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chemical ecology

Nagore Cuevas, Marta Martins, Pedro M Costa
Estuaries, coastal lagoons and other transition ecosystems tend to become the ultimate reservoirs of pollutants transported by continental runoff, among which pesticides constitute the class of most concern. High amounts of dissolved and particulated organic matter greatly contribute to the accumulation of pesticides that eventually become trapped in sediments or find their way along food chains. Perhaps not so surprisingly, it is common to find elevated levels of pesticides in estuarine sediments decades after their embargo...
February 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Alexander Haverkamp, Bill S Hansson, Markus Knaden
Insects, including those which provide vital ecosystems services as well as those which are devastating pests or disease vectors, locate their resources mainly based on olfaction. Understanding insect olfaction not only from a neurobiological but also from an ecological perspective is therefore crucial to balance insect control and conservation. However, among all sensory stimuli olfaction is particularly hard to grasp. Our chemical environment is made up of thousands of different compounds, which might again be detected by our nose in multiple ways...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mostafa Mahinroosta, Ali Allahverdi
The numerous ecological problems caused by the accumulation of secondary aluminum dross (SAD) as a hazardous waste generated in aluminum castings have necessitated a need for a sustainable recycling solution. This study proposes a novel and green leaching-based process for recovery of nano-alumina as a highly valuable material from SAD. The leaching phase was performed at atmospheric pressure and low temperature. To obtain optimum conditions for the recovery process, the dissolution kinetics and mechanism of SAD in hydrochloric acid were initially studied under a given liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 ml/g, various reaction temperatures and times...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Can Feng, Shirong Zhang, Linxian Li, Guiyin Wang, Xiaoxun Xu, Ting Li, Qinmei Zhong
Soil washing is one of the permanent techniques to remove heavy metals, and washing agent is a key influence factor for this technique, but there is still lack of high-efficiency, eco-friendly, and inexpensive agents. In this study, four wastes including pineapple peel (PP), soybean straw (SS), broad bean straw (BBS) and tea residue (TR) were employed to remove cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in contaminated soils. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated that hydroxyl, carboxyl, amine, carbonyl and amide groups were involved in the interaction with metal ions by complexation or ion exchange...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jose G Maciá-Vicente, Yan-Ni Shi, Zakaria Cheikh-Ali, Peter Grün, Kyriaki Glynou, Sevda Haghi Kia, Meike Piepenbring, Helge B Bode
Fungi are prolific producers of natural products routinely screened for biotechnological applications, and those living endophytically within plants attract particular attention because of their purported chemical diversity. However, the harnessing of their biosynthetic potential is hampered by a large and often cryptic phylogenetic and ecological diversity, coupled with a lack of large-scale natural products' dereplication studies. To guide efforts to discover new chemistries among root-endophytic fungi, we analyzed the natural products produced by 822 strains using an untargeted UPLC-ESI-MS/MS-based approach and linked the patterns of chemical features to fungal lineages...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Bingna Huang, Feifei Chen, Yue Shen, Kun Qian, Yan Wang, Changjiao Sun, Xiang Zhao, Bo Cui, Fei Gao, Zhanghua Zeng, Haixin Cui
Pesticides are the basis for defending against major biological disasters and important for ensuring national food security. Biocompatible, biodegradable, intelligent, and responsive materials are currently an emerging area of interest in the field of efficient, safe, and green pesticide formulation. Using nanotechnology to design and prepare targeted pesticides with environmentally responsive controlled release via compound and chemical modifications has also shown great potential in creating novel formulations...
February 11, 2018: Nanomaterials
Jan Baas, Starrlight Augustine, Gonçalo M Marques, Jean-Lou Dorne
In ecological risk assessment of chemicals, hazard identification and hazard characterisation are most often based on ecotoxicological tests and expressed as summary statistics such as No Observed Effect Concentrations or Lethal Concentration values and No Effect Concentrations. Considerable research is currently ongoing to further improve methodologies to take into account toxico kinetic aspects in toxicological assessments, extrapolations of toxic effects observed on individuals to population effects and combined effects of multiple chemicals effects...
