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global development delay

Norelle Sherry, Benjamin Howden
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as a major threat to human health globally. This has resulted in the "re-discovery" of some older antimicrobials and development of new agents, however resistance has also rapidly emerged to these agents. Areas Covered: Here we describe recent developments in resistance to three of the most important last-line antimicrobials for treatment of MDR and XDR Gram negatives: fosfomycin, colistin and ceftazidime-avibactam...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Adam H Lewis, Ankur Chugh, Sarah A Sobotka
A 7-year-old girl with 20q13.33 deletion and a history of generalized convulsive epilepsy presented to the Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics Clinic due to concerns about her behavioral outbursts in the context of overall delayed development. Evaluation by the Developmental and Behavioral and Gastroenterology teams revealed failure to thrive (FTT) as the primary cause of the behavioral outbursts and developed a high-calorie, high-fat, high-protein nutritional counseling plan. Children who have FTT and a genetic disorder are often thought to not thrive because of their underlying genetic disorder; however, feeding skills and nutritional intake need to be thoroughly investigated before determining an etiology for FTT...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Nathali Gunawardena, Ghose Bishwajit, Sanni Yaya
Background: For exploring maternal death, supply and demand-side factors can be characterized by the three delays model developed by Thaddeus and Maine (1994). The model comprises delay in deciding to seek care (delay 1), delay in reaching the health facility (delay 2), and delay in receiving quality care once at the health facility (delay 3). Few studies have comprehensively dealt with the health systems delays that prevent the receipt of timely and appropriate obstetric care once a woman reaches a health facility (phase III delays)...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Alexander Röth, Jaroslaw Maciejewski, Jun-Ichi Nishimura, Deepak Jain, Jeffrey I Weitz
OBJECTIVE: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a severe, life-threatening disorder for which early diagnosis is essential. However, given the rarity of the disease and non-specificity of symptoms, correct diagnosis may be delayed or missed. While various hematologic guidelines note common signs and symptoms associated with PNH, international expert consensus based on real-world clinical experience and an actionable algorithm for non-specialists to facilitate screening and diagnosis are lacking...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
Jocelyn Charlton, Timothy L Downing, Zachary D Smith, Hongcang Gu, Kendell Clement, Ramona Pop, Veronika Akopian, Sven Klages, David P Santos, Alexander M Tsankov, Bernd Timmermann, Michael J Ziller, Evangelos Kiskinis, Andreas Gnirke, Alexander Meissner
Cytosine methylation is widespread among organisms and essential for mammalian development. In line with early postulations of an epigenetic role in gene regulation, symmetric CpG methylation can be mitotically propagated over many generations with extraordinarily high fidelity. Here, we combine BrdU labeling and immunoprecipitation with genome-wide bisulfite sequencing to explore the inheritance of cytosine methylation onto newly replicated DNA in human cells. Globally, we observe a pronounced lag between the copying of genetic and epigenetic information in embryonic stem cells that is reconsolidated within hours to accomplish faithful mitotic transmission...
March 12, 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Toru Shizuma
Spontaneous bacterial (SBP) and spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP) can be a life-threatening infection in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) and ascites. One of the possible mechanisms of developing SBP is bacterial translocation. Although the number of polymorphonuclear cells in the culture of ascitic fluid is diagnostic for SBP, secondary bacterial peritonitis is necessary to exclude. The severity of underlying liver dysfunction is predictive of developing SBP; moreover, renal impairment and infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) organism are associated with a fatal prognosis of SBP...
February 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Yenupini Joyce Adams, Barbara Smith
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that affect the use of postpartum care services in developing countries. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, CINAHL, Global Health, EMBASE, and grey literature were searched for relevant articles in 2015 and 2016 with no publication date limit imposed. STUDY SELECTION: Thirteen studies met inclusion criteria and were assessed for quality with the use of a checklist developed by Fowkes and Fulton (1991) and a checklist developed by the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (2017)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
Lin Y Chen, Faye L Norby, Rebecca F Gottesman, Thomas H Mosley, Elsayed Z Soliman, Sunil K Agarwal, Laura R Loehr, Aaron R Folsom, Josef Coresh, Alvaro Alonso
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with cognitive decline and dementia. These studies, however, had limited follow-up, were based mostly on white and highly selected populations, and did not account for attrition. We evaluated the association of incident AF with 20-year change in cognitive performance (accounting for attrition) and incident dementia in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data from 12 515 participants (mean age, 56...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Hanzhang Xu, Truls Ostbye, Allison A Vorderstrasse, Matthew E Dupre, Bei Wu
BACKGROUND: The place of residence has been linked to cognitive function among adults in developed countries. This study examined how urban and rural residence was associated with cognitive function among adults in India. METHODS: The World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health data was used to examine cognition among 6,244 community-residing adults age 50+ in 6 states in India. Residential status was categorized as urban, rural, urban-to-urban, rural-to-urban, rural-to-rural, and urban-to-rural...
