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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153324/the-paradox-of-environmental-symbiont-acquisition-in-obligate-mutualisms
#1
Aaron C Hartmann, Andrew H Baird, Nancy Knowlton, Danwei Huang
Mutually beneficial interactions between species (mutualisms) shaped the evolution of eukaryotes and remain critical to the survival of species globally [1, 2]. Theory predicts that hosts should pass mutualist symbionts to their offspring (vertical transmission) [3-8]. However, offspring acquire symbionts from the environment in a surprising number of species (horizontal acquisition) [9-12]. A classic example of this paradox is the reef-building corals, in which 71% of species horizontally acquire algal endosymbionts [9]...
November 14, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143627/conceptualizing-pathways-linking-women-s-empowerment-and-prematurity-in-developing-countries
#2
Patience A Afulani, Molly Altman, Joseph Musana, May Sudhinaraset
BACKGROUND: Globally, prematurity is the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5. Many efforts have focused on clinical approaches to improve the survival of premature babies. There is a need, however, to explore psychosocial, sociocultural, economic, and other factors as potential mechanisms to reduce the burden of prematurity. Women's empowerment may be a catalyst for moving the needle in this direction. The goal of this paper is to examine links between women's empowerment and prematurity in developing settings...
November 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139198/factors-affecting-drug-development-strategies-in-asian-global-clinical-trials-for-drug-approval-in-japan
#3
Kunihito Asano, Yoshiaki Uyama, Masahiro Tohkin
We assessed the current status of Asian global clinical trials (GCTs) and factors, such as therapeutic areas, main metabolic enzymes targeted, approval status in the United States or the European Union, development strategies, influencing drug-development strategies in Asian GCTs and in general GCTs for drug approval in Japan. The findings suggested that region-specific diseases in Asia, intrinsic and extrinsic ethnic differences between Japanese/Asian and Caucasian populations, and the status of the drugs' development in the United States or the European Union all affected Asian GCTs...
November 15, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132760/hepatitis-c-in-sub-saharan-africa-the-current-status-and-recommendations-for-achieving-elimination-by-2030
#4
REVIEW
Mark W Sonderup, Mary Afihene, Reidwaan Ally, Betty Apica, Yaw Awuku, Lina Cunha, Geoffrey Dusheiko, Neliswa Gogela, Marie-Jeanne Lohouès-Kouacou, Phillip Lam, Olufunmilayo Lesi, Papa Saliou Mbaye, Emmanuel Musabeyezu, Betty Musau, Olesegun Ojo, John Rwegasha, Barbara Scholz, Abate B Shewaye, Christian Tzeuton, Chris Kassianides, C Wendy Spearman
In 2016, WHO adopted a strategy for the elimination of viral hepatitis by 2030. Africa, and more specifically, sub-Saharan Africa, carries a substantial portion of the global burden of viral hepatitis, especially chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections. The task that lies ahead for sub-Saharan Africa to achieve elimination is substantial, but not insurmountable. Major developments in the management of hepatitis C have put elimination within reach, but several difficulties will need to be navigated on the path to elimination...
December 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131849/modelling-the-cost-effectiveness-of-hiv-care-shows-a-clear-benefit-when-transmission-risk-is-considered-in-the-calculations-a-message-for-central-and-eastern-europe
#5
Justyna D Kowalska, Grzegorz Wójcik, Jakub Rutkowski, Magdalena Ankiersztejn-Bartczak, Ewa Siewaszewicz
BACKGROUND: HIV epidemic remains a major global health issue. Data from cost-effectiveness analyses base on CD4+ count and morbidity in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic HIV infection. The approach adopted in these analyses includes many other factors, previously not investigated. Additionally, we evaluate the impact of sexual HIV transmission due to delayed cART on the cost-effectiveness of care. METHODS: A lifetime Markov model (1-month cycle) was developed to estimate the cost per quality adjusted life years (QALY) for a 1- and 3-year delay in starting cART (as compared to starting immediately at linkage to care) lifetime costs, clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128195/-what-support-of-young-presenting-a-first-psychotic-episode-when-schooling-is-being-challenged
#6
M-N Vacheron, H Veyrat-Masson, E Wehbe
Psychiatric disorders (more specifically mood disorders and psychosis) represent the 1st cause of disability among young people. Unemployment rate between 75 to 95% for the person with schizophrenia. It is correlated to poor social integration and bad economic status, worse symptomatology loss of autonomy as well as global bad functioning. It is responsible of more than half of the overall cost of psychosis. The onset of most of psychiatric disorders occur between the age of 25 and 35 years old, a critical time in young adult life when they should build their professional as well as social future...
