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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636099/spectators-or-participants-how-can-setac-become-more-engaged-in-international-climate-change-research-programs
#1
Ralph G Stahl, Jennifer L Stauber, William H Clements
Environmental toxicologists and chemists have been crucial to evaluating the chemical fate and toxicological effects of environmental contaminants, including chlorinated pesticides, before and after Rachel Carson's publication of Silent Spring in 1962. Like chlorinated pesticides previously, global climate change is widely considered to be one of the most important environmental challenges of our time. Over the past 30 yr, climate scientists and modelers have shown that greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4 cause radiative forcing (climate forcing) and lead to increased global temperatures...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633514/metagenomic-smrt-sequencing-based-exploration-of-novel-lignocellulose-degrading-capability-in-wood-detritus-from-torreya-nucifera-in-bija-forest-on-jeju-island
#2
Han Na Oh, Tae Kwon Lee, Jae Wan Park, Jee Hyun No, Dockyu Kim, Woo Jun Sul
Lignocellulose, mostly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin generated through secondary growth of woody plant, is considered as promising resources for bio-fuel. In order to use lignocellulose as a biofuel, the biodegradation besides high-cost chemical treatments were applied, but its knowledge on decomposition of lignocellulose occurring in a natural environment were insufficient. We analyzed 16S rRNA gene and metagenome to understand how the lignocellulose are decomposed naturally in decayed Torreya nucifera (L) of Bija forest (Bijarim) in Gotjawal, an ecologically distinct environment...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632490/the-florence-statement-on-triclosan-and-triclocarban
#3
Rolf U Halden, Avery E Lindeman, Allison E Aiello, David Andrews, William A Arnold, Patricia Fair, Rebecca E Fuoco, Laura A Geer, Paula I Johnson, Rainer Lohmann, Kristopher McNeill, Victoria P Sacks, Ted Schettler, Roland Weber, R Thomas Zoeller, Arlene Blum
The Florence Statement on Triclosan and Triclocarban documents a consensus of more than 200 scientists and medical professionals on the hazards of and lack of demonstrated benefit from common uses of triclosan and triclocarban. These chemicals may be used in thousands of personal care and consumer products as well as in building materials. Based on extensive peer-reviewed research, this statement concludes that triclosan and triclocarban are environmentally persistent endocrine disruptors that bioaccumulate in and are toxic to aquatic and other organisms...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631839/natural-variability-of-biochemical-biomarkers-in-the-macro-zoobenthos-dependence-on-life-stage-and-environmental-factors
#4
Lucia Scarduelli, Roberto Giacchini, Paolo Parenti, Sonia Migliorati, Agnese Maria Di Brisco, Marco Vighi
Biomarkers are widely used in ecotoxicology as indicators of exposure to toxicants. However, their ability to provide ecologically relevant information remains controversial. One of the major problems is understanding if the measured responses are determined by stress factors or lie within the natural variability range. In a previous work, the natural variability of enzymatic levels in invertebrates sampled in pristine rivers was proved to be relevant across both space and time. In this work, the experimental design was improved by considering different life stages of the selected taxa and by measuring more environmental parameters...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631411/function-of-bacterial-community-dynamics-in-the-formation-of-cadaveric-semiochemicals-during-in-situ-carcass-decomposition
#5
Javier Pascual, Christian von Hoermann, Ann-Marie Rottler-Hoermann, Omer Nevo, Alicia Geppert, Johannes Sikorski, Katharina J Huber, Sandra Steiger, Manfred Ayasse, Jörg Overmann
The decomposition of dead mammalian tissue involves a complex temporal succession of epinecrotic bacteria. Microbial activity may release different cadaveric volatile organic compounds which in turn attract other key players of carcass decomposition such as scavenger insects. To elucidate the dynamics and potential functions of epinecrotic bacteria on carcasses, we monitored bacterial communities developing on still-born piglets incubated in different forest ecosystems by combining high-throughput Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of volatiles...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627075/chemistry-of-two-distinct-aeolid-spurilla-species-ecological-implications
#6
M Letizia Ciavatta, Stella García-Matucheski, Marianna Carbone, Guido Villani, Claudia Muniain, Margherita Gavagnin
The lipophilic extracts of two marine aeolid nudibranch molluscs of the genus Spurilla collected in distinct geographical areas have been chemically analysed. The Et2 O extracts of the nudibranchs were dominated by the presence of usual fatty acids and sterols and contained terpenoid compounds 1-3 as minor metabolites. Spurillin A (1) and spurillin B (3) were new molecules whereas cis-γ-monocyclo-farnesol (2) was already reported in the literature as a synthesis product. Interestingly, bursatellin (4), previously isolated from anaspidean molluscs of the genus Bursatella, was found in the butanol extract of both Spurilla species...
