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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911792/transcriptomics-and-neuroanatomy-of-the-clonal-raider-ant-implicate-an-expanded-clade-of-odorant-receptors-in-chemical-communication
#1
Sean K McKenzie, Ingrid Fetter-Pruneda, Vanessa Ruta, Daniel J C Kronauer
A major aim of sociogenomic research is to uncover common principles in the molecular evolution of sociality. This endeavor has been hampered by the small number of specific genes currently known to function in social behavior. Here we provide several lines of evidence suggesting that ants have evolved a large and novel clade of odorant receptor (OR) genes to perceive hydrocarbon-based pheromones, arguably the most important signals in ant communication. This genomic expansion is also mirrored in the ant brain via a corresponding expansion of a specific cluster of glomeruli in the antennal lobe...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901084/development-of-mouthparts-in-the-cicada-meimuna-mongolica-distant-successive-morphological-patterning-and-sensilla-differentiation-from-nymph-to-adult
#2
Yanan Hao, Christopher H Dietrich, Wu Dai
Development of the mouthparts in the cicada Meimuna mongolica (Distant) is investigated here for the first time using scanning electron microscopy in order to document changes occurring in different nymphal instars and from nymph to adult, during which a shift from subterranean root-feeding to feeding on aboveground parts of the host plant occurs. The structure and component of mouthparts is similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. Fourteen types of sensilla and five types of cuticular processes were found on the mouthparts of nymphs and adults...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845621/organization-and-function-of-drosophila-odorant-binding-proteins
#3
Nikki K Larter, Jennifer S Sun, John R Carlson
Odorant binding proteins (Obps) are remarkable in their number, diversity, and abundance, yet their role in olfactory coding remains unclear. They are widely believed to be required for transporting hydrophobic odorants through an aqueous lymph to odorant receptors. We construct a map of the Drosophila antenna, in which the abundant Obps are mapped to olfactory sensilla with defined functions. The results lay a foundation for an incisive analysis of Obp function. The map identifies a sensillum type that contains a single abundant Obp, Obp28a...
November 15, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815144/a-broadly-tuned-odorant-receptor-in-neurons-of-trichoid-sensilla-in-locust-locusta-migratoria
#4
Yinwei You, Dean P Smith, Mingyue Lv, Long Zhang
Insects have evolved sophisticated olfactory reception systems to sense exogenous chemical signals. Odorant receptors (ORs) on the membrane of chemosensory neurons are believed to be key molecules in sensing exogenous chemical cues. ORs in different species of insects are diverse and should tune a species to its own specific semiochemicals relevant to their survival. The orthopteran insect, locust (Locusta migratoria), is a model hemimetabolous insect. There is very limited knowledge on the functions of locust ORs although many locust OR genes have been identified in genomic sequencing experiments...
October 27, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783364/scanning-electron-microscopy-study-of-the-antennal-sensilla-of-monema-flavescens-walker-lepidoptera-limacodidae
#5
S Yang, H Liu, J T Zhang, J Liu, H Zheng, Y Ren
Monema flavescens Walker (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) is a serious polyphagous defoliator. Using scanning electron microscopy, the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of this pest was examined for a better understanding of the mechanisms of insect-insect and insect-plant chemical communications. The antennae of M. flavescens were filiform in shape, and 11 morphological types of sensilla were found in both sexes. Six types of likely chemosensory sensilla were identified: uniporous sensilla chaetica, multiporous sensilla trichodea, and four types of multiporous sensilla basiconica...
October 25, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752768/scanning-electron-microscopy-of-antennal-sensilla-of-the-eight-anopheles-species-of-the-hyrcanus-group-diptera-culicidae-in-thailand
#6
Chayanit Hempolchom, Thippawan Yasanga, Adulsak Wijit, Kritsana Taai, Watcharatip Dedkhad, Wichai Srisuka, Sorawat Thongsahuan, Yasushi Otsuka, Hiroyuki Takaoka, Atiporn Saeung
Antennal sensilla were first investigated in the eight medically and veterinary important Anopheles mosquito species (Anopheles argyropus, Anopheles crawfordi, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles nitidus, Anopheles paraliae (= Anopheles lesteri), Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles pursati, and Anopheles sinensis) of the Hyrcanus Group in Thailand, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Four types of sensilla, including sensilla chaetica (large and small), sensilla trichodea (sharp- and blunt-tipped), sensilla basiconica or grooved pegs (types I, II, and III), and sensilla coeloconica (large and small), were observed on the female antennae of the eight species...
