keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Vomeronasal

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440809/a-missense-polymorphism-in-the-putative-pheromone-receptor-gene-vn1r1-is-associated-with-sociosexual-behavior
#1
S Henningsson, D Hovey, K Vass, H Walum, K Sandnabba, P Santtila, P Jern, L Westberg
Pheromones regulate social and reproductive behavior in most mammalian species. These effects are mediated by the vomeronasal and main olfactory systems. Effects of putative pheromones on human neuroendocrine activity, brain activity and attractiveness ratings suggest that humans may communicate via similar chemosignaling. Here we studied two samples of younger and older individuals, respectively, with respect to one nonsynonymous polymorphism in the gene encoding the human vomeronasal type-1 receptor 1, VN1R1, and one nonsynonymous polymorphism in the gene encoding the olfactory receptor OR7D4...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420967/organization-and-plasticity-of-sodium-channel-expression-in-the-mouse-olfactory-and-vomeronasal-epithelia
#2
Florian Bolz, Stephanie Kasper, Bernd Bufe, Frank Zufall, Martina Pyrski
To understand the molecular basis of neuronal excitation in the mammalian olfactory system, we conducted a systematic analysis of the organization of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel subunits in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and vomeronasal organ (VNO) of adult mice. We also analyzed changes in Nav channel expression during development in these two systems and during regeneration of the MOE. Quantitative PCR shows that Nav1.7 is the predominant isoform in both adult MOE and VNO. We detected pronounced immunoreactivity for Nav1...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417051/morphology-of-cat-vomeronasal-organ-non-sensory-epithelium-during-postnatal-development
#3
Sanaa A M Elgayar, Heba M Saad-Eldin, Ola A Haussein
The vomeronasal organ has an important role in mammal's social and sexual behaviours. In addition, it mediates defensive behavior through detection of protein pheromone homologues. In this work, a detailed morphological description of the postnatal development of the non-sensory epithelium (NSE) lining the vomeronasal duct (VND) of the female cat is provided using various histological techniques. The study focused on newborn, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks of postnatal ages using four animals for each age. We report here for the first time that three types of NSE line the rostral segment of the VND; nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium, stratified cuboidal epithelium, and ciliated pseudo stratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells and that the VND undergoes 90° a change in its its axis from the vertical position caudally to the horizontal position rostral...
March 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374006/optogenetic-activation-of-accessory-olfactory-bulb-input-to-the-forebrain-differentially-modulates-investigation-of-opposite-versus-same-sex-urinary-chemosignals-and-stimulates-mating-in-male-mice
#4
Tenzin Kunkhyen, Elizabeth A McCarthy, Wayne J Korzan, Danielle Doctor, Xue Han, Michael J Baum, James A Cherry
Surgical or genetic disruption of vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) function previously eliminated the ability of male mice to processes pheromones that elicit territorial behavior and aggression. By contrast, neither disruption significantly affected mating behaviors, although VNO lesions reduced males' investigation of nonvolatile female pheromones. We explored the contribution of VNO-AOB pheromonal processing to male courtship using optogenetic activation of AOB projections to the forebrain...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358844/olfactory-effects-of-a-hypervariable-multicomponent-pheromone-in-the-red-legged-salamander-plethodon-shermani
#5
Damien B Wilburn, Kari A Doty, Adam J Chouinard, Sarah L Eddy, Sarah K Woodley, Lynne D Houck, Richard C Feldhoff
Chemical communication via chemosensory signaling is an essential process for promoting and modifying reproductive behavior in many species. During courtship in plethodontid salamanders, males deliver a mixture of non-volatile proteinaceous pheromones that activate chemosensory neurons in the vomeronasal epithelium (VNE) and increase female receptivity. One component of this mixture, Plethodontid Modulating Factor (PMF), is a hypervariable pheromone expressed as more than 30 unique isoforms that differ between individual males-likely driven by co-evolution with female receptors to promote gene duplication and positive selection of the PMF gene complex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333390/epithelial-crypts-a-complex-and-enigmatic-olfactory-organ-in-african-and-south-american-lungfish-lepidosireniformes-dipnoi
#6
Carolin Wittmer, Christine Nowack
African lungfish (Protopterus) seem unique among osteognathostomes in possessing a potential vomeronasal organ homolog in form of accessory epithelial crypts within their nasal cavity. Many details regarding structural and functional properties of these crypts are still unexplored. In this study, we reinvestigate the issue and also present the first data on epithelial crypts in the South American lungfish Lepidosiren paradoxa. The nasal cavities of L. paradoxa and Protopterus annectens were studied using histology, scanning electron microscopy, and alcian blue and PAS staining...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280461/glutamate-and-opioid-antagonists-modulate-dopamine-levels-evoked-by-innately-attractive-male-chemosignals-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-female-rats
#7
María-José Sánchez-Catalán, Alejandro Orrico, Lucía Hipólito, Teodoro Zornoza, Ana Polache, Enrique Lanuza, Fernando Martínez-García, Luis Granero, Carmen Agustín-Pavón
Sexual chemosignals detected by vomeronasal and olfactory systems mediate intersexual attraction in rodents, and act as a natural reinforcer to them. The mesolimbic pathway processes natural rewards, and the nucleus accumbens receives olfactory information via glutamatergic projections from the amygdala. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the mesolimbic pathway in the attraction toward sexual chemosignals. Our data show that female rats with no previous experience with males or their chemosignals display an innate preference for male-soiled bedding...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192871/sinus-septi-nasi-anatomical-study
#8
Ranko Mladina, Romano Antunović, Cemal Cingi, Nuray Bayar Muluk, Neven Skitarelić
The aim of this study was to perform a pioneering investigation into the incidence of pneumatization in human skulls. A total of 93 human skulls (≥20 years of age, 69 males, 24 females) were included in the study. The skulls were scanned in a fixed position using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The pneumatized space parameters within the nasal septum-width, length, and height-were measured. Two types of finding were identified: (a) Pneumatization, named "sinus septi nasi" (SSN), and (b) "spongy bone" (SB)...