November 8, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128086/delayed-presentation-and-diagnosis-of-breast-cancer-in-african-women-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Carolina Espina, Fiona McKenzie, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva
PURPOSE: Africa has low breast cancer incidence rates but high mortality rates from this disease due to poor survival. Delays in presentation and diagnosis are major determinants of breast cancer survival, but these have not been comprehensively investigated in Africa. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health were searched to identify studies reporting on delays in presentation and/or diagnosis of breast cancer published between January 1, 2000 and May 31, 2016...
October 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124116/toward-common-mechanisms-for-risk-factors-in-alzheimer-s-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Miguel Medina, Zaven S Khachaturian, Martin Rossor, Jesús Avila, Angel Cedazo-Minguez
The global strategic goal of reducing health care cost, especially the prospects for massive increases due to expanding markets for health care services demanded by aging populations and/or people with a wide range of chronic disorders-disabilities, is a complex and formidable challenge with many facets. Current projections predict marked increases in the demand for health driven by both the exponential climb in the prevalence of chronic disabilities and the increases in the absolute numbers of people in need of some form of health care...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123090/global-patterns-of-nitrate-storage-in-the-vadose-zone
#9
M J Ascott, D C Gooddy, L Wang, M E Stuart, M A Lewis, R S Ward, A M Binley
Global-scale nitrogen budgets developed to quantify anthropogenic impacts on the nitrogen cycle do not explicitly consider nitrate stored in the vadose zone. Here we show that the vadose zone is an important store of nitrate that should be considered in future budgets for effective policymaking. Using estimates of groundwater depth and nitrate leaching for 1900-2000, we quantify the peak global storage of nitrate in the vadose zone as 605-1814 Teragrams (Tg). Estimates of nitrate storage are validated using basin-scale and national-scale estimates and observed groundwater nitrate data...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122384/strengthening-global-vaccine-access-for-adolescents-and-adults
#10
REVIEW
Angeline Nanni, Stefanie Meredith, Stephanie Gati, Karin Holm, Tom Harmon, Ann Ginsberg
Global immunization efforts to date have heavily focused on infants and children, with noted success on public health. Healthy adolescents and adults contribute to the economic growth and development of countries but efforts to ensure vaccine coverage for these groups receive inadequate global attention and resources. Emerging epidemics for a number of infectious diseases including Ebola, Zika, dengue, malaria and the continuing epidemics of tuberculosis and several sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, HPV and Hepatitis B, have high incidence and prevalence in adolescents and adults...
November 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116638/evolution-of-phenotypic-and-molecular-drug-susceptibility-testing
#11
Daniela M Cirillo, Paolo Miotto, Enrico Tortoli
Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (DRTB) is an emerging problem world-wide. In order to control the disease and decrease the number of cases overtime a prompt diagnosis followed by an appropriate treatment should be provided to patients. Phenotypic DST based on liquid automated culture has greatly reduced the time needed to generate reliable data but has the drawback to be expensive and prone to contamination in the absence of appropriate infrastructures. In the past 10 years molecular biology tools have been developed...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104118/clinical-trial-conduct-in-special-populations-and-developing-regions-an-overview-of-the-dove-study-in-pediatric-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#12
Stephen G Reams, Linda Messana, Patricia B Brown, Kevin Nanry, Alexandria E Gunnell
Clinical trials conducted in unique patient populations or individuals with rare diseases are typically hampered by limitations in availability of qualified patients, requiring sponsors to broaden their global outreach to achieve enrollment. Engaging clinical study centers in developing regions may offer access to a substantially larger patient pool. However, they provide a unique set of challenges based on local cultures and requirements. The DOVE study (Determining effects Of platelet inhibition on Vaso-occlusive Events) was a clinical trial of prasugrel hydrochloride (prasugrel) in pediatric patients (aged 2 to <18years) with sickle cell anemia...
