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Daisuke Kondoh, Motoki Sasaki, Nobuo Kitamura
Receptor cells of the olfactory epithelium (OE) and vomeronasal organ (VNO) project axons to glomeruli in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), respectively and undergo continuous turnover throughout life. Alpha1-2 fucose (α1-2Fuc) glycan mediates neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity and plays important roles in the formation of the olfactory system during development. We previously confirmed the localization of α1-2Fuc glycan in the olfactory system of 3- to 4-month-old mice but whether such localization persists throughout life remains unknown...
March 19, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Toshiyasu Matsui, Yasushi Kobayashi
We examined the organization of the olfactory organ and assessed the lectin histochemistry to investigate the glycoconjugate distribution of the olfactory bulb in premetamorphic larvae of Cynops ensicauda. The nasal cavity was an oval chamber that contained olfactory epithelium and a primitive vomeronasal organ. Secretory products were found in the supporting cells of the two sensory epithelia and in the respiratory cells. Ten lectins bound to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerve fibers as well as to the glomeruli in the olfactory bulb...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Sachiko Akiyoshi, Tomohiro Ishii, Zhaodai Bai, Peter Mombaerts
The mouse vomeronasal organ is specialized in the detection of pheromones. Vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) express chemosensory receptors of two large gene repertoires, V1R and V2R, which encode G-protein coupled receptors. Phylogenetically four families of V2R genes can be discerned: A, B, C, and D. VSNs located in the basal layer of the vomeronasal epithelium coordinately coexpress V2R genes from two families: approximately half of basal VSNs coexpress Vmn2r1 of family C with a single V2R gene of family A8-10, B, or D ("C1 type of V2Rs"), and the other half coexpress Vmn2r2 through Vmn2r7 of family C with a single V2R gene of family A1-6 ("C2 type V2Rs")...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Barbora Kuntová, Romana Stopková, Pavel Stopka
Mammalian olfaction depends on chemosensory neurons of the main olfactory epithelia (MOE), and/or of the accessory olfactory epithelia in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). Thus, we have generated the VNO and MOE transcriptomes and the nasal cavity proteome of the house mouse, Mus musculus musculus . Both transcriptomes had low levels of sexual dimorphisms, while the soluble proteome of the nasal cavity revealed high levels of sexual dimorphism similar to that previously reported in tears and saliva. Due to low levels of sexual dimorphism in the olfactory receptors in MOE and VNO, the sex-specific sensing seems less likely to be dependent on receptor repertoires...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Anna-Maria Holl
The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of an adult mouse harbors a few million mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which are traditionally defined as mature by their expression of the olfactory marker protein (OMP). Mature OSNs differentiate in situ from stem cells at the base of the MOE. The consensus view is that mature OSNs have a defined lifespan and then undergo programmed cell death, and that the adult MOE maintains homeostasis by generating new mature OSNs from stem cells. But there is also evidence for mature OSNs that are long-lived...
February 7, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Vincent Hellier, Olivier Brock, Michael Candlish, Elodie Desroziers, Mari Aoki, Christian Mayer, Richard Piet, Allan Herbison, William Henry Colledge, Vincent Prévot, Ulrich Boehm, Julie Bakker
Sexual behavior is essential for the survival of many species. In female rodents, mate preference and copulatory behavior depend on pheromones and are synchronized with ovulation to ensure reproductive success. The neural circuits driving this orchestration in the brain have, however, remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that neurons controlling ovulation in the mammalian brain are at the core of a branching neural circuit governing both mate preference and copulatory behavior. We show that male odors detected in the vomeronasal organ activate kisspeptin neurons in female mice...
January 26, 2018: Nature Communications
Dennis F A E Voeten, Tobias Reich, Ricardo Araújo, Torsten M Scheyer
Nothosaurs form a subclade of the secondarily marine Sauropterygia that was well represented in late Early to early Late Triassic marine ecosystems. Here we present and discuss the internal skull anatomy of the small piscivorous nothosaur Nothosaurus marchicus from coastal to shallow marine Lower Muschelkalk deposits (Anisian) of Winterswijk, The Netherlands, which represents the oldest sauropterygian endocast visualized to date. The cranial endocast is only partially encapsulated by ossified braincase elements...