June 19, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624520/dissecting-the-chloroplast-proteome-of-chickpea-cicer-arietinum-l-provides-new-insights-into-classical-and-non-classical-functions
#7
Nilesh Vikram Lande, Pratigya Subba, Pragya Barua, Dipak Gayen, T S Keshava Prasad, Subhra Chakraborty, Niranjan Chakraborty
Chloroplast, the energy organelle unique to plant cells, is a dynamic entity which integrates an array of metabolic pathways and serves as first level for energy conversion for the entire ecological hierarchy. Increasing amount of sequence data and evolution of mass spectrometric approaches has opened up new avenues for opportune exploration of the global proteome of this organelle. In our study, we aimed at generation of a comprehensive catalogue of chloroplast proteins in a grain legume, chickpea and provided a reference proteome map...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621725/how-environmental-factors-affect-the-production-of-guanidine-alkaloids-by-the-mediterranean-sponge-crambe-crambe
#8
Eva Ternon, Erica Perino, Renata Manconi, Roberto Pronzato, Olivier P Thomas
Most marine sponges are known to produce a large array of low molecular-weight metabolites which have applications in the pharmaceutical industry. The production of so-called specialized metabolites may be closely related to environmental factors. In this context, assessing the contribution of factors like temperature, nutrients or light to the metabolomes of sponges provides relevant insights into their chemical ecology as well as the supply issue of natural sponge products. The sponge Crambe crambe was chosen as a model due to its high content of specialized metabolites belonging to polycyclic guanidine alkaloids (PGA)...
June 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620858/toxicity-assessment-of-five-emerging-pollutants-alone-and-in-binary-or-ternary-mixtures-towards-three-aquatic-organisms
#9
Carole Di Poi, Katherine Costil, Valérie Bouchart, Marie-Pierre Halm-Lemeille
Despite a growing scientific attention on ecological impact of emerging pollutants (EPs) such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides, knowledge gaps remain regarding mixture toxicity and effects on aquatic organisms. Several EPs were screened in seawater (Normandy, France), and the ecotoxicity of five compounds, chosen on their occurrence in ecosystems and use worldwide, was assessed and were the biocides methylparaben (MP) and triclosan (TCS), a pesticide degradation product (AMPA), and the pharmaceuticals venlafaxine (VEN) and carbamazepine (CBZ)...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618302/growth-and-physiological-responses-of-a-marine-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum-against-two-imidazolium-based-ionic-liquids-c4mim-bf4-and-c8mim-bf4
#10
Xiang-Yuan Deng, Biao Chen, Da Li, Xiao-Li Hu, Jie Cheng, Kun Gao, Chang-Hai Wang
Ionic liquids (ILs) have been considered as "green" substitutes for traditional organic solvents in many existing biological and chemical areas. However, they have high solubility and poor biodegradability in water, suggesting that they could become persistent chemical pollutants in aquatic environment. The ability of two widely used imidazolium-based ILs to affect the growth and physiological characteristics of a marine diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum) was investigated in this study. The diatom was exposed to different concentrations of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C4mim]BF4) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C8mim]BF4) for 96h within a batch-culture system...
May 31, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617285/assessment-of-the-technological-reliability-of-a-hybrid-constructed-wetland-for-wastewater-treatment-in-a-mountain-eco-tourist-farm-in-poland
#11
Andrzej Jucherski, Maria Nastawny, Andrzej Walczowski, Krzysztof Jóźwiakowski, Magdalena Gajewska
The aim of the present study was to assess the technological reliability of a domestic hybrid wastewater treatment installation consisting of a classic three-chambered (volume 6 m(3)) septic tank, a vertical flow trickling bed filled with granules of a calcinated clay material (KERAMZYT), a special wetland bed constructed on a slope, and a permeable pond used as a receiver. The test treatment plant was located at a mountain eco-tourist farm on the periphery of the spa municipality of Krynica-Zdrój, Poland...
June 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617201/a-comprehensive-review-of-regulatory-test-methods-for-endocrine-adverse-health-effects
#12
M K Manibusan, L W Touart
Development of new endocrine disruption-relevant test methods has been the subject of intensive research efforts for the past several decades, prompted in part by mandates in the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA). While scientific understanding and test methods have advanced, questions remain on whether current scientific methods are capable of adequately addressing the complexities of the endocrine system for regulatory health and ecological risk assessments. The specific objective of this article is to perform a comprehensive, detailed evaluation of the adequacy of current test methods to inform regulatory risk assessments of whether a substance has the potential to perturb endocrine-related pathways resulting in human adverse effects...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616741/ecological-risk-assessment-of-an-open-dumping-site-at-mehmood-booti-lahore-pakistan
#13
Asifa Alam, Amtul Bari Tabinda, Abdul Qadir, Talib E Butt, Sidra Siddique, Adeel Mahmood
A robust risk assessment of Mehmood Booting Open Dumping (MBOD) site has been carried out by developing holistic risk assessment framework. Framework mainly comprises on baseline study, hazard identification, and risk quantification and evaluation. Physico-chemical analysis of groundwater and leachate, health risk assessment, and estimation of gas emissions from the site were carried out for risk evaluation. LandGEM 3.02 modelling software was used to measure the gas emissions. Analysis of leachate showed that all parameters were exceeding the WHO standard limit...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613433/a-weight-of-evidence-framework-for-environmental-assessments-inferring-qualities
#14
Glenn Suter, Susan Cormier, Mace Barron
The weighing of heterogeneous evidence such as conventional laboratory toxicity tests, field tests, biomarkers, and community surveys is essential to environmental assessments. Evidence synthesis and weighing is needed to determine causes of observed effects, hazards posed by chemicals or other agents, the completeness of remediation, and other environmental qualities. As part of its guidelines for WoE in ecological assessments, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed a generally applicable framework...
