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surveillance in Critical Care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911673/genetic-syndromes-associated-with-central-nervous-system-tumors
#1
Charmi Vijapura, Ehab Saad Aldin, Aristides A Capizzano, Bruno Policeni, Yutaka Sato, Toshio Moritani
Several genetic tumor syndromes have associated central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms. The spectrum of syndromes that have intracranial tumor manifestations includes ataxia telangiectasia, Cowden syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, hereditary non-polyposis-related colorectal cancer, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, neurofibromatosis types 1 and 2, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, tuberous sclerosis complex, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and Turcot syndrome. Many of these disorders are inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, and identification of the associated genetic defects has led to improved understanding of the molecular pathways involved in tumorigenesis, helping pave the way to the emergence of molecularly targeted therapeutics...
December 2, 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905629/-reasons-to-recommend-vaccination-against-dengue-in-easter-island-immunization-advisory-committee-of-sociedad-chilena-de-infectolog%C3%A3-a
#2
Alberto Fica, Marcela Potin, Gabriela Moreno, Liliana Véliz, Jaime Cerda, Carola Escobar, Jan Wilhelm
Dengue was first diagnosed on Easter Island on year 2002 and thereafter recurrent outbreaks have occurred involving different serotypes of dengue virus. Its vector, Aedes aegypti has not been eliminated despite the small size of the island. Conditions at the local hospital preclude adequate management of severe and hemorrhagic cases due to the absence of a Critical Care Unit as well as no availability of platelets, or plasma units for transfusion. Besides, transfer, of severely affected patients to continental Chile is cumbersome, slow and expensive...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902662/surveillance-a-nursing-intervention-for-improving-patient-safety-in-critical-care-environment
#3
Dale M Pfrimmer, Maren R Johnson, Martha L Guthmiller, Joanna L Lehman, Vickie K Ernste, Lori M Rhudy
BACKGROUND: Nursing surveillance has been identified as a key intervention in early recognition and prevention of errors/adverse events. Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC) defines surveillance as "the purposeful and ongoing acquisition, interpretation, and synthesis of patient data for clinical decision making." Because nurses are the main staffing constant in the critical care environment, the importance of surveillance as an intervention is fundamental. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore how surveillance is expressed by critical care nurses...
January 2017: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898136/pharmacological-approaches-for-the-management-of-persistent-pain-in-older-adults-what-nurses-need-to-know
#4
Fabio Guerriero, Ruth Bolier, Janet H Van Cleave, M Cary Reid
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.4 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891499/a-presumptive-case-of-human-rabies-a-rare-survived-case-in-rural-ghana
#5
Paschal Awingura Apanga, John Koku Awoonor-Williams, Michael Acheampong, Matthew Ayamba Adam
Rabies remains endemic in Ghana and continues to pose a major public health threat to humans and animals with a nearly 100% case fatality rate in humans. We report of a presumptive case of human rabies whose survival represents a rare occurrence in rural Ghana and worldwide. Lessons from this case study provide a critically needed focus in helping improve rabies surveillance and case management in Ghana. We report of the survival of a 36-year-old man who developed clinical rabies after he was bitten by his dog, while restraining the dog with a chain...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869724/mosquito-oviposition-behavior-and-vector-control
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan F Day
The burden of gene transfer from one mosquito generation to the next falls on the female and her eggs. The selection of an oviposition site that guarantees egg and larval survival is a critical step in the reproductive process. The dangers associated with ephemeral aquatic habitats, lengthy droughts, freezing winters, and the absence of larval nutrition makes careful oviposition site selection by a female mosquito extremely important. Mosquito species exhibit a remarkable diversity of oviposition behaviors that ensure eggs are deposited into microenvironments conducive for successful larval development and the emergence of the next mosquito generation...
November 18, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852357/a-multifaceted-approach-to-reduction-of-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-in-the-intensive-care-unit-with-an-emphasis-on-stewardship-of-culturing
#7
Katherine M Mullin, Christopher S Kovacs, Cynthia Fatica, Colette Einloth, Elizabeth A Neuner, Jorge A Guzman, Eric Kaiser, Venu Menon, Leticia Castillo, Marc J Popovich, Edward M Manno, Steven M Gordon, Thomas G Fraser
BACKGROUND Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most common hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Reducing CAUTI rates has become a major focus of attention due to increasing public health concerns and reimbursement implications. OBJECTIVE To implement and describe a multifaceted intervention to decrease CAUTIs in our ICUs with an emphasis on indications for obtaining a urine culture. METHODS A project team composed of all critical care disciplines was assembled to address an institutional goal of decreasing CAUTIs...