November 2, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102325/surveillance-for-control-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#13
REVIEW
Evelina Tacconelli, Frangiscos Sifakis, Stephan Harbarth, Remco Schrijver, Maaike van Mourik, Andreas Voss, Mike Sharland, Nithya Babu Rajendran, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
Antimicrobial resistance poses a growing threat to public health and the provision of health care. Its surveillance should provide up-to-date and relevant information to monitor the appropriateness of therapy guidelines, antibiotic formulary, antibiotic stewardship programmes, public health interventions, infection control policies, and antimicrobial development. In Europe, although the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network provides annual reports on monitored resistant bacteria, national surveillance efforts are still fragmented and heterogeneous, and have substantial structural problems and issues with laboratory data...
October 25, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100095/mutations-in-gpaa1-encoding-a-gpi-transamidase-complex-protein-cause-developmental-delay-epilepsy-cerebellar-atrophy-and-osteopenia
#14
Thi Tuyet Mai Nguyen, Yoshiko Murakami, Eamonn Sheridan, Sophie Ehresmann, Justine Rousseau, Anik St-Denis, Guoliang Chai, Norbert F Ajeawung, Laura Fairbrother, Tyler Reimschisel, Alexandra Bateman, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis, Fan Xia, Jessica Tardif, David A Parry, Clare V Logan, Christine Diggle, Christopher P Bennett, Louise Hattingh, Jill A Rosenfeld, Michael Scott Perry, Michael J Parker, Françoise Le Deist, Maha S Zaki, Erika Ignatius, Pirjo Isohanni, Tuula Lönnqvist, Christopher J Carroll, Colin A Johnson, Joseph G Gleeson, Taroh Kinoshita, Philippe M Campeau
Approximately one in every 200 mammalian proteins is anchored to the cell membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. These proteins play important roles notably in neurological development and function. To date, more than 20 genes have been implicated in the biogenesis of GPI-anchored proteins. GPAA1 (glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor attachment 1) is an essential component of the transamidase complex along with PIGK, PIGS, PIGT, and PIGU (phosphatidylinositol-glycan biosynthesis classes K, S, T, and U, respectively)...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100085/de-novo-missense-mutations-in-dhx30-impair-global-translation-and-cause-a-neurodevelopmental-disorder
#15
Davor Lessel, Claudia Schob, Sébastien Küry, Margot R F Reinders, Tamar Harel, Mohammad K Eldomery, Zeynep Coban-Akdemir, Jonas Denecke, Shimon Edvardson, Estelle Colin, Alexander P A Stegmann, Erica H Gerkes, Marine Tessarech, Dominique Bonneau, Magalie Barth, Thomas Besnard, Benjamin Cogné, Anya Revah-Politi, Tim M Strom, Jill A Rosenfeld, Yaping Yang, Jennifer E Posey, LaDonna Immken, Nelly Oundjian, Katherine L Helbig, Naomi Meeks, Kelsey Zegar, Jenny Morton, Jolanda H Schieving, Ana Claasen, Matthew Huentelman, Vinodh Narayanan, Keri Ramsey, Han G Brunner, Orly Elpeleg, Sandra Mercier, Stéphane Bézieau, Christian Kubisch, Tjitske Kleefstra, Stefan Kindler, James R Lupski, Hans-Jürgen Kreienkamp
DHX30 is a member of the family of DExH-box helicases, which use ATP hydrolysis to unwind RNA secondary structures. Here we identified six different de novo missense mutations in DHX30 in twelve unrelated individuals affected by global developmental delay (GDD), intellectual disability (ID), severe speech impairment and gait abnormalities. While four mutations are recurrent, two are unique with one affecting the codon of one recurrent mutation. All amino acid changes are located within highly conserved helicase motifs and were found to either impair ATPase activity or RNA recognition in different in vitro assays...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097068/evaluation-of-cognitive-function-following-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#16
Masieh Abawi, Rehana de Vries, Pieter R Stella, Pierfrancesco Agostoni, Dirk H M Boelens, Romy C van Jaarsveld, Charlotte S van Dongen, Pieter A F M Doevendans, Mariëlle H Emmelot-Vonk
BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is associated with procedural-related neurological events and acute cognitive decline. However, data on the effect of TAVR on mid-term cognitive outcome are scarce. Therefore, we aimed to assess the impact of TAVR on mid-term cognitive outcome using different neurocognitive test batteries. METHODS: Patients with severe aortic valve stenosis scheduled for TAVR were enrolled. Cognitive assessment was performed at baseline and 4 months post-TAVR using an eight-word verbal-learning test ("Immediate Recall Memory Test" [IRMT], "Delayed Recall Memory Test" [DRMT], "Recognition of Verbal Information Test" [RVIT]), global cognitive function ("Mini Mental State Examination" [MMSE]), and executive function ("Trail Making Test" [TMT], "Clock-Drawing Test" [CDT])...
October 20, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094528/care-of-older-people-with-diabetes
#17
Trisha Dunning
The global population is ageing, and increasingly developing long-term conditions and comorbidities associated with functional changes, reduced quality of life and reduced life expectancy. Diabetes mellitus is a common long-term condition in older people, with many individuals experiencing microvascular and/or macrovascular complications, alongside frailty and dementia. Symptoms of conditions such as hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia may change as a result of older age and long duration of, and complications associated with, diabetes; therefore, such symptoms can be challenging to recognise in older people...
September 13, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084293/recent-development-of-risk-prediction-models-for-incident-hypertension-an-updated-systematic-review
#18
Dongdong Sun, Jielin Liu, Lei Xiao, Ya Liu, Zuoguang Wang, Chuang Li, Yongxin Jin, Qiong Zhao, Shaojun Wen
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a leading global health threat and a major cardiovascular disease. Since clinical interventions are effective in delaying the disease progression from prehypertension to hypertension, diagnostic prediction models to identify patient populations at high risk for hypertension are imperative. METHODS: Both PubMed and Embase databases were searched for eligible reports of either prediction models or risk scores of hypertension. The study data were collected, including risk factors, statistic methods, characteristics of study design and participants, performance measurement, etc...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072342/use-of-long-term-data-to-evaluate-loss-and-endangerment-status-of-natura-2000-habitats-and-effects-of-protected-areas
#19
Marianna Biró, János Bölöni, Zsolt Molnár
Habitat loss is a key driver of biodiversity loss. However, hardly any long-term time series analyses of habitat loss are available above the local scale for finer-level habitat categories. In this paper we analyse, from a long-term perspective, the habitat specificity of habitat area loss, the change in trends since the fall of communism and the impact of protected areas on habitat loss. We studied twenty semi-natural habitat types in 5000 randomly selected localities over seven time periods between 1783 and 2013, using historical maps, archival and recent aerial/satellite imagery, botanical descriptions and field data...
October 26, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066972/adapting-pharmacoeconomics-to-shape-efficient-health-systems-en-route-to-uhc-lessons-from-two-continents
#20
Jacqui Miot, Michael Thiede
Background: Pharmacoeconomics is receiving increasing attention globally as a set of tools ensuring efficient use of resources in health systems, albeit with different applications depending on the contextual, cultural and development stages of each country. The factors guiding design, implementation and optimisation of pharmacoeconomics as a steering tool under the universal health coverage paradigm are explored using case studies of Germany and South Africa. Findings: German social health insurance is subject to the efficiency precept...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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