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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094781/ultrastructure-of-sensilla-of-antennae-and-ovipositor-of-sitotroga-cerealella-lepidoptera-gelechiidae-and-location-of-female-sex-pheromone-gland
#1
Min Ma, Meng-Meng Chang, Yan Lu, Chao-Liang Lei, Feng-Lian Yang
The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella, is a serious pest of stored grains worldwide. Presently, the best effective control against the moth is to disrupt the sexual communication between sexes. Sexual communication in moths includes two processes in which females produce and release pheromones from the sex pheromone gland and males detect and respond to them with a relatively sophisticated olfactory system in their antennae. To better understand these processes, we studied the ultrastructure of antennal and ovipositor sensilla of S...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081263/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-three-odorant-binding-protein-from-periplaneta-americana
#2
Zhao-Qun Li, Peng He, Ya-Nan Zhang, Shuang-Lin Dong
The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, is a vector of many pathogenic organisms associated with human diseases. Olfaction plays a crucial role in guiding cockroach behaviors and contributes to their ability to transmit pathogens. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs), abundant in the insect olfactory sensilla, are important for insect olfaction. In this study, three OBP genes, PameOBP1, 2 and 3, were cloned from P. americana. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that PameOBP1, 2 and 3 belong to the Minus-C OBP, Classic OBP, and Plus-C OBP subfamilies, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032186/encoding-noxious-heat-by-spike-bursts-of-antennal-bimodal-hygroreceptor-dry-neurons-in-the-carabid-pterostichus-oblongopunctatus
#3
Anne Must, Enno Merivee, Karin Nurme, Ivar Sibul, Maurizio Muzzi, Andrea Di Giulio, Ingrid Williams, Ene Tooming
Despite thermosensation being crucial in effective thermoregulation behaviour, it is poorly studied in insects. Very little is known about encoding of noxious high temperatures by peripheral thermoreceptor neurons. In carabids, thermo- and hygrosensitive neurons innervate antennal dome-shaped sensilla (DSS). In this study, we demonstrate that several essential fine structural features of dendritic outer segments of the sensory neurons in the DSS and the classical model of insect thermo- and hygrosensitive sensilla differ fundamentally...
December 28, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026117/molecular-elements-of-pheromone-detection-in-the-female-moth-heliothis-virescens
#4
Monika Zielonka, Heinz Breer, Jürgen Krieger
Pheromones play pivotal roles in the reproductive behavior of moths, most prominently for the mate finding of male moths. Accordingly, the molecular basis for the detection of female-released pheromones by male moths has been studied in great detail. In contrast, little is known about how females can detect pheromone components released by themself or by conspecifics. In this study we assessed the antenna of female Heliothis virescens for elements of pheromone detection. In accordance with previous findings that female antennae respond to the sex pheromone component (Z)-9-tetradecenal, we identified olfactory sensory neurons that express its cognate receptor, the receptor type HR6...
December 27, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017815/ultrastructure-of-chemoreceptive-tarsal-sensilla-in-an-armored-harvestman-and-evidence-of-olfaction-across-laniatores-arachnida-opiliones
#5
Guilherme Gainett, Peter Michalik, Carsten H G Müller, Gonzalo Giribet, Giovanni Talarico, Rodrigo H Willemart
Harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) are especially dependent on chemical cues and are often regarded as animals that rely mainly on contact chemoreception. Information on harvestman sensilla is scarce when compared to other arachnid orders, especially concerning internal morphology. Using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy, we investigated tarsal sensilla on the distal tarsomeres (DT) of all leg pairs in Heteromitobates discolor (Laniatores, Gonyleptidae). Furthermore, we explored the typological diversity of sensilla present on the DT I and II in members of the suborder Laniatores, which include two thirds of the formally described opilionid fauna, using species from 17 families representing all main laniatorian lineages...
December 22, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001299/organization-of-the-antennal-lobes-in-the-praying-mantis-tenodera-aridifolia
#6
Thomas Carle, Hidehiro Watanabe, Yoshifumi Yamawaki, Fumio Yokohari
Olfaction in insects plays pivotal roles in searching for food and/or for sexual partners. Although many studies have focused on the olfactory processes of non-predatory insect species, little is known about those in predatory insects. Here, we investigated the anatomical features of the primary olfactory center (antennal lobes) in an insect predator whose visual system is well developed, the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia. Both sexes of T. aridifolia were found to possess 54 glomeruli, and each glomerulus was identified based on its location and size...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998741/the-scolopidial-accessory-organ-in-the-jerusalem-cricket-orthoptera-stenopelmatidae
#7
Johannes Strauß
Multiple mechanosensory organs form the subgenual organ complex in orthopteroid insects, located in the proximal tibia. In several Ensifera (Orthoptera), a small chordotonal organ, the so-called accessory organ, is the most posterior part of this sensory complex. In order to document the presence of this accessory organ among the Ensifera, the chordotonal sensilla and their innervation in the posterior tibia of two species of Jerusalem crickets (Stenopelmatidae: Stenopelmatus) is described. The sensory structures were stained by axonal tracing...