November 17, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832032/accuracy-and-efficiency-of-recording-pediatric-early-warning-scores-using-an-electronic-physiological-surveillance-system-compared-with-traditional-paper-based-documentation
#8
Gerri Sefton, Steven Lane, Roger Killen, Stuart Black, Max Lyon, Pearl Ampah, Cathryn Sproule, Dominic Loren-Gosling, Caitlin Richards, Jean Spinty, Colette Holloway, Coral Davies, April Wilson, Chung Shen Chean, Bernie Carter, E D Carrol
Pediatric Early Warning Scores are advocated to assist health professionals to identify early signs of serious illness or deterioration in hospitalized children. Scores are derived from the weighting applied to recorded vital signs and clinical observations reflecting deviation from a predetermined "norm." Higher aggregate scores trigger an escalation in care aimed at preventing critical deterioration. Process errors made while recording these data, including plotting or calculation errors, have the potential to impede the reliability of the score...
November 9, 2016: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818327/an-educational-intervention-optimizes-the-utilization-of-arterial-blood-gases-across-intensive-care-units-from-different-specialties-a-quality-improvement-study
#9
Carlos D Martínez-Balzano, Paulo Oliveira, Michelle O'Rourke, Luanne Hills, Andrés F Sosa
BACKGROUND: Arterial blood gas (ABG) overutilization leads to increased costs, inefficient use of staff work-hours, patient discomfort and blood loss. We developed guidelines to optimize ABG utilization in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: ABG utilization guidelines were implemented on all adult ICUs in our institution: three medical, two trauma-surgery, one cardiovascular and one neurosurgical ICU. While relying on pulse oximetry, we encouraged the utilization of ABGs after an acute respiratory event or for a rational clinical concern, and discouraged obtaining ABGs for routine surveillance, after planned changes of PEEP or FiO2 on the mechanical ventilator, for spontaneous breathing trials, or when a disorder was not suspected...
November 3, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817746/national-study-on-the-adequacy-of-antidotes-stocking-in-lebanese-hospitals-providing-emergency-care
#10
Anthony Mansour, Layla Al-Bizri, Jad El-Maamary, Amanda Al-Helou, Rayan Hamade, Elie Saliba, Dina Khammash, Karim Makhoul, Kamal Matli, Nada Ghosn, Mary Deeb, Wissam H Faour
BACKGROUND: Antidotes stocking is a critical component of hospital care for poisoned patients in emergency. Antidote stocking represents a major health challenge worldwide and in Lebanon. Systematic data monitoring of antidote stocking in Lebanese hospitals is lacking. The objective of this study is to assess the adequacy of antidotes stocking in Lebanese hospitals according to type and quantity and explore the characteristics associated with their differential availability. METHODS: Data collection to assess antidote availability and its correlate was undertaken through a self-administered questionnaire...
November 7, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795775/-prioperative-adverse-events-critical-reading-of-the-data-registry-used-in-the-surgery-department-of-military-hospital-moulay-ismail-meknes
#11
Hicham Kechna, Omar Ouzzad, Khalid Chkoura, Jaouad Loutid, Moulay Ahmed Hachimi, Sidi Mohamed Hanafi
INTRODUCTION: Despite significant progress made in the field of safety in anesthesia, morbidity (serious or not, completely or partially related to anesthesia) remains common and no health practitioner is immune from accidents. In the current context where priority is given to training programmes, to quality and safety improvement in health care, the occurrence of an anesthesia-related accident in the surgery department is an extremely traumatic event. The fear of prosecution, the emotional context make it difficult to manage...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789254/estimating-the-burden-of-invasive-and-serious-fungal-disease-in-the-united-kingdom
#12
Matthew Pegorie, David W Denning, William Welfare
BACKGROUND: The burden of fungal disease in the UK is unknown. Only limited data are systematically collected. We have estimated the annual burden of invasive and serious fungal disease. METHODS: We used several estimation approaches. We searched and assessed published estimates of incidence, prevalence or burden of specific conditions in various high risk groups. Studies with adequate internal and external validity allowed extrapolation to estimate current UK burden...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784101/primary-care-interventions-to-support-breastfeeding-updated-evidence-report-and-systematic-review-for-the-us-preventive-services-task-force
#13
Carrie D Patnode, Michelle L Henninger, Caitlyn A Senger, Leslie A Perdue, Evelyn P Whitlock
Importance: Although 80% of infants in the United States start breastfeeding, only 22% are exclusively breastfed up to around 6 months as recommended by a number of professional organizations. Objective: To systematically review the evidence on the benefits and harms of breastfeeding interventions to support the US Preventive Services Task Force in updating its 2008 recommendation. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and PsycINFO for studies published in the English language between January 1, 2008, and September 25, 2015...
