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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238435/lateral-and-longitudinal-patterns-of-water-physico-chemistry-and-trace-metal-distribution-and-partitioning-in-a-large-river-floodplain
#1
Dorothea Hug Peter, Emmanuel Castella, Vera I Slaveykova
Floodplain water bodies provide habitat to diversified ecological communities. Floodplains are also among the most impacted aquatic ecosystems. While the link between the lateral connectivity of floodplain sites to the main channel and their plant, fish and invertebrate communities has been well established, detailed information on chemical characteristics and particularly on trace metal spatial distribution and partitioning is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the link between the lateral connectivity and physico-chemical variables, their trace metal concentrations and partitioning as well as the upstream-downstream gradient of these parameters...
February 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238432/impact-of-irrigation-based-sugarcane-cultivation-on-the-chiredzi-and-runde-rivers-quality-zimbabwe
#2
Tamuka Nhiwatiwa, Tatenda Dalu, Luc Brendonck
Agriculture is vital in sustaining human livelihoods. However, agriculture as it is currently practiced, is contributing to the degradation of freshwater ecosystems globally. We investigated impacts of irrigation return flows from sugarcane farming on water quality and health status of the Chiredzi and Runde Rivers, a biodiversity hotspot region in south-eastern Lowveld of Zimbabwe. The water quality at inlets from the crop field into the wetland system; wetland outlets into the river systems; and river sites upstream and downstream of wetland outlets were monitored during the dry and wet seasons...
February 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238034/35-years-of-marine-natural-product-research-in-sweden-cool-molecules-and-models-from-cold-waters
#3
Lars Bohlin, Paco Cárdenas, Anders Backlund, Ulf Göransson
Currents efforts in marine biodiscovery have essentially focused on temperate to tropical shallow water organisms. With more than 6000 species of marine plants and animals, the Kosterfjord area has the richest marine biodiversity in Swedish waters, but it remains understudied. The overall objective of our marine pharmacognosy research is to explore and reveal the pharmacological potential of organisms from this poorly explored region. More generally, we wish to understand aspects of structure-activity relationships of chemical interactions in cold-water marine environment (shallow and deep)...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230740/application-of-chromatographic-and-spectroscopic-methods-towards-the-quality-assessment-of-ginger-zingiber-officinale-rhizomes-from-ecological-plantations
#4
Wojciech Koch, Wirginia Kukula-Koch, Zbigniew Marzec, Elwira Kasperek, Lucyna Wyszogrodzka-Koma, Wojciech Szwerc, Yoshinori Asakawa
The usefulness of ginger in the food industry and pharmacotherapy is strictly related to its content of various components. The study elucidates the chemical composition of Zingiber officinale rhizomes cultivated on ecological plantations on Shikoku Island (Japan). GC-MS analysis of terpene content, LC-MS determination of phenolic content, and the determination of 12 elements using AAS spectrometry were performed to give more detailed insight into the samples. Ninety-five percent of terpene composition was elucidated, with zingiberene as the most abundant sesquiterpene (37...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229023/toxgen-an-improved-reference-database-for-the-identification-of-type-b-trichothecene-genotypes-in-fusarium
#5
Tomasz Kulik, Kessy Abarenkov, Maciej Buśko, Katarzyna Bilska, Anne D van Diepeningen, Anna Ostrowska-Kołodziejczak, Katarzyna Krawczyk, Balázs Brankovics, Sebastian Stenglein, Jakub Sawicki, Juliusz Perkowski
Type B trichothecenes, which pose a serious hazard to consumer health, occur worldwide in grains. These mycotoxins are produced mainly by three different trichothecene genotypes/chemotypes: 3ADON (3-acetyldeoxynivalenol), 15ADON (15-acetyldeoxynivalenol) and NIV (nivalenol), named after these three major mycotoxin compounds. Correct identification of these genotypes is elementary for all studies relating to population surveys, fungal ecology and mycotoxicology. Trichothecene producers exhibit enormous strain-dependent chemical diversity, which may result in variation in levels of the genotype's determining toxin and in the production of low to high amounts of atypical compounds...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222924/assessing-anthropogenic-pressures-on-streams-a-random-forest-approach-based-on-benthic-diatom-communities
#6
Floriane Larras, Romain Coulaud, Edwige Gautreau, Elise Billoir, Juliette Rosebery, Philippe Usseglio-Polatera
Benthic diatoms have been widely used to assess the ecological status of freshwater ecosystems, especially in the context of recent international water framework directive policies (e.g. the WFD). Despite diatom-based indices are known to respond fastly to water quality degradation, they are not designed to precisely identify the nature of pressures co-occurring in the environment. Based on large scale monitoring data, we aimed at building models able to estimate the risk of stream impairment by many types of anthropogenic pressures from taxonomy-based and trait-based characteristics of diatom assemblages...
