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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549900/four-decades-of-ocular-renin-angiotensin-and-kallikrein-kinin-systems-1977-2017
#1
REVIEW
Rajko Igić
This review offers a contemporary history of the renin-angiotensin (RAS) and kallikrein-kinin (KKS) systems with emphasis on how these complex systems affect the eye. It describes the types of communication (cross-talk) between the two systems and evaluates their potential role in the development of diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and uveitis. In addition to detailing the important physiological actions of components of the RAS and KKS, possibilities are suggested for new therapeutic avenues in the treatment of common ocular diseases...
May 23, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540323/neuroglobin-can-prevent-or-reverse-glaucomatous-progression-in-dba-2j-mice
#2
Hélène Cwerman-Thibault, Christophe Lechauve, Sébastien Augustin, Delphine Roussel, Élodie Reboussin, Ammara Mohammad, Julie Degardin-Chicaud, Manuel Simonutti, Hong Liang, Françoise Brignole-Baudouin, Anne Maron, Thomas Debeir, Marisol Corral-Debrinski
Mitochondrial dysfunction is responsible for hereditary optic neuropathies. We wished to determine whether preserving mitochondrial bioenergetics could prevent optic neuropathy in a reliable model of glaucoma. DBA/2J mice exhibit elevated intraocular pressure, progressive degeneration of their retinal ganglion cells, and optic neuropathy that resembles glaucoma. We established that glaucoma in these mice is directly associated with mitochondrial dysfunction: respiratory chain activity was compromised in optic nerves 5 months before neuronal loss began, and the amounts of some mitochondrial proteins were reduced in retinas of glaucomatous mice...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540165/nanotechnology-based-strategies-for-treatment-of-ocular-disease
#3
REVIEW
Yuhua Weng, Juan Liu, Shubin Jin, Weisheng Guo, Xingjie Liang, Zhongbo Hu
Ocular diseases include various anterior and posterior segment diseases. Due to the unique anatomy and physiology of the eye, efficient ocular drug delivery is a great challenge to researchers and pharmacologists. Although there are conventional noninvasive and invasive treatments, such as eye drops, injections and implants, the current treatments either suffer from low bioavailability or severe adverse ocular effects. Alternatively, the emerging nanoscience and nanotechnology are playing an important role in the development of novel strategies for ocular disease therapy...
May 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525563/omics-biomarkers-in-ophthalmology
#4
Susette Lauwen, Eiko K de Jong, Dirk J Lefeber, Anneke I den Hollander
"Omics" refers to high-throughput analyses of genes, proteins, or metabolites in a biological system, and is increasingly used for ophthalmic research. These system-based approaches can unravel disease-related processes and are valuable for biomarker discovery. Furthermore, potential therapeutic targets can be identified based on omics results, and targeted follow-up experiments can be designed to gain molecular understanding of the disease and to test new therapies. Here, we review the application of omics techniques in eye diseases, focusing on age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinal detachment (RD), myopia, glaucoma, Fuchs' corneal dystrophy (FCD), cataract, keratoconus, and dry eyes...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512580/high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-circular-cyclocoagulation-in-glaucoma-a-step-forward-for-cyclodestruction
#5
REVIEW
Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Vincenzo Fasanella, Alessandra Mastropasqua, Marco Ciancaglini, Luca Agnifili
The ciliary body ablation is still considered as a last resort treatment to reduce the intraocular pressure (IOP) in uncontrolled glaucoma. Several ablation techniques have been proposed over the years, all presenting a high rate of complications, nonselectivity for the target organ, and unpredictable dose-effect relationship. These drawbacks limited the application of cyclodestructive procedures almost exclusively to refractory glaucoma. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), proposed in the early 1980s and later abandoned because of the complexity and side effects of the procedure, was recently reconsidered in a new approach to destroy the ciliary body...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512578/safety-and-efficacy-of-microinvasive-glaucoma-surgery
#6
REVIEW
David Z Chen, Chelvin C A Sng
Microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) is emerging as a new therapeutic option for glaucoma patients who wish to reduce their medication burden and avoid the postoperative complications of conventional glaucoma filtration surgery. These devices differ in terms of their efficacy and safety profile. Schlemm's canal devices have the most favorable safety profile at the compromise of modest efficacy, while subconjunctival and suprachoroidal devices are potentially more effective at lowering the intraocular pressure at the expense of a higher rate of complications...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506604/the-supraciliary-space-as-a-suitable-pathway-for-glaucoma-surgery-ho-hum-or-home-run
#7
REVIEW
Michele Figus, Chiara Posarelli, Andrea Passani, Timothy G Albert, Francesco Oddone, Angela Tindara Sframeli, Marco Nardi
The supraciliary space is a physiological route for aqueous humor outflow located anteriorly between the outer surface of the ciliary body and the internal surface of the sclera. Posteriorly, the suprachoroidal space is located between the choroid and the internal surface of the sclera. These spaces have been targeted as suitable and helpful pathways for glaucoma treatment, alternatives to the traditional subconjunctival space. The subconjunctival surgical pathway is affected by several limitations such as poor cosmesis, a lifetime risk for endophthalmitis, and an unpredictable wound healing response...
