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Anne-Sarah Ganske, Gabriele Uhl
Spiders show a wide range of sensory capabilities as evidenced by behavioural observations. Accordingly, spiders possess diverse sensory structures like mechano-, hygro-, thermo- or chemoreceptive sensilla. As to chemoreceptive structures, only trichoid tip-pore sensilla were found so far that were tested for gustation. That spiders are also able to receive airborne signals is corroborated by numerous behavioural experiments but the responsible structures have not been determined yet. Here, we provide sensilla distribution maps of pedipalps and walking legs of both sexes of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi whose biology and mating system is well explored...
January 6, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Sudip Dey, S Choudhury
The lateral aspects of larval cephalic cuticle of oak tasar moth, Antheraea proylei, a hybrid between Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea roylei exhibited the presence of gravity receptors in the form of dorsal campaniform sensilla. The distribution pattern and number of dome shaped dorsal campaniform sensilla were found to vary in different larval stages. In the first and second larval stages, 4-5 sensilla were localized near the apex of the lateral aspects of the cephalic cuticle on either side of the head. From the third larval stage onwards, on the other hand, both the right and left lateral aspects of the cephalic cuticle were covered with innumerable dome shaped dorsal campaniform sensilla...
January 8, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Yan-Ru Zhang, Li-Li Ren, Lu Zhang, Rong Wang, Yang Yu, Peng-Fei Lu, You-Qing Luo
Chlorophorus caragana is a species of long-horned beetle that damages Caragana davazamcii Sancz. (Fabales: Papilionaceae) bushes in desert areas in China. The beetles cause substantial damage to local forestry plantations and the environment. Sensilla on the maxillary and labial palps of coleopterans a allow the insects to recognize their host plants. We used scanning and transmission electron microscopy to study the ultrastructure, distribution, and abundance of various sensilla on the maxillary and labial palps of C...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Gwang Hyun Roh, Kye Chung Park, Hyun-Woo Oh, Chung Gyoo Park
We investigated the morphology and distribution of antennal sensilla in males and females of two tortricid moths, Epiphyas postvittana and Planotortrix octo, by scanning electron microscopy. The number and overall length of flagellomeres were significantly greater in females than in males in both species. The antennae of each species bearing six morphological types of sensilla (trichodea, basiconica, coeloconica, auricillica, chaetica, and styloconica), with different numbers and distributions along the antennae...
December 21, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Ai-Ping Liang
Zanna robusticephalica sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae: Zanninae: Zannini), representing the third species of the planthopper genus Zanna Kirkaldy, 1902 from China, is described and illustrated from Yunnan in southwestern China. Scanning electron micrographs of the antennal sensilla, rostral apex, hind tarsal segments, gonoplac and wax glands of the new species are provided. The generic diagnostic characters of Zanna are redefined and the autapomorphies are proposed to support the monophyly of the genus...
October 24, 2017: Zootaxa
Diana Jimena Castro-Gerardino, Jorge Llorente-Bousquets
We examined antennal ultrastructure in species of Dismorphiinae and Pseudopontiinae (Pieridae) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We examined two species of Pseudopontia (Pseudopontiinae) and more than 30 species in seven genera of two tribes in the subfamily Dismorphiinae: Leptidea, Enantia, Pseudopieris, Lieinix, Moschoneura, Dismorphia, and Patia. We focused on the scaleless terminal area of the antenna where there are many types of sensilla, some of which are clustered together and constitute specialized organs...
November 14, 2017: Zootaxa
Maria Chiara Cascarano, Kleoniki Keklikoglou, Christos Arvanitidis, Pantelis Katharios
The ozobranchid leech, Ozobranchus margoi (Apáthy, 1890), parasite of the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta (Linnæus), was described through a multilevel approach including three different techniques: scanning electronic microscopy, histology and micro-CT. New insights are provided concerning the structure of the sensilla on the body, the eyes with emphasis on the structure of photoreceptors, the digestive system and the reproductive organs.
