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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769308/ca-2-activated-cl-currents-in-the-murine-vomeronasal-organ-enhance-neuronal-spiking-but-are-dispensable-for-male-male-aggression
#1
Jonas Münch, Gwendolyn Billig, Christian A Huebner, Trese Leinders-Zufall, Frank Zufall, Thomas J Jentsch
Ca2+-activated Cl- currents have been observed in many physiological processes, including sensory transduction in mammalian olfaction. The olfactory vomeronasal (or Jacobson's) organ (VNO) detects molecular cues originating from animals of the same species or from predators. It then triggers innate behaviors such as aggression, mating, or flight. In the VNO, Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) are thought to amplify the initial pheromone-evoked receptor potential by mediating a depolarizing Cl- efflux. Here, we confirmed the co-localization of the Ca2+-activated Cl- channels anoctamin 1 (Ano1, also called TMEM16A) and Ano2 (TMEM16B) in microvilli of apically and basally located vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) and their absence in supporting cells of the VNO...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760315/structural-differences-in-the-brain-between-wild-and-laboratory-rats-rattus-norvegicus-potential-contribution-to-wariness
#2
Ryoko Koizumi, Yasushi Kiyokawa, Kaori Mikami, Akiko Ishii, Kazuyuki D Tanaka, Tsutomu Tanikawa, Yukari Takeuchi
Wild animals typically exhibit defensive behaviors in response to a wider range and/or a weaker intensity of stimuli compared with domestic animals. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying "wariness" in wild animals. Wild rats are one of the most accessible wild animals for experimental research. Laboratory rats are a domesticated form of wild rat, belonging to the same species, and are therefore considered suitable control animals for wild rats. Based on these factors, we analyzed structural differences in the brain between wild and laboratory rats to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying wariness...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756687/comparing-the-sniffing-behavior-of-great-apes
#3
Susann Jänig, Brigitte M Weiß, Anja Widdig
The importance of smell in humans is well established but we know little about it in regard to our closest relatives, the great apes, as systematic studies on their olfactory behavior are still lacking. Olfaction has long been considered to be of lesser importance in hominids given their relatively smaller olfactory bulbs, fewer functional olfactory receptor genes than other species and absence of a functional vomeronasal organ. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of olfaction in hominids...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727729/an-alarm-pheromone-reduces-ventral-tegmental-area-nucleus-accumbens-shell-responsivity
#4
Ana G Gutiérrez-García, Carlos M Contreras, Mauricio Saldivar-Lara
2-Heptanone (methyl n-amyl ketone) is a ketone that produces alarm reactions in insects (e.g., bees and ants). As an olfactory stimulus, 2-heptanone produces anxiety reactions in the short term and despair in the long term in rodent models. Among the anatomical connections of the olfactory system that integrate behavioral responses, connections between the amygdala and nucleus accumbens are important, which in turn form a circuit with the ventral tegmental area (VTA). 2-Heptanone increases the firing rate of amygdala neurons without participation of the vomeronasal organ...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726667/-kallmann-syndrome-with-deafness-caused-by-sox10-mutation-advances-in-research
#5
REVIEW
Xi Zhou, Wei-Wei Li, Qiu-Yue Wu, Mao-Mao Yu, Xin-Yi Xia
The transcription factor SOX10, as a major actor in the development of the neural crest, plays a key role in the maintenance of progenitor cell multipotency, lineage specification, and cell differentiation. Abnormalities of neural crest development in humans lead to a number of genetic diseases known as neurocristopathies or neural crest disorders. The mutation of SOX10 can cause Kallmann syndrome (KS), which is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition and defined by the association between anosmia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to incomplete migration of neuroendocrine gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) cells along the olfactory, vomeronasal, and terminal nerves...
September 2017: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712784/temporal-response-properties-of-accessory-olfactory-bulb-neurons-limitations-and-opportunities-for-decoding
#6
Michal Yoles-Frenkel, Anat Kahan, Yoram Ben-Shaul
The vomeronasal system (VNS) is a major vertebrate chemosensory system that functions in parallel to the main olfactory system (MOS). Despite many similarities, the two systems dramatically differ in the temporal domain. While MOS responses are governed by breathing and follow a sub-second temporal scale, VNS responses are uncoupled from breathing and evolve over seconds. This suggests that the contribution of response dynamics to stimulus information will differ between these systems. While temporal dynamics in the MOS are widely investigated, similar analyses in the AOB are lacking...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706092/normal-feline-behaviour-%C3%A2-and-why-problem-behaviours-develop
#7
John Bradshaw
Practical relevance: Cats are descended from a solitary, territorial ancestor, and while domestication has reduced their inherited tendency to be antagonistic towards all animals larger than their typical prey, they still place more reliance on the security of their territory than on psychological attachments to people or other cats, the exact opposite to dogs. Many feline problem behaviours stem from perceived threats to this security, often due to conflicts with other cats. Others are more developmental in origin, often caused by inadequate exposure to crucial stimuli, especially people, during the socialisation period...
