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surveillance in Critical Care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275074/same-day-diagnostic-and-surveillance-data-for-tuberculosis-via-whole-genome-sequencing-of-direct-respiratory-samples
#1
Antonina A Votintseva, Phelim Bradley, Louise Pankhurst, Carlos Del Ojo Elias, Matthew Loose, Kayzad Nilgiriwala, Anirvan Chatterjee, E Grace Smith, Nicolas Sanderson, Timothy M Walker, Marcus R Morgan, David H Wyllie, A Sarah Walker, Tim E A Peto, Derrick W Crook, Zamin Iqbal
Routine full characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is culture-based, taking many weeks. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can generate antibiotic susceptibility profiles to inform treatment, augmented with strain information for global surveillance; such data could be transformative if provided at or near point of care.We demonstrate a low-cost DNA extraction method for TB WGS direct from patient samples. We initially evaluated the method using the Illumina MiSeq sequencer (40 smear-positive respiratory samples, obtained after routine clinical testing, and 27 matched liquid cultures)...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266112/dental-caries-and-periodontal-diseases-in-the-ageing-population-call-to-action-to-protect-and-enhance-oral-health-and-well-being-as-an-essential-component-of-healthy-ageing-consensus-report-of-group-4-of-the-joint-efp-orca-workshop-on-the-boundaries-between
#2
Maurizio S Tonetti, Peter Bottenberg, Georg Conrads, Peter Eickholz, Peter Heasman, Marie-Charlotte Huysmans, Rodrigo López, Phoebus Madianos, Frauke Müller, Ian Needleman, Bente Nyvad, Philip M Preshaw, Iain Pretty, Stefan Renvert, Falk Schwendicke, Leonardo Trombelli, Gert-Jan van der Putten, Jacques Vanobbergen, Nicola West, Alix Young, Sebastian Paris
BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades, progress in prevention and treatment of caries and periodontal diseases has been translated to better oral health and improved tooth retention in the adult population. The ageing population and the increasing expectations of good oral health-related quality of life in older age pose formidable challenges to clinical care and healthcare systems. AIMS: The objective of this workshop was to critically review scientific evidence and develop specific recommendations to: (i) prevent tooth loss and retain oral function through prevention and treatment of caries and periodontal diseases later in life and (ii) increase awareness of the health benefits of oral health as an essential component of healthy ageing...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257317/pulmonary-infections-in-critical-intensive-care-rapid-diagnosis-and-optimizing-antimicrobial-usage
#3
Ivor S Douglas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diagnosis of pulmonary infection, including hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in the critically ill patient remains a common and therapeutically challenging diagnosis with significant attributable morbidity, mortality, and cost. Current clinical approaches to surveillance, early detection and, conventional culture-based microbiology are inadequate for optimal targeted antibiotic treatment and stewardship. Efforts to enhance diagnosis of HAP and VAP and the impact of these novel approaches on rational antimicrobial selection and stewardship are the focus of recent studies reviewed here...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242790/factors-associated-with-early-mortality-among-patients-with-de-novo-metastatic-breast-cancer-a-population-based-study
#4
Ines Vaz-Luis, Nancy U Lin, Nancy L Keating, William T Barry, Eric P Winer, Rachel A Freedman
BACKGROUND: Although improvements in survival have been achieved for patients with metastatic breast cancer, some patients experience early death after diagnosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data, we identified 26,538 patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and June 30, 2011. We evaluated time trends for deaths at 1 and 6 months after diagnosis. We then restricted the cohort to patients diagnosed between 2010 and 2011 (n = 3,317), when human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 was routinely collected, and examined factors associated with early death...
