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Lina H Al-Sakran, Ruth Ann Marrie, David F Blackburn, Katherine B Knox, Charity D Evans
OBJECTIVE: To validate a case definition of multiple sclerosis (MS) using health administrative data and to provide the first province-wide estimates of MS incidence and prevalence for Saskatchewan, Canada. METHODS: We used population-based health administrative data between January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2015 to identify individuals with MS using two potential case definitions: (1) ≥3 hospital, physician, or prescription claims (Marrie definition); (2) ≥1 hospitalization or ≥5 physician claims within 2 years (Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System [CCDSS] definition)...
March 20, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Divyen K Shah, Vennila Ponnusamy, Jane Evanson, Olga Kapellou, Georgia Ekitzidou, Neelam Gupta, Paul Clarke, Adina T Michael-Titus, Ping K Yip
Aims and hypothesis: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains an important cause of death and disability in newborns. Mild therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is safe and effective; however, there are no tissue biomarkers available at the bedside to select babies for treatment. The aim of this study was to show that it is feasible to study plasma neurofilament light (NfL) levels from newborns and to evaluate their temporal course. Hypothesis: Raised plasma NFL protein levels from newborns who undergo TH after HIE are associated with abnormal MRI outcomes...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Shetty Sushruth, Chellappa Vijayakumar, Krishnamachari Srinivasan, Nagarajan Raj Kumar, Gopal Balasubramaniyan, Surendra K Verma, A Ramesh
Background Right iliac fossa (RIF) pain is one of the most common modalities of presentation to surgical emergency. It remains a challenge to the treating clinicians to accurately diagnose or to rule out appendicitis. Objective The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of clinical impression, biochemical markers, and imaging in the diagnosis of RIF pain with special reference to appendicitis and their implication in reducing the negative appendicectomy rates. Methods All patients presenting to casualty with RIF pain were included in the study...
January 15, 2018: Curēus
Mei Yuan, Jin-Yuan Liu, Teng Zhang, Yu-Dong Zhang, Hai Li, Tong-Fu Yu
Visceral pleural invasion (VPI) in stageI lung adenocarcinoma is an independent negative prognostic factor. However, no studies proved any morphologic pattern could be referred to as a prognostic factor. Thus, we aim to investigate the potential prognostic impact of VPI by extracting high-dimensional radiomics features on thin-section computed tomography (CT). A total of 327 surgically resected pathological-N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma 3 cm or less in size were evaluated. Radiomics signature was generated by calculating the contribution weight of each feature and validated using repeated leaving-one-out ten-fold cross-validation approach...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Khoa T D Thai, Hannelore Götz, Bibi C G C Slingerland, Janienne Klaasse, Martin Schutten, Corine H GeurtsvanKessel
BACKGROUND: Correct identification of blood borne viral infections, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is crucial in detection and follow up of infection in patients. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the DiaSorin LIAISON XL (LIAISON XL) for screening of HBV, HCV and HIV infection. In addition, we investigated the variability of the signal-to-cuttoff ratio (S/CO) of the LIAISON XL HIV Ag/Ab assay and it's predictive value in subsequent confirmation of HIV-1 infection...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Liyun Cao, Chi Hyun Lee, Jing Ning, Beverly C Handy, Elizabeth A Wagar, Qing H Meng
CONTEXT: - Prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) is a noncoding RNA that is highly overexpressed in prostate cancer (PCa) tissue and excreted in urine in patients with PCa. OBJECTIVE: - To assess the clinical utility of urinary PCA3 in men at risk of PCa. DESIGN: - We retrospectively reviewed a cohort of 271 men (median age, 63 years) with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and/or strong family history, and/or abnormal digital rectal examination findings...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Jair C Ferreira, Marilia S Gomes, Erika C R Bonsaglia, Igor F Canisso, Edgar F Garrett, Jamie L Stewart, Ziyao Zhou, Fabio S Lima
Several multiple-media culture systems have become commercially available for on-farm identification of mastitis-associated pathogens. However, the accuracy of these systems has not been thoroughly and independently validated against microbiological evaluations performed by referral laboratories. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the performance of commercially available culture plates (Accumast, Minnesota Easy System, SSGN and SSGNC Quad plates) to identify pathogens associated with clinical mastitis in dairy cows...
