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New treatments for glaucoma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140817/new-developments-in-optical-coherence-tomography-imaging-for-glaucoma
#1
Jean-Claude Mwanza, Donald L Budenz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since its introduction in ophthalmology, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has undergone significant advances in imaging protocols, algorithms, and addition of new parameters which have maximized its potential for diagnosing, evaluating the response to treatment, and assessing the progression of various ocular diseases, including glaucoma. This review provides an update on recent developments in OCT with respect to the management of glaucoma. RECENT FINDINGS: Most recent notable developments include the introduction of the minimum distance band, which is a three-dimensional optic nerve head parameter, and Swept-Source OCT with its single wide-field scanning capability...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136662/protective-effect-of-metformin-against-retinal-vein-occlusions-in-diabetes-mellitus-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#2
Tai-Chi Lin, De-Kuang Hwang, Chih-Chien Hsu, Chi-Hsien Peng, Mong-Lien Wang, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Shih-Jen Chen
Previous studies have found that metformin can reduce cardiovascular risk, but its association with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is unknown. In this population-based cohort study using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), we demonstrated the protective effect of metformin against RVO in diabetes mellitus (DM) and explored the incidence rate and factors associated with RVO development in general and diabetic populations. One million patients were randomly selected from the registry files of the NHIRD, and all their claims data were collected for the 1996-2011 period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135604/chemical-burns-of-the-eye-the-role-of-retinal-injury-and-new-therapeutic-possibilities
#3
Claes H Dohlman, Fabiano Cade, Caio V Regatieri, Chengxin Zhou, Fengyang Lei, Alja Crnej, Mona Harissi-Dagher, Marie-Claude Robert, George N Papaliodis, Dongfeng Chen, James V Aquavella, Esen K Akpek, Anthony J Aldave, Kimberly C Sippel, Donald J DʼAmico, Jan G Dohlman, Per Fagerholm, Liqiang Wang, Lucy Q Shen, Miguel González-Andrades, James Chodosh, Kenneth R Kenyon, C Stephen Foster, Roberto Pineda, Samir Melki, Kathryn A Colby, Joseph B Ciolino, Demetrios G Vavvas, Shigeru Kinoshita, Reza Dana, Eleftherios I Paschalis
PURPOSE: To propose a new treatment paradigm for chemical burns to the eye - in the acute and chronic phases. METHODS: Recent laboratory and clinical data on the biology and treatment of chemical burns are analyzed. RESULTS: Corneal blindness from chemical burns can now be successfully treated with a keratoprosthesis, on immediate and intermediate bases. Long term outcomes, however, are hampered by early retinal damage causing glaucoma. New data suggest that rapid diffusion of inflammatory cytokines posteriorly (TNF-α, etc) can severely damage the ganglion cells...
November 9, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132913/beta2-adrenergic-receptor-silencing-change-intraocular-pressure-in-new-zealand-rabbits
#4
Patricia Loma, Ana Guzman-Aranguez, Maria J Perez de Lara, Jesus Pintor
PURPOSE/AIM: Glaucoma consists of a group of progressive optic neuropathies that are characterized by degeneration of the optic nerve and irreversible visual filed loss. Elevated intraocular pressure is the only proven treatable risk factor and commercial products used for glaucoma treatment are focused in lowering intraocular pressure. These drugs can have various undesirable side effects and this invites to look for new strategies. The purpose of this work is to study the use of a siRNA (small interfering RNA) to selectively silence beta2 adrenergic receptors and to see whether it reduces IOP (intraocular pressure)...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122824/ruthenium-106-brachytherapy-for-iris-and-iridociliary-melanomas
#5
Marina Marinkovic, Nanda Horeweg, Mirjam S Laman, Jaco C Bleeker, Martijn Ketelaars, Femke P Peters, Gre P M Luyten, Carien L Creutzberg
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate ruthenium-106 (Ru106) brachytherapy as eye-conserving treatment of iris melanomas (IMs) and iridociliary melanomas (ICMs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-eight patients received Ru106 brachytherapy between 2006 and 2016. Primary outcome was local control, and secondary outcomes were metastasis, survival, eye preservation, complications and visual acuity (VA). RESULTS: Overall median follow-up was 36 months...
November 9, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119227/-hyaluronic-acid-gels-for-pressure-regulation-in-glaucoma-treatment
#6
REVIEW
M Thaller, H Böhm, C Lingenfelder, F Geiger
BACKGROUND: The increasing numbers of glaucoma patients and complications occuring during treatment, such as restenosis and hypotony, require new treatment options to prevent blindness in patients. Therefore, the abovementioned problems should be solved to prolong the lifetime of implants and to prevent repeated surgery. OBJECTIVE: Can a novel stent with hyaluronic acid hydrogels (HA gel) as a functional unit be used to regulate pressure in glaucoma therapy in the long term? MATERIAL AND METHODS: Model stents were filled with HA gels and it was investigated if these could regulate the pressure and what the underlying mechanism is...
