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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632334/functional-analysis-of-female-biased-odorant-binding-protein-6-for-volatile-and-nonvolatile-host-compounds-in-adelphocoris-lineolatus-goeze
#1
L Sun, Q Wang, S Yang, Q Wang, Z Zhang, A Khashaveh, Y-J Zhang, Y-Y Guo
The polyphagous mirid bug Adelphocoris lineolatus relies heavily on olfactory cues to track suitable host plants. Thus, a better understanding of the molecular basis of its olfactory detection could contribute to the development of effective pest management strategies. In the present study, we report the expression profile of the odorant binding protein gene A. lineolatus odorant binding protein 6 (AlinOBP6). Quantitative real-time PCR experiments suggest that AlinOBP6 is female adult antennae-biased. Cellular immunolocalization analyses show that AlinOBP6 is highly expressed in the lymph of both multiporous sensilla basiconica and uniporous sensilla chaetica...
June 20, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623371/chemosensory-sensitivity-reflects-reproductive-status-in-the-ant-harpegnathos-saltator
#2
Majid Ghaninia, Kevin Haight, Shelley L Berger, Danny Reinberg, Laurence J Zwiebel, Anandasankar Ray, Jürgen Liebig
Insects communicate with pheromones using sensitive antennal sensilla. Although trace amounts of pheromones can be detected by many insects, context-dependent increased costs of high sensitivity might lead to plasticity in sensillum responsiveness. We have functionally characterized basiconic sensilla of the ant Harpegnathos saltator for responses to general odors in comparison to cuticular hydrocarbons which can act as fertility signals emitted by the principal reproductive(s) of a colony to inhibit reproduction by worker colony members...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610217/a-new-genus-and-species-of-neotropical-nemobiinae-insecta-orthoptera-grylloidea-trigonidiidae-nemobiinae
#3
Fabiene Maria DE Jesus, Marcelo Ribeiro Pereira, Geanne Carla Ripani Rodrigues, Carlos Frankl Sperber
A new genus and a new species of Neotropical cricket is described: Pepoapua cariacica n. gen., n. sp., occurring in four Atlantic Forest remnants in the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo, Brazil. This new genus is morphologically similar in external characteristics, both male and female genitalia, with two other Neotropical genera of Nemobiinae: Amanayara and Kevanemobius. The combination of the external morphological characteristics, along with male genitalia, characterize a new genus through combination of the following characters: (i) males and females with morphologically similar tegmina; (ii) tegmina reduced, not reaching half of the second abdominal segment; (iii) dorsal field of the tegmina with parallel veins, without stridulatory vein or any specialized area for sound production; (iv) tibia of the first pair of legs without tympanum; (v) tibia of the third pair of legs with seven dorsal spurs, four inner and three outer, the proximo-dorsal inner spur reduced in size and the disto-dorsal inner spur without glandular aspect; (vi) ovipositor with distal portion of the dorsal and ventral valves serrated; (vii) male genitalia without evident bristles or sensillas; (viii) pseudepiphallic median lobe presenting apical and ventral projections...
June 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573026/non-invasive-biophysical-measurement-of-travelling-waves-in-the-insect-inner-ear
#4
Fabio A Sarria-S, Benedict D Chivers, Carl D Soulsbury, Fernando Montealegre-Z
Frequency analysis in the mammalian cochlea depends on the propagation of frequency information in the form of a travelling wave (TW) across tonotopically arranged auditory sensilla. TWs have been directly observed in the basilar papilla of birds and the ears of bush-crickets (Insecta: Orthoptera) and have also been indirectly inferred in the hearing organs of some reptiles and frogs. Existing experimental approaches to measure TW function in tetrapods and bush-crickets are inherently invasive, compromising the fine-scale mechanics of each system...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552666/effects-of-force-detecting-sense-organs-on-muscle-synergies-are-correlated-with-their-response-properties
#5
Sasha N Zill, David Neff, Sumaiya Chaudhry, Annelie Exter, Josef Schmitz, Ansgar Büschges
Sense organs that monitor forces in legs can contribute to activation of muscles as synergist groups. Previous studies in cockroaches and stick insects showed that campaniform sensilla, receptors that encode forces via exoskeletal strains, enhance muscle synergies in substrate grip. However synergist activation was mediated by different groups of receptors in cockroaches (trochanteral sensilla) and stick insects (femoral sensilla). The factors underlying the differential effects are unclear as the responses of femoral campaniform sensilla have not previously been characterized...