October 17, 2017: Zootaxa
Ji-Eun Ahn, Yan Chen, Hubert O Amrein
Behavioral studies have established that Drosophila appetitive taste responses to towards fatty acids are mediated by sweet sensing Gustatory Receptor Neurons (GRNs). Here we show that sweet GRN activation requires the function of the IonotropicReceptor genes IR25a, IR76b and IR56d. The former two IR genes are expressed in several neurons per sensilla, while IR56d expression is restricted to sweet GRNs. Importantly, loss of appetitive behavioral responses to fatty acids in IR25a and IR76b mutant flies can be completely rescued by expression of respective transgenes in sweet GRNs...
December 12, 2017: ELife
Stanislav I Melnitsky, Vladimir D Ivanov, Mikhail Yu Valuyskiy, Lydia V Zueva, Marianna I Zhukovskaya
Structure and distribution of sensilla were studied in sixteen species of the caddisfly family Philopotamidae. Their antennae bear numerous curved trichoid and pseudoplacoid sensilla and fewer coronal, styloconic and chaetoid sensilla on the flagellar segments. The most numerous pseudoplacoid sensilla have non-specific localization. The curved trichoid sensilla form clusters ventrally on each antennal segment. Sensilla belonging to coronal, styloconic and chaetoid types have specific positions. Long grooved trichoid sensilla are located nonspecifically in all the studied species...
December 7, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
Harald W Krenn, Julia A-S Bauder
The form and function of the hesperiid feeding apparatus was studied in detail. The butterflies in the family Hesperiidae are of particular interest because the longest proboscis ever recorded in Papilionoidea was found in the Neotropical genus Damas. We focused on the functional morphology by comparing proboscis morphology as well as size and composition of both the stipes pump and the cibarial suction pump in skippers with short and extremely long proboscis. Results revealed that all studied Hesperiidae have the same proboscis micromorphology and sensilla endowment regardless of the proboscis length...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Morphology
S Harzsch, J Krieger
Malacostracan crustaceans display a large diversity of sizes, morphs and life styles. However, only a few representatives of decapod taxa have served as models for analyzing crustacean olfaction, such as crayfish and spiny lobsters. Crustaceans bear multiple parallel chemosensory pathways represented by different populations of unimodal chemosensory and bimodal chemo- and mechanosensory sensilla on the mouthparts, the walking limbs and primarily on their two pairs of antennae. Here, we focus on the olfactory pathway associated with the unimodal chemosensory sensilla on the first antennal pair, the aesthetascs...
November 29, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
Silvana Piersanti, Manuela Rebora
The larval antennal sensilla of two Zygoptera species, Calopteryx haemorroidalis (Calopterygidae) and Ischnura elegans (Coenagrionidae) are investigated with SEM and TEM. These two species have different antennae (geniculate, setaceous) and live in different environments (lotic, lentic waters). Notwithstanding this, similarities in the kind and distribution of sensilla are outlined: in both species the majority of sensilla types is located on the apical portion of the antenna, namely a composed coeloconic sensillum (possible chemoreceptor), two other coeloconic sensilla (possible thermo-hygroreceptors) and an apical seta (direct contact mechanoreceptor)...
November 27, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
Joori Park, John R Carlson
We have systematically studied the physiological responses elicited by amino acids from the principal taste organ of the Drosophila head. Although the detection and coding of sugars and bitter compounds have been examined extensively in this organism, little attention has been paid to the physiology of amino acid taste. We find that one class of sensilla, the S sensilla, yield the strongest responses to amino acids, although these responses were much weaker than the most robust responses to sugar or bitter compounds...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
Chris J Dallmann, Thierry Hoinville, Volker Dürr, Josef Schmitz
Animals rely on an adaptive coordination of legs during walking. However, which specific mechanisms underlie coordination during natural locomotion remains largely unknown. One hypothesis is that legs can be coordinated mechanically based on a transfer of body load from one leg to another. To test this hypothesis, we simultaneously recorded leg kinematics, ground reaction forces and muscle activity in freely walking stick insects (Carausius morosus). Based on torque calculations, we show that load sensors (campaniform sensilla) at the proximal leg joints are well suited to encode the unloading of the leg in individual steps...
