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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928673/revisiting-theories-of-humidity-transduction-a-focus-on-electrophysiological-data
#1
Harald Tichy, Maria Hellwig, Wolfgang Kallina
Understanding the mechanism of humidity transduction calls for experimental data and a theory to interpret the data and design new experiments. A comprehensive theory of humidity transduction must start with agreement on what humidity parameters are measured by hygroreceptors and processed by the brain. Hygroreceptors have been found in cuticular sensilla of a broad range of insect species. Their structural features are far from uniform. Nevertheless, these sensilla always contain an antagonistic pair of a moist cell and a dry cell combined with a thermoreceptive cold cell...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922627/distribution-patterns-and-morphology-of-sensilla-on-the-antennae-of-plutella-xylostella-l-a-scanning-and-transmission-electron-microscopic-study
#2
Xi-Zhong Yan, Cai-Ping Deng, Jiao-Xin Xie, Lan-Jun Wu, Xue-Jun Sun, Chi Hao
The antennal morphology, types of antennal sensilla, fine structures and distributions of the sensilla in Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) were studied by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. The antenna, scape, pedicel and flagellum were all longer in males than in females. A total of seventeen types of sensilla were identified on the antennae: trichodea (two subtypes), basiconica, coeloconica (three subtypes), Böhm's bristles (two subtypes), styloconica (two subtypes), squamiformia, auricillica, furcatea (three subtypes), cupuliform organs and terminal sensory pegs...
September 6, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904136/neural-evidence-supports-a-dual-sensory-motor-role-for-insect-wings
#3
Brandon Pratt, Tanvi Deora, Thomas Mohren, Thomas Daniel
Flying insects use feedback from various sensory modalities including vision and mechanosensation to navigate through their environment. The rapid speed of mechanosensory information acquisition and processing compensates for the slower processing times associated with vision, particularly under low light conditions. While halteres in dipteran species are well known to provide such information for flight control, less is understood about the mechanosensory roles of their evolutionary antecedent, wings. The features that wing mechanosensory neurons (campaniform sensilla) encode remains relatively unexplored...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889974/ionotropic-receptors-mediate-drosophila-oviposition-preference-through-sour-gustatory-receptor-neurons
#4
Yan Chen, Hubert Amrein
Carboxylic acids are present in many foods, being especially abundant in fruits. Yet, relatively little is known about how acids are detected by gustatory systems and whether they have a potential role in nutrition or provide other health benefits. Here we identify sour gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) in tarsal taste sensilla of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that most tarsal sensilla harbor a sour GRN that is specifically activated by carboxylic and mineral acids but does not respond to sweet- and bitter-tasting chemicals or salt...
August 31, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883684/morphological-study-of-the-antennal-sensilla-in-gerromorpha-insecta-hemiptera-heteroptera
#5
A Nowińska, J Brożek
The external morphology and distribution of the antennal sensilla of 21 species from five families of semiaquatic bugs (Gerromorpha) were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Nine main types were distinguished based on their morphological structure: sensilla trichoidea, sensilla chaetica, sensilla leaflike, sensilla campaniformia, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla ampullacea, sensilla basiconica, sensilla placoidea and sensilla bell-mouthed. The specific morphological structure of one type of sensilla (bell-mouthed sensilla) was observed only in Aquarius paludum...
2017: Zoomorphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875566/structure-and-development-of-the-subesophageal-zone-of-the-drosophila-brain-ii-sensory-compartments
#6
Sarah Kendroud, Ali Asgar Bohra, Philipp A Kuert, Bao Nguyen, Oriane Guillermin, Simon G Sprecher, Heinrich Reichert, Krishnaswamy VijayRaghavan, Volker Hartenstein
The subesophageal zone (SEZ) of the Drosophila brain processes mechanosensory and gustatory sensory input from sensilla located on the head, mouth cavity and trunk. Motor output from the SEZ directly controls the movements involved in feeding behavior. In an accompanying paper (Hartenstein et al., 2017) we analyzed the systems of fiber tracts and secondary lineages to establish reliable criteria for defining boundaries between the four neuromeres of the SEZ, as well as discrete longitudinal neuropil domains within each SEZ neuromere...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864301/the-scolopidial-accessory-organs-and-nebenorgans-in-orthopteroid-insects-comparative-neuroanatomy-mechanosensory-function-and-evolutionary-origin
#7
REVIEW
Johannes Strauß
Scolopidial sensilla in insects often form large sensory organs involved in proprioception or exteroception. Here the knowledge on Nebenorgans and accessory organs, two organs with scolopidial sensory cells, is summarised. These organs are present in some insects which are model organisms for the physiology of mechanosensory systems (cockroaches and tettigoniids). Recent comparative studies documented the accessory organ in several taxa of Orthoptera (bushcrickets, cave crickets, Jerusalem crickets) and the Nebenorgan in related insects (Mantophasmatodea)...
