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HPV vaccine efficacy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531261/age-of-acquiring-causal-human-papillomavirus-hpv-infections-leveraging-simulation-models-to-explore-the-natural-history-of-hpv-induced-cervical-cancer
#1
Emily A Burger, Jane J Kim, Stephen Sy, Philip E Castle
Background.: Although new human papillomavirus (HPV) infections can occur at all ages, the age at which women acquire their "causal" HPV infection that develops into cervical cancer is poorly understood and practically unobservable. We aimed to estimate the age distribution at which individuals acquired their causal HPV infection in the absence of HPV vaccination or screening to help guide the optimal use of both. Methods.: Using an empirically calibrated mathematical model that simulates the natural history of cervical cancer, we estimated the cumulative number of causal HPV infections by age, stratified by HPV genotype (HPV16 vs...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503996/primary-immunization-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-in-the-pediatric-population-what-is-the-verdict-now
#2
Aubrey N Jones, Jenna W Bartlett, Rebecca A Bates, Tsz-Yin So
The safety and efficacy of a 2-dose series for the human papillomavirus vaccines rather than a 3-dose series in older children has not been well defined. This article reviews the literature summarizing the use of all 3 HPV vaccines (2vHPV, 4vHPV, 9vHPV) as a 2-dose series for females and 4vHPV and 9vHPV for males younger than 15 years. Six prospective trials evaluating immunogenicity of a 2-dose series of 2vHPV and/or 4vHPV, as well as an ongoing prospective clinical trial for 9vHPV, are discussed. The 2-dose series with Gardasil 9(®) in both males and females ages 9 to 14 years appears to be the most widely accepted recommendation...
June 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492521/coinjection-of-il2-dna-enhances-e7-specific-antitumor-immunity-elicited-by-intravaginal-therapeutic-hpv-dna-vaccination-with-electroporation
#3
Y Sun, S Peng, A Yang, E Farmer, T-C Wu, Chien-Fu Hung
The generation and use of therapeutic human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA vaccines represent an appealing treatment method against HPV-associated cervical cancer due to their safety and durability. Previously, we created a therapeutic HPV DNA vaccine candidate by linking the HPV16-E7 DNA sequence to calreticulin (CRT/E7), which we showed could generate significant E7-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune responses against HPV16 oncogenes expressing murine tumor model TC-1. Here we assess the therapeutic efficacy of intravaginal immunization with pcDNA3-CRT/E7 followed by electroporation...
May 11, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490581/patterns-of-prevalent-hpv-and-sti-co-infections-and-associated-factors-among-hiv-negative-young-western-cape-south-african-women-the-evri-trial
#4
Lynette J Menezes, Ubin Pokharel, Staci L Sudenga, Matthys H Botha, Michele Zeier, Martha E Abrahamsen, Richard H Glashoff, Susan Engelbrecht, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Louvina E van der Laan, Siegfried Kipping, Douglas Taylor, Anna R Giuliano
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and describe the patterns of concurrent human papillomavirus (HPV) and STIs and associated factors among HIV-negative young Western Cape, South African women participating in the Efficacy of HPV Vaccine to Reduce HIV Infection (EVRI) trial. METHODS: HIV-negative women aged 16-24 years old were enrolled in the EVRI trial (NCT01489527) and randomised to receive the licensed four-valent HPV vaccine or placebo. At study entry, participants were clinically evaluated for five STIs: herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and disease-causing HPV genotypes (6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/68)...
May 10, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457055/short-term-efficacy-of-cbd-enriched-hemp-oil-in-girls-with-dysautonomic-syndrome-after-human-papillomavirus-vaccination
#5
Beniamino Palmieri, Carmen Laurino, Maria Vadalà
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD)-based treatments for several diseases, including Tourette's syndrome, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, movement disorders and glaucoma, are proving to be beneficial and the scientific clinical background of the drug is continuously evolving. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the short-term effect of CBD-enriched hemp oil for relieving symptoms and improving the life quality (QOL) in young girls with adverse drug effects (ADRs) following human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine...
February 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455577/-one-decade-of-hpv-vaccination-in-germany
#6
REVIEW
P Schneede
As a worldwide very common sexually transmitted infection (STI), HPV causes millions of genital warts every year and is responsible for 5% of all cancers in men and women. With strong empirical evidence for both vaccine safety and efficacy, the HPV vaccines proved to protect against these HPV-related conditions over the last decade. But current HPV vaccination coverage is suboptimal in many countries. Even in Germany the absence of a school-based immunization program and the recommendation of a publicly funded girls-only HPV vaccination strategy are the main reasons for a female coverage rate under 40%, which does not achieve herd immunity for the boys...
