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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040725/protein-s-nitrosylation-regulates-xylem-vessel-cell-differentiation-in-arabidopsis
#1
Harunori Kawabe, Misato Ohtani, Tetsuya Kurata, Tomoaki Sakamoto, Taku Demura
Post-translational modifications of proteins have important roles in the regulation of protein activity. One such modification, S-nitrosylation, involves the covalent binding of nitric oxide (NO)-related species to a cysteine residue. Recent work showed that protein S-nitrosylation has crucial functions in plant development and environmental responses. In the present study, we investigated the importance of protein S-nitrosylation for xylem vessel cell differentiation using a forward-genetics approach. We performed ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis of a transgenic Arabidopsis 35S::VND7-VP16-GR line in which the activity of VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN7 (VND7), a key transcription factor involved in xylem vessel cell differentiation, can be induced posttranslationally by glucocorticoid treatment, with the goal of obtaining suppressor mutants that failed to differentiate ectopic xylem vessel cells; we named these mutants suppressor of ectopic vessel cell differentiation induced by VND7 (seiv) mutants...
October 13, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036617/arrayed-mutant-haploid-embryonic-stem-cell-libraries-facilitate-phenotype-driven-genetic-screens
#2
Guang Liu, Xue Wang, Yufang Liu, Meili Zhang, Tao Cai, Zhirong Shen, Yuyan Jia, Yue Huang
Forward genetic screens using mammalian embryonic stem (ES) cells have identified genes required for numerous cellular processes. However, loss-of-function screens are more difficult to conduct in diploid cells because, in most cases, both alleles of a gene must be mutated to exhibit a phenotype. Recently, mammalian haploid ES cell lines were successfully established and applied to several recessive genetic screens. However, all these screens were performed in mixed pools of mutant cells and were mainly based on positive selection...
September 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034541/characteristic-components-profiling-and-identification-of-different-uncaria-species-based-on-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-photodiode-array-detector-tandem-ion-trap-and-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometer-coupled-with-rdna-its-sequence
#3
Bingqiang Zhao, Yanjun Huang, Qiulan Chen, Qizhao Chen, Hui Miao, Shuang Zhu, Changqing Zeng
The Uncaria is a multi-source herb and its species identification has become a bottleneck in quality control. To study the identification method of different Uncaria species herbs through HPLC-MS coupled with rDNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (rDNA ITS) sequence, both plant morphological traits and molecular identification were used to determine the species of every collected Uncaria herbs. The genetic analysis of different Uncaria species was performed by using their rDNA ITS sequence as a molecular marker...
October 16, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033128/the-dna-inflammasome-in-human-myeloid-cells-is-initiated-by-a-sting-cell-death-program-upstream-of-nlrp3
#4
Moritz M Gaidt, Thomas S Ebert, Dhruv Chauhan, Katharina Ramshorn, Francesca Pinci, Sarah Zuber, Fionan O'Duill, Jonathan L Schmid-Burgk, Florian Hoss, Raymund Buhmann, Georg Wittmann, Eicke Latz, Marion Subklewe, Veit Hornung
Detection of cytosolic DNA constitutes a central event in the context of numerous infectious and sterile inflammatory conditions. Recent studies have uncovered a bipartite mode of cytosolic DNA recognition, in which the cGAS-STING axis triggers antiviral immunity, whereas AIM2 triggers inflammasome activation. Here, we show that AIM2 is dispensable for DNA-mediated inflammasome activation in human myeloid cells. Instead, detection of cytosolic DNA by the cGAS-STING axis induces a cell death program initiating potassium efflux upstream of NLRP3...