February 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Daqian Jiang, Wei-Qiang Chen, Xianlai Zeng, Linbin Tang
Bisphenol A (BPA), a synthetic organic chemical, is creating a new category of ecological and human health challenges due to unintended leakage. Effectively managing the use and leakage of BPA can benefit from an understanding of the anthropogenic BPA cycle (i.e., the size of BPA flows and stocks). In this work, we provide a dynamic analysis of the anthropogenic BPA cycle in China for 2000-2014. We find that China's BPA inflows haveconsumption has increased 10-fold since 2000, to approximately ~3 million tonnes/year...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Kévin Barré, Isabelle Le Viol, Romain Julliard, François Chiron, Christian Kerbiriou
The increased use of pesticides and tillage intensification is known to negatively affect biodiversity. Changes in these agricultural practices such as herbicide and tillage reduction have variable effects among taxa, especially at the top of the trophic network including insectivorous bats. Very few studies compared the effects of agricultural practices on such taxa, and overall, only as a comparison of conventional versus organic farming without accurately accounting for underlying practices, especially in conventional where many alternatives exist...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Xiaoming Song, Yujuan Wen, Yuanyuan Wang, Muhammad Adeel, Yuesuo Yang
The emerging endocrine disrupting chemicals posed high risk and much uncertainty to eco-environment and human health. An analytical method, developed for the simultaneous determination of five steroid estrogens in groundwater and soil based upon solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was applied to investigate the distribution of estrone and 17β-estradiol around Shenyang City with particular focus on penetrating from surface to groundwater in this study. Mean concentrations of the estrone and 17β-estradiol were 55...
January 19, 2018: Chemosphere
Rachael E Bonoan, Luke D O'Connor, Philip T Starks
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) obtain micronutrients from floral resources and "dirty", or turbid, water. Past research suggests that honey bees drink dirty water to supplement the micronutrients in their floral diet, however, there is no research that directly investigates how floral micronutrient content varies with water preferences, or how micronutrients in honey bees themselves vary seasonally. In this study, we used chemical analyses (ICP-OES) to investigate seasonal variation of micronutrients in honey bee workers and floral resources in the field...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
J K Wilson, A S Tseng, K A Potter, G Davidowitz, J G Hildebrand
Plants have evolved many defenses against insect herbivores, including numerous chemicals that can reduce herbivore growth, performance, and fitness. One group of chemicals, the tropane alkaloids, is commonly found in the nightshade family (Solanaceae) and has been thought to reduce performance and fitness in insects. We examined the effects of the tropane alkaloid scopolamine, the alkaloid constituent of Datura wrightii, which is the most frequent host plant for the abundant and widespread insect herbivore Manduca sexta in the southwestern United States...
February 2018: Arthropod-plant Interactions
Dyan MacWilliam, Joel Kowalewski, Arun Kumar, Crystal Pontrello, Anandasankar Ray
Odor detection involves hundreds of olfactory receptors from diverse families, making modeling of hedonic valence of an odorant difficult, even in Drosophila melanogaster where most receptors have been deorphanised. We demonstrate that a broadly tuned heteromeric receptor that detects CO2 (Gr21a, Gr63a) and other odorants is a key determinant of valence along with a few members of the Odorant receptor family in a T-maze, but not in a trap assay. Gr21a and Gr63a have atypically high amino acid conservation in Dipteran insects, and they use both inhibition and activation to convey positive or negative valence for numerous odorants...
