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Vomeronasal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677202/dreadd-induced-silencing-of-the-medial-amygdala-reduces-the-preference-for-male-pheromones-and-the-expression-of-lordosis-in-estrous-female-mice
#1
Elizabeth A McCarthy, Arman Maqsudlu, Matthew Bass, Sofia Georghiou, James A Cherry, Michael J Baum
Sexually naïve estrous female mice seek out male urinary pheromones; however, they initially display little receptive (lordosis) behavior in response to male mounts. Vomeronasal-accessory olfactory bulb inputs to the medial amygdala (Me) regulate courtship in female rodents. We used a reversible inhibitory chemogenetic technique (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs; DREADDs) to assess the contribution of Me signaling to females' preference for male pheromones and improvement in receptivity normally seen with repeated testing...
July 5, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652375/evolution-of-immune-chemoreceptors-into-sensors-of-the-outside-world
#2
Quentin Dietschi, Joël Tuberosa, Lone Rösingh, Gregory Loichot, Manuel Ruedi, Alan Carleton, Ivan Rodriguez
Changes in gene expression patterns represent an essential source of evolutionary innovation. A striking case of neofunctionalization is the acquisition of neuronal specificity by immune formyl peptide receptors (Fprs). In mammals, Fprs are expressed by immune cells, where they detect pathogenic and inflammatory chemical cues. In rodents, these receptors are also expressed by sensory neurons of the vomeronasal organ, an olfactory structure mediating innate avoidance behaviors. Here we show that two gene shuffling events led to two independent acquisitions of neuronal specificity by Fprs...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626946/do-changes-in-gene-expression-contribute-to-sexual-isolation-and-reinforcement-in-the-house-mouse
#3
Etienne Loire, Sergio Tusso, Pierre Caminade, Dany Severac, Pierre Boursot, Guila Ganem, Carole M Smadja
Expression divergence, rather than sequence divergence, has been shown to be important in speciation, particularly in the early stages of divergence of traits involved in reproductive isolation. In the two European subspecies of house mice, Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus, earlier studies have demonstrated olfactory-based assortative mate preference in populations close to their hybrid zone. It has been suggested that this behaviour evolved following the recent secondary contact between the two taxa (~3,000 years ago) in response to selection against hybridisation...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588456/activity-dependent-modulation-of-granule-cell-survival-in-the-accessory-olfactory-bulb-at-puberty
#4
Livio Oboti, Sara Trova, Roberta Schellino, Marilena Marraudino, Natalie R Harris, Olubukola M Abiona, Mojca Stampar, Weihong Lin, Paolo Peretto
The vomeronasal system (VNS) is specialized in the detection of salient chemical cues triggering social and neuroendocrine responses. Such responses are not always stereotyped, instead, they vary depending on age, sex, and reproductive state, yet the mechanisms underlying this variability are unclear. Here, by analyzing neuronal survival in the first processing nucleus of the VNS, namely the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), through multiple bromodeoxyuridine birthdating protocols, we show that exposure of female mice to male soiled bedding material affects the integration of newborn granule interneurons mainly after puberty...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543083/afferent-and-efferent-projections-of-the-anterior-cortical-amygdaloid-nucleus-in-the-mouse
#5
Bernardita Cádiz-Moretti, María Abellán-Álvaro, Cecília Pardo-Bellver, Fernando Martínez-García, Enrique Lanuza
The anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus (ACo) is a chemosensory area of the cortical amygdala that receives afferent projections from both the main and accessory olfactory bulbs. The role of this structure is unknown, partially due to a lack of knowledge of its connectivity. In this work, we describe the pattern of afferent and efferent projections of the ACo by using fluorogold and biotinylated dextranamines as retrograde and anterograde tracers, respectively. The results show that the ACo is reciprocally connected with the olfactory system and basal forebrain, as well as with the chemosensory and basomedial amygdala...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515207/early-social-learning-triggers-neurogenomic-expression-changes-in-a-swordtail-fish
#6
Rongfeng Cui, Pablo J Delclos, Molly Schumer, Gil G Rosenthal
Mate choice can play a pivotal role in the nature and extent of reproductive isolation between species. Mating preferences are often dependent on an individual's social experience with adult phenotypes throughout development. We show that olfactory preference in a swordtail fish (Xiphophorus malinche) is affected by previous experience with adult olfactory signals. We compare transcriptome-wide gene expression levels of pooled sensory and brain tissues between three treatment groups that differ by social experience: females with no adult exposure, females exposed to conspecifics and females exposed to heterospecifics...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514374/-the-role-of-the-vomeronasal-system-in-the-formation-of-the-human-sexual-behaviour
#7
REVIEW
S V Morozova, D M Savvateeva, V M Svistushkin, L A Toporkova
This review deals with the structure and function of the vomeronasal system and evaluation of its influence on the sexual sphere of humans and animals. Special attention is given to the role of pheromones in the regulation of the sexual behaviour. The data concerning the function of the vomeronasal organ following surgical interventions in the nasal cavity are discussed.
