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New treatments for glaucoma

Rupert R A Bourne, Jost B Jonas, Alain M Bron, Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Aditi Das, Seth R Flaxman, David S Friedman, Jill E Keeffe, John H Kempen, Janet Leasher, Hans Limburg, Kovin Naidoo, Konrad Pesudovs, Tunde Peto, Jinan Saadine, Alexander J Silvester, Nina Tahhan, Hugh R Taylor, Rohit Varma, Tien Y Wong, Serge Resnikoff
BACKGROUND: Within a surveillance of the prevalence and causes of vision impairment in high-income regions and Central/Eastern Europe, we update figures through 2015 and forecast expected values in 2020. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of blindness, moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI), mild vision impairment and presbyopia was estimated for 1990, 2010, 2015, and 2020. RESULTS: Age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI for all ages decreased from 1990 to 2015 from 0...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Kenji Sakamoto, Taishi Suzuki, Kosuke Takahashi, Takumi Koguchi, Tasuku Hirayama, Asami Mori, Tsutomu Nakahara, Hideko Nagasawa, Kunio Ishii
Excitoneurotoxicity is regarded as one of the mechanisms of the death of retinal ganglion cells induced by retinal central artery occlusion and glaucoma. Oxidative stress is at least in part involved in excitoneurotoxicity. Fenton reaction, which is catalyzed by Fe2+ , is known to cause formation of hydroxyl radical, one of reactive oxygen species, suggesting that chelation of iron may be protective against excitoneurotoxicity. In the present study, we histologically evaluated whether zinc-deferoxamine (Zn-DFO) and deferasirox (DFX), common iron-chelating agents, were protective against N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced retinal injury in the rat in vivo...
March 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Mihail Zemba, Tatiana Danilova, Liliana Pulbere, Alina-Cristina Stamate
Aim: To present diagnostic particularities, assessment of prognosis, and the need for treatment in a case of normal-tension glaucoma. Methods: - presentation of clinical changes and investigations supporting the diagnosis; - careful anamnesis that disclosed new elements, useful for the evaluation of the case. Results: after a two-year follow-up period, we can ascertain that the optic atrophy is non-progressive. Conclusions: the assessment of risk factors and a rigorous anamnesis were significant for the establishment of prognosis and need for treatment...
October 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
James A Stefater, Dean Eliott, Leo A Kim
Purpose: To describe a case of a patient with acute systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) causing choroidal effusions and to report a novel technique for evaluation of the choroidal fluid which sheds light on effusion pathogenesis. Observations: A 37 year-old woman was referred for decreased vision, eye pain and shortness of breath. The patient had bilateral angle closure glaucoma from choroidal effusions and bilateral pleural effusions. Work-up revealed new onset acute SLE...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Qiu-Li Zhang, Wei Wang, Yan Jiang, A-Tuya, Dongmei, Lan-Lan Li, Zhan-Jun Lu, He Chang, Tian-Zi Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of GRGM-13 on oxidative stress induced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and revealed its possible mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Caspase-3 activity, MDA level, and glutathione peroxidase level were detected by Caspase-3 assay kit, Lipid Peroxidation MDA Assay Kit, and Total Glutathione Peroxidase Assay Kit, respectively. Protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2, p-p38 and p38 were observed by Western Blot. Reactive oxygen species assay kit was used to determine intracellular ROS level...
March 1, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
William Fusi-Rubiano, Chandoshi Mukherjee, Mark Lane, Marie D Tsaloumas, Nicholas Glover, Andrej Kidess, Alastair K Denniston, Helen E Palmer, Avinash Manna, Rupal Morjaria
BACKGROUND: To compare visual function and structural improvements in pseudophakic eyes with diabetic macular oedema (DMO) treated with the 0.19mg Fluocinolone Acetonide (FAc) intravitreal implant (IluvienTM ) in a 'real world' setting. METHODS: A single centre retrospective evaluation of patients with DMO unresponsive to conventional treatment treated with the FAc implant according to UK guidelines. Primary efficacy endpoint was best corrected visual acuity (BCVA); secondary endpoints included optical coherence tomography evaluations of the macula (a) central retinal and (b) peak macular thickness collected at annual time points...
