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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222919/pyroptosis-a-novel-player-for-alcoholic-hepatitis
#1
EDITORIAL
Shaogui Wang, Hua Wang, Wen-Xing Ding
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222917/diagnostic-modalities-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-and-associated-fibrosis
#2
REVIEW
Zobair M Younossi, Rohit Loomba, Quentin M Anstee, Mary E Rinella, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Giulio Marchesini, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Lawrence Serfaty, Francesco Negro, Stephen H Caldwell, Vlad Ratziu, Kathleen E Corey, Scott L Friedman, Manal F Abdelmalek, Stephen A Harrison, Arun J Sanyal, Joel E Lavine, Philippe Mathurin, Michael R Charlton, Zachary D Goodman, Naga P Chalasani, Kris V Kowdley, Jacob George, Keith Lindor
NAFLD is a spectrum comprised of isolated steatosis, NASH, advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The majority of NAFLD subjects do not have NASH and don't carry a significant risk for adverse outcomes (cirrhosis and mortality). Globally, the prevalence of NAFLD is approximately 25%. In Asia, a gradient of high prevalence rates to low rates are noted from urban to rural areas. Given the prevalence of NAFLD, the clinical and economic burden of NAFLD and NASH can be substantial. With increasing recognition as an important liver disease, the diagnosis of NASH still requires a liver biopsy which is suboptimal...
December 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222479/gdf15-deficiency-exacerbates-chronic-alcohol-and-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-injury
#3
Hyo Kyun Chung, Jung Tae Kim, Hyeon-Woo Kim, Minjoo Kwon, So Yeon Kim, Minho Shong, Koon Soon Kim, Hyon-Seung Yi
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) has recently been shown to have an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial function and in the pathogenesis of complex human diseases. Nevertheless, the role of GDF15 in alcohol-induced or fibrotic liver diseases has yet to be determined. In this study, we demonstrate that alcohol- or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-mediated hepatic GDF15 production ameliorates liver inflammation and fibrosis. Alcohol directly enhanced GDF15 expression in primary hepatocytes, which led to increased oxygen consumption...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222051/long-term-fermented-soybean-paste-improves-metabolic-parameters-associated-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-insulin-resistance-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#4
Min-Seok Kim, Bobae Kim, Haryung Park, Yosep Ji, Wilhelm Holzapfel, Do-Young Kim, Chang-Kee Hyun
Recently, Korean traditional fermented soybean paste, called Doenjang, has attracted attention for its protective effect against diet-related chronic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Long-term fermented soybean pastes (LFSPs) are made by fermentation with naturally-occurring microorganisms for several months, whereas short-term fermented soybean pastes (SFSPs) are produced by shorter-time fermentation inoculated with a starter culture. Here, we demonstrate that administration of LFSP, but not SFSP, protects high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice against non-alcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance...
December 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221790/fam3-gene-family-a-promising-therapeutical-target-for-nafld-and-type-2-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Zhang Xiaoyan, Weili Yang, Junpei Wang, Yuhong Meng, Youfei Guan, Jichun Yang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes are severe public health issues worldwide. The Family with sequence similarity 3 (FAM3) gene family consists of four members designated as FAM3A, FAM3B, FAM3C and FAM3D, respectively. Recently, there had been increasing evidence that FAM3A, FAM3B and FAM3C are important regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism. FAM3A expression is reduced in the livers of diabetic rodents and NAFLD patients. Hepatic FAM3A restoration activates ATP-P2 receptor-Akt and AMPK pathways to attenuate steatosis and hyperglycemia in obese diabetic mice...
December 5, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220698/synergistic-interaction-of-fatty-acids-and-oxysterols-impairs-mitochondrial-function-and-limits-liver-adaptation-during-nafld-progression
#6
Francesco Bellanti, Rosanna Villani, Rosanna Tamborra, Maria Blonda, Giuseppina Iannelli, Giorgia di Bello, Antonio Facciorusso, Giuseppe Poli, Luigi Iuliano, Carlo Avolio, Gianluigi Vendemiale, Gaetano Serviddio
The complete mechanism accounting for the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not been elucidated. Lipotoxicity refers to cellular injury caused by hepatic free fatty acids (FFAs) and cholesterol accumulation. Excess cholesterol autoxidizes to oxysterols during oxidative stress conditions. We hypothesize that interaction of FAs and cholesterol derivatives may primarily impair mitochondrial function and affect biogenesis adaptation during NAFLD progression...