February 7, 2018: Neuron
Domenico Otranto
Vector-borne pathogens have developed a close relationship with blood feeding arthropod ectoparasites (e.g., mosquitoes, ticks, phlebotomine sand flies, black flies, fleas, kissing bugs, lice) and exploited a huge variety of vector transmission routes. Therefore, the life cycles of these pathogens result in a long evolved balance with the respective arthropod biology, ecology and blood feeding habits, instrumentally to the infection of several animal species, including humans. Amongst the many parasite transmission modes, such as ingestion of the arthropod, with its faeces or secretions, blood feeding represents the main focus for this article, as it is a central event to the life of almost all arthropod vectors...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Michał K Krzysiak, Artur Jabłoński, Wojciech Iwaniak, Monika Krajewska, Julia Kęsik-Maliszewska, Magdalena Larska
After the complete extinction from the wild of European bison (Bison bonasus) at the beginning of the twentieth century, the worldwide species population was restored to approximately 5500 individuals, with the species however remaining endangered. Despite numerous studies on the ecology and genetics of European bison, the threats of infectious diseases have been largely unexamined. The aim of this study was to screen the exposure of the world's largest population of European bison to the pathogens, which may influence the condition and development of the endangered species...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Wei Zou, Xingli Zhang, Qixing Zhou, Xiangang Hu
The environmental transformations of nanomaterials are correlated with their behaviors and ecological risks. The applications of single-layer molybdenum disulfide (SLMoS2) have rapidly developed in environmental fields, but the potential transformations and biological effects of SLMoS2 remain largely unknown. This study revealed that humic acid (HA, over 10 mg/L) induced the scrolling of SLMoS2 with light irradiation over a 56-day incubation. The colloidal stability of SLMoS2 increased and the aggregation ratio decreased from 0...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Lonneke Goddijn-Murphy, Steef Peters, Erik van Sebille, Neil A James, Stuart Gibb
There is growing global concern over the chemical, biological and ecological impact of plastics in the ocean. Remote sensing has the potential to provide long-term, global monitoring but for marine plastics it is still in its early stages. Some progress has been made in hyperspectral remote sensing of marine macroplastics in the visible (VIS) to short wave infrared (SWIR) spectrum. We present a reflectance model of sunlight interacting with a sea surface littered with macro plastics, based on geometrical optics and the spectral signatures of plastic and seawater...
January 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
H F Groba, G Martínez, C Rossini, A González
The bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae), is an exotic emerging pest in Eucalyptus commercial forests in South America, Africa, and southern Europe. Information on the chemical communication system and reproductive ecology of this insect is scant, and it may be relevant for designing management strategies for eucalypt plantations. Males emit large amounts of 3-methyl-2-butenyl butyrate, which attracts conspecific adult males but not females. To learn more about the biological function of this putative male-produced pheromone, we quantified this compound in volatile emissions collected from males, females, and couples, in three 4-h collecting periods during the morning, afternoon, and night of a single 24-h cycle...
February 7, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Alexandra Peter Krüger, Daniele Cristine Hoffmann Schlesener, Liliane Nachtigall Martins, Jutiane Wollmann, Maríndia Deprá, Flávio Roberto Mello Garcia
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a widely distributed pest of soft-skinned and stone fruits that is controlled mainly with pesticides. An alternative to the chemical control is the sterile insect technique (SIT), an ecologically friendly method of pest management that could be used against D. suzukii. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation on reproductive sterility, ovarian morphometry, and quality parameters of D. suzukii. Full female sterility was achieved at 75 Gy, while an adequate level of male sterility (99...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Érica Assunção Carmo, Patrícia Honório Silva Santos, Bárbara Santos Ribeiro, Carine de Jesus Soares, Maria Lydia Aroz D'Almeida Santana, Eliane Dos Santos Bomfim, Bruno Gonçalves de Oliveira, Juliana da Silva Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: to describe sociodemographic aspects and time evolution of mortality due to suicide among elderly individuals in Bahia State, Brazil, from 1996 to 2013. METHODS: time series descriptive and ecological study, with data from the Mortality Information System (SIM); Prais-Winsten regression was used for trend analysis and to calculate annual percent change (APC). RESULTS: 858 deaths due to suicide were identified in elderly in Bahia; 85...
February 1, 2018: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
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