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Ya-Li Zhang, Xiao-Bin Fu, Hong-Chun Cui, Lei Zhao, Ji-Zhong Yu, Hong-Liang Li
As one of the main lepidopteran pests in Chinese tea plantations, Ectropis obliqua Warren (tea geometrids) can severely decrease yields of tea products. The olfactory system of the adult tea geometrid plays a significant role in seeking behaviors, influencing their search for food, mating partners, and even spawning grounds. In this study, a general odorant-binding protein (OBP) gene, EoblGOBP2 , was identified in the antennae of E. obliqua using reverse transcription quantification PCR (RT-qPCR). Results showed that EoblGOBP2 was more highly expressed in the antennae of males than in females relative to other tissues...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Qike Wang, Yidan Shang, Douglas S Hilton, Kiao Inthavong, Dong Zhang, Mark A Elgar
The elaborate bipectinate antennae of male moths are thought to increase their sensitivity to female sex pheromones, and so should be favoured by selection. Yet simple filamentous antennae are the most common structure among moths. The stereotypic arrangements of scales on the surface of antennae may resolve this paradox. We use computational fluid dynamics techniques to model how scales on the filamentous antennae of moths affect the passage of different particles in the airflow across the flagellum in both small and large moths...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Waleska Vera, Jan Bergmann
The grape weevil, Naupactus xanthographus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a polyphagous insect native to southern South America that causes considerable damage in grape and other fruit species. In this study, the morphology and ultrastructure of the antennae and the antennal sensilla of N. xanthographus were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The antennae consist of a scape, a pedicel, a funicle, and a zone called the "club," which are all formed by a total of 12 antennomers...
March 12, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Hiroki Takai, Kiyoshi Asaoka, Fumiko Ishizuna, Takashi Kiuchi, Susumu Katsuma, Toru Shimada
Gustatory and olfactory senses of phytophagous insects play important roles in the recognition of host plants. In the domestic silkmoth Bombyx mori and its wild species Bombyx mandarina, the morphologies and responses of adult olfactory organs (antennae) have been intensely investigated. However, little is known about these features of adult gustatory organs and the influence of domestication on the gustatory sense. Here we revealed that both species have two types of sensilla (thick [T] and slim [S] types) on the fifth tarsomeres of the adult legs...
March 5, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Karin Nurme, Enno Merivee, Anne Must, Andrea Di Giulio, Maurizio Muzzi, Ingrid Williams, Marika Mänd
The main purpose of this study was to explain the internal fine structure of potential antennal thermo- and hygroreceptive sensilla, their innervation specifics, and responses of the sensory neurons to thermal and humidity stimuli in an elaterid beetle using focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy and electrophysiology, respectively. Several essential, high temperature induced turning points in the locomotion were determined using automated video tracking. Our results showed that the sensilla under study, morphologically, are identical to the dome-shaped sensilla (DSS) of carabids...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Jiao Zhu, Mengbuo Guo, Liping Ban, Li-Mei Song, Yang Liu, Paolo Pelosi, Guirong Wang
Niemann-Pick proteins type C2 (NPC2) are carriers of cholesterol in vertebrates, with a single member in each species. The high sequence conservation between mammals and across vertebrates is related to their common function. In contrast, NPC2 proteins in arthropods have undergone extensive duplication and differentiation, probably under environmental pressure, and are likely to have different functions. Recent studies have suggested that in arthropods these proteins might act as carriers for semiochemicals and other hydrophobic compounds...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Giorgia Sollai, Maurizio Biolchini, Roberto Crnjar
In the peripheral taste system of insects, the responsiveness of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) depends on several factors, such as larval instar, feeding history, physiological state and time of day. To study the role of the feeding history, the spike activity of the maxillary taste chemosensilla in the larvae of two related species of Lepidoptera (Papilio machaon L. and Papilio hospiton Géné) raised on different host plants, was recorded with electrophysiological techniques after stimulation with simple stimuli (sugars, bitters and inorganic salt) and host plant saps, with the aim of cross-comparing their response patterns and evaluating any effects of different feeding histories...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Yipeng Liu, Yang Liu, Xingchuan Jiang, Guirong Wang