August 29, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842919/a-map-of-sensilla-and-neurons-in-the-taste-system-of-drosophila-larvae
#8
Anna Rist, Andreas S Thum
In Drosophila melanogaster larvae, the prime site of external taste reception is the terminal organ (TO). Though investigation on the TO's implications in taste perception has been expanding rapidly, the sensilla of the TO have been essentially unexplored. In this study, we performed a systematic anatomical and molecular analysis of the TO. We precisely define morphological types of TO sensilla taking advantage of volume electron microscopy and 3D image analysis. We corroborate the presence of five external types of sensilla: papilla, pit, spot, knob and modified papilla...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839208/sensory-mutations-in-drosophila-melanogaster-influence-associational-effects-between-resources-during-oviposition
#9
Thomas A Verschut, Mikael A Carlsson, Peter Anderson, Peter A Hambäck
Neighboring resources can affect insect oviposition behavior when the complexity of sensory information obscures information about host resource availability in heterogeneous resource patches. These effects are referred to as associational effects and are hypothesized to occur through constraints in the sensory processing of the insect during host search, resulting into suboptimal resource use. Because the possibilities to study these constraints on naturally occurring animals are limited, we instead used sensory mutants of Drosophila melanogaster to determine the importance of sensory information in the occurrence of associational effects...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836048/male-antenna-morphology-and-its-effect-on-scramble-competition-in-false-garden-mantids
#10
Anuradhi Jayaweera, Katherine L Barry
Well-developed antennae are crucial for many insects, but especially for scramble competitors, who race to find their mates using female sex cues. In these systems, the ability of males to locate females quickly is thought to be under strong selection. A rarely tested assumption is that males with more sensory structures are able to locate females faster. In the present study, we used the false garden mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata to investigate male antennal morphology and its effect on male efficiency in finding a mate...
August 23, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833941/ultrastructure-and-distribution-of-antennal-sensilla-of-the-chilli-thrips-scirtothrips-dorsalis-hood-thysanoptera-thripidae
#11
Wenjing Zhu, Shihao Zhou, Shijie Wang, Dongyin Han, Junyu Chen, Yueguan Fu
The chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, is a serious pest of numerous important vegetable and ornamental crops. Various signals, especially phytochemical cues, determine the behavior of the phytophagous thrips at host selection. The sensory abilities of S. dorsalis are poorly understood although the antennae of adult are known to possess important sensory structures in orther insects. In this study, the morphology, distribution, and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla of the S. dorsalis were examined by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy...
August 21, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817633/fat-storage-in-drosophila-suzukii-is-influenced-by-different-dietary-sugars-in-relation-to-their-palatability
#12
Maurizio Biolchini, Elisabetta Murru, Gianfranco Anfora, Francesco Loy, Sebastiano Banni, Roberto Crnjar, Giorgia Sollai
The peripheral sensitivity and palatability of different carbohydrates was evaluated and their nutritional value assessed in adult females of D. suzukii by means of an electrophysiological, behavioural and metabolic approach. The electrophysiological responses were recorded from the labellar "l" type sensilla stimulated with metabolizable mono- and disaccharides (glucose and maltose) and a non-metabolizable sugar (sucralose); the response rating and the palatability to the same sugars, evaluated by recording the proboscis extension reflex (PER), was maltose>glucose>sucralose...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808423/in-search-for-pheromone-receptors-certain-members-of-the-odorant-receptor-family-in-the-desert-locust-schistocerca-gregaria-orthoptera-acrididae-are-co-expressed-with-snmp1
#13
Pablo Pregitzer, Xingcong Jiang, Ewald Grosse-Wilde, Heinz Breer, Jürgen Krieger, Joerg Fleischer
Under given environmental conditions, the desert locust (Schistocera gregaria) forms destructive migratory swarms of billions of animals, leading to enormous crop losses in invaded regions. Swarm formation requires massive reproduction as well as aggregation of the animals. Pheromones that are detected via the olfactory system have been reported to control both reproductive and aggregation behavior. However, the molecular basis of pheromone detection in the antennae of Schistocerca gregaria is unknown. As an initial step to disclose pheromone receptors, we sequenced the antennal transcriptome of the desert locust...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797656/plant-associated-odor-perception-and-processing-in-two-parasitoid-species-with-different-degrees-of-host-specificity-implications-for-host-location-strategies
#14
Prithwiraj Das, Tolulope Morawo, Henry Fadamiro
Microplitis croceipes and Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are parasitoids of lepidopteran larvae with different degrees of host specificity. Both parasitoid species rely on host-related plant volatiles as odor cues to locate their herbivore hosts. To better understand mechanisms of odor processing in parasitoids, we tested responses of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the antennal sensilla placodea of female parasitoids to select plant volatiles and mixtures. The compounds tested include two green leaf volatiles (i...