February 27, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240970/head-and-neck-cancer-survivorship-care-guideline-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-clinical-practice-guideline-endorsement-of-the-american-cancer-society-guideline
#5
Larissa Nekhlyudov, Christina Lacchetti, Nancy B Davis, Thomas Q Garvey, David P Goldstein, J Chris Nunnink, Jose I Ruades Ninfea, Andrew L Salner, Talya Salz, Lillian L Siu
Purpose This guideline provides recommendations on the management of adults after head and neck cancer (HNC) treatment, focusing on surveillance and screening for recurrence or second primary cancers, assessment and management of long-term and late effects, health promotion, care coordination, and practice implications. Methods ASCO has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing clinical practice guidelines that have been developed by other professional organizations. The American Cancer Society (ACS) HNC Survivorship Care Guideline was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214419/recommendations-for-gonadotoxicity-surveillance-in-male-childhood-adolescent-and-young-adult-cancer-survivors-a-report-from-the-international-late-effects-of-childhood-cancer-guideline-harmonization-group-in-collaboration-with-the-pancaresurfup-consortium
#6
REVIEW
Roderick Skinner, Renee L Mulder, Leontien C Kremer, Melissa M Hudson, Louis S Constine, Edit Bardi, Annelies Boekhout, Anja Borgmann-Staudt, Morven C Brown, Richard Cohn, Uta Dirksen, Alexsander Giwercman, Hiroyuki Ishiguro, Kirsi Jahnukainen, Lisa B Kenney, Jacqueline J Loonen, Lilian Meacham, Sebastian Neggers, Stephen Nussey, Cecilia Petersen, Margarett Shnorhavorian, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Hanneke M van Santen, William H B Wallace, Daniel M Green
Treatment with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery that involves reproductive organs can cause impaired spermatogenesis, testosterone deficiency, and physical sexual dysfunction in male pubertal, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors. Guidelines for surveillance and management of potential adverse effects could improve cancer survivors' health and quality of life. Surveillance recommendations vary considerably, causing uncertainty about optimum screening practices. This clinical practice guideline recommended by the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group in collaboration with the PanCareSurFup Consortium, developed using evidence-based methodology, critically synthesises surveillance recommendations for gonadotoxicity in male childhood, adolescent, and young adult (CAYA) cancer survivors...
February 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167543/carbapenem-minimal-inhibitory-concentrations-in-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-species-producing-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases-esbls-in-critical-care-patients-from-2001-2009
#7
J Kristie Johnson, Gwen L Robinson, Lisa L Pineles, Adebola O Ajao, LiCheng Zhao, Jennifer S Albrecht, Anthony D Harris, Kerri A Thom, Jon P Furuno
Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Enterobacteriaceae are increasing in prevalence worldwide. Carbapenem antibiotics are used as a first line of therapy against ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. We examined gastrointestinal colonization of carbapenem-resistant-ESBLs (CR-ESBL) among a cohort of critical care patients. In this cohort of patients, we cultured for ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli and then performed MIC susceptibility testing for imipenem, doripenem, meropenem, and ertapenem on the patient's first isolate...
February 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160955/infection-in-the-critically-ill-older-adult
#8
REVIEW
Jennifer Manning, Jean E Cefalu
Many challenges exist in caring for older adults with infection in critical care environments. Older adults are at high risk due to diminished reserve, age-related changes, comorbidities, subtle clinical presentations, and institutionalization. Additional risks include infections, such as pneumonia, influenza, and nosocomial infections. Age-related changes contribute to the increased risk of infection in older adults. Nursing assessments should be tailored to the needs of the older patient. To improve health care outcomes in this population, nursing care of the critically ill older adult with infection should include comprehensive assessment, surveillance for risks, and strategies aimed to aggressively treat infection...