January 4, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989835/a-broadly-tuned-odorant-receptor-in-neurons-of-trichoid-sensilla-in-locust-locusta-migratoria
#8
Yinwei You, Dean P Smith, Mingyue Lv, Long Zhang
Insects have evolved sophisticated olfactory reception systems to sense exogenous chemical signals. Odorant receptors (ORs) on the membrane of chemosensory neurons are believed to be key molecules in sensing exogenous chemical cues. ORs in different species of insects are diverse and should tune a species to its own specific semiochemicals relevant to their survival. The orthopteran insect, locust (Locusta migratoria), is a model hemimetabolous insect. There is very limited knowledge on the functions of locust ORs although many locust OR genes have been identified in genomic sequencing experiments...
October 27, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988783/cave-species-of-the-genus-i-anurida-i-collembola-neanuridae-from-korea-%C3%A2-with-the-description-of-new-species
#9
Inae Lee, Kyung-Hwa Park
Three troglobiontic species of Anurida Laboulbène, i.e. A. troglodyta sp. nov., A. decipiens Yosii, 1966, and A. plurichaetotica Yosii, 1966, were found in limestone caves of Korea during recent investigation. The new species, A. troglodyta sp. nov., is characterized by morel-like PAO having more than 100 vesicles and by having 16-17 sensilla on antennal segment IV. It is most similar to A. plurichaetotica, A. okamotoi Yosii, 1970, and A. irieti Yosii, 1970 also possessing several macrochaetae on dorsal side of a head, but can easily be distinguished by characteristic PAO and the absence of macrochaetae in p1-position on abdominal tergum V...
November 7, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973569/variations-on-a-theme-antennal-lobe-architecture-across-coleoptera
#10
Martin Kollmann, Rovenna Schmidt, Carsten M Heuer, Joachim Schachtner
Beetles comprise about 400,000 described species, nearly one third of all known animal species. The enormous success of the order Coleoptera is reflected by a rich diversity of lifestyles, behaviors, morphological, and physiological adaptions. All these evolutionary adaptions that have been driven by a variety of parameters over the last about 300 million years, make the Coleoptera an ideal field to study the evolution of the brain on the interface between the basic bauplan of the insect brain and the adaptions that occurred...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966640/trans-generational-desensitization-and-within-generational-resensitization-of-a-sucrose-best-neuron-in-the-polyphagous-herbivore-helicoverpa-armigera-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#11
Ying Ma, Jingjing Li, Qingbo Tang, Xuening Zhang, Xincheng Zhao, Fengming Yan, Joop J A van Loon
Dietary exposure of insects to a feeding deterrent substance for hours to days can induce habituation and concomitant desensitization of the response of peripheral gustatory neurons to such a substance. In the present study, larvae of the herbivore Helicoverpa armigera were fed on diets containing either a high, medium or low concentration of sucrose, a major feeding stimulant. The responsiveness of the sucrose-best neuron in the lateral sensilla styloconica on the galea was quantified. Results showed the response of the sucrose-best neuron exposed to high-sucrose diets decreased gradually over successive generations, resulting in complete desensitization in the 5(th) and subsequent generations...
December 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911792/transcriptomics-and-neuroanatomy-of-the-clonal-raider-ant-implicate-an-expanded-clade-of-odorant-receptors-in-chemical-communication
#12
Sean K McKenzie, Ingrid Fetter-Pruneda, Vanessa Ruta, Daniel J C Kronauer
A major aim of sociogenomic research is to uncover common principles in the molecular evolution of sociality. This endeavor has been hampered by the small number of specific genes currently known to function in social behavior. Here we provide several lines of evidence suggesting that ants have evolved a large and novel clade of odorant receptor (OR) genes to perceive hydrocarbon-based pheromones, arguably the most important signals in ant communication. This genomic expansion is also mirrored in the ant brain via a corresponding expansion of a specific cluster of glomeruli in the antennal lobe...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901084/development-of-mouthparts-in-the-cicada-meimuna-mongolica-distant-successive-morphological-patterning-and-sensilla-differentiation-from-nymph-to-adult
#13
Yanan Hao, Christopher H Dietrich, Wu Dai
Development of the mouthparts in the cicada Meimuna mongolica (Distant) is investigated here for the first time using scanning electron microscopy in order to document changes occurring in different nymphal instars and from nymph to adult, during which a shift from subterranean root-feeding to feeding on aboveground parts of the host plant occurs. The structure and component of mouthparts is similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. Fourteen types of sensilla and five types of cuticular processes were found on the mouthparts of nymphs and adults...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845621/organization-and-function-of-drosophila-odorant-binding-proteins
#14
Nikki K Larter, Jennifer S Sun, John R Carlson
Odorant binding proteins (Obps) are remarkable in their number, diversity, and abundance, yet their role in olfactory coding remains unclear. They are widely believed to be required for transporting hydrophobic odorants through an aqueous lymph to odorant receptors. We construct a map of the Drosophila antenna, in which the abundant Obps are mapped to olfactory sensilla with defined functions. The results lay a foundation for an incisive analysis of Obp function. The map identifies a sensillum type that contains a single abundant Obp, Obp28a...
