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HPV vaccine efficacy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723467/human-papillomavirus-infection-and-vaccination-in-males
#1
REVIEW
Eugenio Ventimiglia, Simon Horenblas, Asif Muneer, Andrea Salonia
CONTEXT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest sexually transmitted pathogen in humans and is linked to the aetiopathogenesis for both benign and malignant disease in men. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and summarise the evidence for HPV infection and vaccination in men. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A search of Medline, PubMed, and Scopus was performed to identify articles published in English within the last 10 yr addressing HPV epidemiology, the natural history of HPV infection and its long-term consequences, and vaccination in men...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720461/vaccine-preventable-anal-human-papillomavirus-in-australian-gay-and-bisexual-men
#2
I Mary Poynten, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Fengyi Jin, David J Templeton, Dorothy A Machalek, Alyssa Cornall, Samuel Phillips, Christopher K Fairley, Suzanne M Garland, Carmella Law, Andrew Carr, Richard J Hillman, Andrew E Grulich
OBJECTIVE: HPV causes ~90% of anal cancer and HPV16 is the type most commonly associated with anal cancer. Gay and bisexual men (GBM) are at greatly increased risk. We investigated patterns of vaccine-preventable anal HPV in older GBM. METHODS: The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer (SPANC) is an ongoing, prospective cohort study of HIV-positive and HIV-negative Australian GBM. Participants completed questionnaires and underwent an anal swab for HPV genotyping using Roche Linear Array...
June 2017: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720446/acceptability-of-multipurpose-human-papillomavirus-vaccines-among-providers-and-mothers-of-adolescent-girls-a-mixed-methods-study-in-five-countries
#3
Nadja A Vielot, Shoshana K Goldberg, Gregory Zimet, Sara B Smith, Mary Anne McDonald, Silvina Ramos, Karen Morgan, Chan Joo Kim, Karin L Richter, Merce Peris, Kevin J Whaley, Jennifer S Smith
INTRODUCTION: Multipurpose vaccines (MPVs) could be formulated to prevent multiple sexually transmitted infections simultaneously. Little is known about acceptability of MPVs among vaccine health care providers (HCPs) or mothers of adolescent girls. METHODS: 151 adolescent vaccine providers and 118 mothers of adolescent girls aged 9-14 were recruited from five geographically-diverse countries: Argentina, Malaysia, South Africa, South Korea, and Spain. We assessed providers' preferences for single-purpose human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine versus MPVs (including HPV+herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2, HPV+HIV, or HPV+HSV-2+HIV) via quantitative surveys...
June 2017: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720442/impact-of-baseline-covariates-on-the-immunogenicity-of-the-9-valent-hpv-vaccine-a-combined-analysis-of-five-phase-iii-clinical-trials
#4
Lone K Petersen, Jaime Restrepo, Edson D Moreira, Ole-Erik Iversen, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Pierre Van Damme, Elmar A Joura, Sven-Erik Olsson, Daron Ferris, Stan Block, Anna R Giuliano, Xavier Bosch, Sophie Pils, Jack Cuzick, Suzanne M Garland, Warner Huh, Susanne K Kjaer, Oliver M Bautista, Donna Hyatt, Roger Maansson, Erin Moeller, Hong Qi, Christine Roberts, Alain Luxembourg
BACKGROUND: The immunogenicity profile of the 9-valent HPV (9vHPV) vaccine was evaluated across five phase III clinical studies conducted in girls and boys 9-15 years of age and young women 16-26 years of age. The effect of baseline characteristics of subjects on vaccine-induced HPV antibody responses was assessed. METHODS: Immunogenicity data from 11,304 subjects who received ≥1 dose of 9vHPV vaccine in five Phase III studies were analyzed. Vaccine was administered as a 3-dose regimen...
June 2017: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717764/comprehensive-human-papillomavirus-genotyping-in-cervical-squamous-cell-carcinomas-and-its-relevance-to-cervical-cancer-prevention-in-malawian-women
#5
Brooke E Howitt, Michael Herfs, Tamiwe Tomoka, Steve Kamiza, Tarik Gheit, Massimo Tommasino, Philippe Delvenne, Christopher P Crum, Danny Milner
PURPOSE: Cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) continues to be a significant cause of cancer morbidity and is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa, cervical cancer is not only the most common female cancer but also the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Malawi, in particular, has the highest burden of cervical cancer. With the increasing use of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, documenting the prevalent HPV types in those high-risk populations is necessary to both manage expectations of HPV vaccination and guide future vaccine development...