March 2017: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152684/the-kaiser-permanente-breast-cancer-survivorship-national-clinical-algorithm-regional-variation-in-implementation-processes-strategies-within-an-integrated-health-care-system
#9
Erin Elizabeth Hahn, Joanne E Schottinger, Susan E Kutner, Mark B Littlewood
104 Background: Kaiser Permanente (KP) is an integrated healthcare system providing comprehensive services to over 10 million members. The KP Interregional Breast Care Leaders, a multidisciplinary clinician group, developed a comprehensive evidence/consensus-based algorithm for breast cancer survivors, the KP Breast Cancer Survivorship National Clinical Algorithm (BCSNCA). The BCSNCA is intended to reduce variation in medical and psychosocial surveillance and improve outcomes by providing guidance to locally implemented survivorship programs, ie, recommendations for surveillance, late effects management, and risk reduction...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151799/survival-healthcare-utilization-and-end-of-life-care-among-older-adults-with-malignancy-associated-bowel-obstruction-comparative-study-of-surgery-venting-gastrostomy-or-medical-management
#10
Elizabeth J Lilley, John W Scott, Joel E Goldberg, Christy E Cauley, Jennifer S Temel, Andrew S Epstein, Stuart R Lipsitz, Brittany L Smalls, Adil H Haider, Angela M Bader, Joel S Weissman, Zara Cooper
OBJECTIVE: To compare survival, readmissions, and end-of-life care after palliative procedures compared with medical management for malignancy-associated bowel obstruction (MBO). BACKGROUND: MBO is a late complication of intra-abdominal malignancy for which surgeons are frequently consulted. Decisions about palliative treatments, which include medical management, surgery, or venting gastrostomy tube (VGT), are hampered by the paucity of outcomes data relevant to patients approaching the end of life...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133414/caring-an-undiscovered-super-ility-of-smart-healthcare
#11
Nancy Laplante, Phil Laplante, Jeff Voas
As new and exciting applications emerge using smart technologies, the Internet of Things, data analytics, and others for healthcare, a critical problem is emerging: the potential loss of caring. While these exciting technologies have improved patient care by allowing for better assessment, surveillance, and treatment, the use of technology can disassociate the caregiver from the patient, essentially removing the "care" from healthcare. Here we introduce the notion of caring as an undiscovered ility that ranks at least as important as other well-known ilities in healthcare systems...
November 2016: IEEE Softw
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126260/apic-megasurvey-methodology-and-overview
#12
Timothy Landers, James Davis, Katrina Crist, Charu Malik
BACKGROUND: Infection preventionists (IPs) play key roles in preventing health care-associated infections and ensuring quality of care. To develop strategies to support comprehensive infection prevention practice, it is critical to understand key aspects of their practice. METHODS: A task force of expert IPs, staff representatives from the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and survey designers developed and pilot tested a survey addressing 4 components of infection prevention practice: demographic characteristics, compensation, organizational structure, and practice and competency...
January 23, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120278/long-term-management-challenges-in-esophageal-atresia
#13
REVIEW
Abby White, Raphael Bueno
Esophageal atresia is a rare congenital anomaly, but improved surgical and critical care has resulted in survival rates exceeding 90%. Long-term survival is associated with numerous management challenges including chronic motility disorders, dysphagia, strictures, reflux, esophagitis and attendant complications, tracheomalacia and chronic restrictive lung disease, and recurrent pulmonary infections. No guidelines for adolescents and younger or older adults exist for the treatment and monitoring of this specialized patient population...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099795/failures-of-foreseeability-risk-management-considerations-in-reducing-allegations-of-sexual-violence-in-psychiatric-units
#14
John D Banja
This article begins with a brief discussion of findings on causal factors leading to allegations of sexual violence in health care facilities and then offers the author's account of 4 such cases that he reviewed, 3 of which occurred in psychiatric units. These cases show remarkably similar variables, especially involving decisions to allow male and female patients to commingle, the inadequate physical layout of the units, poor or absent video surveillance, and staff unacquainted with institutional policies on patient safety or refusing to enforce relevant rules...
January 2017: Journal of Healthcare Risk Management: the Journal of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092064/critical-congenital-heart-disease-newborn-screening-implementation-lessons-learned
#15
Monica R McClain, John S Hokanson, Regina Grazel, Kim Naarden Van Braun, Lorraine F Garg, Michelle R Morris, Kathleen Moline, Keri Urquhart, Amy Nance, Harper Randall, Marci K Sontag
Introduction The purpose of this article is to present the collective experiences of six federally-funded critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) newborn screening implementation projects to assist federal and state policy makers and public health to implement CCHD screening. Methods A qualitative assessment and summary from six demonstration project grantees and other state representatives involved in the implementation of CCHD screening programs are presented in the following areas: legislation, provider and family education, screening algorithms and interpretation, data collection and quality improvement, telemedicine, home and rural births, and neonatal intensive care unit populations...