November 15, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815144/a-broadly-tuned-odorant-receptor-in-neurons-of-trichoid-sensilla-in-locust-locusta-migratoria
#15
Yinwei You, Dean P Smith, Mingyue Lv, Long Zhang
Insects have evolved sophisticated olfactory reception systems to sense exogenous chemical signals. Odorant receptors (ORs) on the membrane of chemosensory neurons are believed to be key molecules in sensing exogenous chemical cues. ORs in different species of insects are diverse and should tune a species to its own specific semiochemicals relevant to their survival. The orthopteran insect, locust (Locusta migratoria), is a model hemimetabolous insect. There is very limited knowledge on the functions of locust ORs although many locust OR genes have been identified in genomic sequencing experiments...
December 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783364/scanning-electron-microscopy-study-of-the-antennal-sensilla-of-monema-flavescens-walker-lepidoptera-limacodidae
#16
S Yang, H Liu, J T Zhang, J Liu, H Zheng, Y Ren
Monema flavescens Walker (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) is a serious polyphagous defoliator. Using scanning electron microscopy, the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of this pest was examined for a better understanding of the mechanisms of insect-insect and insect-plant chemical communications. The antennae of M. flavescens were filiform in shape, and 11 morphological types of sensilla were found in both sexes. Six types of likely chemosensory sensilla were identified: uniporous sensilla chaetica, multiporous sensilla trichodea, and four types of multiporous sensilla basiconica...
October 25, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752768/scanning-electron-microscopy-of-antennal-sensilla-of-the-eight-anopheles-species-of-the-hyrcanus-group-diptera-culicidae-in-thailand
#17
Chayanit Hempolchom, Thippawan Yasanga, Adulsak Wijit, Kritsana Taai, Watcharatip Dedkhad, Wichai Srisuka, Sorawat Thongsahuan, Yasushi Otsuka, Hiroyuki Takaoka, Atiporn Saeung
Antennal sensilla were first investigated in the eight medically and veterinary important Anopheles mosquito species (Anopheles argyropus, Anopheles crawfordi, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles nitidus, Anopheles paraliae (= Anopheles lesteri), Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles pursati, and Anopheles sinensis) of the Hyrcanus Group in Thailand, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Four types of sensilla, including sensilla chaetica (large and small), sensilla trichodea (sharp- and blunt-tipped), sensilla basiconica or grooved pegs (types I, II, and III), and sensilla coeloconica (large and small), were observed on the female antennae of the eight species...
January 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742465/antennal-sensilla-of-the-stonefly-dinocras-cephalotes-plecoptera-perlidae
#18
Manuela Rebora, José Manuel Tierno de Figueroa, Silvana Piersanti
Plecoptera, one of the most primitive groups of Neoptera, are important aquatic insects usually employed as bioindicators of high water quality. Notwithstanding the well-developed antennae of the adult, its sensory abilities are so far not well known. The present paper describes at ultrastructural level under scanning and transmission electron microscopy the antennal sensilla of the adult stonefly Dinocras cephalotes (Plecoptera, Perlidae). Adult males and females show a filiform antenna constituted of a scape, a pedicel and a flagellum composed of very numerous segments with no clear sexual dimorphism in the number and distribution of the antennal sensilla...
November 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719684/morphological-and-molecular-identification-of-cryptic-species-in-the-sergentomyia-bailyi-sinton-1931-complex-in-sri-lanka
#19
T Tharmatha, K Gajapathy, R Ramasamy, S N Surendran
The correct identification of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis is important for controlling the disease. Genetic, particularly DNA sequence data, has lately become an important adjunct to the use of morphological criteria for this purpose. A recent DNA sequencing study revealed the presence of two cryptic species in the Sergentomyia bailyi species complex in India. The present study was undertaken to ascertain the presence of cryptic species in the Se. bailyi complex in Sri Lanka using morphological characteristics and DNA sequences from cytochrome c oxidase subunits...
October 10, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707986/putative-sensory-structures-associated-with-the-food-canal-of-tabanus-atratus-diptera-tabanidae
#20
James E Joy
Putative sensory structures in the food canal, and distal vestibule region entering the canal of Tabanus atratus F., are described. Two pairs of sensilla were observed in the walls of the vestibule-a distal pair of the basiconic type, and a pair of setifiorm sensilla at the base of the vestibule. Vestibular sensilla were constant in type, number, and position. Conversely, setiform sensilla in right and left walls of the food canal varied in number from one fly specimen to another, and lacked evidence of pairing (i...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
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