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chemical ecology

Weicheng Zhang, Bangding Xiao, Tao Fang
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been inevitably introduced into ecological environment during their extensive applications in daily human life. Thermodynamically, Ag NPs are unstable and transform into other species under various aqueous conditions. Ag NPs and their transformation products pose potential threats to environment and humans. However, the complex environmental conditions and transformations of Ag NPs complicate their human health and environmental risk assessment. To bridge the knowledge gap, four essential environmental transformations, oxidative dissolution, sulfidation, chlorination and photoreduction, of Ag NPs are reviewed herein...
October 3, 2017: Chemosphere
Abd El-Monsef Ahmed El-Badry, Ahmad Mohamed El-Kammar
Lagoon Burullus is located in the North West quadrant of the Nile Delta. It receives drainage water through several drains around the lagoon. Understanding the mobility and bioavailability of zinc metal in bottom sediments of Lagoon Burullus is essential for the design of remediation processes and the institution of environmental recommendation for zinc pollution. Single extractions used to fractionate zinc into five fractions. The chemical analyses preceded using atomic absorption spectrometry after using the digestion technique...
October 14, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Naglaa F Soliman, Gehan M El Zokm, Mohamed A Okbah
In this study, spatial distribution and chemical fractionation were conducted to appraise the overall classification of Al, B, Cd, Cr, and Pb as well as their ecological risks in Lake Qarun sediments. Also, the other chemical components (CaCO3, TOC, SO4(2-), SiO3(2-), PO4(3-), F, Ca, and Mg) that represented the chemical composition of the sediments were determined. Modified BCR sequential extraction technique was used to evaluate the four (acid soluble, reducible, oxidizable and residual) fractions of the surface sediments...
October 9, 2017: Chemosphere
Romain Marti, Céline Bécouze-Lareure, Sébastien Ribun, Laurence Marjolet, Claire Bernardin Souibgui, Jean-Baptiste Aubin, Gislain Lipeme Kouyi, Laure Wiest, Didier Blaha, Benoit Cournoyer
Urban activities generate surface deposits over impervious surfaces that can represent ecological and health hazards. Bacteriome genetic structures of deposits washed off during rainfall events, over an urban industrial watershed, were inferred from 16 S rRNA gene (rrs) sequences generated by high throughput sequencing. Deposits were sampled over a 4 year-period from a detention basin (DB). Major shifts, matching key management practices, in the structure of these urban bacteriomes, were recorded. Correlation analyses of rrs similarities between samples and their respective concentrations in chemical pollutants, markers of human fecal contaminations (HF183) and antimicrobial resistances (integrons), were performed...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Marta Di Carlo, Donato Giovannelli, Daniele Fattorini, Nadine Le Bris, Costantino Vetriani, Francesco Regoli
Hydrothermal vent systems are inhabited by dense benthic communities adapted to extreme conditions such as high temperature, hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and elevated fluxes of metals. In the present work, a wide range of trace elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn) were measured in tissues of three tube dwelling annelids, Alvinella pompejana, Alvinella caudata and Riftia pachyptila, which colonize distinct habitats of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 2500 m depth. Metals concentrations in alvinellids were often 2-4 orders of magnitude higher than those commonly found in marine organisms, while much lower values were observed in the vestimentiferan polychaete...
October 5, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Karina Lucas Silva-Brandão, Renato Jun Horikoshi, Daniel Bernardi, Celso Omoto, Antonio Figueira, Marcelo Mendes Brandão
BACKGROUND: Our main purpose was to evaluate the expression of plastic and evolved genes involved in ecological speciation in the noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm (FAW); and to demonstrate how host plants might influence lineage differentiation in this polyphagous insect. FAW is an important pest of several crops worldwide, and it is differentiated into host plant-related strains, corn (CS) and rice strains (RS). RNA-Seq and transcriptome characterization were applied to evaluate unbiased genetic expression differences in larvae from the two strains, fed on primary (corn) and alternative (rice) host plants...