January 16, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079641/world-health-organization-framework-multimodal-hand-hygiene-strategy-in-piedmont-italy-health-care-facilities
#16
Fabrizio Bert, Sebastian Giacomelli, Daniela Ceresetti, Carla Maria Zotti
OBJECTIVES: In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced the "Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework" (HHSAF) to evaluate the level of the application of the Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy (MHHIS), which defines preventive interventions, standards, and tools conceived to improve hand hygiene in healthcare facilities. The aim of our study was to evaluate the implementation of the MHHIS in Piedmont healthcare units in 2014 using the HHSAF document. METHODS: Our surveillance was performed through collection and analysis of the data from 50 Piedmont healthcare facilities recorded through the HHSAF in 2014...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061835/a-comparative-assessment-of-major-international-disasters-the-need-for-exposure-assessment-systematic-emergency-preparedness-and-lifetime-health-care
#17
Roberto G Lucchini, Dana Hashim, Sushma Acquilla, Angela Basanets, Pier Alberto Bertazzi, Andrey Bushmanov, Michael Crane, Denise J Harrison, William Holden, Philip J Landrigan, Benjamin J Luft, Paolo Mocarelli, Nailya Mazitova, James Melius, Jacqueline M Moline, Koji Mori, David Prezant, Joan Reibman, Dori B Reissman, Alexander Stazharau, Ken Takahashi, Iris G Udasin, Andrew C Todd
BACKGROUND: The disasters at Seveso, Three Mile Island, Bhopal, Chernobyl, the World Trade Center (WTC) and Fukushima had historic health and economic sequelae for large populations of workers, responders and community members. METHODS: Comparative data from these events were collected to derive indications for future preparedness. Information from the primary sources and a literature review addressed: i) exposure assessment; ii) exposed populations; iii) health surveillance; iv) follow-up and research outputs; v) observed physical and mental health effects; vi) treatment and benefits; and vii) outreach activities...
January 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045065/high-diversity-of-airborne-fungi-in-the-hospital-environment-as-revealed-by-meta-sequencing-based-microbiome-analysis
#18
Xunliang Tong, Hongtao Xu, Lihui Zou, Meng Cai, Xuefeng Xu, Zuotao Zhao, Fei Xiao, Yanming Li
Invasive fungal infections acquired in the hospital have progressively emerged as an important cause of life-threatening infection. In particular, airborne fungi in hospitals are considered critical pathogens of hospital-associated infections. To identify the causative airborne microorganisms, high-volume air samplers were utilized for collection, and species identification was performed using a culture-based method and DNA sequencing analysis with the Illumina MiSeq and HiSeq 2000 sequencing systems. Few bacteria were grown after cultivation in blood agar...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039365/complete-prevalence-of-malignant-primary-brain-tumors-registry-data-in-the-united-states-compared-with-other-common-cancers-2010
#19
Adah S Zhang, Quinn T Ostrom, Carol Kruchko, Lisa Rogers, David M Peereboom, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan
BACKGROUND: Complete prevalence proportions illustrate the burden of disease in a population. This study estimates the 2010 complete prevalence of malignant primary brain tumors overall and by Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) histology groups, and compares the brain tumor prevalence estimates to the complete prevalence of other common cancers as determined by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) by age at prevalence (2010): children (0-14 y), adolescent and young adult (AYA) (15-39 y), and adult (40+ y)...
December 29, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030828/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-in-a-hospital-of-shanghai
#20
Xiaoguang Wang, Lin Ouyang, Lingfei Luo, Jiqian Liu, Chiping Song, Cuizhen Li, Hongjing Yan, Ping Wang
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are now common both in the health care setting and in the community. Active surveillance is critical for MRSA control and prevention. Specimens of patients (200 patients with 1119 specimens) as well as medical staff and hospital setting (1000 specimens) were randomly sampled in a level 2 hospital in Shanghai from September 2011 to August 2012. Isolation, cultivation and identification of S. aureus were performed. Totally, 67 S. aureus strains were isolated...
January 24, 2017: Oncotarget
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