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chemical ecology

Matthias Erb
Many morphological and chemical features of plants are classified as plant defenses against herbivores. By definition, plant defenses should increase a plant's fitness (i.e., its contribution to the gene pool of the next generation) as a function of herbivory. Over the past years, substantial progress has been made in understanding and manipulating the mechanistic basis of many putative plant defense traits. However, most plant defenses are still characterized by proximate variables such as herbivore performance or plant damage rather than actual fitness...
December 6, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
Chouaïb Meziadi, Sophie Blanchet, Valérie Geffroy, Stéphanie Pflieger
Viruses are obligate parasites that replicate intracellularly in many living organisms, including plants. Consequently, no chemicals are available that target only the virus without impacting host cells or vector organisms. The use of natural resistant varieties appears as the most reliable control strategy and remains the best and cheapest option in managing virus diseases, especially in the current ecological context of preserving biodiversity and environment in which the use of phytosanitary products becomes limited...
December 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Cedric Wannaz, Antonio Franco, John Kilgallon, Juliet Hodges, Olivier Jolliet
This paper analyzes spatially ecosystem exposure to home and personal care (HPC) chemicals, accounting for market data and environmental processes in hydrological water networks, including multi-media fate and transport. We present a global modeling framework built on ScenAT (spatial scenarios of emission), SimpleTreat (sludge treatment plants), and Pangea (spatial multi-scale multimedia fate and transport of chemicals), that we apply across Asia to four chemicals selected to cover a variety of applications, volumes of production and emission, and physico-chemical and environmental fate properties: the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), the antimicrobial triclosan (TCS), the personal care preservative methyl paraben (MeP), and the emollient decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5)...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jun-Ichi Okano, Ichiro Tayasu, Shin-Ichi Nakano, Noboru Okuda
The mechanisms for the coexistence of multiple species occupying the same ecological niche are often puzzling. Predator effects on competitively superior species is one possible mechanism. In this study, we tested whether the presence of size-selective predators (fishes) acts as a mechanism for the coexistence of two species of case-bearing caddisfly larvae, Perissoneura paradoxa and Psilotreta kisoensis (Odontoceridae, Trichoptera). The larvae of these two species have similar ecological and life history traits except their body size, and they have been found to coexist only in habitats shared with predatory fishes...
December 2017: Zoological Science
Andrew Wright Child, Barry C Moore, Jeffrey D Vervoort, Marc W Beutel
Heavy metal discharge from mining and smelting operations into aquatic ecosystems can cause long-term biological and ecological impacts. The upper Columbia River is highly contaminated with heavy metal wastes from nearby smelting operations in Trail, British Columbia, Canada, and to a lesser extent, Northport (Le Roi smelter), Washington, USA. Airborne emissions from the Trail operations were historically and are currently transported by prevailing winds down the Columbia River canyon, where particulate metals can be deposited into lakes and watersheds...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
David F Frazão, Joana R Raimundo, Joana L Domingues, Celestino Quintela-Sabarís, José C Gonçalves, Fernanda Delgado
Cistus ladanifer has a well-defined taxonomic identity. 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexanone may be an authenticity and taxonomic marker. Its traits and applications make it a possible economic resource fitted for Mediterranean areas. Cistus ladanifer is a dominant shrub species endemic to the western Mediterranean region. Due to its dominant nature and its potential ecological, aromatic or pharmacological applications, C. ladanifer has been the object of numerous studies. In this review current knowledge on different aspects of this species is summarized, from its taxonomy to its chemical characterisation or its competitive traits...
December 7, 2017: Planta
Sean D W Comber, Russell Smith, Peter Daldorph, Michael J Gardner, Carlos Constantino, Brian Ellor
Increasing pressures on natural resources has led to the adoption of water quality standards to protect ecological and human health. Lakes and reservoirs are particularly vulnerable to pressure on water quality owing to long residence times compared with rivers. This has raised the question of how to determine and to quantify the sources of priority chemicals (e.g. nutrients, persistent organic pollutants and metals) so that suitable measures can be taken to address failures to comply with regulatory standards...