The highly specialized olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) on the antennae of male moths can recognize blends of several pheromone components. In previous studies, a total of six candidate pheromone receptor (PR) genes were cloned and functionally characterized in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. In the present work, we report on three novel candidate pheromone receptor genes: PxylOR8, PxylOR41, and PxylOR45 in the same species. Gene expression analysis revealed that PxylOR8 is specifically expressed in female adult antennae, while PxylOR41 and PxylOR45 are expressed in antennae in both sexes, but with a male bias...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Roberto Romani, Sara Ruschioni, Paola Riolo, Nunzio Isidoro
Pimplinae are parasitoids belonging to the family Ichneumonidae that attack and develops inside hidden host; female wasps evolved a peculiar host recognition strategy, that involves the use of self-produced vibrations which are transmitted through the antennae on the substrate and perceived back as an echo using the leg subgenual organ. In this study we investigated, using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the antennal tips of a few Pimplinae. In all the investigated species, the antennal tips present peculiar apical pegs with different shape and number, often defining a flattened sole devoid of other antennal structures, such as sensilla...
February 6, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Marco Pezzi, Chiara Scapoli, Elisabetta Mamolini, Marilena Leis, Teresa Bonacci, Daniel Whitmore, Stjepan Krčmar, Marica Furini, Sauro Giannerini, Milvia Chicca, Rosario Cultrera, Michel J Faucheux
The haematophagous females of the cleg fly Haematopota pandazisi (Kröber) (Diptera: Tabanidae) are a common pest in areas inhabited by wild and domestic ungulates in southern Europe, North Africa and Anatolia. A morphological investigation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out for the first time on the antennae of females of H. pandazisi, with special attention to the type and distribution of sensilla and microtrichia. The typical brachyceran antenna is divided into three regions: the scape, the pedicel and the flagellum, which is the longest of the three and is composed of four flagellomeres...
February 10, 2018: Parasitology Research
S A Leonovich, S A Filimonova
The structure of sensory organs situated on palps and inside the cheliceral stylet of the quill mite Sringophilopsis fringilla (Fritsch, 1958) was examined in scanning and transmitting electron microscopes. Eight sensilla of 3 types were revealed on palptarsus, including two contact chemo-mechanosensory sensilla, a single distant chemosensory (probably olfactory) sensillum, and 5 tactile mechanosensitive sensilla. All other sensilla situated on basas parts of the palp and on the outer surface of gnathosoma are represented by tactile mechanoreceptors...
March 2017: Parazitologiia
Anne-Sarah Ganske, Gabriele Uhl
Spiders show a wide range of sensory capabilities as evidenced by behavioural observations. Accordingly, spiders possess diverse sensory structures like mechano-, hygro-, thermo- or chemoreceptive sensilla. As to chemoreceptive structures, only trichoid tip-pore sensilla were found so far that were tested for gustation. That spiders are also able to receive airborne signals is corroborated by numerous behavioural experiments but the responsible structures have not been determined yet. Here, we provide sensilla distribution maps of pedipalps and walking legs of both sexes of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi whose biology and mating system is well explored...
January 6, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Sudip Dey, S Choudhury
The lateral aspects of larval cephalic cuticle of oak tasar moth, Antheraea proylei, a hybrid between Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea roylei exhibited the presence of gravity receptors in the form of dorsal campaniform sensilla. The distribution pattern and number of dome shaped dorsal campaniform sensilla were found to vary in different larval stages. In the first and second larval stages, 4-5 sensilla were localized near the apex of the lateral aspects of the cephalic cuticle on either side of the head. From the third larval stage onwards, on the other hand, both the right and left lateral aspects of the cephalic cuticle were covered with innumerable dome shaped dorsal campaniform sensilla...