October 18, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742465/antennal-sensilla-of-the-stonefly-dinocras-cephalotes-plecoptera-perlidae
#7
Manuela Rebora, José Manuel Tierno de Figueroa, Silvana Piersanti
Plecoptera, one of the most primitive groups of Neoptera, are important aquatic insects usually employed as bioindicators of high water quality. Notwithstanding the well-developed antennae of the adult, its sensory abilities are so far not well known. The present paper describes at ultrastructural level under scanning and transmission electron microscopy the antennal sensilla of the adult stonefly Dinocras cephalotes (Plecoptera, Perlidae). Adult males and females show a filiform antenna constituted of a scape, a pedicel and a flagellum composed of very numerous segments with no clear sexual dimorphism in the number and distribution of the antennal sensilla...
November 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719684/morphological-and-molecular-identification-of-cryptic-species-in-the-sergentomyia-bailyi-sinton-1931-complex-in-sri-lanka
#8
T Tharmatha, K Gajapathy, R Ramasamy, S N Surendran
The correct identification of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis is important for controlling the disease. Genetic, particularly DNA sequence data, has lately become an important adjunct to the use of morphological criteria for this purpose. A recent DNA sequencing study revealed the presence of two cryptic species in the Sergentomyia bailyi species complex in India. The present study was undertaken to ascertain the presence of cryptic species in the Se. bailyi complex in Sri Lanka using morphological characteristics and DNA sequences from cytochrome c oxidase subunits...
October 10, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707986/putative-sensory-structures-associated-with-the-food-canal-of-tabanus-atratus-diptera-tabanidae
#9
James E Joy
Putative sensory structures in the food canal, and distal vestibule region entering the canal of Tabanus atratus F., are described. Two pairs of sensilla were observed in the walls of the vestibule-a distal pair of the basiconic type, and a pair of setifiorm sensilla at the base of the vestibule. Vestibular sensilla were constant in type, number, and position. Conversely, setiform sensilla in right and left walls of the food canal varied in number from one fly specimen to another, and lacked evidence of pairing (i...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703229/the-antenna-of-horse-stomach-bot-flies-morphology-and-phylogenetic-implications-oestridae-gasterophilinae-gasterophilus-leach
#10
Dong Zhang, Xinyu Li, Xianhui Liu, Qike Wang, Thomas Pape
Antennae are among the most elaborate sensory organs in adult flies, and they provide rich information for phylogenic studies. The antennae of five out of eight species of Gasterophilus Leach (G. haemorrhoidalis (Linnaeus), G. intestinalis (De Geer), G. nasalis (Linnaeus), G. nigricornis (Loew) and G. pecorum (Fabricius)), were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The general morphology, including distribution, type, size, and ultrastructure of antennal sensilla were presented, and the definition of auriculate sensilla and sensory pits were updated and clarified...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696563/antennal-and-mouthpart-sensilla-of-acanthoscelides-obtectus-say-coleoptera-bruchidae
#11
Aleksandra Urbanek, Dorota Łuszczek, Małgorzata Kapusta
Acanthoscelides obtectus, a serious pest with a worldwide distribution, damages stored seeds of Phaseolus sp. To acquire a better understanding of the sensory orientation of bean weevils, their antennal and palpal sensilla were investigated. The antennae and palps possess several types of sensory hairs: blunt-tipped sensilla chaetica and trichoidea and also sharp-tipped sensilla trichoidea, these last being the most numerous. Sensilla basiconica are present only on the flagellomeres, but Böhm bristles occur on the basal sclerite and scape of the antennae...
December 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693516/proteomic-analysis-of-castor-bean-tick-ixodes-ricinus-a-focus-on-chemosensory-organs
#12
Immacolata Iovinella, Liping Ban, Limei Song, Paolo Pelosi, Francesca Romana Dani
In arthropods, the large majority of studies on olfaction have been focused on insects, where most of the proteins involved have been identified. In particular, chemosensing in insects relies on two families of membrane receptors, olfactory/gustatory receptors (ORs/GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), and two classes of soluble proteins, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs). In other arthropods, such as ticks and mites, only IRs have been identified, while genes encoding for OBPs and CSPs are absent...
September 29, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683369/convergent-evolution-of-ramified-antennae-in-insect-lineages-from-the-early-cretaceous-of-northeastern-china
#13
Taiping Gao, Chungkun Shih, Conrad C Labandeira, Jorge A Santiago-Blay, Yunzhi Yao, Dong Ren
Antennae are important, insect sensory organs that are used principally for communication with other insects and the detection of environmental cues. Some insects independently evolved ramified (branched) antennae, which house several types of sensilla for motion detection, sensing olfactory and chemical cues, and determining humidity and temperature levels. Though ramified antennae are common in living insects, occasionally they are present in the Mesozoic fossil record. Here, we present the first caddisflies with ramified antennae, the earliest known fossil sawfly, and a scorpionfly also with ramified antennae from the mid-Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Northeastern China, dated at 125 million years ago (Ma)...
