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Mobilization join

David M Dror, Arpita Chakraborty, Atanu Majumdar, Pradeep Panda, Ruth Koren
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The evidence-base of the impact of community-based health insurance (CBHI) on access to healthcare and financial protection in India is weak. We investigated the impact of CBHI in rural Uttar Pradesh and Bihar s0 tates of India on insured households' self-medication and financial position. METHODS: Data originated from (i) household surveys, and (ii) the Management Information System of each CBHI. Study design was "staggered implementation" cluster randomized controlled trial with enrollment of one-third of the treatment group in each of the years 2011, 2012 and 2013...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Jiawei Guan, Qian Zhao, Weifeng Mao
PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene characterized as a phosphatase that antagonizes the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway in the cytoplasm. Nuclear PTEN plays roles in chromosomal stability, in which the double-strand breaks (DSB) repair mediated by homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is critical. Herein, the role of nuclear PTEN in DSB repair and the underlying molecular mechanism was investigated in this study. Using human breast cancer BT549 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines, we reveal a specific feature of PTEN that controls poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of Ku70 and interferes with binding of Ku70 at DSB...
October 11, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Timothy L Haskett, Jason J Terpolilli, Amanuel Bekuma, Graham W O'Hara, John T Sullivan, Penghao Wang, Clive W Ronson, Joshua P Ramsay
Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are ubiquitous mobile genetic elements present as "genomic islands" within bacterial chromosomes. Symbiosis islands are ICEs that convert nonsymbiotic mesorhizobia into symbionts of legumes. Here we report the discovery of symbiosis ICEs that exist as three separate chromosomal regions when integrated in their hosts, but through recombination assemble as a single circular ICE for conjugative transfer. Whole-genome comparisons revealed exconjugants derived from nonsymbiotic mesorhizobia received three separate chromosomal regions from the donor Mesorhizobium ciceri WSM1271...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ilenia Pellarin, Laura Arnoldo, Silvia Costantini, Silvia Pegoraro, Gloria Ros, Carlotta Penzo, Gianluca Triolo, Francesca Demarchi, Riccardo Sgarra, Alessandro Vindigni, Guidalberto Manfioletti
The HMGA1 architectural transcription factor is an oncogene overexpressed in the vast majority of human cancers. HMGA1 is a highly connected node in the nuclear molecular network and the key aspect of HMGA1 involvement in cancer development is that HMGA1 simultaneously confers cells multiple oncogenic hits, ranging from global chromatin structural and gene expression modifications up to the direct functional alterations of key cellular proteins. Interestingly, HMGA1 also modulates DNA damage repair pathways...
2016: PloS One
Jennifer Zagelbaum, Noriko Shimazaki, Zitadel Anne Esguerra, Go Watanabe, Michael R Lieber, Eli Rothenberg
Single-molecule FRET (smFRET) and single-molecule colocalization (smCL) assays have allowed us to observe the recombination-activating gene (RAG) complex reaction mechanism in real time. Our smFRET data have revealed distinct bending modes at recombination signal sequence (RSS)-conserved regions before nicking and synapsis. We show that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) acts as a cofactor in stabilizing conformational changes at the 12RSS heptamer and increasing RAG1/2 binding affinity for 23RSS. Using smCL analysis, we have quantitatively measured RAG1/2 dwell time on 12RSS, 23RSS, and non-RSS DNA, confirming a strict RSS molecular specificity that was enhanced in the presence of a partner RSS in solution...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Divya Punwani, Misako Kawahara, Jason Yu, Ukina Sanford, Sushmita Roy, Kiran Patel, Denise A Carbonaro, Andrea D Karlen, Sara Khan, Kenneth G Cornetta, Michael Rothe, Axel Schambach, Donald B Kohn, Harry L Malech, R Scott McIvor, Jennifer M Puck, Morton J Cowan
During B and T lymphocyte maturation, V(D)J recombination is initiated by creation of DNA double-strand breaks. Artemis is an exonuclease essential for their subsequent repair by non-homologous end-joining. Mutations in DCLRE1C, the gene encoding Artemis, cause T-B-NK+ severe combined immunodeficiency (ART-SCID) and also confer heightened sensitivity to ionizing radiation and alkylating chemotherapy. Although allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can treat ART-SCID, conditioning regimens are poorly tolerated, leading to early mortality and/or late complications, including short stature, endocrinopathies, and dental aplasia...
