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Guang-Zhen Huang, Jing-Tao Liu, Jing-Jiang Zhou, Qian Wang, Jian-Zhen Dong, Yong-Jun Zhang, Xian-Chun Li, Jing Li, Shao-Hua Gu
Insect general odorant binding proteins (GOBPs) have been long thought to bind and transport host plant volatiles to the olfactory receptors on the dendrite membrane of the olfactory neurons. Recent studies indicate that they can also bind female sex pheromones. In present study, two GOBP genes, AipsGOBP1 and AipsGOBP2 were cloned from the adult antennae of Agrotis ipsilon. Tissue expression profiles indicated that both of them are antennae-specific and more abundant in the female antennae than in the male antennae...
May 17, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Shan-Ning Wang, Shuang Shan, Jing-Tao Liu, Rui-Jun Li, Zi-Yun Lu, Khalid Hussain Dhiloo, Adel Khashaveh, Yong-Jun Zhang
Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) expressed in antennal chemosensilla are believed to be important in insect chemoreception. In the current study, we fully described the morphological characteristics of the antennal sensilla in parasitoid wasp Microplitis mediator and analyzed the expression patterns of OBPs and CSPs within the antennae. In M. mediator, eight types of sensilla were observed on the antennae. Sensilla basiconica type 2 and s. placodea with wall pores may be involved in olfactory perception, whereas s...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ashwin Miriyala, Sébastien Kessler, F Claire Rind, Geraldine A Wright
Animals detect changes in the environment using modality-specific, peripheral sensory neurons. The insect gustatory system encodes tastant identity and concentration through the independent firing of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) that spike rapidly at stimulus onset and quickly adapt. Here, we show the first evidence that concentrated sugar evokes a temporally structured burst pattern of spiking involving two GRNs within the gustatory sensilla of bumblebees. Bursts of spikes resulted when a sucrose-activated GRN was inhibited by another GRN at a frequency of ∼22 Hz during the first 1 s of stimulation...
May 1, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Xin-Mi Song, Lin-Ya Zhang, Xiao-Bin Fu, Fan Wu, Jing Tan, Hong-Liang Li
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are the critical elements responsible for binding and transporting odors and pheromones in the sensitive olfactory system in insects. Honey bees are representative social insects that have complex odorants and pheromone communication systems relative to solitary insects. Here, we first cloned and characterized OBP11 ( AcerOBP11 ), from the worker bees antennae of Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana . Based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis, most sequences homologous to AcerOBP11 belong to the typical OBPs family...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Xingcong Jiang, Miriam Ryl, Jürgen Krieger, Heinz Breer, Pablo Pregitzer
Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) enriched in the sensillum lymph are instrumental in facilitating the transfer of odorous molecules to the responsive receptors. In Orthopteran locust species, an in-depth understanding of this important soluble protein family is still elusive. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that the repertoire of locust OBPs can be divided into four major clades (I-IV) on the phylogenetic scale and for representatives of subfamily I-A and II-A a distinct sensilla-specific expression pattern was determined...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Wei-Chan Cui, Wang Bing, Meng-Bo Guo, Yang Liu, Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly, Shan-Chun Yan, Wang Guirong
Plant volatiles are vital cues in the location of hosts for feeding and oviposition for Lepidoptera moths. The noctuid Helicoverpa assulta is a typical polyphagous moth, regarded as a good model for studying the olfactory reception of plant volatiles. In this study, four full-length genes encoding odorant receptors HassOR24, HassOR40, HassOR41, and HassOR55 expressed in antenna in H. assulta were functionally characterized. The highly expressed HassOR40 was narrowly tuned to a few structurally-related plant volatiles: geranyl acetate, geraniol and nerolidol...
April 23, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Cuong Huynh, Anneke A Veenstra
Two new penicillate millipede species from the genera Unixenus and Monographis (Diplopoda, Polyxenidae) were collected from Phu Quoc Island, Vietnam's largest island. Unixenus intragramineus sp. n. was found within the stem of a creeping grass growing on an unstable, sandy substrate in the intertidal zone. The defining taxonomic characteristics of the genus Unixenus were apparent in U. intragramineus sp. n., but it is distinctively different from all described species. Monographis phuquocensis sp. n. belongs to a group of Monographis species which have their antennal sensilla arranged in a crescent-shape; but the structure of the labrum and telotarsus observed in this new species differs from other described Monographis...