2018: PloS One
Dustin S Siegel, Michael S Taylor, David M Sever, Stanley E Trauth
Nasolacrimal ducts are a terrestrial vertebrate adaptation and appear to have co-evolved with orbital glands. Although plethodontid salamanders possess orbital glands, a recent study concluded that plethodontid salamanders lack nasolacrimal ducts. Functionally, the absence of nasolacrimal ducts closes the route for orbital gland secretion passage into the nasal and vomeronasal organ cavities. Orbital glands have been implicated in enhancement of vomeronasal function so loss could have important implications for communication...
December 28, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
J D Caldwell, K Londe, S D Ochs, Z Hajdu, A Rodewald, V M Gebhart, G F Jirikowski
Steroid-binding globulins (SBGs) such as sex hormone binding globulin, corticosteroid binding globulin, and vitamin-D binding protein are receiving increasing notice as being actively involved in steroid actions. This paper reviews data of all three of these SBGs, focusing on their presence and possible activity in the brain and nose. We have found all three proteins in the brain in limbic areas such as the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) as well as other areas of the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and medial preoptic area...
December 12, 2017: Steroids
Kyle Duyck, Vasha DuTell, Limei Ma, Ariel Paulson, C Ron Yu
BACKGROUND: The chemosensory system plays an important role in orchestrating sexual behaviors in mammals. Pheromones trigger sexually dimorphic behaviors and different mouse strains exhibit differential responses to pheromone stimuli. It has been speculated that differential gene expression in the sensory organs that detect pheromones may underlie sexually-dimorphic and strain-specific responses to pheromone cues. RESULTS: We have performed transcriptome analyses of the mouse vomeronasal organ, a sensory organ recognizing pheromones and interspecies cues...
December 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
Shenqin Yao, Joseph Bergan, Anne Lanjuin, Catherine Dulac
The neural control of social behaviors in rodents requires the encoding of pheromonal cues by the vomeronasal system. Here we show that the typical preference of male mice for females is eliminated in mutants lacking oxytocin, a neuropeptide modulating social behaviors in many species. Ablation of the oxytocin receptor in aromatase-expressing neurons of the medial amygdala (MeA) fully recapitulates the elimination of female preference in males. Further, single-unit recording in the MeA uncovered significant changes in the sensory representation of conspecific cues in the absence of oxytocin signaling...
December 12, 2017: ELife
Aditi Shendre, Howard W Wiener, Marguerite R Irvin, Bradley E Aouizerat, Edgar T Overton, Jason Lazar, Chenglong Liu, Howard N Hodis, Nita A Limdi, Kathleen M Weber, Stephen J Gange, Degui Zhi, Michelle A Floris-Moore, Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Qibin Qi, David B Hanna, Robert C Kaplan, Sadeep Shrestha
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major comorbidity among HIV-infected individuals. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cCIMT) is a valid and reliable subclinical measure of atherosclerosis and is known to predict CVD. We performed genome-wide association (GWA) and admixture analysis among 682 HIV-positive and 288 HIV-negative Black, non-Hispanic women from the Women's Interagency HIV study (WIHS) cohort using a combined and stratified analysis approach. We found some suggestive associations but none of the SNPs reached genome-wide statistical significance in our GWAS analysis...
2017: PloS One
Víctor Vargas-Barroso, Fernando Peña-Ortega, Jorge A Larriva-Sahd
The rodent main and accessory olfactory systems (AOS) are considered functionally and anatomically segregated information-processing pathways. Each system is devoted to the detection of volatile odorants and pheromones, respectively. However, a growing number of evidences supports a cooperative interaction between them. For instance, at least four non-canonical receptor families (i.e., different from olfactory and vomeronasal receptor families) have been recently discovered. These atypical receptor families are expressed in the sensory organs of the nasal cavity and furnish parallel processing-pathways that detect specific stimuli and mediate specific behaviors as well...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Lei Zhong, Weimin Wang
In contrast to other olfactory receptor families that exhibit frequent lineage-specific expansions, the vomeronasal type 1 receptor (V1R) family exhibits a canonical six-member repertoire in teleosts. V1r1 and V1r2 are present in no more than one copy in all examined teleosts, including salmons, which are ancient polyploids, implying strict evolutionary constraints. However, recent polyploids have not been examined. Here, we identified a young allotetraploid lineage of weatherfishes and investigated their V1r1 - V1r2 cluster...