May 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672316/immunolocalization-of-receptor-and-chemoreceptor-modules-in-the-sheep-vomeronasal-organ
#8
Dalia Ibrahim
The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is the peripheral receptor organ of the accessory olfactory system, which is responsible for both sexual and innate behaviors. The degree of neuronal differentiation and maturation of the vomeronasal receptor cells together with the verification of the presence of the solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) in the VNO of Corriedale sheep were assessed using immunofluorescence. A protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), which is a neuronal marker recognized to be expressed in most neurons of vertebrate species, an olfactory marker protein (OMP) that is precise for mature olfactory receptor cells, and lastly phospholipase C-β2 (PLC-β2), a marker in the signal transduction pathway of SCCs, were all tested...
April 19, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651421/when-the-nose-doesn-t-know-canine-olfactory-function-associated-with-health-management-and-potential-links-to-microbiota
#9
REVIEW
Eileen K Jenkins, Mallory T DeChant, Erin B Perry
The impact of health, management, and microbiota on olfactory function in canines has not been examined in review. The most important characteristic of the detection canine is its sense of smell. Olfactory receptors are primarily located on the ethmoturbinates of the nasal cavity. The vomeronasal organ is an additional site of odor detection that detects chemical signals that stimulate behavioral and/or physiological changes. Recent advances in the genetics of olfaction suggest that genetic changes, along with the unique anatomy and airflow of the canine nose, are responsible for the macrosmia of the species...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606417/identification-of-an-intra-and-inter-specific-tear-protein-signal-in-rodents
#10
Mai Tsunoda, Kazunari Miyamichi, Ryo Eguchi, Yasuo Sakuma, Yoshihiro Yoshihara, Takefumi Kikusui, Masayoshi Kuwahara, Kazushige Touhara
Rodents use the vomeronasal olfactory system to acquire both inter- and intra-specific information from the external environment and take appropriate actions. For example, urinary proteins from predator species elicit avoidance in mice, while those from male mice attract female mice. In addition to urinary proteins, recent studies have highlighted the importance of lacrimal proteins for intra-specific communications in mice. However, whether the tear fluid of other species also mediates social signals remains unknown...
March 28, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589282/haploinsufficiency-of-six3-abolishes-male-reproductive-behavior-through-disrupted-olfactory-development-and-impairs-female-fertility-through-disrupted-gnrh-neuron-migration
#11
Erica C Pandolfi, Hanne M Hoffmann, Erica L Schoeller, Michael R Gorman, Pamela L Mellon
Mating behavior in males and females is dependent on olfactory cues processed through both the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO). Signaling through the MOE is critical for the initiation of male mating behavior, and the loss of MOE signaling severely compromises this comportment. Here, we demonstrate that dosage of the homeodomain gene Six3 affects the degree of development of MOE but not the VNO. Anomalous MOE development in Six3 heterozygote mice leads to hyposmia, specifically disrupting male mounting behavior by impairing detection of volatile female estrus pheromones...
March 27, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562344/the-birth-and-death-of-olfactory-receptor-gene-families-in-mammalian-niche-adaptation
#12
Graham M Hughes, Emma M Boston, John A Finarelli, William J Murphy, Desmond G Higgins, Emma C Teeling
The olfactory receptor (OR) gene families, which govern mammalian olfaction, have undergone extensive expansion and contraction through duplication and pseudogenization. Previous studies have shown that broadly-defined environmental adaptations (e.g terrestrial vs aquatic) are correlated with the number of functional and non-functional OR genes retained. However, to date, no study has examined species-specific gene duplications in multiple phylogenetically divergent mammals to elucidate OR evolution and adaptation...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552725/age-dependent-decrease-in-glomeruli-and-receptor-cells-containing-%C3%AE-1-2-fucose-glycan-in-the-mouse-main-olfactory-system-but-not-in-the-vomeronasal-system
#13
Daisuke Kondoh, Motoki Sasaki, Nobuo Kitamura
Receptor cells of the olfactory epithelium (OE) and vomeronasal organ (VNO) project axons to glomeruli in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), respectively and undergo continuous turnover throughout life. Alpha1-2 fucose (α1-2Fuc) glycan mediates neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity and plays important roles in the formation of the olfactory system during development. We previously confirmed the localization of α1-2Fuc glycan in the olfactory system of 3- to 4-month-old mice but whether such localization persists throughout life remains unknown...