March 28, 2018: Zootaxa
Jorge Llorente-Bousquets, Diana Jimena Castro-Gerardino
We present the results of the first examination and comparative analysis of the ultrastructure of the antennae in seven species of Leptidea Billberg, 1820 (Pieridae). The results add further support to the hypothesis that the subfamily Dismorphiinae is composed of the tribes Leptideini and Dismorphiini. We summarize the results in a table and discuss the ultrastructure similarities and differences between the two tribes. Following a previously proposed framework, we trace the progression of character states and discuss the significance of the results in the context of varying phylogenetic hypotheses for Leptidea, with special emphasis on biogeography...
March 29, 2018: Zootaxa
Mian Huang, Yong Huang
Two new free-living marine nematode species of the genus Paracomesoma and genus Metacomesoma belonging to family Comesomatidae are described from the sublittoral sediment of the East China Sea. Paracomesoma zhangi sp. nov. is characterized by cuticle with fine transverse rows of dots, without lateral differentiation; buccal cavity with three small teeth; cephalic setae 13.5 μm long; multispiral amphideal fovea with three turns; spicules slender and elongated with thick cuticularized proximal end; gubernaculum plate-like without apophysis; 26 minute precloacal supplements...
April 12, 2018: Zootaxa
Michael Haas, Roger A Burks, Lars Krogmann
Jewel wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) are extremely species-rich today, but have a sparse fossil record from the Cretaceous, the period of their early diversification. Three genera and three species, Diversinitus attenboroughi gen. & sp. n. , Burminata caputaeria gen. & sp. n. and Glabiala barbata gen. & sp. n. are described in the family Diversinitidae fam. n., from Lower Cretaceous Burmese amber. Placement in Chalcidoidea is supported by the presence of multiporous plate sensilla on the antennal flagellum and a laterally exposed prepectus...
2018: PeerJ
Barbara Franielczyk-Pietyra, Łukasz Depa, Piotr Wegierek
Wings of Orthezia urticae males were studied. Both ventral and dorsal surfaces of wings were examined under light and scanning electron microscopes. The structure regarded as vein cubitus anterior turned out to be a reinforcement element only. Two elements known as radius sector and media are almost transparent depressions in the wing membrane. Veins at the margin of the fold of the wing anal lobe were not confirmed. Studies indicated a row of sensilla cupola at the beginning of the subcostal ridge. Cross sections of the wing membrane showed a two-layered membrane...
2018: ZooKeys
Julia Shrubovych, Ernest C Bernard
European species of Eosentomon are examined. A taxonomic key to identification of 61 Eosentomon species is provided based on body chaetotaxy, shape, and position of sensilla on the foretarsus and shape of sensilla on the maxillary palps. Biogeographically, 13 of the known European Eosentomon species are known only from their type localities.
2018: ZooKeys
David Baracchi, Elisa Rigosi, Gabriela de Brito Sanchez, Martin Giurfa
Lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain that affects perceptual, motor, and cognitive processes. It is now acknowledged that left-right laterality is widespread across vertebrates and even some invertebrates such as fruit flies and bees. Honeybees, which learn to associate an odorant (the conditioned stimulus, CS) with sucrose solution (the unconditioned stimulus, US), recall this association better when trained using their right antenna than they do when using their left antenna. Correspondingly, olfactory sensilla are more abundant on the right antenna and odor encoding by projection neurons of the right antennal lobe results in better odor differentiation than those of the left one...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jianmin Chen, Xiu Zhu, Haili Qiao, Sai Liu, Changqing Xu, Rong Xu, Wenhui Zhan, Jianling Li, Kun Guo, Jun Chen
The longhorn beetle, Xylotrechus grayii (White, 1855), is a serious woodborer pest of many economic and medicinal plants. The maxillary and labial palps of X. grayii adults are strongly involved in mating and host selection behaviors. To further develop control strategies of the pest, sensilla on the palps were studied with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Five types of sensilla (nine subtypes) were identified: sensilla styloconica (four subtypes, Sty1-4), sensilla chaetica (2 subtypes, SC1-2), sensilla digitiformia (Di), sensilla basiconica (Ba), and Böhm sensilla (Bm)...