November 8, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109409/candidate-proteins-from-predegenerated-nerve-exert-time-specific-protection-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-glaucoma
#7
Marita Pietrucha-Dutczak, Adrian Smedowski, Xiaonan Liu, Iwona Matuszek, Markku Varjosalo, Joanna Lewin-Kowalik
Glaucoma is thought to be the main cause of severe visual impairment or permanent loss of vision. Current therapeutic strategies are not sufficient to protect against glaucoma. Thus, new therapies and potential novel therapeutic targets must be developed to achieve progress in the treatment of this insidious disease. This study was undertaken to verify whether the time of administration of an extract from predegenerated rat sciatic nerves as well as exposure time of this extract onto retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) influences the survival of RGCs in a rat glaucoma model...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079201/pdgf-c-and-pdgf-d-in-ocular-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Anil Kumar, Xuri Li
PDGFs and their receptors are critical regulators of numerous tissues and organs, including the eye. Extensive studies have shown that PDGFs and their receptors play critical roles in many ocular neovascular diseases, such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. In addition, PDGFs and PDGFRs are also important players in ocular diseases involving the degeneration of retinal neuronal and vascular cells, such as glaucoma and retinitis pigmentosa...
October 24, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077522/a-novel-uveolymphatic-drainage-pathway-possible-new-target-for-glaucoma-treatment
#9
Martyna Tomczyk-Socha, Anna Turno-Kręcicka
Glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of ophthalmic diseases leading to irreversible damage to the optic nerve. While the overall mechanism responsible for glaucoma remains obscure, the most important risk factor is elevated intraocular pressure. The current therapies, whether pharmacological or surgical, are primarily symptomatic with the aim to lower the intraocular pressure (IOP). Poorer response to treatment is associated, for example, with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, which is determined by blocking the trabecular meshwork (TM) both by pigment grains and the pseudoexfoliation material...
October 27, 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064837/comanagement-of-cataract-and-glaucoma-in-the-era-of-minimally-invasive-glaucoma-surgery
#10
Richard L Rabin, Arnold R Rabin, Amy D Zhang, Edward N Burney, Douglas J Rhee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the options available to be used in conjunction with phacoemulsification cataract surgery to control intraocular pressure. We present a strategy for planning which surgery should be performed based on goals of care. RECENT FINDINGS: New clinical evidence for using the CyPass, Kahook and Xen45 devices has been published recently and is summarized. SUMMARY: Cataract and glaucoma frequently exist together...
October 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063455/-double-scleral-tunnel-in-tandem-technique-for-glaucoma-drainage-tube-implants
#11
Dimitrios Brouzas, Maria Dettoraki, Konstantinos Andreanos, Nikolaos Nomikarios, Chryssanthi Koutsandrea, Marilita M Moschos
PURPOSE: To describe a new technique of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in patients with refractory glaucoma and present the long-term results. METHODS: Twenty-eight eyes of 28 patients with refractory glaucoma participated in the study. "Double scleral tunnel in tandem" technique was used for glaucoma valve implantation in all patients. The technique consists of the formation of two scleral tunnels in tandem so as to completely cover the extraocular part of valve's tube and facilitate a parallel to the iris placement of the intraocular part of the tube...
October 23, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062594/new-drugs-and-new-posterior-delivery-methods-in-cme
#12
João Rafael de Oliveira Dias, Renata Portella Nunes, Raquel Goldhardt
PURPOSE: To discuss the characteristics, indications and adverse events (AEs) of sustained-release corticosteroid devices for the treatment of cystoid macular edema (CME). RECENT FINDINGS: Ozurdex® is approved for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME), retinal vein occlusion related-CME and noninfectious posterior uveitis (NIPU). It releases dexamethasone over a maximum period of 6 months making repeated intravitreal injections necessary for recurrent CME...
June 2017: Current Ophthalmology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061512/injectable-hydrogels-for-ophthalmic-applications
#13
REVIEW
Kai Wang, Zongchao Han
The demand for effective eye therapies is driving the development of injectable hydrogels as new medical devices for controlled delivery and filling purposes. This article introduces the properties of injectable hydrogels and summarizes their versatile application in the treatment of ophthalmic diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and intraocular cancers. A number of injectable hydrogels are approved by FDA as surgery sealants, tissue adhesives, and are now being investigated as a vitreous humor substitute...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057050/gem-dinitroalkyl-benzenes-a-novel-class-of-iop-lowering-agents-for-the-treatment-of-ocular-hypertension
#14
Marco Blangetti, Barbara Rolando, Elisabetta Marini, Konstantin Chegaev, Stefano Guglielmo, Loretta Lazzarato, Laura Lucarini, Emanuela Masini, Roberta Fruttero
Primary open angle glaucoma is the second most common cause of blindness worldwide. Nitric oxide has recently received particular attention as a potential antiglaucoma agent. In this work, gem-dinitroalkyl benzenes are evaluated for their capability to act as a new class of IOP lowering agents. These derivatives have been endowed with a variety of NO-release capacities and found to relax contracted rat aorta strips in a concentration-dependent manner. They have been studied for their IOP-lowering activity in a transient ocular hypertensive rabbit model at 1% dose...