October 7, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030267/effects-of-pex1-disruption-on-wood-lignin-biodegradation-fruiting-development-and-the-utilization-of-carbon-sources-in-the-white-rot-agaricomycete-pleurotus-ostreatus-and-non-wood-decaying-coprinopsis-cinerea
#5
Takehito Nakazawa, Ayako Izuno, Masato Horii, Rina Kodera, Hiroshi Nishimura, Yuichiro Hirayama, Yuta Tsunematsu, Yasumasa Miyazaki, Tatsuya Awano, Hajime Muraguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Masahiro Sakamoto, Keiji Takabe, Takashi Watanabe, Yuji Isagi, Yoichi Honda
Peroxisomes are well-known organelles that are present in most eukaryotic organisms. Mutant phenotypes caused by the malfunction of peroxisomes have been shown in many fungi. However, these have never been investigated in Agaricomycetes, which include white-rot fungi that degrade wood lignin in nature almost exclusively and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Based on the results of a forward genetics study to identify mutations causing defects in the ligninolytic activity of the white-rot Agaricomycete Pleurotus ostreatus, we report phenotypes of pex1 disruptants in P...
October 10, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029723/the-expanding-field-of-mammalian-astroviruses-opportunities-and-challenges-in-clinical-virology
#6
Céline L Boujon, Michel C Koch, Torsten Seuberlich
Astroviruses are best known as being one of the leading causes of diarrhea in infants and were first described in this context in 1975. In its first years, astrovirus research was mainly restricted to electron microscopy and serology studies. The ability to culture some of these viruses in vitro allowed a first consequent step forward, especially at the molecular level. Since the emergence of more powerful genetic methods, though, the face of this research field has dramatically changed and evolved. From the exponential number of discoveries of new astrovirus strains in the most varied of animal species to their association with atypical diseases, these viruses revealed a lot of surprises, and many more are probably still waiting to be uncovered...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029264/a-general-model-for-estimating-macroevolutionary-landscapes
#7
Florian C Boucher, Vincent Démery, Elena Conti, Luke J Harmon, Josef Uyeda
The evolution of quantitative characters over long timescales is often studied using stochastic diffusion models. The current toolbox available to students of macroevolution is however limited to two main models: Brownian motion and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, plus some of their extensions. Here we present a very general model for inferring the dynamics of quantitative characters evolving under both random diffusion and deterministic forces of any possible shape and strength, which can accommodate interesting evolutionary scenarios like directional trends, disruptive selection, or macroevolutionary landscapes with multiple peaks...
September 22, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026697/effect-of-fluoride-concentration-in-drinking-water-on-intelligence-quotient-of-12-14-year-old-children-in-mathura-district-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Priyanka Razdan, Basavaraj Patthi, Jishnu Krishna Kumar, Nikhil Agnihotri, Prajakta Chaudhari, Monika Prasad
AIMS: The aim was to assess and correlate the influence of the concentration of fluoride in ingested water on the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 12-14-year-old youngsters in Mathura district. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 219 children were selected, 75 from low F area, 75 medium F area, and 69 from high F area. The concentration of fluoride in the routinely ingested water was estimated using "Ion Selective Electrode method"; then, Raven's Test was utilized to estimate the IQ of the study participants...
September 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024116/different-mutational-function-of-low-and-high-linear-energy-transfer-heavy-ion-irradiation-demonstrated-by-whole-genome-re-sequencing-of-arabidopsis-mutants
#9
Yusuke Kazama, Kotaro Ishii, Tomonari Hirano, Taeko Wakana, Mieko Yamada, Sumie Ohbu, Tomoko Abe
Heavy-ion irradiation is a powerful mutagen that possesses high linear energy transfer (LET). Several studies have indicated that the value of LET affects DNA lesion formation in several ways, including the efficiency and the density of double-stranded break induction along the particle path. We assumed that the mutation type can be altered by selecting an appropriate LET value. Here, we quantitatively demonstrate differences in the mutation type induced by irradiation with two representative ions, Ar ions (LET: 290 keV μm(-1) ) and C ions (LET: 30...
October 10, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022104/deriving-and-understanding-the-risk-of-post-transplant-recurrence-of-nephrotic-syndrome-in-the-light-of-current-molecular-and-genetic-advances
#10
REVIEW
Agnieszka Bierzynska, Moin A Saleem
After renal transplantation, recurrence of the original disease is the second most common cause of graft loss, after rejection. The most dramatic manifestation of this phenomenon is in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS). NS is a descriptive term describing a clinical picture centred on proteinuria arising from damage to the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). There are many different drivers of that damage, ranging from immune dysregulation to genetic disorders and chronic disease/infections. The main categories in childhood are "idiopathic" (presumed immune mediated) and genetic NS, with further stratification of the idiopathic group according to steroid responses...