February 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222171/metabolite-profiling-of-the-carnivorous-pitcher-plants-darlingtonia-and-sarracenia
#7
Hannu Hotti, Peddinti Gopalacharyulu, Tuulikki Seppänen-Laakso, Heiko Rischer
Sarraceniaceae is a New World carnivorous plant family comprising three genera: Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, and Sarracenia. The plants occur in nutrient-poor environments and have developed insectivorous capability in order to supplement their nutrient uptake. Sarracenia flava contains the alkaloid coniine, otherwise only found in Conium maculatum, in which its biosynthesis has been studied, and several Aloe species. Its ecological role and biosynthetic origin in S. flava is speculative. The aim of the current research was to investigate the occurrence of coniine in Sarracenia and Darlingtonia and to identify common constituents of both genera, unique compounds for individual variants and floral scent chemicals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217773/finding-food-how-marine-invertebrates-use-chemical-cues-to-track-and-select-food
#8
REVIEW
Michiya Kamio, Charles D Derby
Benthic marine invertebrates sense molecules from other organisms and use these molecules to find and evaluate the organisms as sources of food. These processes depend on the detection and discrimination of molecules carried in sea water around and in the mouths of these animals. To understand these processes, researchers have studied how molecules released from food distribute in the sea water as a plume, how animals respond to the plume, the molecular identity of the attractants in the plume, the effect of turbulence on food-searching success, and how animals evaluate the quality of food and make decisions to eat or not...
February 20, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215329/biotechnological-applications-of-marine-enzymes-from-algae-bacteria-fungi-and-sponges
#9
S Parte, V L Sirisha, J S D'Souza
Diversity is the hallmark of all life forms that inhabit the soil, air, water, and land. All these habitats pose their unique inherent challenges so as to breed the "fittest" creatures. Similarly, the biodiversity from the marine ecosystem has evolved unique properties due to challenging environment. These challenges include permafrost regions to hydrothermal vents, oceanic trenches to abyssal plains, fluctuating saline conditions, pH, temperature, light, atmospheric pressure, and the availability of nutrients...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213706/plant-microbial-association-in-petroleum-and-gas-exploration-sites-in-the-state-of-assam-north-east-india-significance-for-bioremediation
#10
Hemen Sarma, N F Islam, M N V Prasad
The state of Assam in north-east India gained popularity in Asia because of discovery of oil. Pollution due to petroleum and gas exploration is a serious problem in Assam. Oil and gas exploration by various agencies in Assam resulted in soil pollution due to hydrocarbons (HCs) and heavy metals (HMs). Bioremediation gained considerable significance in addressing petroleum hydrocarbon polluted sites in various parts of the world. In this investigation, we have observed 15 species of plants belonging to grass growing on the contaminated soils...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212462/climate-change-contaminant-interactions-in-marine-food-webs-towards-a-conceptual-framework
#11
Juan José Alava, William W L Cheung, Peter S Ross, Rashid U Sumaila
Climate change is reshaping the way in which contaminants move through the global environment, in large part by changing the chemistry of the oceans and affecting the physiology, health and feeding ecology of marine biota. Climate change-associated impacts on structure and function of marine food webs, with consequent changes in contaminant transport, fate and effects, is likely to have significant repercussions to those human populations that rely on fisheries resources for food, recreation or culture. Published studies on climate change-contaminant interactions with a focus on food web bioaccumulation were systematically reviewed to explore how climate change and ocean acidification may impact contaminant levels in marine food webs...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212461/fatty-acid-composition-of-baobab-seed-and-its-relationship-with-the-genus-adansonia-taxonomy
#12
Gaylor Razafimamonjison, Jean Michel Leong Pock Tsy, Manitriniaina Randriamiarinarivo, Panja Ramanoelina, Jean Rasoarahona, Fanjaniaina Fawbush, Pascal Danthu
Baobab seed oil contains specific fatty acids. Most of the studies on baobab fatty acids have been carried out singly and in isolation from each other, making it difficult to compare results through different species. The objective of the present study is to establish the seed fatty acid composition of each Adansonia species in order to evaluate and understand the relationships between the oil chemical compositions, the baobabs' taxonomy and, the ecological and geographical origin of each seed lot. The seed oils have been analysed using gas chromatography (GC)...
February 17, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206868/mosquito-vector-biology-and-control-in-latin-america-a-26th-symposium
#13
Lee W Cohnstaedt, Catalina Alfonso-Para, Ildefonso Fernandez-Salas
The 26th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 82nd Annual Meeting of the AMCA in Savannah, GA, in February 2016. The principal objective, as for the previous 25 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 19 presentations that were given orally in Spanish by participants from Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, and the USA...