October 25, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690721/contemporary-challenges-and-opportunities-in-the-diagnosis-and-outbreak-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-infectious-disease
#14
Teresa Cimmino, Stéphanie Le Page, Didier Raoult, Jean-Marc Rolain
The dissemination of multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDRB) has become a major public health concern worldwide because of the increase in infections caused by MDRB, the difficulty in treating them, and expenditures in patient care. Areas covered: We have reviewed challenges and contemporary opportunities for rapidly confronting infections caused by MDRB in the 21st century, including surveillance, detection, identification of resistance mechanisms, and action steps. Expert commentary: In this context, the first critical point for clinical microbiologists is to be able to rapidly detect an abnormal event, an outbreak and/or the spread of a MDRB with surveillance tools so that healthcare policies and therapies adapted to a new stochastic event that will certainly occur again in the future can be implemented...
October 2, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686355/incidence-of-severe-sepsis-and-septic-shock-in-german-intensive-care-units-the-prospective-multicentre-insep-study
#15
(no author information available yet)
PURPOSE: To estimate the incidence density, point prevalence and outcome of severe sepsis and septic shock in German intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS: In a prospective, multicentre, longitudinal observational study, all patients already on the ICU at 0:00 on 4 November 2013 and all patients admitted to a participating ICU between 0:00 on 4 November 2013 and 2359 hours on 1 December 2013 were included. The patients were followed up for the occurrence of severe sepsis or septic shock (SEPSIS-1 definitions) during their ICU stay...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685673/emerging-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-1-type-producing-gram-negative-bacteria-isolated-from-cairo-university-pediatric-hospital-cairo-egypt
#16
Mona Wassef, Mona Abdelhaleim, Doaa Ghaith, Yasmin El-Mahdy
New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) compromises the efficacy of almost all β-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems. This study aimed to screen for the blaNDM-1-type gene and NDM-1-type carbapenemase production among Gram-negative bacteria in Cairo University Pediatric Hospital (Cairo, Egypt). Among 382 Gram-negative clinical isolates collected over the period October 2013 to May 2014, 100 clinical isolates showing reduced carbapenem (imipenem and meropenem) susceptibility were included in this study. Initial phenotypic screening for NDM enzyme production was performed by Etest for metallo-β-lactamases (EMBL)...
December 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668900/risk-factors-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-colonisation-or-infection-in-intensive-care-units-and-their-reliability-for-predicting-mrsa-on-icu-admission
#17
Fernando Callejo-Torre, Jose Maria Eiros Bouza, Pedro Olaechea Astigarraga, Maria Jesus Coma Del Corral, Mercedes Palomar Martínez, Francisco Alvarez-Lerma, Maria Jesús López-Pueyo
Predicting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in intensive care units (ICUs) avoids inappropriate antimicrobial empirical treatment and enhances infection control. We describe risk factors for colonisation/infection related to MRSA (MRSA-C/I) in critically ill patients once in the ICU and on ICU admission, and search for an easy-to-use predictive model for MRSA colonisation/infection on ICU admission. This multicentre cohort study included 69,894 patients admitted consecutively (stay>24h) in April-June in the five-year period 2006-2010 from 147 Spanish ICUs participating in the National Surveillance Study of Nosocomial Infections in ICUs (ENVIN-HELICS)...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662566/prediction-of-catheter-associated-thrombosis-in-critically-ill-children
#18
Alexandra Marquez, Veronika Shabanova, Edward Vincent S Faustino
OBJECTIVE: We determined whether in critically ill children with an untunneled central venous catheter, the risk of catheter-associated deep venous thrombosis can be predicted within 24 hours after insertion of the catheter. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of two multicenter prospective cohort studies. SETTING: PICUs in Northeastern United States. PATIENTS: A total of 175 children admitted to the PICU within 24 hours after insertion of an untunneled central venous catheter who did not receive anticoagulation were included...
November 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659437/a-5-year-surveillance-study-on-antimicrobial-resistance-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-clinical-isolates-from-a-tertiary-greek-hospital
#19
Sofia Maraki, Elpis Mantadakis, Viktoria Eirini Mavromanolaki, Diamantis P Kofteridis, George Samonis
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a major cause of nosocomial outbreaks. It is particularly associated with nosocomial pneumonia and bloodstream infections in immunocompromised and debilitated patients with serious underlying pathologies. Over the last two decades, a remarkable rise in the rates of multidrug resistance to most antimicrobial agents that are active against A. baumannii has been noted worldwide. We evaluated the rates of antimicrobial resistance and changes in resistance over a 5-year period (2010-2014) in A...
September 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627662/the-italian-national-health-service-expenditure-on-workplace-prevention-and-safety-2006-2013-a-national-level-analysis
#20
C Signorelli, M Riccò, A Odone
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) stated that countries' health policies should give high priority to primary prevention of occupational health hazards. Scant data are available on health expenditure on workplace prevention and safety services and on its impact on occupational health outcomes in Italy and in other European countries. STUDY DESIGN: objective of the present study was to systematically retrieve, analyse and critically appraise the available national-level data on public health expenditure on workplace prevention and safety services as well as to correlate them with occupational health outcomes...
September 2016: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
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