June 14, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612322/integrative-assessment-of-sediment-quality-in-lower-basin-affected-by-former-mining-in-brazil
#15
Estefanía Bonnail, Lucas M Buruaem, Lucas G Morais, Giuliana S Araujo, Denis M S Abessa, Aguasanta M Sarmiento, T Ángel DelValls
The Ribeira de Iguape River (Southeast Brazil) is metal contaminated by mining activities. Despite it has been cataloged as "in via of restoration" by the literature, this basin is still a sink of pollution in some segments of the fluvial system. This study aimed to assess the sediment quality in the lower part of the RIR basin. The employed approach was based on biological responses of the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea after 7-day exposure bioassays using as the reference site the Perequê Ecological Park...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610604/age-and-environment-dependent-changes-in-chemical-defences-of-larval-and-post-metamorphic-toads
#16
Bálint Üveges, Gábor Fera, Ágnes M Móricz, Dániel Krüzselyi, Veronika Bókony, Attila Hettyey
BACKGROUND: Chemical defences are widespread in animals, but how their production is adjusted to ecological conditions is poorly known. Optimal defence theory predicts that inducible defences are favoured over constitutive defences when toxin production is costly and the need for it varies across environments. However, if some environmental changes occur predictably (e.g. coupled to transitions during ontogeny), whereas others are unpredictable (e.g. predation, food availability), changes in defences may have constitutive as well as plastic elements...
June 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609223/the-influence-of-multiple-chemical-and-non-chemical-stressors-on-benthic-communities-in-a-mid-west-agricultural-stream
#17
Lenwood W Hall, Willian D Killen, Ronald D Anderson, Raymond W Alden
The objective of this 3-year study was to characterize benthic communities and physical habitat in an agricultural stream in the mid-west area of the United States (Big Bureau Creek, Illinois). Concurrent basic water quality parameters and seven nutrients were measured in the water column. Sediment measurements from depositional areas were conducted for bifenthrin, Total Organic Carbon, grain size, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and eight metals. All parameters were measured at 12 sites annually during the late summer for a 3-year period (2014, 2015 and 2016)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607347/living-microorganisms-change-the-information-shannon-content-of-a-geophysical-system
#18
Fiona H M Tang, Federico Maggi
The detection of microbial colonization in geophysical systems is becoming of interest in various disciplines of Earth and planetary sciences, including microbial ecology, biogeochemistry, geomicrobiology, and astrobiology. Microorganisms are often observed to colonize mineral surfaces, modify the reactivity of minerals either through the attachment of their own biomass or the glueing of mineral particles with their mucilaginous metabolites, and alter both the physical and chemical components of a geophysical system...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606145/three-steps-in-one-pot-biosynthesis-of-4-hydroxycinnamyl-alcohols-using-immobilized-whole-cells-of-two-genetically-engineered-escherichia-coli-strains
#19
Shuxin Liu, Jiabin Liu, Jiayin Hou, Nan Chao, Ying Gai, Xiangning Jiang
BACKGROUND: 4-Hydroxycinnamyl alcohols are a class of natural plant secondary metabolites that include p-coumaryl alcohol, caffeyl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol, and have physiological, ecological and biomedical significance. While it is necessary to investigate the biological pathways and economic value of these alcohols, research is hindered because of their limited availability and high cost. Traditionally, these alcohols are obtained by chemical synthesis and plant extraction...
June 12, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603293/impact-of-uv-irradiation-on-multiwall-carbon-nanotubes-in-nanocomposites-formation-of-entangled-surface-layer-and-mechanisms-of-release-resistance
#20
Tinh Nguyen, Elijah J Petersen, Bastien Pellegrin, Justin M Gorham, Thomas Lam, Minhua Zhao, Lipiin Sung
Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are nanofillers used in consumer and structural polymeric products to enhance a variety of properties. Under weathering, the polymer matrix will degrade and the nanofillers may be released from the products potentially impacting ecological or human health. In this study, we investigated the degradation of a 0.72 % (by mass) MWCNT/amine-cured epoxy nanocomposite irradiated with high intensity ultraviolet (UV) light at various doses, the effects of UV exposure on the surface accumulation and potential release of MWCNTs, and possible mechanisms for the release resistance of the MWCNT surface layer formed on nanocomposites by UV irradiation...
May 2017: Carbon
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