June 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701400/whole-genome-sequencing-and-variant-analysis-of-hpv16-infections
#6
Pascal van der Weele, Chris J L M Meijer, Audrey J King
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a strongly conserved DNA virus, of which high-risk types can cause cervical cancer in persistent infections. The most common type found in HPV-attributable cancer is HPV16, which can be subdivided into four lineages (A-D) with different carcinogenic properties. Studies have shown HPV16 sequence diversity in different geographical areas, but only limited information is available regarding HPV16 diversity within a population, especially at the whole genome level. We have analyzed HPV16 major variant diversity, conservation in persistent infections and performed a SNP comparison between persistent and clearing infections...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699820/expanded-strain-coverage-for-a-highly-successful-public-health-tool-prophylactic-9-valent-human-papillomavirus-vaccine
#7
Zhigang Zhang, Jun Zhang, Ningshao Xia, Qinjian Zhao
Human papillomavirus is considered the causative factor for cervical cancer, which accounts for approximately 5% of the global cancer burden and more than 600,000 new cases annually that are attributable to HPV infection worldwide. The first-generation prophylactic HPV vaccines, Gardasil® and Cervarix®, were licensed approximately a decade ago. Both vaccines contain the most prevalent high-risk types, HPV16 and 18, which are associated with 70% of cervical cancer. To further increase the type coverage, five additional oncogenic HPV types (31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) were added to the existing Gardasil-4 to develop a 9-valent HPV vaccine (9vHPV), Gardasil 9®, increasing the potential level of protection from ∼70% to ∼90%...
July 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699569/leveraging-machine-learning-based-approaches-to-assess-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-sentiment-trends-with-twitter-data
#8
Jingcheng Du, Jun Xu, Hsing-Yi Song, Cui Tao
BACKGROUND: As one of the serious public health issues, vaccination refusal has been attracting more and more attention, especially for newly approved human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. Understanding public opinion towards HPV vaccines, especially concerns on social media, is of significant importance for HPV vaccination promotion. METHODS: In this study, we leveraged a hierarchical machine learning based sentiment analysis system to extract public opinions towards HPV vaccines from Twitter...
July 5, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689455/human-papillomavirus-vaccine-and-postural-orthostatic-tachycardia-syndrome-a-review-of-current-literature
#9
Breann N Butts, Philip R Fischer, Kenneth J Mack
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is efficacious in preventing complications of human papillomavirus infection including cervical cancer. However, there have been case reports of adverse events occurring after vaccination, one being postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). This article reviews published data and other available information regarding the relationship between the human papillomavirus vaccine and POTS. Background information is provided regarding the human papillomavirus vaccine and the proposed post-vaccination adverse event POTS...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656100/efficacy-of-human-papillomavirus-l1-protein-vaccines-cervarix-and-gardasil-in-reducing-the-risk-of-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia-a-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Mohammad Reza Haghshenas, Tahoora Mousavi, Motahareh Kheradmand, Mahdi Afshari, Mahmood Moosazadeh
Human papillomavirus (HPV) can induce cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Vaccination against HPV can play an important role in CIN prevention. This study aims to estimate the efficacy of L1 protein vaccines (Cervarix and Gardasil) in CIN 1, 2, 3 risk reduction using meta-analysis. Relevant articles were identified by two independent researchers searching international databanks. After application of inclusion/exclusion criteria and quality assessment, eligible articles were entered into the final meta-analysis...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652087/determinants-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-uptake-among-adolescent-girls-a-theory-based-longitudinal-study-among-hong-kong-chinese-parents
#11
Linda Dong-Ling Wang, Wendy Wing Tak Lam, Richard Fielding
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake among Chinese adolescent girls remains extremely low. This two-year longitudinal study examined theoretical predictors of adolescent girls' HPV vaccination uptake using an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Between February and November 2014, a random sample of 1996 (response rate 60%) Hong Kong Chinese parents of 12- to 17-year-old HPV unvaccinated girls completed baseline telephone interviews assessing attitudes and intention towards HPV vaccination. Six and 12months later 1255 and 979 parents reported their daughters' HPV vaccination status, respectively...
June 23, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641049/a-study-of-physicians-experiences-with-recommending-hpv-vaccines-to-adolescent-boys
#12
Li Ping Wong, Zobaida Edib, Haridah Alias, Sharina M Mohamad Shakir, Raja N A Raja Muhammad Yusoff, I-Ching Sam, Gregory D Zimet
Assessing physicians' experiences in HPV vaccine recommendation and delivery to adolescent boys is essential to providing an understanding of the issues of vaccine acceptance and an insight for policymakers to enhance HPV vaccinations among adolescent boys. Between January and April 2014 a mail survey was conducted using physicians in Malaysia known to provide either one or both HPV vaccine (Gardasil and Cervarix) immunisation services. A total of 357 completed questionnaires were received (response rate 22...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637906/anogenital-warts-and-other-hpv-associated-anogenital-lesions-in-the-hiv-positive-patient-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-interventions-assessed-in-controlled-clinical-trials
#13
Ricardo Niklas Werner, Lukas Westfechtel, Corinna Dressler, Alexander Nast
OBJECTIVES: Anogenital warts (AGW, condylomata acuminata) and intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN) do not only impact health and social well-being, they are also associated with considerable costs for the healthcare systems. Immunocompromised and HIV-positive patients carry the highest epidemiological burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and comprise a population specifically susceptible to treatment failures and recurrences. This systematic review aimed at identifying and appraising the available evidence from controlled studies of interventions for the treatment of AGW and IEN in immunocompromised patients...