August 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761778/association-between-host-species-choice-and-morphological-characters-of-main-sensory-structures-of-culicoides-in-the-palaeartic-region
#15
Denis Augot, Leila Hadj-Henni, Stavana E Strutz, Darine Slama, Christine Millot, Jérôme Depaquit, Jean-Marc Millot
Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) serve as vectors of several mammalian and avian diseases, including bluetongue, Schmallenberg, African horse sickness, avian malaria and Oropouche. Host preference investigations are necessary to assess the transmission routes of vector-borne diseases and to inform mitigation strategies. A recent study examining the main sensory structures (palps and antennae) of Culicoides species suggests that they be classified as ornithophilic or mammalophilic according to their feeding habits...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751111/gustatory-receptor-22e-is-essential-for-sensing-chloroquine-and-strychnine-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Seeta Poudel, Yunjung Kim, Jun-Seok Gwak, Sangyun Jeong, Youngseok Lee
Chloroquine, an amino quinolone derivative commonly used as an anti-malarial drug, is known to impart an unpleasant taste. Little research has been done to study chloroquine taste in insects, therefore, we examined both the deterrant properties and mechanisms underlying chloroquine perception in fruit flies. We identified the antifeedant effect of chloroquine by screening 21 gustatory receptor (Grs) mutants through behavioral feeding assays and electrophysiology experiments. We discovered that two molecular sensors, GR22e and GR33a, act as chloroquine receptors, and found that chloroquine-mediated activation of GRNs occurs through S-type sensilla...
July 24, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745638/localization-of-odorant-receptor-genes-in-locust-antennae-by-rna-in-situ-hybridization
#17
Xiao Xu, Yinwei You, Long Zhang
Insects have evolved sophisticated olfactory reception systems to sense exogenous chemical signals. These chemical signals are transduced by Olfactory Receptor Neurons (ORNs) housed in hair-like structures, called chemosensilla, of the antennae. On the ORNs' membranes, Odorant Receptors (ORs) are believed to be involved in odor coding. Thus, being able to identify genes localized to the ORNs is necessary to recognize OR genes, and provides a fundamental basis for further functional in situ studies. The RNA expression levels of specific ORs in insect antennae are very low, and preserving insect tissue for histology is challenging...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732030/identification-of-odorant-binding-proteins-and-chemosensory-proteins-in-microplitis-mediator-as-well-as-functional-characterization-of-chemosensory-protein-3
#18
Yong Peng, Shan-Ning Wang, Ke-Ming Li, Jing-Tao Liu, Yao Zheng, Shuang Shan, Ye-Qing Yang, Rui-Jun Li, Yong-Jun Zhang, Yu-Yuan Guo
Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) play important roles in transporting semiochemicals through the sensillar lymph to olfactory receptors in insect antennae. In the present study, twenty OBPs and three CSPs were identified from the antennal transcriptome of Microplitis mediator. Ten OBPs (MmedOBP11-20) and two CSPs (MmedCSP2-3) were newly identified. The expression patterns of these new genes in olfactory and non-olfactory tissues were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) measurement...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728012/ovipositor-setation-in-oldest-insects-insecta-archaeognatha-revealed-by-sem-and-he-ion-microscopy
#19
Nataliia A Matushkina
Archaeognatha represent the oldest living lineage of true insects (=Ectognatha), which are remarkable, among others, for plesiomorphic genital morphology and complicated mating behaviour. I used scanning electron microscopy and He-ion microscopy to examine the ovipositor morphology of seven species, in order to describe the cuticle microsculpture. The species studied are characterised by different types of the ovipositor setation pattern, which are considered an important taxonomic feature for Archaeognatha...
July 8, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676765/molecular-basis-of-n-n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide-deet-in-repelling-the-common-bed-bug-cimex-lectularius
#20
Feng Liu, Xiaoming Xia, Nannan Liu
As the most extensively used chemical repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) displayed repellency to a wide range of insects, including the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius. While the neuronal or molecular basis involved in DEET's repellency have been majorly focused on mosquitos and fruit flies, DEET's repellency to the common bed bug is largely unreached. To gain new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms in DEET's repellency to the common bed bug, we characterized the neuronal response of bed bugs to DEET, identified the olfactory receptors targeted by DEET and demonstrated the interfering effect of DEET on bed bug's responses to human odorants...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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