September 9, 2016: Human Gene Therapy
Tadashi Ishii, Masaharu Nakayama, Michiaki Abe, Shin Takayama, Takashi Kamei, Yoshiko Abe, Jun Yamadera, Koichiro Amito, Kazuma Morino
UNLABELLED: Introduction There were 5,385 deceased and 710 missing in the Ishinomaki medical zone following the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred in Japan on March 11, 2011. The Ishinomaki Zone Joint Relief Team (IZJRT) was formed to unify the relief teams of all organizations joining in support of the Ishinomaki area. The IZJRT expanded relief activity as they continued to manually collect and analyze assessments of essential information for maintaining health in all 328 shelters using a paper-type survey...
October 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Elisha Kwaku Denkyirah, Elvis Dartey Okoffo, Derick Taylor Adu, Ahmed Abdul Aziz, Amoako Ofori, Elijah Kofi Denkyirah
Pesticides are a significant component of the modern agricultural technology that has been widely adopted across the globe to control pests, diseases, weeds and other plant pathogens, in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are said to be toxic and exposes farmers to risk due to the hazardous effects of these chemicals, pesticide use among cocoa farmers in Ghana is still high. Furthermore, cocoa farmers do not apply pesticide on their cocoa farms at the recommended frequency of application...
2016: SpringerPlus
Yasuo Ariumi
Long interspersed element type 1 (LINE-1, L1) is a mobile genetic element comprising about 17% of the human genome, encoding a newly identified ORF0 with unknown function, ORF1p with RNA-binding activity and ORF2p with endonuclease and reverse transcriptase activities required for L1 retrotransposition. L1 utilizes an endonuclease (EN) to insert L1 cDNA into target DNA, which induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is activated by DSBs and subsequently the ATM-signaling pathway plays a role in regulating L1 retrotransposition...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
Ineke Brouwer, Gerrit Sitters, Andrea Candelli, Stephanie J Heerema, Iddo Heller, Abinadabe J de Melo, Hongshan Zhang, Davide Normanno, Mauro Modesti, Erwin J G Peterman, Gijs J L Wuite
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the primary pathway for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammalian cells. Such breaks are formed, for example, during gene-segment rearrangements in the adaptive immune system or by cancer therapeutic agents. Although the core components of the NHEJ machinery are known, it has remained difficult to assess the specific roles of these components and the dynamics of bringing and holding the fragments of broken DNA together. The structurally similar XRCC4 and XLF proteins are proposed to assemble as highly dynamic filaments at (or near) DSBs...
July 28, 2016: Nature
Eric Ehrke-Schulz, Thorsten Bergmann, Maren Schiwon, Johannes Doerner, Kamola Saydaminova, Andre Lieber, Anja Ehrhardt
Designer nucleases are broadly applied to induce site-specific DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in genomic DNA. These are repaired by nonhomologous end joining leading to insertions or deletions (in/dels) at the respective DNA-locus. To detect in/del mutations, the heteroduplex based T7-endonuclease I -assay is widely used. However, it only provides semi-quantitative evidence regarding the number of mutated alleles. Here we compared T7-endonuclease I- and heteroduplex mobility assays, with a quantitative polymerase chain reaction mutation detection method...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Qiushi Guo, Andreas Pospischil, Maruf Bhuiyan, Hao Jiang, He Tian, Damon Farmer, Bingchen Deng, Cheng Li, Shu-Jen Han, Han Wang, Qiangfei Xia, Tso-Ping Ma, Thomas Mueller, Fengnian Xia
Recently, black phosphorus (BP) has joined the two-dimensional material family as a promising candidate for photonic applications due to its moderate bandgap, high carrier mobility, and compatibility with a diverse range of substrates. Photodetectors are probably the most explored BP photonic devices, however, their unique potential compared with other layered materials in the mid-infrared wavelength range has not been revealed. Here, we demonstrate BP mid-infrared detectors at 3.39 μm with high internal gain, resulting in an external responsivity of 82 A/W...
July 13, 2016: Nano Letters
Camille Gelot, Josée Guirouilh-Barbat, Bernard S Lopez
DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is essential for genome stability maintenance, but the joining of distant DNA double strand ends (DSEs) inevitably leads to genome rearrangements. Therefore, DSB repair should be tightly controlled to secure genome stability while allowing genetic variability. Tethering of the proximal ends of a 2-ended DSB limits their mobility, protecting thus against their joining with a distant DSE. However, replication stress generates DSBs with only one DSE, on which tethering is impossible...