April 28, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446260/human-papillomavirus-9-valent-vaccine-for-cancer-prevention-a-systematic-review-of-the-available-evidence
#7
C Signorelli, A Odone, V Ciorba, P Cella, R A Audisio, A Lombardi, L Mariani, F S Mennini, S Pecorelli, G Rezza, G V Zuccotti, A Peracino
In 2014, the Food and Drug Administration approved a new human papillomavirus 9-valent vaccine (9vHPV), targeting nine HPV types: HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, which are also targeted by the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV), plus five additional high cancer risk HPV types (HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58). The aim of the current study was to systematically retrieve, qualitatively and quantitatively pool, as well as critically appraise all available evidence on 9vHPV from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We conducted a systematic review of the literature on 9vHPV efficacy, immunogenicity and safety, as well as a systematic search of registered, completed, and ongoing RCTs...
April 27, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428157/texting-and-mobile-phone-app-interventions-for-improving-adherence-to-preventive-behavior-in-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#8
Sherif M Badawy, Lisa M Kuhns
BACKGROUND: Many preventable behaviors contribute to adolescent mortality and morbidity. Non-adherence to preventive measures represents a challenge and has been associated with worse health outcomes in this population. The widespread use of electronic communication technologies by adolescents, particularly the use of text messaging (short message service, SMS) and mobile phones, presents new opportunities to intervene on risk and preventive risk behavior, but little is known about their efficacy...
April 19, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423114/human-papillomavirus-vaccine-efficacy-in-the-prevention-of-anogenital-warts-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Romina A Tejada, Kris G Vargas, Vicente Benites-Zapata, Edward Mezones-Holguín, Rafael Bolaños-Díaz, Adrián V Hernandez
Objective: To review evidence on the efficacy of HPV vaccines in the prevention of non-cancer lesions (anogenital warts [AGW], recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis and oral papillomatosis). Materials and methods: We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials. We performed random effect models and effects were reported as relative risks (RR) and their confidence intervals (95%CI) following both intention to treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses. Results: We included six studies (n=27 078)...
January 2017: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416242/human-papillomavirus-and-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-review-of-hpv-positive-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-possible-strategies-for-future
#10
REVIEW
Shan Jiang, Yong Dong
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common cancer worldwide. Besides tobacco use and alcohol consumption, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has also been identified as a risk factor for OSCC recently. The OSCC incidence has increased in recent years, especially among younger women. The purpose of this article is to review clinical and epidemiological studies on the association between HPV infection and OSCCs, and the efficacy of HPV vaccine, so as to provide possible policy implications for preventing HPV-positive OSCC...
March 1, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404501/development-and-validation-of-measures-to-evaluate-adolescents-knowledge-about-human-papillomavirus-hpv-involvement-in-hpv-vaccine-decision-making-self-efficacy-to-receive-the-vaccine-and-fear-and-anxiety
#11
A S Forster, K A McBride, C Davies, T Stoney, H Marshall, K McGeechan, S C Cooper, S R Skinner
OBJECTIVES: We describe the development and validation of measures of human papillomavirus (HPV)/HPV vaccination knowledge, fear/anxiety about vaccination, involvement in HPV vaccine decision-making, and self-efficacy with regard to getting the vaccine, designed to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention to affect these domains (collectively termed the HAVIQ: HPV Adolescent Vaccine Intervention Questionnaire). STUDY DESIGN: Literature search, cognitive interviews and cross-sectional survey...
March 18, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402024/marburg-virus-like-particles-produced-in-insect-cells-induce-neutralizing-antibodies-in-rhesus-macaques
#12
Weiwei Gai, Xuexing Zheng, Chong Wang, Yongkun Zhao, Qi Wang, Hualei Wang, Gary Wong, Ying Xie, Haijun Wang, Zengguo Cao, Na Feng, Hang Chi, Tiecheng Wang, Yuwei Gao, Junjie Shan, Songtao Yang, Xianzhu Xia
Marburg virus (MARV), which is one of the most virulent agents in the world, causes lethal haemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) with a mortality rate of up to 90%. Currently, there is no effective treatment or approved vaccine for MARV for human use to control disease outbreak and spread. Virus-like particles (VLPs), which are morphologically identical to the native infectious virus particle, are efficacious as vaccines against many viruses, including human papilloma virus (HPV), porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2 and hepatitis B virus (HBV)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389098/identification-and-characterization-of-enhancer-agonist-human-cytotoxic-t-cell-epitopes-of-the-human-papillomavirus-type-16-hpv16-e6-e7
#13
Kwong Y Tsang, Massimo Fantini, Romaine I Fernando, Claudia Palena, Justin M David, James W Hodge, Elizabeth S Gabitzsch, Frank R Jones, Jeffrey Schlom
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the etiology of cervical carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and several other cancer types. Vaccines directed against HPV virus-like particles and coat proteins have been extremely successful in the prevention of cervical cancer through the activation of host HPV-specific antibody responses; however, HPV-associated cancers remain a major public health problem. The development of a therapeutic vaccine will require the generation of T-cell responses directed against early HPV proteins (E6/E7) expressed in HPV-infected tumor cells...
May 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376222/optimal-cervical-cancer-screening-in-women-vaccinated-against-human-papillomavirus
#14
Jane J Kim, Emily A Burger, Stephen Sy, Nicole G Campos
Background: Current US cervical cancer screening guidelines do not differentiate recommendations based on a woman's human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination status. Changes to cervical cancer screening policies in HPV-vaccinated women should be evaluated. Methods: We utilized an individual-based mathematical model of HPV and cervical cancer in US women to project the health benefits, costs, and harms associated with screening strategies in women vaccinated with the bivalent, quadrivalent, or nonavalent vaccine...