October 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
Elizeu S Farias, Eliete M P Silva, Milena G Teixeira, Jhulyana S Ferreira, Elson S Alvarenga, Marcelo C Picanço
In this study, the insecticide potential of eight phthalides derived from furan-2(5H)-one was evaluated against Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) larvae. The potency of the most active phthalides and the susceptibility of six different T. absoluta populations to these compounds were determined. The toxicity of these molecules to two non-target species (Solenopsis saevissima Smith and Tetragonisca angustula Latreille) was also evaluated. Two phthalides (3 and 4) presented insecticide potential against T...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Ja-Myung Kim, Oliver Baars, François M M Morel
A poorly studied but potentially important consequence of the CO2-induced acidification of the surface ocean is a possible change in the bioavailability of trace metals, which play a critical role in the productivity and population dynamics of marine ecosystems. We report laboratory and field experiments designed to compare quantitatively the effects of acidification on the bioavailability of Zn, a metal essential to the growth of phytoplankton and on the extent of its complexation by model and natural ligands...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Turki Al-Said, Rakhesh Madhusoodhanan, Tanuspong Pokavanich, Faiza Al-Yamani, Raziya Kedila, Aws Al-Ghunaim, Ali Al-Hashem
Trace metals and macronutrients play key roles in marine biogeochemical processes. Despite their higher availability, no reliable information is available on their ecological role in the hypersaline waters of NW Arabian Gulf. The present study identifies their synergistic effect on environmental characteristics and autotrophic biomass in the shallow coastal and offshore waters, off Kuwait on a seasonal basis. Surface water samples collected along four predefined transects were analyzed for physico-chemical and biological variables during summer (n=27) and winter (n=27) seasons...
October 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Marlis Reich, Antje Labes
Marine fungi have attracted attention in recent years due to increased appreciation of their functional role in ecosystems and as important sources of new natural products. The concomitant development of various "omic" technologies has boosted fungal research in the fields of biodiversity, physiological ecology and natural product biosynthesis. Each of these research areas has its own research agenda, scientific language and quality standards, which have so far hindered an interdisciplinary exchange. Inter- and transdisciplinary interactions are, however, vital for: (i) a detailed understanding of the ecological role of marine fungi, (ii) unlocking their hidden potential for natural product discovery, and (iii) designing access routes for biotechnological production...
October 11, 2017: Marine Genomics
Richard Olawoyin, Linda Schweitzer, Kuangyuan Zhang, Oladapo Okareh, Kevin Slates
The impacts of air emissions as a consequence of industrial activities around communities of human habitation have been extensively reported. This study is the first to assess potential adverse human health effects in the Chemical Valley Sarnia (CVS) area, around the St. Clair River, using health risk models, ecological and pollution indices. Large quantities of particulate matters (PM) are generated from anthropogenic activities, which contain several heavy metals in trace quantities with potentially adverse effects to humans and environmental health...
October 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Marie-Agnès Coutellec
Mollusc shells, beyond the treasure of information inherently conveyed through their morphology and chemical composition also have the capacity to preserve DNA sequences over the long term in their inner structure. This has been clearly demonstrated for the first time in the study published in this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources by Der Sarkissian et al. (). With a methodology specifically dedicated to ancient DNA and solid matrices, the authors were able to successfully extract and amplify DNA from marine shells spanning the last 7,000 years...
September 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
L Yang, X P Hu, E van Santen, X N Zeng
The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius), is an invasive pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merr., that has recently been detected in the United States. This study investigated whether there was a differential attraction of adult bugs to soybean growth stages, and whether the attraction was related to soybean constitutive volatiles. Greenhouse choice assays examined the behavioral orientation preference of adult bugs exposed to four growth stages of whole soybean plants: vegetative (V2), flowering (R1), pod (R3), and seed (R5)...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Lorena M Durán-Riveroll, Allan D Cembella
Guanidinium toxins, such as saxitoxin (STX), tetrodotoxin (TTX) and their analogs, are naturally occurring alkaloids with divergent evolutionary origins and biogeographical distribution, but which share the common chemical feature of guanidinium moieties. These guanidinium groups confer high biological activity with high affinity and ion flux blockage capacity for voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV). Members of the STX group, known collectively as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are produced among three genera of marine dinoflagellates and about a dozen genera of primarily freshwater or brackish water cyanobacteria...