March 7, 2018: Neuroepidemiology
Rimante Ronto, Jason Hy Wu, Gitanjali M Singh
Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have increased dramatically in developed and developing countries. Unhealthy diet is one of the major factors contributing to NCD development. Recent evidence has identified deterioration in aspects of dietary quality across many world regions, including low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Most burdens of disease attributable to poor diet can be prevented or delayed as they occur prematurely. Therefore, it is important to identify and target unhealthy dietary behaviours in order to have the greatest impact...
March 6, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Zixuan Lin, Yang Li, Pan Su, Deng Mao, Zhiliang Wei, Jay J Pillai, Abhay Moghekar, Matthias van Osch, Yulin Ge, Hanzhang Lu
PURPOSE: Many brain diseases are associated with an alteration in blood-brain barrier (BBB) and its permeability. Current methods using contrast agent are primarily sensitive to major leakage of BBB to macromolecules, but may not detect subtle changes in BBB permeability. The present study aims to develop a novel non-contrast MRI technique for the assessment of BBB permeability to water. METHODS: The central principle is that by measuring arterially labeled blood spins that are drained into cerebral veins, water extraction fraction (E) and permeability-surface-area product (PS) of BBB can be determined...
March 1, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Mihyun Hwang, Cornelia C Bergmann
The contribution of distinct central nervous system (CNS) resident cells to protective IFNα/β function following viral infections is poorly understood. Based on numerous immune regulatory functions of astrocytes, we evaluated the contribution of astrocyte-IFNα/β signaling towards protection against a non-lethal glia- and neurono-tropic mouse hepatitis virus (MHV-A59). Analysis of gene expression associated with IFNα/β function, e.g. pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) revealed lower basal mRNA levels in brain derived astrocytes compared to microglia...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Jelena Ostojić, Hrvoje Pintarić
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure (HF) both are global epidemics with substantial burden on morbidity and mortality. They present major challenges to healthcare providers and often coexsist. Multiple interactions exist between these conditions. COPD is often responsible for delayed diagnosis of HF and vice versa, since both conditions have similar symptoms such as dyspnea and poor exercise tolerance based on the skeletal myopathic response rather than the primary organ failure. Patients with COPD also have an increased risk of developing HF and higher hospitalization and death rates compared with HF patients without COPD...
June 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
Sumona Chaudhury, Ellen Hertzmark, Aisa Muya, David Sando, Nzovu Ulenga, Lameck Machumi, Donna Spiegelman, Wafaie W Fawzi
INTRODUCTION: Global scale up of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has led to expansion of HIV treatment and prevention across sub-Saharan Africa. However, age and gender-specific disparities persist leading to failures in fulfillment of Sustainability Development Goals, including SDG3 (achieving healthy lives and wellbeing for all, at all ages) and SDG5 (gender equality). We assessed ART initiation and adherence, loss to follow-up, all-cause death and early death, according to SDG3 and SDG5 indicators among a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents enrolled in care in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania METHODS: SDG3 indicators included young (<5 years) and older paediatric children (5 to <10 years), early adolescent (10 to <15 years) and late adolescent (15 to <20 years) age group divisions and the SDG5 indicator was gender...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Benjamin P Jones, Srdjan Saso, Anastasia Mania, J Richard Smith, Paul Serhal, Jara Ben Nagi
Given the age-related decline in ovarian reserve and oocyte quality, it is unsurprising the global trend of deferring motherhood has resulted in increased levels of involuntary childlessness. The development of oocyte vitrification, with pregnancy and livebirth rates now comparable to using fresh oocytes, has provided an opportunity to electively cryopreserve oocytes for future use, empowering women with the capacity to delay their childbearing years. Whilst it enhances reproductive autonomy, age-related obstetric complications, economic implications and the risk of unsuccessful future treatment make it a controversial therapeutic option...
