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global development delay

Sarita Panula, Ahmed Reda, Jan-Bernd Stukenborg, Cyril Ramathal, Meena Sukhwani, Halima Albalushi, Daniel Edsgärd, Michiko Nakamura, Olle Söder, Kyle E Orwig, Shinya Yamanaka, Renee A Reijo Pera, Outi Hovatta
The mechanisms underlying human germ cell development are largely unknown, partly due to the scarcity of primordial germ cells and the inaccessibility of the human germline to genetic analysis. Human embryonic stem cells can differentiate to germ cells in vitro and can be genetically modified to study the genetic requirements for germ cell development. Here, we studied NANOS3 and DAZL, which have critical roles in germ cell development in several species, via their over expression in human embryonic stem cells using global transcriptional analysis, in vitro germ cell differentiation, and in vivo germ cell formation assay by xenotransplantation...
2016: PloS One
L Paglia
Despite the general advances in dental care, dental caries is still a global health problem affecting many children. Occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars are the most susceptible sites in the developing permanent dentition. Dentists should use sealants or fluoride varnish - as well as other means - to limit the onset of tooth decay. Application of sealants is a recommended procedure to prevent or control caries. Sealing occlusal surfaces of newly erupted permanent molars in children and teenagers delays caries onset up to 48 months compared with unsealed teeth...
September 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
Thespina Yamanis, Elisabeth Nolan, Susan Shepler
BACKGROUND: Future infectious disease epidemics are likely to disproportionately affect countries with weak health systems, exacerbating global vulnerability. To decrease the severity of epidemics in these settings, lessons can be drawn from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. There is a dearth of literature on public perceptions of the public health response system that required citizens to report and treat Ebola cases. Epidemiological reports suggested that there were delays in diagnosis and treatment...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sofia Lisanti, David S Garlick, Kelly G Bryant, Michele Tavecchio, Gordon B Mills, Yiling Lu, Andrew V Kossenkov, Louise C Showe, Lucia R Languino, Dario C Altieri
Protein homeostasis, or proteostasis is required for mitochondrial function, but its role in cancer is controversial. Here, we show that transgenic mice expressing the mitochondrial chaperone, TRAP1 in the prostate develop epithelial hyperplasia and cellular atypia. When examined on a Pten+/- background, a common alteration in human prostate cancer, TRAP1 transgenic mice showed accelerated incidence of invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma, characterized by increased cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis, in situ...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kashif Rahim, Shamim Saleha, Xudong Zhu, Liang Huo, Abdul Basit, Octavio Luiz Franco
A wound is damage of a tissue usually caused by laceration of a membrane, generally the skin. Wound healing is accomplished in three stages in healthy individuals, including inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling stages. Healing of wounds normally starts from the inflammatory phase and ends up in the remodeling phase, but chronic wounds remain in an inflammatory stage and do not show progression due to some specific reasons. Chronic wounds are classified in different categories, such as diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), venous leg ulcers (VLU) and pressure ulcer (PU), surgical site infection (SSI), abscess, or trauma ulcers...
