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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120694/analysis-of-pig-vomeronasal-receptor-type-1-v1r-promoter-region-reveals-a-common-promoter-motif-but-poor-cpg-islands
#1
Hunduma Dinka, Minh Thong Le
Promoters are, generally, located immediately upstream of a transcription start site (TSS) and have a variety of regulatory motifs, such as transcription factors (TFs) and CpG islands (CGIs), that participate in the regulation of gene expression. Here analysis of the promoter region for pig vomeronasal receptor type 1 (V1R) was described. In the analysis, TSSs for pig V1R genes was first identified and five motifs (MV1, MV2, MV3, MV4, and MV5) were found that are shared by at least 50% of the pig V1R promoter input sequences from both strands...
November 9, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052233/heterogeneous-expression-of-glycoconjugates-in-the-primary-olfactory-centre-of-the-japanese-sword-tailed-newt-cynops-ensicauda
#2
T Matsui, K Tanaka, Y Kobayashi
Histochemical organization of the Caudata olfactory system remains largely unknown, despite this amphibian order showing phylogenetic diversity in the development of the vomeronasal organ and its primary centre, the accessory olfactory bulb. Here, we investigated the glycoconjugate distribution in the olfactory bulb of a semi-aquatic salamander, the Japanese sword-tailed newt (Cynops ensicauda), by histochemical analysis of the lectins that were present. Eleven lectins showed a specific binding to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerves as well as to the olfactory glomeruli...
October 19, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033330/exocrine-gland-secreting-peptide-1-is-a-key-chemosensory-signal-responsible-for-the-bruce-effect-in-mice
#3
Tatsuya Hattori, Takuya Osakada, Takuto Masaoka, Rumi Ooyama, Nao Horio, Kazutaka Mogi, Miho Nagasawa, Sachiko Haga-Yamanaka, Kazushige Touhara, Takefumi Kikusui
The Bruce effect refers to pregnancy termination in recently pregnant female rodents upon exposure to unfamiliar males [1]. This event occurs in specific combinations of laboratory mouse strains via the vomeronasal system [2, 3]; however, the responsible chemosensory signals have not been fully identified. Here we demonstrate that the male pheromone exocrine gland-secreting peptide 1 (ESP1) is one of the key factors that causes pregnancy block. Female mice exhibited high pregnancy failure rates upon encountering males that secreted different levels of ESP1 compared to the mated male...
October 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029805/glycan-diversity-in-the-vomeronasal-organ-of-the-korean-roe-deer-capreolus-pygargus-a-lectin-histochemical-study
#4
Taekyun Shin, Jeongtae Kim, Yuna Choi, Meejung Ahn
Glycans in the epithelium play an important role in cell-to-cell communication and adhesion. No detailed evaluation of glycoconjugates in the vomeronasal organs (VNO) of the roe deer has been published previously. The aim of this study was to characterize glycan epitopes in the vomeronasal sensory epithelium (VSE) and non-sensory epithelium (VNSE) using lectin histochemistry. Glycan epitopes identified by lectin histochemistry were grouped as follows: N-acetylglucosamine (s-WGA, WGA, BSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL), mannose (Con A, LCA, PSA), galactose (RCA120, BSL-I, Jacalin, PNA, ECL), N-acetylgalactosamine (VVA, DBA, SBA, and SJA), fucose (UEA-I) and complex type N-glycan (PHA-E and PHA-L) groups...
October 10, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973792/rostro-caudal-maturation-of-glial-cells-in-the-accessory-olfactory-system-during-development-involvement-in-outgrowth-of-gnrh-neurites
#5
Sarah Geller, Didier Lomet, Alain Caraty, Yves Tillet, Anne Duittoz, Pascal Vaudin
During mammalian embryonic development, GnRH neurones differentiate from the nasal placode and migrate through the nasal septum towards the forebrain. We previously showed that a category of glial cells, the olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC), forms the microenvironment of migrating GnRH neurones. Here, to characterize the quantitative and qualitative importance of this glial, we investigated the spatiotemporal maturation of glial cells in situ and the role of maturing glia in GnRH neurones development ex vivo...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970231/the-terminal-nerve-plays-a-prominent-role-in-gnrh-1-neuronal-migration-independent-from-proper-olfactory-and-vomeronasal-connections-to-the-olfactory-bulbs
#6
Ed Zandro M Taroc, Aparna Prasad, Jennifer M Lin, Paolo E Forni
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH-1) neurons (GnRH-1 ns) migrate from the developing olfactory pit into the hypothalamus during embryonic development. Migration of the GnRH-1 neurons is required for mammalian reproduction as these cells control release of gonadotropins from the anterior pituitary gland. Disturbances in GnRH-1 ns migration, GnRH-1 synthesis, secretion or signaling lead to varying degrees of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), which impairs pubertal onset and fertility. HH associated with congenital olfactory defects is clinically defined as Kallmann Syndrome (KS)...