February 26, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Bryce Tan, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Henri Vrooman, Ching-Yu Cheng, Tien Yin Wong, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Christopher Chen, Saima Hilal
BACKGROUND: Plasma homocysteine levels are increasingly studied as a potential risk factor for dementia. Elevated homocysteine levels have been linked with gray and white matter volume reduction among individuals with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, the effects of homocysteine on brain changes in preclinical stages of dementia remain unexplored. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of elevated homocysteine levels with markers of neurodegeneration, i...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Noopur Raje, Garson David Roodman, Wolfgang Willenbacher, Kazuyuki Shimizu, Ramón García-Sanz, Evangelos Terpos, Lisa Kennedy, Lorenzo Sabatelli, Michele Intorcia, Guy Hechmati
OBJECTIVE: A large, pivotal, phase 3 trial in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) demonstrated that denosumab, compared with zoledronic acid, was non-inferior for the prevention of skeletal-related events (SREs), extended the observed median progression-free survival (PFS) by 10.7 months, and showed significantly less renal toxicity. The cost-effectiveness of denosumab vs zoledronic acid in MM in the US was assessed from societal and payer perspectives. METHODS: The XGEVA Global Economic Model was developed by integrating data from the phase 3 trial comparing the efficacy of denosumab with zoledronic acid for the prevention of SREs in MM...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
Sandra Pereira, Mariana Adrião, Mafalda Sampaio, Margarida Ayres Basto, Esmeralda Rodrigues, Laura Vilarinho, Elisa Leão Teles, Isabel Alonso, Miguel Leão
INTRODUCTION: Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 20 (COXPD20) is a mitochondrial respiratory chain complex (RC) disorder, caused by disease-causing variants in the VARS2 gene, which encodes a mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. Here we describe a patient with fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy caused by a homozygous VARS2 gene missense variant. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a girl, the first child of non-consanguineous and healthy parents, born from an uneventful term pregnancy, who presented, in the neonatal period, major hypotonia and microcephaly...
February 25, 2018: JIMD Reports
Beverley M Essue, Lydia Kapiriri
BACKGROUND: The double burden of infectious diseases coupled with noncommunicable diseases poses unique challenges for priority setting and for achieving equitable action to address the major causes of disease burden in health systems already impacted by limited resources. Noncommunicable disease control is an important global health and development priority. However, there are challenges for translating this global priority into local priorities and action. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of national, sub-national and global factors on priority setting for noncommunicable disease control in Uganda and examine the extent to which priority setting was successful...
February 20, 2018: Globalization and Health
Nicolai Franzmeier, Emrah Düzel, Frank Jessen, Katharina Buerger, Johannes Levin, Marco Duering, Martin Dichgans, Christian Haass, Marc Suárez-Calvet, Anne M Fagan, Katrina Paumier, Tammie Benzinger, Colin L Masters, John C Morris, Robert Perneczky, Daniel Janowitz, Cihan Catak, Steffen Wolfsgruber, Michael Wagner, Stefan Teipel, Ingo Kilimann, Alfredo Ramirez, Martin Rossor, Mathias Jucker, Jasmeer Chhatwal, Annika Spottke, Henning Boecker, Frederic Brosseron, Peter Falkai, Klaus Fliessbach, Michael T Heneka, Christoph Laske, Peter Nestor, Oliver Peters, Manuel Fuentes, Felix Menne, Josef Priller, Eike J Spruth, Christiana Franke, Anja Schneider, Barbara Kofler, Christine Westerteicher, Oliver Speck, Jens Wiltfang, Claudia Bartels, Miguel Ángel Araque Caballero, Coraline Metzger, Daniel Bittner, Michael Weiner, Jae-Hong Lee, Stephen Salloway, Adrian Danek, Alison Goate, Peter R Schofield, Randall J Bateman, Michael Ewers
Patients with Alzheimer's disease vary in their ability to sustain cognitive abilities in the presence of brain pathology. A major open question is which brain mechanisms may support higher reserve capacity, i.e. relatively high cognitive performance at a given level of Alzheimer's pathology. Higher functional MRI-assessed functional connectivity of a hub in the left frontal cortex is a core candidate brain mechanism underlying reserve as it is associated with education (i.e. a protective factor often associated with higher reserve) and attenuated cognitive impairment in prodromal Alzheimer's disease...
February 15, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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