December 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Tamar Guy-Haim, Devin A Lyons, Jonne Kotta, Henn Ojaveer, Ana M Queirós, Eva Chatzinikolaou, Christos Arvanitidis, Serena Como, Paolo Magni, Andrew J Blight, Helen Orav-Kotta, Paul J Somerfield, Tasman P Crowe, Gil Rilov
Invasive ecosystem engineers (IEE) are potentially one of the most influential types of biological invaders. They are expected to have extensive ecological impacts by altering the physical-chemical structure of ecosystems, thereby changing the rules of existence for a broad range of resident biota. To test the generality of this expectation, we used a global systematic review and meta-analysis to examine IEE effects on the abundance of individual species and communities, biodiversity (using several indices) and ecosystem functions, focusing on marine and estuarine environments...
December 6, 2017: Global Change Biology
Pablo E Chaparro, Karen Molina, Alberto Alzate, Julio Padilla, Myriam Arévalo-Herrera, Sócrates Herrera
BACKGROUND: Rapid urbanisation in difficult socio-economic conditions such as inadequate housing infrastructure, lack of public services, improper sanitation, and poor water drainage systems in vegetation-rich areas lead to ecological conditions that are conducive to the breeding of mosquitoes and transmission of malaria, in semi-urban and urban settings. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the cases of malaria that were reported in the peri-urban areas of Pereira (Colombia), between 2008 and 2015...
December 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Álvaro Alonso, Guillermo Valle-Torres
One of the aims of ecotoxicology is the assessment of the effects of chemicals on the ecosystems. Bioassays assessing lethality are frequently used in ecotoxicology, however they usually employ supra-environmental toxic concentrations. Toxicity tests employing behavioral endpoints may present a balance between simplicity (i.e., laboratory bioassays) and complexity (i.e., relevant ecological effects). The aim of this study was to develop a feeding behavioral bioassay with the aquatic snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, which included a 2 days exposure to cadmium, followed by a 9 days post-exposure observational period...
December 5, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Idrissa Kaboré, O Moog, A Ouéda, J Sendzimir, R Ouédraogo, W Guenda, A H Melcher
Awareness of sustainable management of water and its biological resources is rising in West Africa, but application of effective tools for biomonitoring and detecting habitats at risk in aquatic ecosystems is limited. In this study, we provide key environmental descriptors to characterize reference sites by applying the following "a priori criteria" (physical and chemical, hydro-morphological, and land use parameters) by exploring their potential to determine suitable reference sites. Using data collected from 44 sites, we identified 37 criteria that reliably identify reference conditions in semi-arid rivers by reflecting the impacts of multiple pressures ranging from low to very high intensity of human uses and impairments...
December 2, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Joanne Y Yew, Henry Chung
In recent years, research into the chemical ecology of the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has yielded a wealth of information on the neural substrates that detect and process pheromones and control behavior. The studies reveal at the cellular and molecular level how behavioral responses to pheromones are initiated and modulated by social, environmental, and physiological factors. By taking into account both the complexity of the chemical world and the intricacies of the animal's physiological state, the emerging holistic perspective provides insight not only into chemical communication but more generally, how organisms balance internal and external signals when making behavioral decisions...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Allison M Veach, C Elizabeth Stokes, Jennifer Knoepp, Ari Jumpponen, Richard Baird
Nitrogen deposition alters forest ecosystems particularly in high elevation, montane habitats where nitrogen deposition is greatest and continues to increase. We collected soils across an elevational (788-1940 m) gradient, encompassing both abiotic (soil chemistry) and biotic (vegetation community) gradients, at eight locations in the southern Appalachian Mountains of southwestern North Carolina and eastern Tennessee. We measured soil chemistry (total N, C, extractable PO4, soil pH, cation exchange capacity [ECEC], percent base saturation [% BS]) and dissected soil fungal communities using ITS2 metabarcode Illumina MiSeq sequencing...
December 4, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Qinghui Wei, Min Zhao, Xiaoyan Li
Background: Chemical fungicides are widely used to control crop diseases, but these chemicals have adverse effects. They destroy the ecological environment and even have toxic effects on human beings. In this context, the development of botanical pesticides is relevant. One potential botanical pesticide is chelerythrine, a main alkaloid of Chelidonium majus L., which has high antitumor, fungistasis, and antiphlogosis bioactivity. Objective: This study was designed to present an ultrasonic extraction method for chelerythrine and spore germination experiments to inhibit pathogenic fungi...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Vlatka Filipović Marijić, Damir Kapetanović, Zrinka Dragun, Damir Valić, Nesrete Krasnići, Zuzana Redžović, Ivana Grgić, Jakov Žunić, Dáša Kružlicová, Peter Nemeček, Dušica Ivanković, Irena Vardić Smrzlić, Marijana Erk
Exceptional natural value of karst rivers, as well as their potential as a source of drinking water supply, contributes to the importance of developing strict environmental protection. Although most of its watercourse is proclaimed national park, Krka River is impacted by technological and municipal wastewaters, which are released without proper purification only 2 km upstream of the park border. In order to assess water ecological status of the Krka River, vulnerability of karst ecosystem and potential threat to the Krka National Park, spatial and temporal variability of physico-chemical and microbiological water parameters, as well as concentrations of 25 total dissolved metals/metalloids were evaluated...