October 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016456/new-ultra-wide-field-angiographic-grading-scheme-for-radiation-retinopathy-after-iodine-125-brachytherapy-for-uveal-melanoma
#15
Tara A McCannel, EunAh Kim, Mitchell Kamrava, James Lamb, Joseph Caprioli, Dong Yang, Colin A McCannel
PURPOSE: Radiation retinopathy remains incompletely characterized and may cause severe vision loss. Ultra-wide-field fluorescein angiography provides a pan-fundus view of vascular alterations caused by radiation treatment and may predict visual and ocular outcomes. We have developed a grading scheme to describe pan-fundus severity and to predict the progression of radiation retinopathy in patients treated for uveal melanoma with iodine-125 brachytherapy. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients treated with standard iodine-125 brachytherapy for uveal melanoma at the Ophthalmic Oncology Center at the University of California, Los Angeles, who had undergone both baseline and postbrachytherapy ultra-wide-field fluorescein angiography...
October 6, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980565/-combination-treatment-for-cataract-and-glaucoma
#16
M A Frolov, A M Frolov, K A Kazakova
AIM: To develop a new combination treatment for cataract and glaucoma that would involve drainage of the suprachoroidal space with an autoscleral flap and to assess the outcomes of patients who underwent combined phacoemulsification and non-penetrating deep sclerectomy with suprachoroidal drainage with an autoscleral flap. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We have studied the results of combination surgical treatment of cataract and glaucoma performed in 34 patients (34 eyes), notably phacoemulsification and non-penetrating deep sclerectomy with suprachoroidal drainage...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954018/topical-tacrolimus-for-the-treatment-of-severe-allergic-keratoconjunctivitis-in-children
#17
Vera Lucia Liendo, Maria Eugenia Vola, Telma Pereira Barreiro, Tais Hitomi Wakamatsu, José Álvaro Pereira Gomes, Myrna Serapião Dos Santos
Purpose: Administration of eye drops containing antihistamines or sodium cromoglycate and its derivatives for the treatment of allergic keratoconjunctivitis is often insufficient and usually requires the addition of corticosteroids. However, the risk of complications, such as glaucoma and cataract, limits the use of corticosteroids to short courses, resulting in inadequate long-term treatment response. Immunosuppressive drugs have been considered as a valid alternative to steroids for atopic keratoconjunctivitis and vernal keratoconjunctivitis...
July 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952395/open-angle-glaucoma-therapeutically-targeting-the-extracellular-matrix-of-the-conventional-outflow-pathway
#18
REVIEW
Jeffrey O'Callaghan, Paul S Cassidy, Pete Humphries
Ocular hypertension in open-angle glaucoma is caused by a reduced rate of removal of aqueous humour (AH) from the eye, with the majority of AH draining from the anterior chamber through the conventional outflow pathway, comprising the trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's Canal. Resistance to outflow is generated, in part, by the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the outflow tissues. Current pressure-lowering topical medications largely suppress AH production, or enhance its clearance through the unconventional pathway...
November 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923582/glaucoma-following-corneal-replacement
#19
REVIEW
Monika Baltaziak, Hall F Chew, Dominik W Podbielski, Iqbal Ike K Ahmed
Glaucoma is a well-known complication following corneal transplantation surgery. Traditional corneal transplantation surgery, specifically penetrating keratoplasty (PK), has been slowly replaced by the advent of new corneal transplantation procedures: primarily lamellar keratoplasties. There has also been an emergence of keratoprosthesis implants for eyes that are high risk of failure with PK. Consequently, there are different rates of glaucoma, pathogenesis, and potential treatment in the form of medical, laser or surgical therapy...
September 16, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919702/micro-invasive-glaucoma-surgery-migs-a-review-of-surgical-procedures-using-stents
#20
Lutz E Pillunat, Carl Erb, Anselm Gm Jünemann, Friedemann Kimmich
Over the last decade several novel surgical treatment options and devices for glaucoma have been developed. All these developments aim to cause as little trauma as possible to the eye, to safely, effectively, and sustainably reduce intraocular pressure (IOP), to produce reproducible results, and to be easy to adopt. The term "micro-invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS)" was used for summarizing all these procedures. Currently MIGS is gaining more and more interest and popularity. The possible reduction of the number of glaucoma medications, the ab interno approach without damaging the conjunctival tissue, and the probably safer procedures compared to incisional surgical methods may explain the increased interest in MIGS...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
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