April 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159658/the-rat-vomeronasal-organ-is-a-vitamin-d-target
#9
A Rodewald, V M Gebhart, H Oehring, G F Jirikowski
We studied the expression of vitamin D receptor and of vitamin D binding protein in the rat vomeronasal organ. With immunofluorescence, in situ hybridization and with reverse transcriptase PCR we found both proteins in sensory as well as in non-sensory cells. Sensory neurons contained immunoreactivity for vitamin D3 receptor in nuclei, in portions of the cytoplasm, and in apical dendrites and their microvilli. Vitamin D binding protein was observed in sensory neuron axons and cytoplasm, mostly confined to dendrites...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152579/5htr3a-driven-gfp-labels-immature-olfactory-sensory-neurons
#10
Thomas E Finger, Dianna L Bartel, Nicole Shultz, Noah B Goodson, Charles A Greer
The ionotropic serotonin receptor, 5-HT3 , is expressed by many developing neurons within the central nervous system. Since the olfactory epithelium continues to generate new olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) throughout life, we investigated the possibility that 5-HT3 is expressed in the adult epithelium. Using a transgenic mouse in which the promoter for the 5-HT3a subunit drives expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP), we assessed the expression of this marker in the olfactory epithelium of adult mice...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128447/trpc2-pseudogenization-dynamics-in-bats-reveal-ancestral-vomeronasal-signaling-then-pervasive-loss
#11
Laurel R Yohe, Ramatu Abubakar, Christina Giordano, Elizabeth Dumont, Karen E Sears, Stephen J Rossiter, Liliana M Dávalos
Comparative methods are often used to infer loss or gain of complex phenotypes, but few studies take advantage of genes tightly linked with complex traits to test for shifts in the strength of selection. In mammals, vomerolfaction detects chemical cues mediating many social and reproductive behaviors and is highly conserved, but all bats exhibit degraded vomeronasal structures with the exception of two families (Phyllostomidae and Miniopteridae). These families either regained vomerolfaction after ancestral loss, or there were many independent losses after diversification from an ancestor with functional vomerolfaction...
April 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120945/imorin-a-sexual-attractiveness-pheromone-in-female-red-bellied-newts-cynops-pyrrhogaster
#12
Tomoaki Nakada, Fumiyo Toyoda, Kouhei Matsuda, Takashi Nakakura, Itaru Hasunuma, Kazutoshi Yamamoto, Satomi Onoue, Makoto Yokosuka, Sakae Kikuyama
The male red-bellied newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster) approaches the female's cloaca prior to performing any courtship behaviour, as if he is using some released substance to gauge whether she is sexually receptive. Therefore, we investigated whether such a female sexual attractiveness pheromone exists. We found that a tripeptide with amino acid sequence Ala-Glu-Phe is secreted by the ciliary cells in the epithelium of the proximal portion of the oviduct of sexually developed newts and confirmed that this is the major active substance in water in which sexually developed female newts have been kept...
January 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109265/population-genetics-of-mouse-lemur-vomeronasal-receptors-current-versus-past-selection-and-demographic-inference
#13
Philipp Hohenbrink, Nicholas I Mundy, Ute Radespiel
BACKGROUND: A major effort is underway to use population genetic approaches to identify loci involved in adaptation. One issue that has so far received limited attention is whether loci that show a phylogenetic signal of positive selection in the past also show evidence of ongoing positive selection at the population level. We address this issue using vomeronasal receptors (VRs), a diverse gene family in mammals involved in intraspecific communication and predator detection. In mouse lemurs, we previously demonstrated that both subfamilies of VRs (V1Rs and V2Rs) show a strong signal of directional selection in interspecific analyses...