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503895/quantitative-comparative-analysis-of-the-nasal-chemosensory-organs-of-anurans-during-larval-development-and-metamorphosis-highlights-the-relative-importance-of-chemosensory-subsystems-in-the-group
#8
Lucas David Jungblut, John O Reiss, Dante A Paz, Andrea G Pozzi
The anuran peripheral olfactory system is composed of a number of subsystems, represented by distinct neuroepithelia. These include the main olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ (found in most tetrapods) and three specialized epithelia of anurans: the buccal-exposed olfactory epithelium of larvae, and the olfactory recess and middle chamber epithelium of postmetamorphic animals. To better characterize the developmental changes in these subsystems across the life cycle, morphometric changes of the nasal chemosensory organs during larval development and metamorphosis were analyzed in three different anuran species (Rhinella arenarum, Hypsiboas pulchellus, and Xenopus laevis)...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476589/in-vivo-stimulus-presentation-to-the-mouse-vomeronasal-system-surgery-experiment-setup-and-software
#9
Michal Yoles-Frenkel, Oksana Cohen, Rohini Bansal, Noa Horesh, Yoram Ben-Shaul
BACKGROUND: Achieving controlled stimulus delivery is a major challenge in the physiological analysis of the vomeronasal system (VNS). NEW METHOD: We provide a comprehensive description of a setup allowing controlled stimulus delivery into the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of anesthetized mice. VNO suction is achieved via electrical stimulation of the sympathetic nerve trunk (SNT) using cuff electrodes, followed by flushing of the nasal cavity. Successful application of this methodology depends on several aspects including the surgical preparation, fabrication of cuff electrodes, experimental setup modifications, and the stimulus delivery and flushing...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458780/identification-of-olfactory-receptor-genes-in-the-japanese-grenadier-anchovy-coilia-nasus
#10
Guoli Zhu, Liangjiang Wang, Wenqiao Tang, Xiaomei Wang, Cong Wang
Olfaction is essential for fish to detect odorant elements in the environment and plays a critical role in navigating, locating food and detecting predators. Olfactory function is produced by the olfactory transduction pathway and is activated by olfactory receptors (ORs) through the binding of odorant elements. Recently, four types of olfactory receptors have been identified in vertebrate olfactory epithelium, including main odorant receptors (MORs), vomeronasal type receptors (VRs), trace-amine associated receptors (TAARs) and formyl peptide receptors (FPRs)...
2017: Genes & Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440809/a-missense-polymorphism-in-the-putative-pheromone-receptor-gene-vn1r1-is-associated-with-sociosexual-behavior
#11
S Henningsson, D Hovey, K Vass, H Walum, K Sandnabba, P Santtila, P Jern, L Westberg
Pheromones regulate social and reproductive behavior in most mammalian species. These effects are mediated by the vomeronasal and main olfactory systems. Effects of putative pheromones on human neuroendocrine activity, brain activity and attractiveness ratings suggest that humans may communicate via similar chemosignaling. Here we studied two samples of younger and older individuals, respectively, with respect to one nonsynonymous polymorphism in the gene encoding the human vomeronasal type-1 receptor 1, VN1R1, and one nonsynonymous polymorphism in the gene encoding the olfactory receptor OR7D4...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420967/organization-and-plasticity-of-sodium-channel-expression-in-the-mouse-olfactory-and-vomeronasal-epithelia
#12
Florian Bolz, Stephanie Kasper, Bernd Bufe, Frank Zufall, Martina Pyrski
To understand the molecular basis of neuronal excitation in the mammalian olfactory system, we conducted a systematic analysis of the organization of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel subunits in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and vomeronasal organ (VNO) of adult mice. We also analyzed changes in Nav channel expression during development in these two systems and during regeneration of the MOE. Quantitative PCR shows that Nav1.7 is the predominant isoform in both adult MOE and VNO. We detected pronounced immunoreactivity for Nav1...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417051/morphology-of-cat-vomeronasal-organ-non-sensory-epithelium-during-postnatal-development
#13
Sanaa A M Elgayar, Heba M Saad-Eldin, Ola A Haussein
The vomeronasal organ has an important role in mammal's social and sexual behaviours. In addition, it mediates defensive behavior through detection of protein pheromone homologues. In this work, a detailed morphological description of the postnatal development of the non-sensory epithelium (NSE) lining the vomeronasal duct (VND) of the female cat is provided using various histological techniques. The study focused on newborn, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks of postnatal ages using four animals for each age. We report here for the first time that three types of NSE line the rostral segment of the VND; nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium, stratified cuboidal epithelium, and ciliated pseudo stratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells and that the VND undergoes 90° a change in its its axis from the vertical position caudally to the horizontal position rostral...