December 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Junbin Dong, Haiquan Bao, Lai Mang
Rhinoestrus sp. (Diptera: Oestridae) is an economically important parasite that can cause severe nasal myiasis in equids and can also affect humans. The ultrastructure of all Rhinoestrus sp. larval instars from Mongolian horse was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the features of Rhinoestrus. The structure of the anterior region, posterior region, and the spines of the third segment was analyzed for 10 specimens in each larval stage. Additionally, 34 third-instar (L3) larvae of Rhinoestrus sp...
November 8, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Ke Yang, Ling-Qiao Huang, Chao Ning, Chen-Zhu Wang
Male moths possess highly sensitive and selective olfactory systems that detect sex pheromones produced by their females. Pheromone receptors (PRs) play a key role in this process. The PR HassOr14b is found to be tuned to (Z)-9-hexadecenal, the major sex-pheromone component, in Helicoverpa assulta. HassOr14b is co-localized with HassOr6 or HassOr16 in two olfactory sensory neurons within the same sensilla. As HarmOr14b, the ortholog of HassOr14b in the closely related species Helicoverpa armigera, is tuned to another chemical (Z)-9-tetradecenal, we study the amino acid residues that determine their ligand selectivity...
October 24, 2017: ELife
Shun Uchizono, Taichi Q Itoh, Haein Kim, Naoki Hamada, Jae Young Kwon, Teiichi Tanimura
Taste sensitivity to sugars plays an essential role in the initiation of feeding behavior. In Drosophila melanogaster, recent studies have identified several gustatory receptor (Gr) genes required for sensing sweet compounds. However, it is as yet undetermined how these GRs function as taste receptors tuned to a wide range of sugars. Among sugars, fructose has been suggested to be detected by a distinct receptor from other sugars. While GR43A has been reported to sense fructose in the brain, it is not expressed in labellar gustatory receptor neurons that show taste response to fructose...
October 2017: Molecules and Cells
Victor R Townsend, Bruce P Enzmann
In arachnids, pedipalps are highly variable appendages that may be used in feeding, courtship, defense, and agonistic encounters. In cosmetid harvestmen, adults have pedipalps that feature flattened femora, spoon-shaped tibiae, and robust tarsal claws. In contrast, the pedipalps of nymphs are elongate with cylindrical podomeres and are adorned with delicate pretarsi. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy to examine the distribution of cuticular structures (e.g., sensilla chaetica, pores) on the elements of the pedipalps of adults and nymphs of three species of cosmetid harvestmen...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
Hongyi Nie, Shupeng Xu, Cuiqin Xie, Haiyang Geng, Yazhou Zhao, Jianghong Li, Wei-Fone Huang, Yan Lin, Zhiguo Li, Songkun Su
Honey bee is a social insect. Its colony is mainly coordinated by the chemical signals such as pheromones produced by queen or brood. Correspondingly, the worker bee developed numerous complicated olfactory sensilla in antennae for detection of these colony chemical signals and nectar/pollen signals in foraging. With the normal development of new emerged workers, young adults (nurse bee) worked in colony at the first 2-3 weeks and then followed by the foraging activity outside of the hive, which give rise to great change of the surrounding chemical signals...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Liang Sun, Qian Wang, Qi Wang, Kun Dong, Yong Xiao, Yong-Jun Zhang
The chemosensory system is essential for insects to detect exogenous compounds, and odorant binding proteins (OBPs) play crucial roles in odorant binding and transduction. In the alfalfa plant bug Adelphocoris lineolatus, an important pest of multiple crops, our understanding of the physiological roles of antenna-biased OBPs has increased dramatically, whereas OBPs related to gustation have remained mostly unexplored. In this study, we employed RNA sequencing and RACE PCR methods to identify putative OBPs from the adult forelegs of both sexes...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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