July 3, 2016: Nucleus
Justin T Koufopoulos, Mark T Conner, Peter H Gardner, Ian Kellar
BACKGROUND: Online communities hold great potential as interventions for health, particularly for the management of chronic illness. The social support that online communities can provide has been associated with positive treatment outcomes, including medication adherence. There are few studies that have attempted to assess whether membership of an online community improves health outcomes using rigorous designs. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to conduct a rigorous proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial of an online community intervention for improving adherence to asthma medicine...
2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Andreas Kirschbaum, Afshin Teymoortash, Carlos Suárez, Jatin P Shah, Carl E Silver, Iain Nixon, Alessandra Rinaldo, Luiz P Kowalski, K Thomas Robbins, Alfio Ferlito
OBJECTIVE: Resection with direct tracheal or laryngotracheal anastomosis is the standard procedure employed for treatment of benign stenosis or occasionally primary or secondary tracheal malignancy. DATA SOURCES: Literature review. RESULTS: A tracheal anastomosis usually heals without complications provided that the ends being joined are adequately supplied with blood, an atraumatic suturing technique is used, and the anastomosis does not become infected...
December 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Zetao Bai, Jinfeng Chen, Yi Liao, Meijiao Wang, Rong Liu, Song Ge, Rod A Wing, Mingsheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Copy number variation (CNV), a complex genomic rearrangement, has been extensively studied in humans and other organisms. In plants, CNVs of several genes were found to be responsible for various important traits; however, the cause and consequence of CNVs remains largely unknown. Recently released next-generation sequencing (NGS) data provide an opportunity for a genome-wide study of CNVs in rice. RESULTS: Here, by an NGS-based approach, we generated a CNV map comprising 9,196 deletions compared to the reference genome 'Nipponbare'...
2016: BMC Genomics
Katsumi Yamaguchi, Masaki Kajikawa, Norihiro Okada
Long interspersed elements (LINEs), or non-long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, are mobile genetic elements that exist in the genomic DNA of most eukaryotes, comprising a considerable portion of the host chromosomes. LINEs constitute endogenous mutagens that cause insertional mutations in host chromosomes and have a large impact on host genome evolution. Despite their importance, however, the molecular mechanism of LINE retrotransposition is not fully understood. Several studies suggest that host proteins that participate in the repair of DNA breaks modulate LINE retrotransposition...
November 2015: Mobile Genetic Elements
Belete Mengitsu, Oumer Shafi, Biruck Kebede, Fikreab Kebede, Dagemlidet T Worku, Merce Herero, Michael French, Biruk Kebede, Charles Mackenzie, Sarah Martindale, Zeyede Kebede, Tigist Hirpa, Hannah Frawley, Kathryn Crowley, Maggie O'Neil, Scott McPherson
In June 2013, at the launch of its National Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Master Plan, the Ethiopian government pledged to achieve WHO NTD elimination and control targets by 2020. With an estimated 80 million people living in areas where one or more NTDs are endemic, this goal presented an enormous challenge for the Federal Ministry of Health. However, as of September 2015, the Federal Ministry of Health has managed to mobilize support to implement mass drug administration in 84% of the trachoma endemic districts and 100% of the endemic districts for onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthes and schistosomiasis...
March 2016: International Health
Constance Visovsky, Dianne Morrison- Beedy
Joining Forces is a comprehensive national initiative within the United States to mobilize all sectors of society to give service members and their families the opportunities and support they have earned. This national initiative begun in April 2012 was led by First Lady Michelle Obama and Dr. Jill Biden. The Joining Forces initiative is charged with enhancing the well-being and psychological health of the military family by providing mental health care services, integrating community-based services to reduce homelessness, substance abuse for veterans and military families...
February 18, 2016: Nurse Education Today
Yared G Yehualashet, Janet Horton, Pascal Mkanda, Rui G Vaz, Oluwole Afolabi, Sisay G Gashu, Richard Banda, Helena O'Malley, Peter Nsubuga
BACKGROUND: Since the World Health Assembly (WHA) resolved in 1988 to eradicate poliovirus, several rounds of immunization campaigns have been conducted by member states. By 2000, with the support of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners, the number of polio cases decreased by 99%. Eradicating the remaining 1% proved to be more challenging. Although the GPEI, being the largest public health project, required >$9 billion between 1988 and 2012, economic analysis showed the estimated incremental net benefits of $40 billion-$50 billion between 1988 and 2035...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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