January 8, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Yan-Ru Zhang, Li-Li Ren, Lu Zhang, Rong Wang, Yang Yu, Peng-Fei Lu, You-Qing Luo
Chlorophorus caragana is a species of long-horned beetle that damages Caragana davazamcii Sancz. (Fabales: Papilionaceae) bushes in desert areas in China. The beetles cause substantial damage to local forestry plantations and the environment. Sensilla on the maxillary and labial palps of coleopterans a allow the insects to recognize their host plants. We used scanning and transmission electron microscopy to study the ultrastructure, distribution, and abundance of various sensilla on the maxillary and labial palps of C...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Gwang Hyun Roh, Kye Chung Park, Hyun-Woo Oh, Chung Gyoo Park
We investigated the morphology and distribution of antennal sensilla in males and females of two tortricid moths, Epiphyas postvittana and Planotortrix octo, by scanning electron microscopy. The number and overall length of flagellomeres were significantly greater in females than in males in both species. The antennae of each species bearing six morphological types of sensilla (trichodea, basiconica, coeloconica, auricillica, chaetica, and styloconica), with different numbers and distributions along the antennae...
December 21, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Ai-Ping Liang
Zanna robusticephalica sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae: Zanninae: Zannini), representing the third species of the planthopper genus Zanna Kirkaldy, 1902 from China, is described and illustrated from Yunnan in southwestern China. Scanning electron micrographs of the antennal sensilla, rostral apex, hind tarsal segments, gonoplac and wax glands of the new species are provided. The generic diagnostic characters of Zanna are redefined and the autapomorphies are proposed to support the monophyly of the genus...
October 24, 2017: Zootaxa
Diana Jimena Castro-Gerardino, Jorge Llorente-Bousquets
We examined antennal ultrastructure in species of Dismorphiinae and Pseudopontiinae (Pieridae) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We examined two species of Pseudopontia (Pseudopontiinae) and more than 30 species in seven genera of two tribes in the subfamily Dismorphiinae: Leptidea, Enantia, Pseudopieris, Lieinix, Moschoneura, Dismorphia, and Patia. We focused on the scaleless terminal area of the antenna where there are many types of sensilla, some of which are clustered together and constitute specialized organs...
November 14, 2017: Zootaxa
Maria Chiara Cascarano, Kleoniki Keklikoglou, Christos Arvanitidis, Pantelis Katharios
The ozobranchid leech, Ozobranchus margoi (Apáthy, 1890), parasite of the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta (Linnæus), was described through a multilevel approach including three different techniques: scanning electronic microscopy, histology and micro-CT. New insights are provided concerning the structure of the sensilla on the body, the eyes with emphasis on the structure of photoreceptors, the digestive system and the reproductive organs.
October 17, 2017: Zootaxa
Ji-Eun Ahn, Yan Chen, Hubert Amrein
Behavioral studies have established that Drosophila appetitive taste responses towards fatty acids are mediated by sweet sensing Gustatory Receptor Neurons (GRNs). Here we show that sweet GRN activation requires the function of the Ionotropic Receptor genes IR25a , IR76b and IR56d . The former two IR genes are expressed in several neurons per sensillum, while IR56d expression is restricted to sweet GRNs. Importantly, loss of appetitive behavioral responses to fatty acids in IR25a and IR76b mutant flies can be completely rescued by expression of respective transgenes in sweet GRNs...
December 12, 2017: ELife
Stanislav I Melnitsky, Vladimir D Ivanov, Mikhail Yu Valuyskiy, Lydia V Zueva, Marianna I Zhukovskaya
Structure and distribution of sensilla were studied in sixteen species of the caddisfly family Philopotamidae. Their antennae bear numerous curved trichoid and pseudoplacoid sensilla and fewer coronal, styloconic and chaetoid sensilla on the flagellar segments. The most numerous pseudoplacoid sensilla have non-specific localization. The curved trichoid sensilla form clusters ventrally on each antennal segment. Sensilla belonging to coronal, styloconic and chaetoid types have specific positions. Long grooved trichoid sensilla are located nonspecifically in all the studied species...
January 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
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