December 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jenny R Onley, Samiha Ahsan, Robert A Sanford, Frank E Löffler
The versatile soil bacterium Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans lacks the hallmark denitrification genes nirS and nirK (NO2-→NO), and couples growth to NO3- reduction to NH4+ (respiratory ammonification) and to N2O reduction to N2A. dehalogenans also grows by reducing Fe(III) to Fe(II), which chemically reacts with NO2- to form N2O (i.e., chemodenitrification). Following the addition of 100 μmoles of NO3- or NO2- to Fe(III)-grown, axenic cultures of A. dehalogenans, 54 (±7) μmoles and 113 (±2) μmoles N2O-N, respectively, were produced and subsequently consumed...
December 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Marta Vignola, David Werner, Matthew J Wade, Paola Meynet, Russell J Davenport
Little is known about the forces that determine the assembly of diverse bacterial communities inhabiting drinking water treatment filters and how this affects drinking water quality. Two contrasting ecological theories can help to understand how natural microbial communities assemble; niche theory and neutral theory, where environmental deterministic factors or stochastic factors predominate respectively. This study investigates the development of the microbial community on two common contrasting filter materials (quartz sand and granular activated carbon-GAC), to elucidate the main factors governing their assembly, through the evaluation of environmental (i...
September 22, 2017: Water Research
Shao-Shan Huang, Joseph Ecker
5-Methylcytosine, a chemical modification of DNA, is a covalent modification found in the genomes of both plants and animals. Epigenetic inheritance of phenotypes mediated by DNA methylation is well established in plants. Most of the known mechanisms of establishing, maintaining and modifying DNA methylation have been worked out in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Major functions of DNA methylation in plants include regulation of gene expression and silencing of transposable elements (TEs) and repetitive sequences, both of which have parallels in mammalian biology, involve interaction with the transcriptional machinery, and may have profound effects on the regulatory networks in the cell...
November 30, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Max Crüsemann, Raphael Reher, Isabella Schamari, Alexander O Brachmann, Tsubasa Ohbayashi, Markus Kuschak, Davide Malfacini, Alexander Seidinger, Marta Pinto-Carbó, René Richarz, Tatjana Reuter, Stefan Kehraus, Asis Hallab, Misty Attwood, Helgi B Schiöth, Peter Mergaert, Yoshitomo Kikuchi, Till F Schäberle, Evi Kostenis, Daniela Wenzel, Christa E Müller, Jörn Piel, Aurélien Carlier, Leo Eberl, Gabriele Maria Koenig
The cyclic depsipeptide FR900359 (FR), isolated from the tropical plant Ardisia crenata, displays a strong and selective inhibition of Gq proteins, making it an indispensable pharmacological tool to study Gq-related processes, as well as a promising drug candidate. Gq inhibition is a novel mode of action for defense chemicals and crucial for the ecological function of FR, as shown by in vivo experiments on mice, affinity to insect Gq proteins and insect toxicity studies. The uncultured endosymbiont of A. crenata, 'Candidatus Burkholderia crenata' was sequenced, revealing the FR nonribosomal peptide synthetase (frs) gene cluster...
December 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Dean G Thompson, Amanda Tonon, Eduardo Beltran, Felix Hernandez
BACKGROUND: The Asian Long-horned Beetle (ALB; Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)), is an invasive, wood-boring insect posing significant economic and ecological threats to the deciduous forests of North America. An efficacious and environmentally acceptable chemical control technique is a requirement of a comprehensive, integrated response strategy. RESULTS: Results of this study demonstrate statistically significant, concentration-dependent effects of azadirachtins, a family of natural compounds derived from the neem tree, on both ALB larval and adult life-stages...
November 28, 2017: Pest Management Science
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