October 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966738/olfactory-impairment-is-related-to-rem-sleep-deprivation-in-rotenone-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Mariana F Aurich, Lais S Rodrigues, Adriano D S Targa, Ana Carolina D Noseda, Flávia D W Cunha, Marcelo M S Lima
INTRODUCTION: Olfactory dysfunction affects about 85-90% of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with severe deterioration in the ability of discriminate several types of odors. In addition, studies reported declines in olfactory performances during a short period of sleep deprivation. Besides, PD is also known to strongly affect the occurrence and maintenance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. METHODS: Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms involved on discrimination of a social odor (dependent on the vomeronasal system) and a non-social odor (related to the main olfactory pathway) in the rotenone model of PD...
January 2017: Sleep Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962851/steroidal-pheromones-and-their-potential-target-sites-in-the-vomeronasal-organ
#8
Rodewald Andrea, Mills Daniel, M Veronika Gebhart, Gustav F Jirikowski
Steroids are important olfactory signals in most mammalian species. The vomeronasal organ has been suspected to be the primary target of pheromones. In rat vomeronasal sensory neurons express steroid binding proteins and nuclear receptors. Some binding globulins were found also in single ciliated cells of the non-sensory vomeronasal epithelium. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed VDR in olfactory microvilli and DPB in apical membrane protrusions of supporting sells within the sensory epithelium. Pilot behavioral studies with dogs showed increased sniffing duration upon exposure to low concentrations of vitamin D while higher concentrations were less effective...
September 26, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954202/ciliopathy-protein-tmem107-plays-multiple-roles-in-craniofacial-development
#9
P Cela, M Hampl, N A Shylo, K J Christopher, M Kavkova, M Landova, T Zikmund, S D Weatherbee, J Kaiser, M Buchtova
A broad spectrum of human diseases called ciliopathies is caused by defective primary cilia morphology or signal transduction. The primary cilium is a solitary organelle that responds to mechanical and chemical stimuli from extracellular and intracellular environments. Transmembrane protein 107 (TMEM107) is localized in the primary cilium and is enriched at the transition zone where it acts to regulate protein content of the cilium. Mutations in TMEM107 were previously connected with oral-facial-digital syndrome, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, and Joubert syndrome exhibiting a range of ciliopathic defects...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948636/the-ontogeny-of-the-olfactory-system-in-ceratophryid-frogs-anura-ceratophryidae
#10
Silvia I Quinzio, John O Reiss
The aquatic-to-terrestrial shift in the life cycle of most anurans suggests that the differences between the larval and adult morphology of the nose are required for sensory function in two media with different physical characteristics. However, a better controlled test of specialization to medium is to compare adult stages of terrestrial frogs with those that remain fully aquatic as adults. The Ceratophryidae is a monophyletic group of neotropical frogs whose diversification from a common terrestrial ancestor gave rise to both terrestrial (Ceratophrys, Chacophrys) and aquatic (Lepidobatrachus) adults...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871220/the-vomeronasal-organ-a-neglected-organ
#11
Biagio D'Aniello, Gün R Semin, Anna Scandurra, Claudia Pinelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871144/evolutionary-morphology-of-the-lizard-chemosensory-system
#12
Simon Baeckens, Anthony Herrel, Chris Broeckhoven, Menelia Vasilopoulou-Kampitsi, Katleen Huyghe, Jana Goyens, Raoul Van Damme
Foraging mode plays a pivotal role in traditional reconstructions of squamate evolution. Transitions between modes are said to spark concerted changes in the morphology, physiology, behaviour, and life history of lizards. With respect to their sensory systems, species that adopt a sit-and-wait strategy are thought to rely on visual cues primarily, while actively hunting species would predominantly use chemical information. The morphology of the tongue and the vomeronasal-organs is believed to mirror this dichotomy...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860523/type-3-inositol-1-4-5-trisphosphate-receptor-is-dispensable-for-sensory-activation-of-the-mammalian-vomeronasal-organ
#13
Pablo Chamero, Jan Weiss, María Teresa Alonso, Macarena Rodríguez-Prados, Chihiro Hisatsune, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Trese Leinders-Zufall, Frank Zufall
Signal transduction in sensory neurons of the mammalian vomeronasal organ (VNO) involves the opening of the canonical transient receptor potential channel Trpc2, a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel that is activated by diacylglycerol and inhibited by Ca(2+)-calmodulin. There has been a long-standing debate about the extent to which the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) and type 3 InsP3 receptor (InsP3R3) are involved in the opening of Trpc2 channels and in sensory activation of the VNO. To address this question, we investigated VNO function of mice carrying a knockout mutation in the Itpr3 locus causing a loss of InsP3R3...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855563/synchronized-activity-in-the-main-and-accessory-olfactory-bulbs-and-vomeronasal-amygdala-elicited-by-chemical-signals-in-freely-behaving-mice
#14
Cecília Pardo-Bellver, Sergio Martínez-Bellver, Fernando Martínez-García, Enrique Lanuza, Vicent Teruel-Martí