June 21, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633892/seropositivity-to-non-vaccine-incorporated-genotypes-induced-by-the-bivalent-and-quadrivalent-hpv-vaccines-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Sara L Bissett, Anna Godi, Mark Jit, Simon Beddows
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus vaccines have demonstrated remarkable efficacy against persistent infection and disease associated with vaccine-incorporated genotypes and a degree of efficacy against some genetically related, non-vaccine-incorporated genotypes. The vaccines differ in the extent of cross-protection against these non-vaccine genotypes. Data supporting the role for neutralizing antibodies as a correlate or surrogate of cross-protection are lacking, as is a robust assessment of the seroconversion rates against these non-vaccine genotypes...
July 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610408/knowledge-and-awareness-about-cervical-cancer-vaccine-hpv-among-parents-in-sharjah
#15
Ahmad Saqer, Shaymaa Ghazal, Hiba Barqawi, Juman Adnan Babi, Ranya AlKhafaji, Mohamed Mohsen Elmekresh
Background and aim: Cervical cancer (CC) is the 7th most common cancer worldwide. It is the 4th most common cancer in females causing 7.5% of all female cancer deaths. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is the leading cause of CC and other diseases worldwide. Despite several measures taken to reduce the risk of infection with HPV, the most effective method remains the HPV vaccine. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of parents in Sharjah towards HPV and whether or not they would vaccinate their daughters...
May 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588899/mechanistic-insights-into-adxs11-001-human-papillomavirus-associated-cancer-immunotherapy
#16
REVIEW
Brett A Miles, Bradley J Monk, Howard P Safran
Immune responses to the facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) are robust and well characterized. Utilized for decades as a model of host-disease immunology, Lm is well suited for use as an immunotherapeutic bacterial vector for the delivery of foreign antigen. Genetic modification of Lm has been undertaken to create an attenuated organism that is deficient in its master transcriptional regulator, protein-related factor A, and incorporates a truncated, nonhemolytic version of the listeriolysin O (LLO) molecule to ensure its adjuvant properties while also preventing escape of the live organism from the phagolysosome...
2017: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578190/correlation-between-dynamic-light-scattering-and-size-exclusion-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-for-monitoring-the-effect-of-ph-on-stability-of-biopharmaceuticals
#17
Medhat A Al-Ghobashy, Moushira M Mostafa, Heba S Abed, Faten A Fathalla, Maissa Y Salem
Aggregate formation is a major problem affecting both safety and efficacy of biopharmaceuticals and is associated with protein immunogenicity. Size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) has always been the gold standard technique for detection and determination of protein aggregates. However, large protein aggregates may be filtered off and build up on top of the column leading to deterioration in column performance. Moreover, low-affinity protein aggregates may dissociate during analysis and thus not detected...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531261/age-of-acquiring-causal-human-papillomavirus-hpv-infections-leveraging-simulation-models-to-explore-the-natural-history-of-hpv-induced-cervical-cancer
#18
Emily A Burger, Jane J Kim, Stephen Sy, Philip E Castle
Background.: Although new human papillomavirus (HPV) infections can occur at all ages, the age at which women acquire their "causal" HPV infection that develops into cervical cancer is poorly understood and practically unobservable. We aimed to estimate the age distribution at which individuals acquired their causal HPV infection in the absence of HPV vaccination or screening to help guide the optimal use of both. Methods.: Using an empirically calibrated mathematical model that simulates the natural history of cervical cancer, we estimated the cumulative number of causal HPV infections by age, stratified by HPV genotype (HPV16 vs...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503996/primary-immunization-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-in-the-pediatric-population-what-is-the-verdict-now
#19
REVIEW
Aubrey N Jones, Jenna W Bartlett, Rebecca A Bates, Tsz-Yin So
The safety and efficacy of a 2-dose series for the human papillomavirus vaccines rather than a 3-dose series in older children has not been well defined. This article reviews the literature summarizing the use of all 3 HPV vaccines (2vHPV, 4vHPV, 9vHPV) as a 2-dose series for females and 4vHPV and 9vHPV for males younger than 15 years. Six prospective trials evaluating immunogenicity of a 2-dose series of 2vHPV and/or 4vHPV, as well as an ongoing prospective clinical trial for 9vHPV, are discussed. The 2-dose series with Gardasil 9(®) in both males and females ages 9 to 14 years appears to be the most widely accepted recommendation...
June 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492521/coinjection-of-il2-dna-enhances-e7-specific-antitumor-immunity-elicited-by-intravaginal-therapeutic-hpv-dna-vaccination-with-electroporation
#20
Y Sun, S Peng, A Yang, E Farmer, T-C Wu, C-F Hung
The generation and use of therapeutic human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA vaccines represent an appealing treatment method against HPV-associated cervical cancer owing to their safety and durability. Previously, we created a therapeutic HPV DNA vaccine candidate by linking the HPV16-E7 DNA sequence to calreticulin (CRT/E7), which we showed could generate significant E7-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated antitumor immune responses against HPV16 oncogenes expressing murine tumor model TC-1. Here we assess the therapeutic efficacy of intravaginal immunization with pcDNA3-CRT/E7 followed by electroporation...
July 2017: Gene Therapy
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