Data from control sites in the preceding pilot study and the Nicaragua trial arm provided six time points (2005, 2006, 2007 and 2011, 2012, 2013) to examine potentially protective effects of temephos on entomological indices under every day conditions of the national vector control programme...
May 30, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694970/increasing-evidence-indicates-low-bioaccumulation-of-carbon-nanotubes
#16
Rhema Bjorkland, David Tobias, Elijah J Petersen
As the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) expands, so might the potential for release into the environment. The possibility of bioaccumulation and toxicological effects has prompted research on their fate and potential ecological effects. For many organic chemicals, bioaccumulation properties are associated with lipid-water partitioning properties. However, predictions based on phase partitioning provide a poor fit for nanomaterials. In the absence of data on the bioaccumulation and other properties of CNTs, the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) subjects new pre-manufacture submissions for all nanomaterials to a higher-level review...
2017: Environmental Science. Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690842/chemical-genetics-and-strigolactone-perception
#17
REVIEW
Shelley Lumba, Michael Bunsick, Peter McCourt
Strigolactones (SLs) are a collection of related small molecules that act as hormones in plant growth and development. Intriguingly, SLs also act as ecological communicators between plants and mycorrhizal fungi and between host plants and a collection of parasitic plant species. In the case of mycorrhizal fungi, SLs exude into the soil from host roots to attract fungal hyphae for a beneficial interaction. In the case of parasitic plants, however, root-exuded SLs cause dormant parasitic plant seeds to germinate, thereby allowing the resulting seedling to infect the host and withdraw nutrients...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690621/different-mutations-endowing-resistance-to-acetyl-coa-carboxylase-inhibitors-results-in-changes-in-ecological-fitness-of-lolium-rigidum-populations
#18
Maor Matzrafi, Ofri Gerson, Baruch Rubin, Zvi Peleg
Various mutations altering the herbicide target site (TS), can lead to structural modifications that decrease binding efficiency and results in herbicide resistant weed. In most cases, such a mutation will be associated with ecological fitness penalty under herbicide free environmental conditions. Here we describe the effect of various mutations, endowing resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors, on the ecological fitness penalty of Lolium rigidum populations. The TS resistant populations, MH (substitution of isoleucine 1781 to leucine) and NO (cysteine 2088 to arginine), were examined and compared to a sensitive population (AL)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689121/young-calcareous-soil-chronosequences-as-a-model-for-ecological-restoration-on-alkaline-mine-tailings
#19
Adam T Cross, Hans Lambers
Tailings are artificial soil-forming substrates that have not been created by the natural processes of soil formation and weathering. The extreme pH environment and corresponding low availability of some macro- and micronutrients in alkaline tailings, coupled with hostile physical and geochemical conditions, present a challenging environment to native biota. Some significant nutritional constraints to ecosystem reconstruction on alkaline tailings include i) predominant or complete absence of combined nitrogen (N) and poor soil N retention; ii) the limited bioavailability of some micronutrients at high soil pH (e...
July 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688520/are-shipwrecks-a-real-hazard-for-the-ecosystem-in-the-mediterranean-sea
#20
Monia Renzi, Teresa Romeo, Cristiana Guerranti, Guido Perra, Simonepietro Canese, Pierpaolo Consoli, Silvano E Focardi, Claudio Berti, Mario Sprovieri, Serena Gherardi, Daniela Salvagio, Luigi Giaramita, Valentina Esposito, Pietro Battaglia, Salvatore Giacobbe, Franco Andaloro
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hazard from shipwrecks on communities by a holistic approach taking into account different effects on biological communities. Multibeam and Remotely Operated Vehicles surveys recorded ecological assessment of fish and benthic species on three shipwrecks flooded during the Second World War on Maërl beds habitats in the strait of Sicily. Pollution levels of a wide range of chemicals of ecotoxicological concern were also measured in sediments and in fish species from different trophic levels...
July 6, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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