January 21, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101121/embryology-of-the-vno-and-associated-structures-in-the-grass-snake-natrix-natrix-squamata-naticinae-a-3d-perspective
#14
Paweł Kaczmarek, Mateusz Hermyt, Weronika Rupik
BACKGROUND: Snakes are considered to be vomerolfaction specialists. They are members of one of the most diverse groups of vertebrates, Squamata. The vomeronasal organ and the associated structures (such as the lacrimal duct, choanal groove, lamina transversalis anterior and cupola Jacobsoni) of adult lizards and snakes have received much anatomical, histological, physiological and behavioural attention. However, only limited embryological investigation into these structures, constrained to some anatomical or cellular studies and brief surveys, has been carried out thus far...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094892/histological-features-of-the-vomeronasal-organ-in-the-giraffe-giraffa-camelopardalis
#15
Daisuke Kondoh, Kentaro G Nakamura, Yurie S Ono, Kazutoshi Yuhara, Gen Bando, Kenichi Watanabe, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi, Motoki Sasaki, Nobuo Kitamura
The vomeronasal organ (VNO) that preferentially detects species-specific substances is diverse among animal species, and its morphological properties seem to reflect the ecological features of animals. This histological study of two female reticulated giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) found that the VNO is developed in giraffes. The lateral and medial regions of the vomeronasal lumen were covered with sensory and nonsensory epithelia, respectively. The vomeronasal glands were positive for periodic acid-Schiff and alcian blue (pH 2...
January 17, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990576/coordinated-shift-of-olfactory-amino-acid-responses-and-v2r-expression-to-an-amphibian-water-nose-during-metamorphosis
#16
Adnan S Syed, Alfredo Sansone, Thomas Hassenklöver, Ivan Manzini, Sigrun I Korsching
All olfactory receptors identified in teleost fish are expressed in a single sensory surface, whereas mammalian olfactory receptor gene families segregate into different olfactory organs, chief among them the main olfactory epithelium expressing ORs and TAARs, and the vomeronasal organ expressing V1Rs and V2Rs. A transitional stage is embodied by amphibians, with their vomeronasal organ expressing more 'modern', later diverging V2Rs, whereas more 'ancient', earlier diverging V2Rs are expressed in the main olfactory epithelium...
December 18, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912243/vomeronasal-receptors-in-vertebrates-and-the-evolution-of-pheromone-detection
#17
Liliana Silva, Agostinho Antunes
Pheromones were identified as chemical signals used for intraspecific communication in insects (e.g., sexual attraction) in the 1950s. However, only almost 40 years later the vomeronasal receptors type-1 (V1R) and type-2 (V2R) were identified, usually associated with the presence of a vomeronasal organ (VNO). VRs are widespread in amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, but birds lost the VNO. Similarly, fishes lack VRs and a VNO but can still detect pheromones, instead using the olfactory receptors related to class A and class C G protein-coupled receptors...
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813206/castration-alters-the-number-and-structure-of-dendritic-spines-in-the-male-posterodorsal-medial-amygdala
#18
Mariana Zancan, Aline Dall'Oglio, Edson Quagliotto, Alberto A Rasia-Filho
The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is responsive to androgens and participates in the integration of olfactory/vomeronasal stimuli for the display of sexual behavior in rats. Adult gonadectomy (GDX) affects the MePD structural integrity at the same time that impairs male mating behavior. At the cellular level, dendritic spines modulate excitatory synaptic transmission, strength, and plasticity. Here, we describe the effect of GDX on the number and shape of dendritic spines in the right and left MePD using confocal microscopy and 3D image reconstruction...
November 4, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782186/opposite-sex-attraction-in-male-mice-requires-testosterone-dependent-regulation-of-adult-olfactory-bulb-neurogenesis
#19
Roberta Schellino, Sara Trova, Irene Cimino, Alice Farinetti, Bart C Jongbloets, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Giancarlo Panzica, Paolo Giacobini, Silvia De Marchis, Paolo Peretto
Opposite-sex attraction in most mammals depends on the fine-tuned integration of pheromonal stimuli with gonadal hormones in the brain circuits underlying sexual behaviour. Neural activity in these circuits is regulated by sensory processing in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the first central station of the vomeronasal system. Recent evidence indicates adult neurogenesis in the AOB is involved in sex behaviour; however, the mechanisms underlying this function are unknown. By using Semaphorin 7A knockout (Sema7A ko) mice, which show a reduced number of gonadotropin-releasing-hormone neurons, small testicles and subfertility, and wild-type males castrated during adulthood, we demonstrate that the level of circulating testosterone regulates the sex-specific control of AOB neurogenesis and the vomeronasal system activation, which influences opposite-sex cue preference/attraction in mice...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704948/bmal1-is-required-for-normal-reproductive-behaviors-in-male-mice
#20
Erica L Schoeller, Daniel D Clark, Sandeepa Dey, Nathan V Cao, Sheila J Semaan, Ling W Chao, Alexander S Kauffman, Lisa Stowers, Pamela L Mellon
Circadian rhythms synchronize physiological processes with the light-dark cycle and are regulated by a hierarchical system initiated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a hypothalamic region that receives direct photic input. The suprachiasmatic nucleus then entrains additional oscillators in the periphery. Circadian rhythms are maintained by a molecular transcriptional feedback loop, of which brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (BMAL1) is a key member. Disruption of circadian rhythms by deletion of the BMAL1 gene (Bmal1 knockout [KO]) induces a variety of disease states, including infertility in males, due to unidentified mechanisms...
December 2016: Endocrinology
keyword
keyword
8553
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"