April 6, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Ahmed M Saveer, R Jason Pitts, Stephen T Ferguson, Laurence J Zwiebel
Anopheles gambiae coluzzii (An. coluzzii) uses olfaction to modulate a range of critical behaviors that are essential for survival and reproduction; most notably, host preference and selection underlie its vectorial capacity for human malaria. As is the case for all mosquitoes, An. coluzzii has three specialized peripheral olfactory appendages-the antennae, maxillary palps and labella-which are used to detect and orient in response to a large variety of olfactory cues. Of these, neither the molecular nor the physiological significance of the labellum have been thoroughly characterized despite suggestions that labial-derived odorant reception is critical for close-range host attraction...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rong-Rong Wang, Jia-Jia Liu, Xin-Yu Li, Ai-Ping Liang, Thierry Bourgoin
Antennal sensory units in nymphs and adults of the spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae), an economically important plant pest, are studied with scanning electron microscopy. Sensilla trichodea / chaetica type recognition is based on their external morphology and ratio of their size to diameter. The flagellum Bourgoin's organ is a complex sensory unit with 2-3 internal sensilla coeloconica. During nymphal stages, the sensory surface available for a chemoreceptive function particularly increases with the number and size of sensilla placodea on the antennal pedicel...
2018: PloS One
Ya-Li Zhang, Xiao-Bin Fu, Hong-Chun Cui, Lei Zhao, Ji-Zhong Yu, Hong-Liang Li
As one of the main lepidopteran pests in Chinese tea plantations, Ectropis obliqua Warren (tea geometrids) can severely decrease yields of tea products. The olfactory system of the adult tea geometrid plays a significant role in seeking behaviors, influencing their search for food, mating partners, and even spawning grounds. In this study, a general odorant-binding protein (OBP) gene, EoblGOBP2 , was identified in the antennae of E. obliqua using reverse transcription quantification PCR (RT-qPCR). Results showed that EoblGOBP2 was more highly expressed in the antennae of males than in females relative to other tissues...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Qike Wang, Yidan Shang, Douglas S Hilton, Kiao Inthavong, Dong Zhang, Mark A Elgar
The elaborate bipectinate antennae of male moths are thought to increase their sensitivity to female sex pheromones, and so should be favoured by selection. Yet simple filamentous antennae are the most common structure among moths. The stereotypic arrangements of scales on the surface of antennae may resolve this paradox. We use computational fluid dynamics techniques to model how scales on the filamentous antennae of moths affect the passage of different particles in the airflow across the flagellum in both small and large moths...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Waleska Vera, Jan Bergmann
The grape weevil, Naupactus xanthographus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a polyphagous insect native to southern South America that causes considerable damage in grape and other fruit species. In this study, the morphology and ultrastructure of the antennae and the antennal sensilla of N. xanthographus were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The antennae consist of a scape, a pedicel, a funicle, and a zone called the "club," which are all formed by a total of 12 antennomers...
March 12, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Hiroki Takai, Kiyoshi Asaoka, Fumiko Ishizuna, Takashi Kiuchi, Susumu Katsuma, Toru Shimada
Gustatory and olfactory senses of phytophagous insects play important roles in the recognition of host plants. In the domestic silkmoth Bombyx mori and its wild species Bombyx mandarina, the morphologies and responses of adult olfactory organs (antennae) have been intensely investigated. However, little is known about these features of adult gustatory organs and the influence of domestication on the gustatory sense. Here we revealed that both species have two types of sensilla (thick [T] and slim [S] types) on the fifth tarsomeres of the adult legs...
March 19, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
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