May 25, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515484/the-complex-tibial-organ-of-the-new-zealand-ground-weta-sensory-adaptations-for-vibrational-signal-detection
#6
Johannes Strauß, Kathryn Lomas, Laurence H Field
In orthopteran insects, a complex tibial organ has evolved to detect substrate vibrations and/or airborne sound. Species of New Zealand weta (Anostostomatidae) with tympanal ears on the foreleg tibia use this organ to communicate by sound, while in atympanate species (which communicate by substrate drumming) the organ is unstudied. We investigated the complex tibial organ of the atympanate ground weta, Hemiandrus pallitarsis, for vibration detection adaptations. This system contains four sensory components (subgenual organ, intermediate organ, crista acustica homolog, accessory organ) in all legs, together with up to 90 scolopidial sensilla...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481941/fine-structure-of-mouthparts-and-feeding-performance-of-pyrrhocoris-sibiricus-kuschakevich-with-remarks-on-the-specialization-of-sensilla-and-stylets-for-seed-feeding
#7
Yan Wang, Wu Dai
Mouthpart structure and feeding behavior in the temperate firebug, Pyrrhocoris sibiricus Kuschakevich, an important pest that feeds on seeds of leguminous and gramineous plants, are described for the first time. Mouthparts were observed using scanning electron microscopy to examine the external morphology, distribution and abundance of sensilla on mouthparts. Feeding performance by adults on both seeds and shoots were observed using a binocular microscope. The four-segmented labium contains 3 types of sensilla trichodea, 3 types of sensilla basiconica, 1 type of sensilla placodea and 1 type of sensilla campaniformia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480519/a-complete-survey-of-normal-pores-on-a-smooth-shell-ostracod-crustacea-landmark-based-versus-outline-geometric-morphometrics
#8
Ivana Karanovic, Vesna Lavtižar, Marko Djurakic
Pores and sensilla on ostracod shell have often been used in studies of ontogeny, taxonomy, and phylogeny of the group. However, an analysis of sexual dimorphism and variation between valves in the number and distribution of pores is lacking. Also, such studies have never been done on a widely distributed, morphologically variable, and weakly ornamented freshwater ostracod. Here, we survey pores in one such species, Physocypria kraepelini. We choose 27 homologous pores as landmarks for 2D-geometric morphometric analysis, with the aim to assess intersexual and between valves variation in size and shape relative to the Fourier outline analysis...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468812/the-insect-ovipositor-as-a-volatile-sensor-within-a-closed-microcosm
#9
Pratibha Yadav, Renee M Borges
We show that the insect ovipositor is an olfactory organ that responds to volatiles and CO2 in gaseous form. We demonstrate this phenomenon in parasitic wasps associated with Ficus racemosa where ovipositors, as slender as a human hair, drill through the syconium (enclosed inflorescences) and act as a guiding probe to locate highly specific egg-laying sites hidden inside. We hypothesize that olfaction will occur in the ovipositors of insects such as parasitic fig wasps where the hosts are concealed and volatile concentrations can build up locally...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459128/functional-characterization-of-a-niemann-pick-type-c2-protein-in-the-parasitoid-wasp-microplitis-mediator
#10
Yao Zheng, Shan-Ning Wang, Yong Peng, Zi-Yun Lu, Shuang Shan, Ye-Qing Yang, Rui-Jun Li, Yong-Jun Zhang, Yu-Yuan Guo
Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2) is a type of small soluble protein involved in lipid metabolism and triglyceride accumulation in vertebrates and arthropods. Recent studies have determined that NPC2 also participates in chemical communication of arthropods. In this work, two novel NPC2 proteins (MmedNPC2a and MmedNPC2b) in Microplitis mediator were identified. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that MmedNPC2a was expressed more higher in the antennae than in other tissues of adult wasps compared with MmedNPC2b...