February 27, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Jonathan S Myers, Imran Masood, Dana M Hornbeak, Jose I Belda, Gerd Auffarth, Anselm Jünemann, Jane Ellen Giamporcaro, Jose M Martinez-de-la-Casa, Iqbal Ike K Ahmed, Lilit Voskanyan, L Jay Katz
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluates long-term outcomes of two trabecular micro-bypass stents, one suprachoroidal stent, and postoperative prostaglandin in eyes with refractory open angle glaucoma (OAG). METHODS: Prospective ongoing 5-year study of 80 eligible subjects (70 with 4-year follow-up) with OAG and IOP ≥ 18 mmHg after prior trabeculectomy and while taking 1-3 glaucoma medications. Subjects received two iStent® trabecular micro-bypass stents, one iStent Supra® suprachoroidal stent, and postoperative travoprost...
February 23, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Trevor Stack, Amir Vahabikashi, Mark Johnson, Evan Scott
Increased stiffness of Schlemm's canal endothelial cells (SC cells) is a major contributing factor to the increased pressure characteristic of primary open-angle glaucoma. New treatments for glaucoma are being developed using actin depolymerizers and rho kinase inhibitors to address this increased stiffness. However, these agents have off-target effects and are not as potent as had been hoped. We have developed a micellar nanocarrier assembled from poly(ethylene glycol)-bl-poly(propylene sulfide) copolymers capable of encapsulating latrunculin A (Lat A) with the goal of modulating SC cell stiffness...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Kanza Aziz, David S Friedman
Although several factors are known to play a role in the development and progression of glaucoma, intraocular pressure (IOP) remains the only modifiable risk factor. Medical and surgical treatments for glaucoma both aim to reduce IOP to minimize disease progression. Tonometry is therefore an essential element of the ophthalmological exam. There are several types of tonometers available currently. These range from well-established instruments that have been in clinical use for decades to new devices, which are the result of recent technological advances...
February 19, 2018: Eye
M Monica Gavris, Ioana Olteanu, Erzsebet Kantor, Radu Mateescu, Roxana Belicioiu
Purpose: To present the new IRIDEX MicroPulse P3 (MP3) technology in patients with refractory glaucoma and our preliminary results at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively. Methods: IRIDEX MP3 laser cyclophotocoagulation was performed in 7 eyes of 7 patients under retrobulbar anaesthesia with lidocaine 2% in the operating room. Each eye received two treatments of 80-90s over the superior and inferior hemisphere, avoiding the temporal- and nasal-most clock hours. 810nm IRIDEX MP3 was set to 31,3% duty cycle (0,5ms treatment pulse followed by 1,1 ms of rest)...
April 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
Megumi Honjo, Hidenobu Tanihara
Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), a ubiquitously expressed signaling messenger and downstream effector of Rho, is activated by several bioactive factors in the aqueous humor (AH). Rho-ROCK signaling regulates a wide spectrum of fundamental cellular events, including cell adhesion, motility, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Previous studies, including our own, found that ROCK inhibitor lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) via a direct effect on the conventional AH outflow pathway, by regulation of contractile properties, fibrotic activity, and permeability of the trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's canal (SC) tissues, influencing extracellular matrix (ECM) production...
February 14, 2018: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Abhilasha Maheshwari, Paul T Finger
PURPOSE: To present our 12-year experience with low energy photon, slotted eye plaque radiation therapy. DESIGN: Retrospective interventional case series METHODS: SETTING: The New York Eye Cancer Center. STUDY POPULATION: Fifty-two consecutive patients with uveal melanomas near, touching or surrounding the optic disc. INTERVENTION: Slotted eye plaque radiation therapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: change in visual acuity, local tumor control, radiation side effects, eye salvage and systemic metastases...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Dustin Je Huard, Vincent M Crowley, Yuhong Du, Ricardo A Cordova, Zheying Sun, Moya O Tomlin, Chad A Dickey, John Koren, Laura Blair, Haian Fu, Brian S J Blagg, Raquel L Lieberman
Gain-of-function mutations within the olfactomedin (OLF) domain of myocilin result in its toxic intracellular accumulation and hastens the onset of open-angle glaucoma. The absence of myocilin does not cause disease; therefore, strategies aimed at eliminating myocilin could lead to a successful glaucoma treatment. The endoplasmic reticulum Hsp90 paralog Grp94 accelerates OLF aggregation. Knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of Grp94 in cells facilitates clearance of mutant myocilin via a non-proteasomal pathway...