May 12, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494567/-the-advances-in-research-on-precisely-inducing-retinal-ganglion-cells-from-stem-cells
#8
K J Li, M Y Zhu, J Ge
The injury and repair of retinal neurons is a common scientific problem in the occurrence, development and prognosis of neuronal visual impairment. Transplant of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) differentiated from stem cells opens a new avenue for treatment of glaucoma and optic neuronal degenerative diseases. For the goal to explore the optimal method for RGCs replacement, this review summarizes the current information regarding the classification and application of stem cells, the growth characteristics of RGCs and the precise methods to induce RGCs, and discusses some important issues that need resolving and are related to RGCs transplantation...
May 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491472/the-effect-of-corneal-refractive-surgery-on-glaucoma
#9
REVIEW
Vassilios Kozobolis, Aristeidis Konstantinidis, Haris Sideroudi, G Labiris
Laser-assisted refractive procedures have become very popular in the last two decades. As a result, a "generation" of patients with altered corneal properties is emerging. These patients will require both cataract extraction and glaucoma follow-up in the future. Since the glaucoma examination largely depends on the corneal properties, the reshaped postrefractive surgery cornea poses a challenge in the diagnosis, follow-up, and management of the glaucomatous patient. In order to overcome this problem, every patient who is planned to undergo corneal refractive surgery must have a thorough glaucoma examination in order for the ophthalmologist to be able to monitor their patients for possible glaucoma development and/or progression...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475699/biomarkers-and-surrogate-endpoints-lessons-learned-from-glaucoma
#10
Felipe A Medeiros
With the recent progress in imaging technologies for assessment of structural damage in glaucoma, a debate has emerged on whether these measurements can be used as valid surrogate endpoints in clinical trials evaluating new therapies for the disease. A discussion of surrogates should be grounded on knowledge acquired from their use in other areas of medicine as well as regulatory requirements. This article reviews the conditions for valid surrogacy in the context of glaucoma clinical trials and critically evaluates the role of biomarkers such as IOP and imaging measurements as potential surrogates for clinically relevant outcomes...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475698/the-growing-need-for-validated-biomarkers-and-endpoints-for-dry-eye-clinical-research
#11
Neeta S Roy, Yi Wei, Eric Kuklinski, Penny A Asbell
Purpose: Biomarkers with minimally invasive and reproducible objective metrics provide the key to future paradigm shifts in understanding of the underlying causes of dry eye disease (DED) and approaches to treatment of DED. We review biomarkers and their validity in providing objective metrics for DED clinical research and patient care. Methods: The English-language literature in PubMed primarily over the last decade was surveyed for studies related to identification of biomarkers of DED: (1) inflammation, (2) point-of-care, (3) ocular imaging, and (4) genetics...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449038/real-time-imaging-of-single-neuronal-cell-apoptosis-in-patients-with-glaucoma
#12
Maria F Cordeiro, Eduardo M Normando, M Jorge Cardoso, Serge Miodragovic, Seham Jeylani, Benjamin M Davis, Li Guo, Sebastien Ourselin, Roger A'Hern, Philip A Bloom
HASH(0x3da4310)
June 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448670/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-filtration-bleb-maintaining-effects-of-suberoylanilide-hydroxamic-acid-saha
#13
Akiko Futakuchi, Toshihiro Inoue, Tomokazu Fujimoto, Utako Kuroda, Miyuki Inoue-Mochita, Eri Takahashi, Saori Ohira, Hidenobu Tanihara
Purpose: Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) has been shown to support the maintenance of experimental filtration blebs in animal models. This study was performed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the bleb-maintaining effects of SAHA in modulating wound healing activities of conjunctival fibroblasts. Methods: Human conjunctival fibroblasts (HConFs) were pretreated with SAHA before treatment with TGF-β2. Microarray-based screening was used to investigate the gene expression profiles...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448424/rapid-intraocular-tube-trimming-for-glaucoma-drainage-implant-devices
#14
Paul Baciu, Stephen J Moster, Richard K Lee
PURPOSE: To describe a new approach for shortening silicone tubes of glaucoma drainage devices (GDDs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective intervention case series describing 3 patients undergoing the same treatment at a single institutional center RESULTS:: Three patients underwent successful ab interno trimming of GDD silicone tubes without complication CONCLUSIONS:: This technique allows for rapid and successful shortening of GDD tubes via an ab interno approach avoiding risks of traditional glaucoma tube trimming approaches...