April 29, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449112/phenotypic-variability-of-the-amazonian-species-rhodnius-brethesi-hemiptera-reduviidae
#11
A C Souza, S Catalá, A L Carbajal de la Fuente, A C V Junqueira
The wild species Rhodnius brethesi (Matta, 1919) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is found in areas of piassabais in microregion of Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Its geographical distribution overlaps the areas of Leopoldinia piassaba palm. In areas where palm trees are found, transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi is related to the extractive activity of the palm fiber, exposing workers to wild vector transmission of this parasite. The close association with the palm tree L. piassaba suggests that this wild triatomine has special features in its sensory system allowing specificity of ecotope...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427964/scanning-electron-microscopic-studies-on-antenna-of-hemipyrellia-ligurriens-wiedemann-1830-diptera-calliphoridae-a-blow-fly-species-of-forensic-importance
#12
Garima Hore, Aniruddha Maity, Atanu Naskar, Waliza Ansar, Shyamasree Ghosh, Goutam Kumar Saha, Dhriti Banerjee
Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are one of the foremost organisms amongst forensic insects to colonize corpses shortly after death, thus are of immense importance in the domain of forensic entomology. The blow fly Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is considered as a forensically important fly species globally and is also known for its medical and veterinary importance. In the present study, we report for the first time scanning electron microscopic studies on the morphology of sensilla of antenna of adult male and female of H...
April 18, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423045/characterization-of-antennal-sensilla-larvae-morphology-and-olfactory-genes-of-melipona-scutellaris-stingless-bee
#13
Washington João de Carvalho, Patrícia Tieme Fujimura, Ana Maria Bonetti, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Kevin Cloonan, Neide Maria da Silva, Ester Cristina Borges Araújo, Carlos Ueira-Vieira, Walter S Leal
There is growing evidence in the literature suggesting that caste differentiation in the stingless bee, Melipona scutellaris, and other bees in the genus Melipona, is triggered by environmental signals, particularly a primer pheromone. With the proper amount of food and a chemical stimulus, 25% of females emerge as queens, in agreement with a long-standing "two loci/two alleles model" proposed in the 1950s. We surmised that these larvae must be equipped with an olfactory system for reception of these chemical signals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407636/neuronal-regression-of-internal-leg-vibroreceptor-organs-in-a-cave-dwelling-insect-orthoptera-rhaphidophoridae-dolichopoda-araneiformis
#14
Johannes Strauß, Nataša Stritih
Animals' adaptations to cave habitats generally include elaboration of extraoptic senses, and in insects the receptor structures located on the legs are supposed to become more prominent in response to constant darkness. The receptors for detecting substrate vibrations are often highly sensitive scolopidial sensilla localized within the legs or the body. For troglobitic insects the evolutionary changes in vibroreceptor organs have not been studied. Since rock is an extremely unfavorable medium for vibration transmission, selection on vibration receptors may be weakened in caves, and these sensory organs may undergo regressive evolution...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407077/chemosensory-responses-to-the-repellent-nepeta-essential-oil-and-its-major-component-nepetalactone-by-aedes-aegypti-diptera-culicidae-a-vector-of-zika-virus
#15
Jackson T Sparks, Jonathan D Bohbot, Mihailo Ristic, Danijela Mišic, Marijana Skoric, Autar Mattoo, Joseph C Dickens
Nepeta essential oil (Neo; catnip) and its major component, nepetalactone, have long been known to repel insects including mosquitoes. However, the neural mechanisms through which these repellents are detected by mosquitoes, including the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), an important vector of Zika virus, were poorly understood. Here we show that Neo volatiles activate olfactory receptor neurons within the basiconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of female Ae. aegypti. A gustatory receptor neuron sensitive to the feeding deterrent quinine and housed within sensilla on the labella of females was activated by both Neo and nepetalactone...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399222/morphology-of-the-antenna-of-hermetia-illucens-diptera-stratiomyidae-an-ultrastructural-investigation