March 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374006/optogenetic-activation-of-accessory-olfactory-bulb-input-to-the-forebrain-differentially-modulates-investigation-of-opposite-versus-same-sex-urinary-chemosignals-and-stimulates-mating-in-male-mice
#14
Tenzin Kunkhyen, Elizabeth A McCarthy, Wayne J Korzan, Danielle Doctor, Xue Han, Michael J Baum, James A Cherry
Surgical or genetic disruption of vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) function previously eliminated the ability of male mice to processes pheromones that elicit territorial behavior and aggression. By contrast, neither disruption significantly affected mating behaviors, although VNO lesions reduced males' investigation of nonvolatile female pheromones. We explored the contribution of VNO-AOB pheromonal processing to male courtship using optogenetic activation of AOB projections to the forebrain...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358844/olfactory-effects-of-a-hypervariable-multicomponent-pheromone-in-the-red-legged-salamander-plethodon-shermani
#15
Damien B Wilburn, Kari A Doty, Adam J Chouinard, Sarah L Eddy, Sarah K Woodley, Lynne D Houck, Richard C Feldhoff
Chemical communication via chemosensory signaling is an essential process for promoting and modifying reproductive behavior in many species. During courtship in plethodontid salamanders, males deliver a mixture of non-volatile proteinaceous pheromones that activate chemosensory neurons in the vomeronasal epithelium (VNE) and increase female receptivity. One component of this mixture, Plethodontid Modulating Factor (PMF), is a hypervariable pheromone expressed as more than 30 unique isoforms that differ between individual males-likely driven by co-evolution with female receptors to promote gene duplication and positive selection of the PMF gene complex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333390/epithelial-crypts-a-complex-and-enigmatic-olfactory-organ-in-african-and-south-american-lungfish-lepidosireniformes-dipnoi
#16
Carolin Wittmer, Christine Nowack
African lungfish (Protopterus) seem unique among osteognathostomes in possessing a potential vomeronasal organ homolog in form of accessory epithelial crypts within their nasal cavity. Many details regarding structural and functional properties of these crypts are still unexplored. In this study, we reinvestigate the issue and also present the first data on epithelial crypts in the South American lungfish Lepidosiren paradoxa. The nasal cavities of L. paradoxa and Protopterus annectens were studied using histology, scanning electron microscopy, and alcian blue and PAS staining...
June 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280461/glutamate-and-opioid-antagonists-modulate-dopamine-levels-evoked-by-innately-attractive-male-chemosignals-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-female-rats
#17
María-José Sánchez-Catalán, Alejandro Orrico, Lucía Hipólito, Teodoro Zornoza, Ana Polache, Enrique Lanuza, Fernando Martínez-García, Luis Granero, Carmen Agustín-Pavón
Sexual chemosignals detected by vomeronasal and olfactory systems mediate intersexual attraction in rodents, and act as a natural reinforcer to them. The mesolimbic pathway processes natural rewards, and the nucleus accumbens receives olfactory information via glutamatergic projections from the amygdala. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the mesolimbic pathway in the attraction toward sexual chemosignals. Our data show that female rats with no previous experience with males or their chemosignals display an innate preference for male-soiled bedding...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192871/sinus-septi-nasi-anatomical-study
#18
Ranko Mladina, Romano Antunović, Cemal Cingi, Nuray Bayar Muluk, Neven Skitarelić
The aim of this study was to perform a pioneering investigation into the incidence of pneumatization in human skulls. A total of 93 human skulls (≥20 years of age, 69 males, 24 females) were included in the study. The skulls were scanned in a fixed position using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The pneumatized space parameters within the nasal septum-width, length, and height-were measured. Two types of finding were identified: (a) Pneumatization, named "sinus septi nasi" (SSN), and (b) "spongy bone" (SB)...
April 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159658/the-rat-vomeronasal-organ-is-a-vitamin-d-target
#19
A Rodewald, V M Gebhart, H Oehring, G F Jirikowski
We studied the expression of vitamin D receptor and of vitamin D binding protein in the rat vomeronasal organ. With immunofluorescence, in situ hybridization and with reverse transcriptase PCR we found both proteins in sensory as well as in non-sensory cells. Sensory neurons contained immunoreactivity for vitamin D3 receptor in nuclei, in portions of the cytoplasm, and in apical dendrites and their microvilli. Vitamin D binding protein was observed in sensory neuron axons and cytoplasm, mostly confined to dendrites...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152579/5htr3a-driven-gfp-labels-immature-olfactory-sensory-neurons
#20
Thomas E Finger, Dianna L Bartel, Nicole Shultz, Noah B Goodson, Charles A Greer
The ionotropic serotonin receptor, 5-HT3 , is expressed by many developing neurons within the central nervous system. Since the olfactory epithelium continues to generate new olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) throughout life, we investigated the possibility that 5-HT3 is expressed in the adult epithelium. Using a transgenic mouse in which the promoter for the 5-HT3a subunit drives expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP), we assessed the expression of this marker in the olfactory epithelium of adult mice...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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