February 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373404/precancer-atlas-to-drive-precision-prevention-trials
#15
Avrum Spira, Matthew B Yurgelun, Ludmil Alexandrov, Anjana Rao, Rafael Bejar, Kornelia Polyak, Marios Giannakis, Ali Shilatifard, Olivera J Finn, Madhav Dhodapkar, Neil E Kay, Esteban Braggio, Eduardo Vilar, Sarah A Mazzilli, Timothy R Rebbeck, Judy E Garber, Victor E Velculescu, Mary L Disis, Douglas C Wallace, Scott M Lippman
Cancer development is a complex process driven by inherited and acquired molecular and cellular alterations. Prevention is the holy grail of cancer elimination, but making this a reality will take a fundamental rethinking and deep understanding of premalignant biology. In this Perspective, we propose a national concerted effort to create a Precancer Atlas (PCA), integrating multi-omics and immunity - basic tenets of the neoplastic process. The biology of neoplasia caused by germline mutations has led to paradigm-changing precision prevention efforts, including: tumor testing for mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency in Lynch syndrome establishing a new paradigm, combinatorial chemoprevention efficacy in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), signal of benefit from imaging-based early detection research in high-germline risk for pancreatic neoplasia, elucidating early ontogeny in BRCA1-mutation carriers leading to an international breast cancer prevention trial, and insights into the intricate germline-somatic-immunity interaction landscape...
April 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362244/hpv-vaccines-global-perspectives
#16
Gaurav Gupta, Reinhard Glueck, Pankaj R Patel
The discovery of HPV as the etiological factor for HPV-associated malignancies and disease has opened up several opportunities for prevention and therapy. Current commercially available HPV vaccines (Gardasil, Gardasil 9, and Cervarix) are prophylactic in nature and derived from adjuvanted L1-based virus-like particles of HPV. Globally, through several clinical trials, they were found to be very safe and efficacious. Certain limitations such as cost-effectiveness, low coverage against all HPV types and a 3-dose schedule make these vaccines difficult to use worldwide...
March 31, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348035/what-is-the-predictive-value-of-animal-models-for-vaccine-efficacy-in-humans-the-importance-of-bridging-studies-and-species-independent-correlates-of-protection
#17
Hana Golding, Surender Khurana, Marina Zaitseva
Animal models have played a pivotal role in all stages of vaccine development. Their predictive value for vaccine effectiveness depends on the pathogen, the robustness of the animal challenge model, and the correlates of protection (if known). This article will cover key questions regarding bridging animal studies to efficacy trials in humans. Examples include human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in which animal protection after vaccination with heterologous prototype virus-like particles (VLPs) predicted successful efficacy trials in humans, and a recent approval of anthrax vaccine in accordance with the "Animal Rule...
March 27, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337085/duty-to-advocate-human-papillomavirus-vaccination
#18
Kristen Nichols, Jennifer Girotto, Amy Mitchell-Van Steele, Sylvia Stoffella
Despite the excellent benefit-to-risk ratio for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and recommendations for its routine use from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), significant controversy surrounding HPV vaccination continues to exist. In light of this controversy and continued low rates of vaccination among U.S. adolescents, the Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group (PPAG) endorses the safety and efficacy of HPV vaccination and agrees with ACIP recommendations for protection of the U.S...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328521/human-papillomavirus-first-and-second-generation-vaccines-current-status-and-future-directions
#19
Somayeh Pouyanfard, Martin Müller
It has been more than 10 years that the first prophylactic papillomavirus vaccine became available, although distribution has been mainly limited to the more affluent countries. The first two vaccines have been a great success, hundreds of millions of women and a much smaller number of men have been vaccinated ever since. In a few countries with high vaccination coverage, in particular Australia but also parts of Great Britain and others, clinical impact of vaccination programs is already visible and there are indications for herd immunity as well...
March 22, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301611/gtl001-a-bivalent-therapeutic-vaccine-against-human-papillomavirus-16-and-18-induces-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cell-responses-leading-to-tumor-regression
#20
Michaël Esquerré, Myriam Bouillette-Marussig, Anne Goubier, Marie Momot, Christophe Gonindard, Hélène Keller, Astrid Navarro, Marie-Christine Bissery
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic vaccines are available for women and girls not yet infected with HPV, but women already infected with HPV need a treatment to prevent progression to high-grade cervical lesions and cancer. GTL001 is a bivalent therapeutic vaccine for eradicating HPV-infected cells that contains HPV16 E7 and HPV18 E7 both fused to detoxified adenylate cyclase from Bordetella pertussis, which binds specifically to CD11b+ antigen-presenting cells. This study examined the ability of therapeutic vaccination with GTL001 adjuvanted with topical imiquimod cream to induce functional HPV16 E7- and HPV18 E7-specific CD8+ T cell responses...
2017: PloS One
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