September 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677659/-the-effect-of-glial-cells-in-the-function-and-development-of-the-nervous-system-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
Yulan Xu, Yadan Xue, Lijun Kang
There are three types of glial cells in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans for short): sheath glia, socket glia and glutamate receptor glia. They are mainly located in four sensory organs including the amphid, the cephalic organ, the outer labial sensilla and the inner labial sensilla. C. elegans glial cells play key roles in dendrite extension, neurite guidance and extension, and are essential for synaptogenesis and maintain the normal morphology and the function of sensory nerve endings as well. A recent study shown that some nematode neurons are derived from the glial cells...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664780/fine-structure-of-antennal-sensilla-of-the-spittlebug-philaenus-spumarius-l-insecta-hemiptera-aphrophoridae-i-chemoreceptors-and-thermo-hygroreceptors
#15
Emanuele Ranieri, Sara Ruschioni, Paola Riolo, Nunzio Isidoro, Roberto Romani
The meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cercopoidea: Aphrophoridae), is a polyphagous species that transmits Xylella fastidiosa, a bacterium associated with "Olive Quick Decline Syndrome" in Southern Italy. In this study, the morphology and the ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla of P. spumarius were investigated. The antennae consist of three segments: a basal scape, a pedicel and a flagellum composed of a basal enlargement (ampulla) and a long segment (filament). The pedicel bears a single campaniform sensillum while the ampulla houses twelve coeloconic sensilla and three large basiconic sensilla...
October 3, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651199/-the-effect-of-glial-cells-in-the-function-and-development-of-the-nervous-system-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
X U Yulan, Xue Yadan, Kang Lijun
There are three types of glial cells in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans for short): sheath glia, socket glia and glutamate receptor glia. They are mainly located in four sensory organs including the amphid, the cephalic organ, the outer labial sensilla and the inner labial sensilla. C. elegans glial cells play key roles in dendrite extension, neurite guidance and extension, and are essential for synaptogenesis and maintain the normal morphology and the function of sensory nerve endings as well. A recent study shown that some nematode neurons are derived from the glial cells...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648340/drosophila-mutant-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-revealed-an-unexpected-olfactory-performance-morphofunctional-evidences
#17
Francescaelena De Rose, Valentina Corda, Paolo Solari, Patrizia Sacchetti, Antonio Belcari, Simone Poddighe, Sanjay Kasture, Paolo Solla, Francesco Marrosu, Anna Liscia
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the clinical triad: tremor, akinesia, and rigidity. Several studies have suggested that PD patients show disturbances in olfaction as one of the earliest, nonspecific nonmotor symptoms of disease onset. We sought to use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism to explore olfactory function in LRRK loss-of-function mutants, which was previously demonstrated to be a useful model for PD. Surprisingly, our results showed that the LRRK mutant, compared to the wild flies, presents a dramatic increase in the amplitude of the electroantennogram responses and this is coupled with a higher number of olfactory sensilla...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645294/antennal-sensilla-and-their-nerve-innervation-in-first-instar-nymphs-of-porphyrophora-sophorae-arch-hemiptera-coccomorpha-margarodidae
#18
Xu Wang, Yingping Xie, Yanfeng Zhang, Weimin Liu
Porphyrophora (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Margarodidae) is a genus of soil-inhabiting scale insects. The antennal sensilla and their innervation in the first-instar nymphs of Porphyrophora sophorae were studied using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy to understand the function of these sensilla and determine the sensillar innervation feature on these small antennae. The results show that the six-segmented antennae of these nymphs have 20-23 sensilla which can be morphologically classified into seven types, for example, one Böhm's bristle (Bb), one campaniform sensillum (Ca), one Johnston's organ (Jo), 13-16 aporous sensilla trichodea (St), two coeloconic sensilla (Co), one straight multiporous peg (Mp1), and one curvy multiporous peg (Mp2)...
December 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629391/a-sem-study-of-the-antenna-and-mouthparts-of-omosita-colon-linnaeus-coleoptera-nitidulidae
#19
Yan-Kun Cao, Min Huang
There are direct relationships between the behavioral mechanisms and sensilla. To obtain a better understanding of the behavioral mechanisms in Omosita colon (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), we investigated the types, quantities, and distribution of sensilla on the antenna and mouthparts of O. colon by scanning electron microscopy. The clavate antenna comprised the scape, pedicel, and nine segment flagellomeres and had six types of sensilla, including two subtypes of sensilla chaetica (SC), three subtypes of sensilla basiconica (SB) and sensilla trichodea (ST), and one type of sensilla cavity, sensilla styloconica, and Böhm bristles (BB)...
December 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623751/morphology-ultrastructure-and-possible-functions-of-antennal-sensilla-of-sitodiplosis-mosellana-g%C3%A3-hin-diptera-cecidomyiidae
#20
Yue Wang, Dan Li, Yang Liu, Xue-Jiao Li, Wei-Ning Cheng, Keyan Zhu-Salzman
To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
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