2018: PloS One
Mario Silva, Cornelia M Schaefer-Prokop, Colin Jacobs, Giovanni Capretti, Francesco Ciompi, Bram van Ginneken, Ugo Pastorino, Nicola Sverzellati
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and visual reading for the detection of subsolid nodules (SSNs) in volumetrl measuremic low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) for lung cancer screening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective visual detection (VD) and manuaent of SSN were performed in the 2303 baseline volumetric LDCTs of the Multicenter Italian Lung Detection trial. Baseline and 2- and 4-year LDCTs underwent retrospective CAD analysis, subsequently reviewed by 2 experienced thoracic radiologists...
March 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Maxim Avanesov, Nis Jesper Wiese, Murat Karul, Helena Guerreiro, Sarah Keller, Philip Busch, Frank Jacobsen, Gerhard Adam, Jin Yamamura
OBJECTIVES: To develop a routinely applicable severity index for the management of acute appendicitis in adults using combined clinical and radiological parameters and retroperitoneal space planes (RSP). METHODS: Two hundred consecutive patients with histologically proven acute appendicitis and available presurgical CT scans were analysed retrospectively. Two radiologists assessed all CT scans for morphologic sings of appendicitis and six RSP. Clinical parameters were age, body temperature, C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count, and duration of symptoms...
March 14, 2018: European Radiology
Sunao Shoji, Akio Hashimoto, Tomoya Nakamura, Shinichiro Hiraiwa, Haruhiro Sato, Yoshinobu Sato, Takuma Tajiri, Akira Miyajima
The present study evaluated three-dimensional shear wave elastography (3D SWE) in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. Clinically significant prostate cancer was defined by a minimum of one biopsy core with a Gleason score of 3+4 or 6 with a maximum cancer core length >4 mm. Patients with serum prostate-specific antigen levels of 4.0-20.0 ng/ml who were suspected of having prostate cancer from multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) were prospectively recruited. The 3D SWE was performed pre-biopsy, after which patients underwent MRI-transrectal ultrasound image-guided targeted biopsies for cancer-suspicious lesions and 12-core systematic biopsies...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
Ladan Mehran, Davood Khalili, Shahin Yarahmadi, Hossein Delshad, Yadollah Mehrabi, Atieh Amouzegar, Nasrin Ajang, Fereidoun Azizi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the newborn screening programme for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in Iran from diagnosis to management and follow-up for 3 years from 2011 to 2014. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING AND PATIENTS: Seventeen university districts were randomly selected from 30 provinces. Central data in each district were gathered and collectively analysed. Congenital hypothyroid subjects were followed for 3 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Programme coverage, screening and treatment age, recall rate, compliance to follow-ups...
March 14, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Lorenzo Pelizza, Silvia Azzali, Federica Paterlini, Sara Garlassi, Ilaria Scazza, Luigi Rocco Chiri, Michele Poletti, Simona Pupo, Andrea Raballo
AIM: The 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ-16) is a versatile screen tool for routine screening of at-risk individuals. We wished to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the PQ-16 (iPQ-16) in a sample of 72 help-seeking adolescents (age range 13-17 years) referred to child and adolescent neuropsychiatry services for diagnostic assessment. METHODS: Participants who completed iPQ-16 were subsequently interviewed with the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) to confirm the psychosis high risk state...
March 14, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Fenglong Xie, Lisandro D Colantonio, Jeffrey R Curtis, Meredith L Kilgore, Emily B Levitan, Keri L Monda, Monika M Safford, Ben Taylor, Mark Woodward, Paul Muntner
BACKGROUND: Cause of death is often not available in administrative claims data. OBJECTIVE: To develop claims-based algorithms to identify deaths due to fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD; ie, fatal coronary heart disease [CHD] or stroke), CHD, and stroke. METHODS: Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study data were linked with Medicare claims to develop the algorithms. Events adjudicated by REGARDS study investigators were used as the gold standard...