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199101/fungal-identification-using-molecular-tools-a-primer-for-the-natural-products-research-community
#14
Huzefa A Raja, Andrew N Miller, Cedric J Pearce, Nicholas H Oberlies
Fungi are morphologically, ecologically, metabolically, and phylogenetically diverse. They are known to produce numerous bioactive molecules, which makes them very useful for natural products researchers in their pursuit of discovering new chemical diversity with agricultural, industrial, and pharmaceutical applications. Despite their importance in natural products chemistry, identification of fungi remains a daunting task for chemists, especially those who do not work with a trained mycologist. The purpose of this review is to update natural products researchers about the tools available for molecular identification of fungi...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198802/ecological-risk-assessment-on-heavy-metals-in-soils-use-of-soil-diffuse-reflectance-mid-infrared-fourier-transform-spectroscopy
#15
Cheng Wang, Wei Li, Mingxing Guo, Junfeng Ji
The bioavailability of heavy metals in soil is controlled by their concentrations and soil properties. Diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is capable of detecting specific organic and inorganic bonds in metal complexes and minerals and therefore, has been employed to predict soil composition and heavy metal contents. The present study explored the potential of DRIFTS for estimating soil heavy metal bioavailability. Soil and corresponding wheat grain samples from the Yangtze River Delta region were analyzed by DRIFTS and chemical methods...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197165/prevention-of-preharvest-sprouting-through-hormone-engineering-and-germination-recovery-by-chemical-biology
#16
Mariko Nonogaki, Hiroyuki Nonogaki
Vivipary, germination of seeds on the maternal plant, is observed in nature and provides ecological advantages in certain wild species, such as mangroves. However, precocious seed germination in agricultural species, such as preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals, is a serious issue for food security. PHS reduces grain quality and causes economical losses to farmers. PHS can be prevented by translating the basic knowledge of hormone biology in seeds into technologies. Biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an essential hormone for seed dormancy, can be engineered to enhance dormancy and prevent PHS...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195346/herbivore-induced-plant-volatiles-and-tritrophic-interactions-across-spatial-scales
#17
Yavanna Aartsma, Felix J J A Bianchi, Wopke van der Werf, Erik H Poelman, Marcel Dicke
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are an important cue used in herbivore location by carnivorous arthropods such as parasitoids. The effects of plant volatiles on parasitoids have been well characterised at small spatial scales, but little research has been done on their effects at larger spatial scales. The spatial matrix of volatiles ('volatile mosaic') within which parasitoids locate their hosts is dynamic and heterogeneous. It is shaped by the spatial pattern of HIPV-emitting plants, the concentration, chemical composition and breakdown of the emitted HIPV blends, and by environmental factors such as wind, turbulence and vegetation that affect transport and mixing of odour plumes...
February 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193557/birds-and-flame-retardants-a-review-of-the-toxic-effects-on-birds-of-historical-and-novel-flame-retardants
#18
REVIEW
Mélanie F Guigueno, Kim J Fernie
Flame retardants (FRs) are a diverse group of chemicals, many of which persist in the environment and bioaccumulate in biota. Although some FRs have been withdrawn from manufacturing and commerce (e.g., legacy FRs), many continue to be detected in the environment; moreover, their replacements and/or other novel FRs are also detected in biota. Here, we review and summarize the literature on the toxic effects of various FRs on birds. Birds integrate chemical information (exposure, effects) across space and time, making them ideal sentinels of environmental contamination...
April 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191618/ecotoxicological-bioassays-of-sediment-leachates-in-a-river-bed-flanked-by-decommissioned-pesticide-plants-in-nantong-city-east-china
#19
Yan Zhou, Fenghe Wang, Jinzhong Wan, Jian He, Qun Li, Qiang Chen, Jay Gao, Yusuo Lin, Shengtian Zhang
Traditionally, the toxicity of river contaminants is analyzed chemically or physically through river bed sediments. The biotoxicity of polluted sediment leachates has not caught our attention. This study aims to overcome this deficiency through a battery of biotests which were conducted to monitor comprehensive toxicity of sediment leachates for the Yaogang River in East Jiangsu Province of China, which is in close proximity to former pesticide plants. The general physical and chemical parameters of major pollutants were analyzed from river bed sediments collected at five strategic locations...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190573/stable-sulfur-isotopes-identify-habitat-specific-foraging-and-mercury-exposure-in-a-highly-mobile-fish-community
#20
Meghan K Carr, Timothy D Jardine, Lorne E Doig, Paul D Jones, Lalita Bharadwaj, Brett Tendler, John Chételat, Pete Cott, Karl-Erich Lindenschmidt
Tracking the uptake and transfer of toxic chemicals, such as mercury (Hg), in aquatic systems is challenging when many top predators are highly mobile and may therefore be exposed to chemicals in areas other than their location of capture, confounding interpretation of bioaccumulation trends. Here we show how the application of a less commonly used ecological tracer, stable sulfur isotope ratios ((34)S/(32)S, or δ(34)S), in a large river-delta-lake complex in northern Canada allows differentiation of resident from migrant fishes, beyond what was possible with more conventional (13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N measurements...
February 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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