October 11, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021832/pharmacogenomics-in-the-treatment-of-mood-disorders-strategies-and-opportunities-for-personalized-psychiatry
#11
REVIEW
Azmeraw T Amare, Klaus Oliver Schubert, Bernhard T Baune
Personalized medicine (personalized psychiatry in a specific setting) is a new model towards individualized care, in which knowledge from genomics and other omic pillars (microbiome, epigenomes, proteome, and metabolome) will be combined with clinical data to guide efforts to new drug development and targeted prescription of the existing treatment options. In this review, we summarize pharmacogenomic studies in mood disorders that may lay the foundation towards personalized psychiatry. In addition, we have discussed the possible strategies to integrate data from omic pillars as a future path to personalized psychiatry...
September 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019461/translational-functional-neuroimaging-in-the-explanation-of-depression
#12
Drozdstoy Stoyanov, Sevdalina Kandilarova, Stefan Borgwardt
Translation as a notion and procedure is deeply embodied in medical science and education. It includes the possibility to translate data across disciplines in order to improve diagnosis and treatment procedures. The evidence accumulated by means of translation serves as vehicle for reification of medical diagnoses. There are established promising post hoc correlations between the different types of clinical tools (interviews and inventories) on one hand and neuroscience on the other. Insofar the different kinds of measures represent statistical correlations which still need to be integrated into diagnostic standards and procedures but this, as a whole, is a step forward towards a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying psychopathology in general and depression in particular...
October 11, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017858/the-transcriptional-response-of-skin-to-fluorescent-light-exposure-in-viviparous-xiphophorus-and-oviparous-danio-oryzias-fishes
#13
Mikki Boswell, William Boswell, Yuan Lu, Markita Savage, Zachary Mazurek, Jordan Chang, Jeanot Muster, Ronald Walter
Differences in light sources are common in animal facilities and potentially can impact experimental results. Here, the potential impact of lighting differences on skin transcriptomes has been tested in three aquatic animal models commonly utilized in biomedical research, (Xiphophorus maculatus (platyfish), Oryzias latipes (medaka) and Danio rerio (zebrafish). Analysis of replicate comparative RNASeq data showed the transcriptional response to commonly utilized 4100K or "cool white" fluorescent light (FL) is much greater in platyfish and medaka than in zebrafish...
October 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994778/creation-of-a-dense-transposon-insertion-library-using-bacterial-conjugation-in-enterobacterial-strains-such-as-escherichia-coli-or-shigella-flexneri
#14
Nikki E Freed
Transposon mutagenesis is a method that allows gene disruption via the random genomic insertion of a piece of DNA called a transposon. The protocol below outlines a method for high efficiency transfer between bacterial strains of a plasmid harboring a transposon containing a kanamycin resistance marker. The plasmid-borne transposase is encoded by a variant tnp gene that inserts the transposon into the genome of the recipient strain with very low insertional bias. This method thus allows the creation of large mutant libraries in which transposons have been inserted into unique genomic positions in a recipient strain of either Escherichia coli or Shigella flexneri bacteria...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993834/ipsc-derived-neural-precursor-cells-potential-for-cell-transplantation-therapy-in-spinal-cord-injury
#15
REVIEW
Narihito Nagoshi, Hideyuki Okano
A number of studies have demonstrated that transplantation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the NPCs had been mostly harvested from embryonic stem cells or fetal tissue, raising the ethical concern. Yamanaka and his colleagues established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) which could be generated from somatic cells, and this innovative development has made rapid progression in the field of SCI regeneration. We and other groups succeeded in producing NPCs from iPSCs, and demonstrated beneficial effects after transplantation for animal models of SCI...