November 21, 2017: Genes
Keiko Moriya-Ito, Takashi Hayakawa, Hikoyu Suzuki, Kimiko Hagino-Yamagishi, Masato Nikaido
Pheromones are crucial for eliciting innate responses and inducing social and sexual behaviors in mammals. The vomeronasal receptor 1 genes, V1Rs, encode members of a pheromone receptor family that are mainly expressed in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). The V1R family shows extraordinary variety in gene number among vertebrates owing to successive gene gains and losses during evolution. Such diversity is believed to reflect a degree of dependence on the VNO. We investigated V1R evolution in primate lineages closely related to humans because these VNOs show a trend toward degeneration...
November 16, 2017: Gene
Hunduma Dinka, Minh Thong Le
Promoters are, generally, located immediately upstream of a transcription start site (TSS) and have a variety of regulatory motifs, such as transcription factors (TFs) and CpG islands (CGIs), that participate in the regulation of gene expression. Here analysis of the promoter region for pig vomeronasal receptor type 1 (V1R) was described. In the analysis, TSSs for pig V1R genes was first identified and five motifs (MV1, MV2, MV3, MV4, and MV5) were found that are shared by at least 50% of the pig V1R promoter input sequences from both strands...
November 9, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
T Matsui, K Tanaka, Y Kobayashi
Histochemical organization of the Caudata olfactory system remains largely unknown, despite this amphibian order showing phylogenetic diversity in the development of the vomeronasal organ and its primary centre, the accessory olfactory bulb. Here, we investigated the glycoconjugate distribution in the olfactory bulb of a semi-aquatic salamander, the Japanese sword-tailed newt (Cynops ensicauda), by histochemical analysis of the lectins that were present. Eleven lectins showed a specific binding to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerves as well as to the olfactory glomeruli...
October 19, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Tatsuya Hattori, Takuya Osakada, Takuto Masaoka, Rumi Ooyama, Nao Horio, Kazutaka Mogi, Miho Nagasawa, Sachiko Haga-Yamanaka, Kazushige Touhara, Takefumi Kikusui
The Bruce effect refers to pregnancy termination in recently pregnant female rodents upon exposure to unfamiliar males [1]. This event occurs in specific combinations of laboratory mouse strains via the vomeronasal system [2, 3]; however, the responsible chemosensory signals have not been fully identified. Here we demonstrate that the male pheromone exocrine gland-secreting peptide 1 (ESP1) is one of the key factors that causes pregnancy block. Female mice exhibited high pregnancy failure rates upon encountering males that secreted different levels of ESP1 compared to the mated male...
October 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Taekyun Shin, Jeongtae Kim, Yuna Choi, Meejung Ahn
Glycans in the epithelium play an important role in cell-to-cell communication and adhesion. No detailed evaluation of glycoconjugates in the vomeronasal organs (VNO) of the roe deer has been published previously. The aim of this study was to characterize glycan epitopes in the vomeronasal sensory epithelium (VSE) and non-sensory epithelium (VNSE) using lectin histochemistry. Glycan epitopes identified by lectin histochemistry were grouped as follows: N-acetylglucosamine (s-WGA, WGA, BSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL), mannose (Con A, LCA, PSA), galactose (RCA120, BSL-I, Jacalin, PNA, ECL), N-acetylgalactosamine (VVA, DBA, SBA, and SJA), fucose (UEA-I) and complex type N-glycan (PHA-E and PHA-L) groups...
October 10, 2017: Acta Histochemica
Sarah Geller, Didier Lomet, Alain Caraty, Yves Tillet, Anne Duittoz, Pascal Vaudin
During mammalian embryonic development, GnRH neurones differentiate from the nasal placode and migrate through the nasal septum towards the forebrain. We previously showed that a category of glial cells, the olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC), forms the microenvironment of migrating GnRH neurones. Here, to characterize the quantitative and qualitative importance of this glial, we investigated the spatiotemporal maturation of glial cells in situ and the role of maturing glia in GnRH neurones development ex vivo...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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