October 14, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Jennifer Dorts, Elodie Falisse, Emilie Schoofs, Enora Flamion, Patrick Kestemont, Frédéric Silvestre
DNA methylation, a well-studied epigenetic mark, is important for gene regulation in adulthood and for development. Using genetic and epigenetic approaches, the present study aimed at evaluating the effects of heat stress and copper exposure during zebrafish early embryogenesis when patterns of DNA methylation are being established, a process called reprogramming. Embryos were exposed to 325 μg Cu/L from fertilization (<1 h post fertilization - hpf) to 4 hpf at either 26.5 °C or 34 °C, followed by incubation in clean water at 26...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xia Wang, Sanyi Tang, Xinyu Song, Libin Rong
HIV can infect cells via virus-to-cell infection or cell-to-cell viral transmission. These two infection modes may occur in a synergistic way and facilitate viral spread within an infected individual. In this paper, we developed an HIV latent infection model including both modes of transmission and time delays between viral entry and integration or viral production. We analysed the model by defining the basic reproductive number, showing the existence, positivity and boundedness of the solution, and proving the local and global stability of the infection-free and infected steady states...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Melissa Reyes-Fox, Heidi Steltzer, Daniel R LeCain, Gregory S McMaster
Atmospheric CO2 concentrations have been steadily increasing since the Industrial Era and contribute to concurrent increases in global temperatures. Many observational studies suggest climate warming alone contributes to a longer growing season. To determine the relative effect of warming on plant phenology, we investigated the individual and joint effects of warming and CO2 enrichment on a mixed-grass prairie plant community by following the development of six common grassland species and recording four major life history events...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Data
Roseanne C Schuster, Octávio de Sousa, Jacqueline Rivera, Rebecca Olson, Delphine Pinault, Sera L Young
BACKGROUND: Performance-based incentives (PBIs) have garnered global attention as a promising strategy to improve healthcare delivery to vulnerable populations. However, literature gaps in the context in which an intervention is implemented and how the PBIs were developed exist. Therefore, we (1) characterized the barriers and promoters to prevention of vertical transmission of HIV (PVT) service delivery in rural Mozambique, where the vertical transmission rate is 12 %, and (2) assessed the appropriateness for a PBI's intervention and application to PVT...
October 7, 2016: Human Resources for Health
Mark John Hackett, Phyllis G Paterson, Ingrid J Pickering, Graham N George
A method to image taurine distributions within the central nervous system and other organs has long been sought. Since taurine is small and mobile, it cannot be chemically "tagged" and imaged using conventional immuno-histochemistry methods. Combining numerous indirect measurements, taurine is known to play critical roles in brain function during health and disease, and is proposed to act as a neuro-osmolyte, neuro-modulator and possibly a neuro-transmitter. Elucidation of taurine's neurochemical roles and importance would be substantially enhanced by a direct method to visualize alterations, due to physiological and pathological events in the brain, in the local concentration of taurine at or near cellular spatial resolution in vivo, or in situ in tissue sections...
October 4, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Vincent Picard, Odile Mulner-Lorillon, Jérémie Bourdon, Julia Morales, Patrick Cormier, Anne Siegel, Robert Bellé
Sea urchin eggs exhibit a cap-dependent increase in protein synthesis within minutes after fertilization. This rise in protein synthesis occurs at a constant rate for a great number of proteins translated from the different available mRNAs. Surprisingly, we found that cyclin B, a major cell-cycle regulator, follows a synthesis pattern that is distinct from the global protein population, so we developed a mathematical model to analyze this dissimilarity in biosynthesis kinetic patterns. The model includes two pathways for cyclin B mRNA entry into the translational machinery: one from immediately available mRNA (mRNAcyclinB) and one from mRNA activated solely after fertilization (XXmRNAcyclinB)...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Jesús Romero-Maroto, Lidia Verdú-Verdú, Luis Gómez-Pérez, Carla Pérez-Tomás, Juan-José Pacheco-Bru, Ana López-López
BACKGROUND: Female urethral stricture is a rare condition. Different types of urethroplasty have been described. However, high quality studies are sparse. The most common technique used-the Blandy's technique-has resulted in our cases in a retrusive meatus and an inward urinary stream. OBJECTIVE: To show the efficacy and safety of an alternative vaginal wall flap urethroplasty. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional observational study was undertaken in a single University Hospital...