March 14, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Yinqi Luo, Tiancheng Yu, Li Nian, Linlin Liu, Fei Huang, Zengqi Xie, Yuguang Ma
Cathode interlayer is of crucial importance for efficient electron injection in inverted polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) to realize high electroluminescence efficiency. Here, a novel photoconductive cathode interlayer based on organic dye doped ZnO (ZnO:PBI-H) is applied as cathode buffer layer in PLEDs, and dramatically enhanced device performance is obtained. The photo doping of ZnO may greatly promote the electron injection ability under the device working conditions, which increases the electron-hole recombination efficiency when using P-PPV as the light emitting material...
March 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Desiree L Dräger, Martin Heuschkel, Chris Protzel, Andreas Erbersdobler, Bernd J Krause, Oliver W Hakenberg, Sarah M Schwarzenböck
AIM: Accurate staging of penile cancer requires invasive methods such as sentinel node biopsy or lymphadenectomy (LAD). We assessed the value of [18 F]FDG PET/CT for non-invasive nodal staging in penile cancer (PC) patients before inguinal LAD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 41 consecutive patients with PC (stage pT1 or higher, cN0) received [18 F]FDG PET/CT before undergoing bilateral modified or radical inguinal staging LAD. Lymph nodes with a visually increased [18 F]FDG uptake were classified as suspicious of lymph node metastases (LNM)...
February 2018: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
C Löffler, H Sattler, U Löffler, B K Krämer, R Bergner
OBJECTIVE: In distinguishing urate arthritis (UA) from non-crystal-related arthritides, joint sonography including the detection of the double contour sign (DCS) and hypervascularization using power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) is an important step in the diagnostic process. But are these sonographic features equally reliable in every accessible joint under real-life conditions? METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 362 patients with acute arthritis and evaluated the DCS and the degree of PDUS hypervascularization in patients with gout and in those with arthritis other than urate arthritis (non-UA)...
March 13, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Pedapati Radhakrishna, Kolar Vishwanath Vinod, Akkilagunta Sujiv, Rathinam Palamalai Swaminathan
Background: Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has not been evaluated extensively for diabetes and prediabetes diagnosis and short-term variability of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h PG post-75 g glucose load (2 hPG) and HbA1c has not been studied among Indians. Objectives: The study aimed to compare the sensitivity of HbA1c, FPG and 2 hPG for diabetes and prediabetes diagnosis as per the American Diabetes Association criteria, assess short-term variability of three tests and determine optimal HbA1c cutoffs for diabetes and prediabetes diagnosis among high-risk south Indians...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Umut Gazi, Djursun Karasartova, Ibrahim Tayfun Sahiner, Ayse Semra Gureser, Ozgur Tosun, Mehmet Kursat Derici, Mete Dolapci, Aysegul Taylan Ozkan
AIM: Splenectomised patients are associated with lifelong risk of fatal overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI), which is mostly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Today OPSI cases can still be reported even in patients with appropriate vaccination. In our study, the levels of vaccine-specific memory B- and T cells were compared between control and splenectomised patients to enlighten the underlying reason. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five healthy and 14 post-traumatic splenectomised individuals were vaccinated with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) followed by 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23)...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Bo Wang, Ivana Carey, Matthew Bruce, Sarah Montague, Geoff Dusheiko, Kosh Agarwal
HBeAg seroconversion marks an important spontaneous change and treatment end-point for HBeAg-positive patients and is a pre-requisite for HBsAg loss or functional cure. In this retrospective analysis, we aimed to identify predictors of seroconversion using serum quantitative HBsAg and HBcrAg, in HBeAg-positive patients treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA). Data and samples from 118 HBeAg-positive adults (genotypes A-G) started on NA between Jan 2005-Sept 2016 were retrospectively analysed at several time-points...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
J P Funnell, C L Craven, L D'Antona, S D Thompson, A Chari, L Thorne, L D Watkins, A K Toma
OBJECTIVES: Papilloedema is a clinical manifestation of chronically raised intracranial pressure (ICP), often seen in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). However, the extent of intracranial hypertension required to produce papilloedema is not known. We compare ICP values in IIH patients who developed papilloedema and those who did not. We aim to identify a pathological ICP threshold predictive of the development of papilloedema in IIH patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-centre cohort of IIH patients (2006-2016) who underwent 24-hour ICP monitoring (ICPM) and ophthalmology assessments, prior to intervention...
March 12, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
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