February 5, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
David F Garway-Heath, Haogang Zhu, Qian Cheng, Katy Morgan, Chris Frost, David P Crabb, Tuan-Anh Ho, Yannis Agiomyrgiannakis
BACKGROUND: Progressive optic nerve damage in glaucoma results in vision loss, quantifiable with visual field (VF) testing. VF measurements are, however, highly variable, making identification of worsening vision ('progression') challenging. Glaucomatous optic nerve damage can also be measured with imaging techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT). OBJECTIVE: To compare statistical methods that combine VF and OCT data with VF-only methods to establish whether or not these allow (1) more rapid identification of glaucoma progression and (2) shorter or smaller clinical trials...
January 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
V Chrysostomou, R J Hatch, T Colgan, J P Paul, P van Wijngaarden, I Trounce, M I G Lopez Sanchez, K Bell, F Grus, J G Crowston
BACKGROUND: Visual recovery is an established but poorly studied phenomenon in glaucoma. OBJECTIVE: To provide insights into functional recovery of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with a view to providing information on the development of forms of treatment that improve RGC function after injury. METHOD: A model of recoverable RGC function in the mouse eye, induced by short-term elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). RESULTS: The RGCs manifest near complete functional recovery after a prolonged period of dysfunction following acute IOP elevation...
January 30, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Xiang-Ji Li, Lin Xie, Fu-Sheng Pan, Yong Wang, Hong Liu, Yu-Rong Tang, Cindy Ml Hutnik
Technological advances in glaucoma have challenged the traditional treatment paradigm. Historically incisional surgery has been used in cases of advanced disease and/or uncontrolled intraocular pressures resistant to medical or laser interventions. More recently, perhaps due to advancements in imaging, surgery has been suggested to be beneficial earlier in the treatment paradigm. Despite these trends, surgical manipulation of the tissues and unpredictability of wound healing continue to result in surgical failure...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Mao-Song Xie, Yong-Zheng Zheng, Li-Bin Huang, Guo-Xing Xu
AIM: To present a new, simple, inexpensive Schlemm canal microcatheter for circumferential canaloplasty in a rabbit model. METHODS: A rabbit glaucoma animal model was established by intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide. Circumferential canaloplasty with a new Schlemm canal microcatheter (patent license number: 201220029850.0) was performed. The Schlemm canal microcatheter was composed of microcatheter wall and lumen. The wall was made of high refractive index plastic optical fiber that could be attached to an illuminant so that the whole lighted microcatheter was visible during circumferential canaloplasty...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Irene Bravo-Osuna, Vanessa Andrés-Guerrero, Alicia Arranz-Romera, Sergio Esteban-Pérez, Irene T Molina-Martínez, Rocío Herrero-Vanrell
Pathologies affecting the optic nerve and the retina are one of the major causes of blindness. These diseases include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and glaucoma, among others. Also, there are genetic disorders that affect the retina causing visual impairment. The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases of the posterior segment is increased as most of them are related with the elderly. Even with the access to different treatments, there are some challenges in managing patients suffering retinal diseases...
January 12, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Eduardo Ruiz-Pesini, Sonia Emperador, Ester López-Gallardo, Carmen Hernandez-Ainsa, Julio Montoya
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a rare, inherited mitochondrial disease. No treatment has shown a clear-cut benefit on a clinically meaningful end-point. Primary open-angle glaucoma is a frequent, acquired optic neuropathy. Lowering intraocular pressure reduces disease progression. However, current methods to decelerate this progression are recognized as being inadequate. Therefore, there is a clear need to look for new therapeutic approaches. The growing evidence indicates that primary open-angle glaucoma can also be a mitochondrial optic neuropathy (MON)...
January 11, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
V Zanon-Moreno, J Raga-Cervera, J J García-Medina, J Benitez-Del-Castillo, I Vinuesa-Silva, S Torregrosa, M D Pinazo-Durán
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
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