December 5, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220547/impact-of-moderate-alcohol-discontinuation-on-insulin-action-and-secretion-in-latinos-with-and-without-hepatitis-c
#7
Lindsay A Uribe, Peter Bacchetti, Nicholas Gelman, Esteban Burchard, Mark Fitch, Marc Hellerstein, Mandana Khalili
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with hepatitis C infection (HCV), and Latinos are both at risk for IR and are disproportionately affected by HCV. Moderate alcohol consumption improves insulin sensitivity and may modify HCV-associated IR. We investigated the impact of moderate alcohol discontinuation on insulin sensitivity and secretion in Latinos using direct measurements. METHODS: Twenty-five non-diabetic, non-cirrhotic Latino adults without (n=17) or with (n=8) HCV underwent 3-day metabolic assessment before and after prescription of 6 weeks of moderate alcohol discontinuation...
December 8, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220367/periodontitis-is-associated-with-significant-hepatic-fibrosis-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
William Alazawi, Eduardo Bernabe, David Tai, Tomasz Janicki, Polychronis Kemos, Salma Samsuddin, Wing-Kin Syn, David Gillam, Wendy Turner
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a bidirectional association with metabolic syndrome. It affects up to 30% of the general population, 70% of individuals with diabetes and 90% with obesity. The main histological hallmark of progressive NAFLD is fibrosis. There is a bidirectional epidemiological link between periodontitis and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD, periodontitis and diabetes share common risk factors, are characterised by inflammation and associated with changes in commensal bacteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215462/liver-transplantation-in-cryptogenic-cirrhosis-outcome-comparisons-between-nash-alcoholic-and-aih-cirrhosis
#9
Paul Joseph Thuluvath, Steven Hanish, Yulia Savva
BACKGROUND: The outcomes of liver transplantation (LT) in patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis (CC) have not been adequately examined except for small case series. We believe that patients currently listed as CC have truly cryptogenic liver disease and may have different post-LT outcomes compared to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: We compared the post-LT outcomes of adults with CC (n=3241) and compared them with cirrhosis from NASH (n=4089), alcohol (AC, n=7837) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH, n=1435) using the UNOS database from 2002-16...
December 5, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214926/aerobic-training-performed-at-ventilatory-threshold-improves-liver-enzymes-and-lipid-profile-related-to-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-adolescents-with-obesity
#10
Camila Tc de Lira, Marcos Am Dos Santos, Priscyla P Gomes, Yara L Fidelix, Ana Co Dos Santos, Thiago Rs Tenório, Mara C Lofrano-Prado, Wagner L do Prado
BACKGROUND: Despite the positive effects of high-intensity training on weight management and health-related outcomes, it is postulated that high-intensity training may also induce oxidative stress, increasing hepatic damage. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of low versus high-intensity training on biomarkers related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adolescents with obesity. METHODS: For this study 107 adolescents (15 ± 1 years) with obesity (BMI = 34...
December 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214510/myeloid-deficiency-of-ccn3-exacerbates-liver-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
Wenconghui Wu, Xingjian Hu, Xianming Zhou, Philip A Klenotic, Qi Zhou, Zhiyong Lin
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which fat accumulates in the liver of patients without a prior history of alcohol abuse. The most severe form, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), often leads to hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis with ensuing complications. To date, there is no pharmacologic treatment for NASH. The biological effects of CCN3, specifically its role in the regulation of inflammation, reactive oxygen species production and angiogenesis, have been recently established. Additional data suggests that CCN3 is associated with the development of tumors in the liver yet may be protective of liver fibrogenesis...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212576/the-effects-of-physical-exercise-on-fatty-liver-disease
#12
Dirk J van der Windt, Vikas Sud, Hongji Zhang, Allan Tsung, Hai Huang
The increasing prevalence of obesity has made non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) the most common chronic liver disease. As a consequence, NAFLD and especially its inflammatory form non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are the fastest increasing etiology of end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Physical inactivity is related to the severity of fatty liver disease irrespective of body weight, supporting the hypothesis that increasing physical activity through exercise can improve fatty liver disease...
December 6, 2017: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209997/-18f-bms-747158-02pet-imaging-for-evaluating-hepatic-mitochondrial-complex-1dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Takemi Rokugawa, Sotaro Momosaki, Miwa Ito, Hitoshi Iimori, Yuki Kato, Kohji Abe
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the main causes of non-alcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD). [18F]-BMS-747158-02 (18F-BMS) which was originally developed as a myocardial perfusion imaging agent was reported to bind mitochondrial complex-1 (MC-1). The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of 18F-BMS for evaluating hepatic MC-1 activity in mice fed a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a MCD diet for up to 2 weeks. PET scans with 18F-BMS were performed after 1 and 2 weeks of the MCD diet...
December 6, 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209107/functional-interaction-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-hepatitis-b-virus-in-the-pathogenesis-of-liver-diseases
#14
REVIEW
So Young Kim, Yi Yi Kyaw, Jaehun Cheong
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a non-cytopathic virus that causes acute and chronic inflammatory liver diseases, often leading to the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although many studies for the roles of HBV on pathogenesis of the liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatic inflammation, cirrhosis, and HCC, have been reported, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria have the protective mechanisms to restore their damaged function by intrinsic or extrinsic stresses, but their chronic dysfunctions are associated with the pathogenesis of the various diseases...