Chemosensory processing in mammals involves the olfactory and vomeronasal systems, but how the activity of both circuits is integrated is unknown. In our study, we recorded the electrophysiological activity in the olfactory bulbs and the vomeronasal amygdala in freely behaving mice exploring a battery of neutral and conspecific stimuli. The exploration of stimuli, including a neutral stimulus, induced synchronic activity in the olfactory bulbs characterized by a dominant theta rhythmicity, with specific theta-gamma coupling, distinguishing between vomeronasal and olfactory structures...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837672/cardiac-transcriptome-profiling-of-diabetic-akita-mice-using-microarray-and-next-generation-sequencing
#15
Varun Kesherwani, Hamid R Shahshahan, Paras K Mishra
Although diabetes mellitus (DM) causes cardiomyopathy and exacerbates heart failure, the underlying molecular mechanisms for diabetic cardiomyopathy/heart failure are poorly understood. Insulin2 mutant (Ins2+/-) Akita is a mouse model of T1DM, which manifests cardiac dysfunction. However, molecular changes at cardiac transcriptome level that lead to cardiomyopathy remain unclear. To understand the molecular changes in the heart of diabetic Akita mice, we profiled cardiac transcriptome of Ins2+/- Akita and Ins2+/+ control mice using next generation sequencing (NGS) and microarray, and determined the implications of differentially expressed genes on various heart failure signaling pathways using Ingenuity pathway (IPA) analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815295/loss-of-kirrel-family-members-alters-glomerular-structure-and-synapse-numbers-in-the-accessory-olfactory-bulb
#16
Alexandra C Brignall, Reesha Raja, Alina Phen, Janet E A Prince, Emilie Dumontier, Jean-François Cloutier
The accessory olfactory system controls social and sexual behaviours in mice, both of which are critical for their survival. Vomeronasal sensory neuron (VSN) axons form synapses with mitral cell dendrites in glomeruli of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). Axons of VSNs expressing the same vomeronasal receptor (VR) converge into multiple glomeruli within spatially conserved regions of the AOB. Here, we have examined the role of the cell adhesion molecule Kirrel2 in the formation of glomeruli within the AOB...
August 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814779/the-beach-protein-lrba-promotes-the-localization-of-the-heterotrimeric-g-protein-golf-to-olfactory-cilia
#17
Stefan Kurtenbach, Andreas Gießl, Siv Strömberg, Jan Kremers, Jenny Atorf, Sebastian Rasche, Eva M Neuhaus, Denis Hervé, Johann Helmut Brandstätter, Esther Asan, Hanns Hatt, Manfred W Kilimann
BEACH domain proteins are involved in membrane protein traffic and human diseases, but their molecular mechanisms are not understood. The BEACH protein LRBA has been implicated in immune response and cell proliferation, and human LRBA mutations cause severe immune deficiency. Here, we report a first functional and molecular phenotype outside the immune system of LRBA-knockout mice: compromised olfaction, manifesting in reduced electro-olfactogram response amplitude, impaired food-finding efficiency, and smaller olfactory bulbs...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677202/dreadd-induced-silencing-of-the-medial-amygdala-reduces-the-preference-for-male-pheromones-and-the-expression-of-lordosis-in-estrous-female-mice
#18
Elizabeth A McCarthy, Arman Maqsudlu, Matthew Bass, Sofia Georghiou, James A Cherry, Michael J Baum
Sexually naïve estrous female mice seek out male urinary pheromones; however, they initially display little receptive (lordosis) behavior in response to male mounts. Vomeronasal-accessory olfactory bulb inputs to the medial amygdala (Me) regulate courtship in female rodents. We used a reversible inhibitory chemogenetic technique (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs; DREADDs) to assess the contribution of Me signaling to females' preference for male pheromones and improvement in receptivity normally seen with repeated testing...
August 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652375/evolution-of-immune-chemoreceptors-into-sensors-of-the-outside-world
#19
Quentin Dietschi, Joël Tuberosa, Lone Rösingh, Gregory Loichot, Manuel Ruedi, Alan Carleton, Ivan Rodriguez
Changes in gene expression patterns represent an essential source of evolutionary innovation. A striking case of neofunctionalization is the acquisition of neuronal specificity by immune formyl peptide receptors (Fprs). In mammals, Fprs are expressed by immune cells, where they detect pathogenic and inflammatory chemical cues. In rodents, these receptors are also expressed by sensory neurons of the vomeronasal organ, an olfactory structure mediating innate avoidance behaviors. Here we show that two gene shuffling events led to two independent acquisitions of neuronal specificity by Fprs...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626946/do-changes-in-gene-expression-contribute-to-sexual-isolation-and-reinforcement-in-the-house-mouse
#20
Etienne Loire, Sergio Tusso, Pierre Caminade, Dany Severac, Pierre Boursot, Guila Ganem, Carole M Smadja
Expression divergence, rather than sequence divergence, has been shown to be important in speciation, particularly in the early stages of divergence of traits involved in reproductive isolation. In the two European subspecies of house mice, Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus, earlier studies have demonstrated olfactory-based assortative mate preference in populations close to their hybrid zone. It has been suggested that this behaviour evolved following the recent secondary contact between the two taxa (~3,000 years ago) in response to selection against hybridization...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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