October 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993411/sleeping-beauty-insertional-mutagenesis-in-mice-identifies-drivers-of-steatosis-associated-hepatic-tumor
#16
Barbara R Tschida, Nuri A Temiz, Timothy P Kuka, Lindsey A Lee, Jesse D Riordan, Carlos A Tierrablanca, Robert Hullsiek, Sandra Wagner, Wendy A Hudson, Michael A Linden, Khalid Amin, Pauline J Beckmann, Rachel A Heuer, Aaron L Sarver, Ju Dong Yang, Lewis R Roberts, Joseph H Nadeau, Adam J Dupuy, Vincent W Keng, David Largaespada
Hepatic steatosis is a strong risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), yet little is known about the molecular pathology associated with this factor. In this study, we performed a forward genetic screen using Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon insertional mutagenesis in mice treated to induce hepatic steatosis, and compared the results to human HCC data. In humans, we determined that steatosis increased the proportion of female HCC patients, a pattern also reflected in mice. Our genetic screen identified 203 candidate steatosis-associated HCC genes, many of which are altered in human HCC and are members of established HCC-driving signaling pathways...
October 9, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986444/metabolomic-analysis-reveals-that-the-drosophila-gene-lysine%C3%A2-influences-diverse-aspects-of-metabolism
#17
Samantha L St Clair, Hongde Li, Usman Ashraf, Jonathan A Karty, Jason M Tennessen
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a powerful model for investigating the molecular mechanisms that regulate animal metabolism. A major limitation of these studies, however, is that many metabolic assays are tedious, dedicated to analyzing a single molecule, and rely on indirect measurements. As a result, Drosophila geneticists commonly use candidate gene approaches, which, while important, bias studies towards known metabolic regulators. In an effort to expand the scope of Drosophila metabolic studies, we used the classic mutant lysine (lys) to demonstrate how a modern metabolomics approach can be used to conduct forward genetic studies...
October 6, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986440/genetic-control-of-lyme-arthritis-by-borrelia-burgdorferi-arthritis-associated-locus-1-is-dependent-on-localized-differential-production-of-ifn-%C3%AE-and-requires-upregulation-of-myostatin
#18
Jackie K Paquette, Ying Ma, Colleen Fisher, Jinze Li, Sang Beum Lee, James F Zachary, Yong Soo Kim, Cory Teuscher, Janis J Weis
Previously, using a forward genetic approach, we identified differential expression of type I IFN as a positional candidate for an expression quantitative trait locus underlying Borrelia burgdorferi arthritis-associated locus 1 (Bbaa1). In this study, we show that mAb blockade revealed a unique role for IFN-β in Lyme arthritis development in B6.C3-Bbaa1 mice. Genetic control of IFN-β expression was also identified in bone marrow-derived macrophages stimulated with B. burgdorferi, and it was responsible for feed-forward amplification of IFN-stimulated genes...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983308/induced-mutagenesis-in-ugt74s1-gene-leads-to-stable-new-flax-lines-with-altered-secoisolariciresinol-diglucoside-sdg-profiles
#19
Bourlaye Fofana, Kaushik Ghose, Ashok Somalraju, Jason McCallum, David Main, Michael K Deyholos, Gordon G Rowland, Sylvie Cloutier
Flax secoisolariciresinol (SECO) diglucoside (SDG) lignan is an emerging natural product purported to prevent chronic diseases in humans. SECO, the aglycone form of SDG, has shown higher intestinal cell absorption but it is not accumulated naturally in planta. Recently, we have identified and characterized a UDP-glucosyltransferase gene, UGT74S1, that glucosylates SECO into its monoglucoside (SMG) and SDG forms when expressed in yeast. However, whether this gene is unique in controlling SECO glucosylation into SDG in planta is unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977440/advancing-psychiatric-genetics-through-dissecting-heterogeneity
#20
Karen Hodgson, Peter McGuffin, Cathryn M Lewis
There has been substantial progress in psychiatric genetics in recent years, through collaborative efforts to build large samples sizes for case/control analyses for a number of psychiatric disorders. The identification of replicated trait-associated genomic loci represents a large stride forward in a field where little is known about the biological processes involved in disorder. As researchers build on this early foundation, they are beginning to advance the field towards more fine-grained approaches that interrogate the many sources of heterogeneity within psychiatric genetics that can obscure the identification of genotypic influences on disorder...
October 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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