November 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208504/hepatoprotective-effects-of-garlic-against-ethanol-induced-liver-injury-a-mini-review
#15
REVIEW
Min-Jie Guan, Ning Zhao, Ke-Qin Xie, Tao Zeng
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a progressively aggravated liver disease with a diverse spectrum from steatosis to hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Epidemiological studies reveal that alcohol is one of the major causes of advanced liver disease in Europe, United States, and China. Despite the considerable harm, progression in ALD research is slow and the current therapies for ALD have less efficient. Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a flavoring agent and also a folk medicine since ancient time. Along with the prosperity in the use of herbal medicines for the treatment of human diseases in recent decades, a series of studies have focused on the beneficial effects of garlic against ALD...
December 2, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207941/uneven-acute-non-alcoholic-fatty-change-of-the-liver-after-percutaneous-transhepatic-portal-vein-embolization-in-a-patient-with-hilar-cholangiocarcinoma-a-case-report
#16
Chun-Yi Tsai, Motoi Nojiri, Yukihiro Yokoyama, Tomoki Ebata, Takashi Mizuno, Masato Nagino
BACKGROUND: Portal vein embolization is essential for patients with biliary cancer who undergo extended hepatectomy to induce hypertrophy of the future remnant liver. Over 830 patients have undergone the portal vein embolization at our institution since 1990. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is an entity of hepatic disease characterized by fat deposition in hepatocytes. It has a higher prevalence among persons with morbid obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Neither the mechanism of hepatic hypertrophy after portal vein embolization nor the pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has been fully elucidated...
December 6, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207650/upregulation-of-mir-181a-impairs-hepatic-glucose-and-lipid-homeostasis
#17
Xiliang Du, Yuchen Yang, Chuang Xu, Zhicheng Peng, Min Zhang, Lin Lei, Wenwen Gao, Yuhao Dong, Zhen Shi, Xudong Sun, Zhe Wang, Xiaobing Li, Xinwei Li, Guowen Liu
The contributions of altered post-transcriptional gene silencing to the development of metabolic disorders remain poorly understood thus far. The objective of this study was to evaluate the roles of miR-181a in the regulation of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. MiR-181a is abundantly expressed in the liver, and we found that blood and hepatic miR-181a levels were significantly increased in patients and dairy cows with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as in high-fat diet and ob/ob mice. We determined that sirtuin1 is a target of miR-181a...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207101/diosgenin-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-rat-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-through-the-ampk-and-lxr-signaling-pathways
#18
Silu Cheng, Shufang Liang, Qun Liu, Zhengting Deng, Yuanhui Zhang, Juan Du, Ya'ni Zhang, Shu Li, Binbin Cheng, Changquan Ling
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health concern worldwide. The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of diosgenin on NAFLD and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Diosgenin treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in HepG2 cells. Diosgenin significantly inhibited high glucose (HG)-induced triglyceride (TG) accumulation and sterol regulatory element‑binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA increase in HepG2 cells, which were partially abolished by the AMPK inhibitor compound C...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207044/ginsenoside-rg1-inhibits-inflammatory-responses-via-modulation-of-the-nuclear-factor%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-and-inhibition-of-inflammasome-activation-in-alcoholic-hepatitis
#19
Jiajun Li, Cheng Yang, Shu Zhang, Shu Liu, Luole Zhao, Huan Luo, Yatang Chen, Wenxiang Huang
Ginsenoside Rg1 (G‑Rg1) is an active ingredient of Panax ginseng, which has previously been reported to attenuate alcohol‑induced hepatic damage; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of G‑Rg1 on alcohol‑induced cell injury in vitro and on a rat model of alcoholic hepatitis in vivo. For the in vitro model, L‑O2 cells were incubated with ethanol in the presence or absence of G‑Rg1. For the in vivo model, rats were administered ethanol by intragastric injection and were treated with G‑Rg1, or dexamethasone as a control...
November 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204927/augmented-bioavailability-of-felodipine-through-an-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-based-microemulsion
#20
Mahendra Singh, Jovita Kanoujia, Poonam Parashar, Malti Arya, Chandra B Tripathi, V R Sinha, Shailendra K Saraf, Shubhini A Saraf
The oral bioavailability of felodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist, is about 15%. This may be due to poor water solubility, and a lower intestinal permeability than a BCS class I drug, and hepatic first-pass metabolism of the drug. Many drugs are unpopular due to solubility issues. The goal of this study was to develop and optimize a felodipine-containing microemulsion to improve the intestinal permeability and bioavailability of the drug. The felodipine microemulsions were developed with the selected components, i...
December 4, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
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