October 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
Lanjun Wang, Jinhua Wang, Lusheng Zhu, Jun Wang
The production of commercial livestock and poultry often involves using with antibiotics and feed additives, such as oxytetracycline (OTC) and copper (Cu). These are often excreted into the soil by animal feces; hence, combined pollutants may contaminate the soil. To evaluate single and combined toxic effects of OTC and Cu on the soil ecology, changes in quantities of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes in the soil were studied over a 28-d incubation period by a plate count method, microbes numbers counted on days 7, 14, 21, and 28...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Houston Wilson, Kent M Daane
Grape growers in California utilize a variety of biological, cultural, and chemical approaches for the management of insect and mite pests in vineyards. This combination of strategies falls within the integrated pest management (IPM) framework, which is considered to be the dominant pest management paradigm in vineyards. While the adoption of IPM has led to notable and significant reductions in the environmental impacts of grape production, some growers are becoming interested in the use of an explicitly non-pesticide approach to pest management that is broadly referred to as ecologically-based pest management (EBPM)...
October 11, 2017: Insects
Patrick Y Sun, Helen B Foley, Leslie Wu, Charlene Nguyen, Shiven Chaudhry, Vivien W W Bao, Kenneth M Y Leung, Suzanne Edmands
Organismal chemical tolerance is often used to assess ecological risk and monitor water quality, yet tolerance can differ between field- and lab-raised organisms. In this study, we examined how tolerance to copper (Cu) and tributyltin oxide (TBTO) in two species of marine copepods, Tigriopus japonicus and T. californicus, changed across generations under benign laboratory culture (in the absence of pre-exposure to chemicals). Both copepod species exhibited similar chemical-specific changes in tolerance, with laboratory maintenance resulting in increased Cu tolerance and decreased TBTO tolerance...
October 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xiang Meng, Junjie Hu, Gecheng Ouyang
BACKGROUND: Litchi stink-bug, Tessaratoma papillosa Drury (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae), is one of the most widespread and destructive pest species on Litchi chinensis Sonn and Dimocarpus longan Lour in Southern China. Inappropriate use of chemical pesticides has resulted in serious environmental problems and food pollution. Generating an improved Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy for litchi stink-bug in orchard farming requires development of an effective biological control agent...
2017: PeerJ
Francis Mutebi, Jürgen Krücken, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Charles Waiswa, Norbert Mencke, Wilfred Eneku, Tamale Andrew, Hermann Feldmeier
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic tungiasis caused by Tunga penetrans remains a serious public and animal health problem among endemic villages in Uganda and many sub Saharan African countries. Studies on human and animal tungiasis-related knowledge and treatment practices in endemic communities have never been undertaken, a limitation to development of sustainable control measures. METHODS: A cross sectional study using semi-structured questionnaires (Supplementary file S1) was conducted among 236 animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District, South-Eastern Uganda...
October 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
Jianteng Sun, Lili Pan, Daniel C W Tsang, Yu Zhan, Lizhong Zhu, Xiangdong Li
Soil pollution is a global problem in both developed and developing countries. Countries with rapidly developing economies such as China are faced with significant soil pollution problems due to accelerated industrialization and urbanization over the last decades. This paper provides an overview of published scientific data on soil pollution across China with particular focus on organic contamination in agricultural soils. Based on the related peer-reviewed papers published since 2000 (n=203), we evaluated the priority organic contaminants across China, revealed their spatial and temporal distributions at the national scale, identified their possible sources and fates in soil, assessed their potential environmental risks, and presented the challenges in current remediation technologies regarding the combined organic pollution of agricultural soils...
October 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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