May 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445001/inhibition-properties-of-some-flavonoids-on-carbonic-anhydrase-i-and-ii-isoenzymes-purified-from-human-erythrocytes
#15
Zübeyir Huyut, Şükrü Beydemir, İlhami Gülçin
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, E.C.4.2.1.1) play a critical role in many important physiological events and treatment of some diseases. Flavonoids or phenolic compounds have been discovered as novel CAs inhibitors instead of the traditional sulfonamides, with different binding to CAs, pro-drug activities, and new inhibition mechanisms. Here, we investigated the inhibition effects of some flavonoids including malvin, callistephin, oenin, pelargonin, silychristin, and 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methyl-3-nitro-1-H-indol-6-ol (ID-8) against hCA I and II, which purified from human erythrocytes by affinity column chromatography...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442697/when-should-we-give-up-filtration-surgery-indications-techniques-and-results-of-cyclodestruction
#16
Marisse Masis Solano, Guofu Huang, Shan C Lin
PURPOSE: Cyclodestructive procedures are traditionally used in cases of glaucoma that are refractory to medical and surgical therapy. The goal of this chapter is to describe the indications, contraindications, techniques, and pitfalls of cyclodestructive procedures, including transscleral cyclophotocoagulation (TCP), micropulse TCP (MP-TCP), endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation (ECP), and ultrasound cilioplasty. METHODS: A literature search for cyclodestructive techniques was performed, and relevant studies were included for evaluation and review...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442693/ab-interno-schlemm-s-canal-surgery
#17
Brian A Francis, Handan Akil, Benjamin B Bert
In primary open-angle glaucoma, the site of greatest resistance to aqueous outflow is thought to be the trabecular meshwork (TM) and inner wall of Schlemm's canal. Augmentation of the conventional (trabecular) outflow pathway can facilitate physiologic outflow and subsequently lower intraocular pressure. The most recent approach to enhancing the conventional outflow pathway is via an internal approach to the TM and Schlemm's canal. Ab interno Schlemm's canal surgery includes 4 novel surgical approaches: (1) removal of the TM and inner wall of Schlemm's canal by an internal approach (ab interno trabeculectomy), (2) implantation of a microstent to bypass the TM, (3) disruption of the TM and inner wall of Schlemm's canal via an internal approach (ab interno trabeculotomy), and (4) dilation of Schlemm's canal via an internal approach (ab interno canaloplasty)...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442688/ocular-surface-and-external-filtration-surgery-mutual-relationships
#18
Christophe Baudouin
There is a large body of evidence from clinical and experimental studies indicating that the long-term use of topical drugs may induce ocular surface changes, causing ocular discomfort, dry eye, conjunctival inflammation, subconjunctival fibrosis, corneal surface impairment, and, as a consequence of chronic ocular surface changes, the potential risk of failure for further glaucoma surgery. Subclinical inflammation has also been widely described in patients receiving antiglaucoma treatments for long periods of time, with inflammatory cell infiltration and fibroblast activation in the conjunctiva and subconjunctival space...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442683/achievements-and-limits-of-current-medical-therapy-of-glaucoma
#19
Pelagia Kalouda, Christina Keskini, Eleftherios Anastasopoulos, Fotis Topouzis
Prescribing medical therapy for the treatment of glaucoma can be a complex process since many parameters should be taken into consideration regarding its achievements and limits. Today, a variety of options, including multiple drug classes and multiple agents within classes, are available to the clinician, but caution should be given to their side effects and contraindications. Glaucoma patients with preexisting ocular surface disease should be treated with caution, and preferably with preservative-free formulations, as there is an increased risk for symptom deterioration...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425089/high-diagnostic-yield-of-clinically-unidentifiable-syndromic-growth-disorders-by-targeted-exome-sequencing
#20
Yoo-Mi Kim, Yun-Jin Lee, Jae Hong Park, Hyoung-Doo Lee, Chong Kun Cheon, Su-Young Kim, Jae-Yeon Hwang, Ja-Hyun Jang, Han-Wook Yoo
As syndromic short stature and overgrowth are heterogeneous and the list of causative genes is rapidly expanding, there is an unmet need for identifying genetic causes based on conventional gene testing or karyotyping. Early diagnosis leads to the proper management of the patient and providing genetic counseling for family members at risk in a timely manner. We conducted targeted exome sequencing to identify the genetic causes of undiagnosed syndromic short stature or overgrowth in 15 pediatric patients from 13 families in Korea...
April 20, 2017: Clinical Genetics
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