#16
M Pezzi, M Leis, M Chicca, P Falabella, R Salvia, A Scala, D Whitmore
The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), is a relevant species in waste and pest management, but is also of forensic and medical importance. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation of the antennae of both sexes of H. illucens is presented here for the first time. The antenna is composed of three regions: the scape, the pedicel, and the flagellum. The first two regions are single segments, whereas the third region, the longest one, is composed of eight flagellomeres...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393888/molecular-basis-for-the-behavioral-effects-of-the-odorant-degrading-enzyme-esterase-6-in-drosophila
#17
Faisal Younus, Nicholas J Fraser, Chris W Coppin, Jian-Wei Liu, Galen J Correy, Thomas Chertemps, Gunjan Pandey, Martine Maïbèche, Colin J Jackson, John G Oakeshott
Previous electrophysiological and behavioural studies implicate esterase 6 in the processing of the pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate and various food odorants that affect aggregation and reproductive behaviours. Here we show esterase 6 has relatively high activity against many of the short-mid chain food esters, but negligible activity against cis-vaccenyl acetate. The crystal structure of esterase 6 confirms its substrate-binding site can accommodate many short-mid chain food esters but not cis-vaccenyl acetate...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390075/a-cytochrome-p450-gene-plays-a-role-in-the-recognition-of-sex-pheromones-in-the-tobacco-cutworm-spodoptera-litura
#18
B Feng, K Zheng, C Li, Q Guo, Y Du
Cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) genes are involved in fundamental physiological functions, and might be also associated with the olfactory recognition of sex pheromones in beetles and moths. A P450 gene, Spodoptera litura CYP4L4 (SlituCYP4L4), was cloned for the first time from the antennae of S. litura. SlituCYP4L4 was almost exclusively expressed in the adult stage and predominantly expressed in the adult antennae. In situ hybridization showed that SlituCYP4L4 localized mainly at the base of the long sensilla trichoidea, which responds to sex pheromone components...
April 8, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373032/comparative-morphology-of-the-prothoracic-leg-in-heliconian-butterflies-tracing-size-allometry-podite-fusions-and-losses-in-ontogeny-and-phylogeny
#19
Gilson R P Moreira, Denis S Silva, Gislene L Gonçalves
Prothoracic legs of heliconian butterflies (Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae, Heliconiini) are reduced in size compared to mesothoracic and metathoracic legs. They have no apparent function in males, but are used by females for drumming on host plants, a behavior related to oviposition site selection. Here, taking into account all recognized lineages of heliconian butterflies, we described their tarsi using optical and scanning electron microscopy and searched for podite fusions and losses, and analyzed allometry at the static, ontogenetic and phylogenetic levels...
April 20, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358865/ultrastructure-and-morphology-of-antennal-sensilla-of-the-adult-diving-beetle-cybister-japonicus-sharp
#20
Li-Mei Song, Xue-Min Wang, Jian-Ping Huang, Fang Zhu, Xiang Jiang, Shan-Gan Zhang, Li-Ping Ban
The morphology and distribution of the antennal sensilla of adult diving beetle Cybister japonicus Sharp (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera), have been examined. Five types of sensilla on the antennae were identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Sensilla placodea and elongated s. placodea are the most abundant types of sensilla, distributing only on the flagellum. Both these types of sensilla carry multiple pore systems with a typical function as chemoreceptors. Three types of s...
2017: PloS One
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