March 19, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540650/glycoconjugate-expression-in-the-olfactory-bulb-of-the-premetamorphic-larva-of-the-japanese-sword-tailed-newt-cynops-ensicauda
#14
Toshiyasu Matsui, Yasushi Kobayashi
We examined the organization of the olfactory organ and assessed the lectin histochemistry to investigate the glycoconjugate distribution of the olfactory bulb in premetamorphic larvae of Cynops ensicauda. The nasal cavity was an oval chamber that contained olfactory epithelium and a primitive vomeronasal organ. Secretory products were found in the supporting cells of the two sensory epithelia and in the respiratory cells. Ten lectins bound to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerve fibers as well as to the glomeruli in the olfactory bulb...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465786/subpopulations-of-vomeronasal-sensory-neurons-with-coordinated-coexpression-of-type-2-vomeronasal-receptor-genes-are-differentially-dependent-on-vmn2r1
#15
Sachiko Akiyoshi, Tomohiro Ishii, Zhaodai Bai, Peter Mombaerts
The mouse vomeronasal organ is specialized in the detection of pheromones. Vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) express chemosensory receptors of two large gene repertoires, V1R and V2R, which encode G-protein-coupled receptors. Phylogenetically, four families of V2R genes can be discerned as follows: A, B, C, and D. VSNs located in the basal layer of the vomeronasal epithelium coordinately coexpress V2R genes from two families: Approximately half of basal VSNs coexpress Vmn2r1 of family C with a single V2R gene of family A8-10, B, or D ('C1 type of V2Rs'), and the other half coexpress Vmn2r2 through Vmn2r7 of family C with a single V2R gene of family A1-6 ('C2 type V2Rs')...
April 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459883/transcriptomic-and-proteomic-profiling-revealed-high-proportions-of-odorant-binding-and-antimicrobial-defense-proteins-in-olfactory-tissues-of-the-house-mouse
#16
Barbora Kuntová, Romana Stopková, Pavel Stopka
Mammalian olfaction depends on chemosensory neurons of the main olfactory epithelia (MOE), and/or of the accessory olfactory epithelia in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). Thus, we have generated the VNO and MOE transcriptomes and the nasal cavity proteome of the house mouse, Mus musculus musculus . Both transcriptomes had low levels of sexual dimorphisms, while the soluble proteome of the nasal cavity revealed high levels of sexual dimorphism similar to that previously reported in tears and saliva. Due to low levels of sexual dimorphism in the olfactory receptors in MOE and VNO, the sex-specific sensing seems less likely to be dependent on receptor repertoires...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427775/survival-of-mature-mouse-olfactory-sensory-neurons-labeled-genetically-perinatally
#17
Anna-Maria Holl
The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of an adult mouse harbors a few million mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which are traditionally defined as mature by their expression of the olfactory marker protein (OMP). Mature OSNs differentiate in situ from stem cells at the base of the MOE. The consensus view is that mature OSNs have a defined lifespan and then undergo programmed cell death, and that the adult MOE maintains homeostasis by generating new mature OSNs from stem cells. But there is also evidence for mature OSNs that are long-lived...
April 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374161/female-sexual-behavior-in-mice-is-controlled-by-kisspeptin-neurons
#18
Vincent Hellier, Olivier Brock, Michael Candlish, Elodie Desroziers, Mari Aoki, Christian Mayer, Richard Piet, Allan Herbison, William Henry Colledge, Vincent Prévot, Ulrich Boehm, Julie Bakker
Sexual behavior is essential for the survival of many species. In female rodents, mate preference and copulatory behavior depend on pheromones and are synchronized with ovulation to ensure reproductive success. The neural circuits driving this orchestration in the brain have, however, remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that neurons controlling ovulation in the mammalian brain are at the core of a branching neural circuit governing both mate preference and copulatory behavior. We show that male odors detected in the vomeronasal organ activate kisspeptin neurons in female mice...
January 26, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298295/synchrotron-microtomography-of-a-nothosaurus-marchicus-skull-informs-on-nothosaurian-physiology-and-neurosensory-adaptations-in-early-sauropterygia
#19
Dennis F A E Voeten, Tobias Reich, Ricardo Araújo, Torsten M Scheyer
Nothosaurs form a subclade of the secondarily marine Sauropterygia that was well represented in late Early to early Late Triassic marine ecosystems. Here we present and discuss the internal skull anatomy of the small piscivorous nothosaur Nothosaurus marchicus from coastal to shallow marine Lower Muschelkalk deposits (Anisian) of Winterswijk, The Netherlands, which represents the oldest sauropterygian endocast visualized to date. The cranial endocast is only partially encapsulated by ossified braincase elements...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283508/the-lack-of-nasolacrimal-ducts-in-plethodontid-salamanders
#20
Dustin S Siegel, Michael S Taylor, David M Sever, Stanley E Trauth
Nasolacrimal ducts are a terrestrial vertebrate adaptation and appear to have co-evolved with orbital glands. Although plethodontid salamanders possess orbital glands, a recent study concluded that plethodontid salamanders lack nasolacrimal ducts. Functionally, the absence of nasolacrimal ducts closes the route for orbital gland secretion passage into the nasal and vomeronasal organ cavities. Orbital glands have been implicated in enhancement of vomeronasal function so loss could have important implications for communication...
December 28, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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