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Maureen A ter Laak, Carolien Roos, Daan J Touw, Paul R M van Hattum, Anneke Kwee, Frederik K Lotgering, Ben Willem J Mol, Mariƫlle G van Pampus, Martina M Porath, Marc E A Spaanderman, Joris A M van der Post, Dimitri N M Papatsonis, Nils E van 't Veer
OBJECTIVE: The pharmacokinetics of nifedipine as a tocolytic agent has not been studied in great detail in pregnant women and has instead focused on immediate release tablets and gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) tablets. The aim of this study was to determine nifedipine slow-release half-life and distribution volume in pregnant women and to compare these with pharmacokinetic parameters of nifedipine in non-pregnant subjects described in the literature. MATERIALS: This is a study parallel to a trial studying women with threatened preterm labor between 26 + 0 and 32 + 2 weeks after initial tocolysis and a completed course of corticosteroids, who were randomly allocated to maintenance nifedipine (slow-release tablets 20 mg 4 times daily) or placebo...
January 2015: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Thomas M A Kerkhofs, Luc J J Derijks, Hester Ettaieb, Jan den Hartigh, Kees Neef, Hans Gelderblom, Henk-Jan Guchelaar, Harm R Haak
BACKGROUND: Mitotane is the drug of choice in medical treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma. The antineoplastic effect seems to be correlated with a minimum plasma level of 14 mg/L, but plasma concentration build-up is in general slow due to the long elimination half-life. Consequently, the therapeutic effect sets in after weeks or even months. The objective of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic model that enables clinicians to adjust dosing based on a target drug exposure, which facilitates personalized therapy...
February 2015: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Aline Fuchs, Chantal Csajka, Yann Thoma, Thierry Buclin, Nicolas Widmer
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) aims to optimize treatments by individualizing dosage regimens based on the measurement of blood concentrations. Dosage individualization to maintain concentrations within a target range requires pharmacokinetic and clinical capabilities. Bayesian calculations currently represent the gold standard TDM approach but require computation assistance. In recent decades computer programs have been developed to assist clinicians in this assignment. The aim of this survey was to assess and compare computer tools designed to support TDM clinical activities...
January 2013: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Jan-Willem C Alffenaar, Jos G W Kosterink, Richard van Altena, Tjip S van der Werf, Donald R A Uges, Johannes H Proost
INTRODUCTION: Linezolid is a potential drug for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis but its use is limited because of severe adverse effects such as anemia, thrombocytopenia, and peripheral neuropathy. This study aimed to develop a model for the prediction of linezolid area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours (AUC0-12h) by limited sampling strategy to enable individualized dosing. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis received linezolid twice daily as part of their antituberculosis treatment...
February 2010: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Robert A M Op den Buijsch, Afke van de Plas, Leo M L Stolk, Maarten H L Christiaans, Johannes P van Hooff, Nas A Undre, Marja P van Dieijen-Visser, Otto Bekers
OBJECTIVE: In literature, a great diversity of limited sampling strategies (LSS) have been recommended for tacrolimus monitoring, however proper validation of these strategies to accurately predict the area under the time concentration curve (AUC0-12) is limited. The aim of this study was to determine whether these LSS might be useful for AUC prediction of other patient populations. METHODS: The LSS from literature studied were based on regression equations or on Bayesian fitting using MWPHARM 3...
November 2007: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Joyce Pullen, Leo M L Stolk, Pieter L J Degraeuwe, Frank H van Tiel, Cees Neef, Luc J I Zimmermann
Few reports have addressed neonatal rifampicin plasma concentrations and data on neonatal rifampicin pharmacokinetics are completely lacking. Therefore, plasma concentrations of rifampicin and its main metabolite 25-O-desacetylrifampicin (DES) were measured in 123 surplus plasma samples from routine vancomycin monitoring in 21 neonates using reversed-phase HPLC. Rifampicin peak and trough plasma concentrations were 4.66 +/- 1.47 mg/L and 0.21 +/- 0.20 mg/L, respectively, after a dose of 8.5 +/- 2.1 (mean +/- SD) mg/kg per day...
October 2006: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Joyce Pullen, Lindsay de Rozario, Leo M L Stolk, Pieter L J Degraeuwe, Frank H van Tiel, Luc J I Zimmermann
In total 235 flucloxacillin total (free+protein bound) plasma concentrations were determined in 55 neonates (gestational age 26 to 42 weeks, postnatal age 0 to 44 days) with reversed-phase HPLC in surplus plasma samples from routine gentamicin assays. Population pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated according to an one compartment open model with iterative two-stage Bayesian fitting (MWPHARM 3.50, Mediware, The Netherlands). Mean clearance corrected for weight was 0.18+/-0.10 L kgh and volume of distribution corrected for weight was 0...
June 2006: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Simon P R Worrall, Michael K Almond, Soraya Dhillon
To date, no study has investigated the effects of bupropion (BP) in renal-impaired humans. This study aims to identify the pharmacokinetics of BP and metabolites in haemodialysis patients who smoke, determine whether haemodialysis affects BP and metabolite clearance, and suggest the BP dose in haemodialysis. The pharmacokinetics of BP and two of its major metabolites, hydroxybupropion (HB) and threohydrobupropion (TB) were studied in 8 smokers with ESRD receiving haemodialysis. Following a single oral dose of 150 mg bupropion hydrochloride sustained-release, blood samples were taken over 7 days, which were assayed using HPLC-mass spectrometry...
2004: Nephron. Clinical Practice
L M L Stolk, P L J Degraeuwe, F H M Nieman, M C de Wolf, A de Boer
Population pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were calculated from 725 routine plasma gentamicin concentrations obtained in 177 neonates of 24 to 42 weeks' gestational age in their first week of life. Kel increases and V/W decreases with increasing gestational age. Almost identical results were obtained with iterative two-stage Bayesian fitting (MWPHARM 3.30) as with a non-parametric maximization algorithm (NPEM2). The effect of various covariates on drug disposition was investigated retrospectively using multiple regression analysis...
August 2002: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
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