September 27, 2016: European Urology
Jean-Pierre Michel
Already in the 90s, Khachaturian stated that postponing dementia onset by five years would decrease the prevalence of the late onset dementia by 50%. After two decades of lack of success in dementia drug discovery and development, and knowing that worldwide, currently 36 million patients have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, a number that will double by 2030 and triple by 2050, the World Health Organization and the Alzheimer's Disease International declared that prevention of cognitive decline was a 'public health priority...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
Ingrid Carvacho, Goli Ardestani, Hoi Chang Lee, Kaitlyn McGarvey, Rafael A Fissore, Karin Lykke-Hartmann
The Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels are a family of cationic ion channels widely distributed in mammalian tissues. In general, the global genetic disruption of individual TRP channels result in phenotypes associated with impairment of a particular tissue and/or organ function. An exception is the genetic ablation of the TRP channel TRPM7, which results in early embryonic lethality. Nevertheless, the function of TRPM7 in oocytes, eggs and pre-implantation embryos remains unknown. Here, we described an outward rectifying non-selective current mediated by a TRP ion channel in immature oocytes (germinal vesicle stage), matured oocytes (metaphase II eggs) and 2-cell stage embryos...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sheryl A Kluberg, Sumiko R Mekaru, David J McIver, Lawrence C Madoff, Adam W Crawley, Mark S Smolinski, John S Brownstein
The speed with which disease outbreaks are recognized is critical for establishing effective control efforts. We evaluate global improvements in the timeliness of outbreak discovery and communication during 2010-2014 as a follow-up to a 2010 report. For all outbreaks reported by the World Health Organization's Disease Outbreak News, we estimate the number of days from first symptoms until outbreak discovery and until first public communication. We report median discovery and communication delays overall, by region, and by Human Development Index (HDI) quartile...
October 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Sanbo Ding, Zhanshan Wang, Jidong Wang, Huaguang Zhang
This paper investigates the H∞ state estimation problem for a class of discrete-time memristive neural networks (DMNNs) with time-varying delays. For the sake of coping with the switched weight matrices, the DMNNs are recast into a tractable model by defining a series of state-dependent switched signals. Based on the tractable model, the robust analysis method and Lyapunov stability theory are developed to devise a sufficient condition which ensures the global asymptotical stability of the estimation error system with a prescribed H∞ performance...
August 30, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Mengfeng Sun, Haifeng Zhang, Huiyan Kang, Guanghu Zhu, Xinchu Fu
We introduce three modified SIS models on scale-free networks that take into account variable population size, nonlinear infectivity, adaptive weights, behavior inertia and time delay, so as to better characterize the actual spread of epidemics. We develop new mathematical methods and techniques to study the dynamics of the models, including the basic reproduction number, and the global asymptotic stability of the disease-free and endemic equilibria. We show the disease-free equilibrium cannot undergo a Hopf bifurcation...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Ya-Min Cheng, Ching-Chou Tsai, Yi-Chiang Hsu
Globally, cervical cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women. The main treatment methods for this type of cancer include conization or hysterectomy procedures. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural, compound-based drug derived from dietary isothiocyanates which has previously been shown to possess potent anti-tumor and chemopreventive effects against several types of cancer. The present study investigated the effects of SFN on anti-proliferation and G₂/M phase cell cycle arrest in cervical cancer cell lines (Cx, CxWJ, and HeLa)...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Erin Sparrow, Martin Friede, Mohamud Sheikh, Siranda Torvaldsen, Anthony T Newall
The Global Action Plan for influenza vaccines (GAP) aims to increase the production capacity of vaccines so that in the event of a pandemic there is an adequate supply to meet global needs. However, it has been estimated that even in the best case scenario there would be a considerable delay of at least five to six months for the first supplies of vaccine to become available after the isolation of the strain and availability of the candidate vaccine virus to vaccine manufacturers. By this time, the virus is likely to have already infected millions of people worldwide, causing significant mortality, morbidity and economic loss...
October 26, 2016: Vaccine
Bochra Tourki, Philippe Matéo, Jessica Morand, Mohamed Elayeb, Diane Godin-Ribuot, Naziha Marrakchi, Elise Belaidi, Erij Messadi
Cardiac ischemia is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is now well established that natriuretic peptides can attenuate the development of irreversible ischemic injury during myocardial infarction. Lebetin 2 (L2) is a new discovered peptide isolated from Macrovipera lebetina venom with structural similarity to B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Our objectives were to define the acute cardioprotective actions of L2 in isolated Langendorff-perfused rat hearts after regional or global ischemia-reperfusion (IR)...
2016: PloS One
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