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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641092/nuclear-mechanotransduction-sensing-the-force-from-within
#1
REVIEW
Avathamsa Athirasala, Nivi Hirsch, Amnon Buxboim
The cell nucleus is a hallmark of eukaryotic evolution, where gene expression is regulated and the genome is replicated and repaired. Yet, in addition to complex molecular processes, the nucleus has also evolved to serve physical tasks that utilize its optical and mechanical properties. Nuclear mechanotransduction of externally applied forces and extracellular stiffness is facilitated by the physical connectivity of the extracellular environment, the cytoskeleton and the nucleoskeletal matrix of lamins and chromatin...
June 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636467/normal-epithelial-cells-trigger-epha2-dependent-rasv12-cell-repulsion-at-the-single-cell-level
#2
William Hill, Catherine Hogan
Epithelial cells expressing oncogenic Ras (RasV12) are detected by normal neighbors and are often extruded from tissues. We recently demonstrated that differential EphA2 signaling drives the segregation of mutant cells from normal monolayers via cell repulsion and increased RasV12 cell contractility. EphA2 signaling on RasV12 cells is triggered by ephrin-A ligands presented by normal cells. Here, we show that normal epithelial cells trigger the repulsion and enhanced contractility of Ras-transformed epithelial cells at the single cell level...
June 21, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635904/-myocardial-fibrosis-current-aspects-of-the-problem
#3
V N Karetnikova, V V Kashtalap, S N Kosareva, O L Barbarash
Fibrosis is one of the main components in the progression of most cardiovascular diseases, including coronary heart disease, by causing structural changes in the myocardium and vascular wall. The quantitative and qualitative characteristics of fibrosis of the myocardium are responsible for decreasing its elastic properties, developing diastolic dysfunction, impairing myocardial contractility, developing systolic dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias, and worsening coronary blood flow in patients with heart failure of different etiologies...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635586/gc-1-a-thyromimetic-with-multiple-therapeutic-applications-in-liver-disease
#4
Amedeo Columbano, Grazia Chiellini, Marta Anna Kowalik
Thyroid hormones, namely 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodo-L-thyronine (thyroxine or T4), influence a variety of physiological processes that have important implications in fetal development, metabolism, cell growth and proliferation. While THs elicit several beneficial effects on lipid metabolism and improve myocardial contractility, these therapeutically desirable effects are associated to a thyrotoxic state, that severely limits the possible use of THs as therapeutic agents. Therefore, several efforts have been made to develop T3 analogues that could retain the beneficial actions (triglyceride, cholesterol, obesity and body mass lowering), without the adverse TH-dependent side effects...
June 13, 2017: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635131/characterization-of-pharyngeal-peristaltic-pressure-variability-during-volitional-swallowing-in-healthy-individuals
#5
G Balasubramanian, T Sharma, M Kern, L Mei, P Sanvanson, R Shaker
BACKGROUND: Recent technological advances incorporated in high resolution manometry have justifiably heightened interest in manometric evaluation of the pharynx. Despite this interest, from both physiologic and clinical perspective there remain a number of unanswered questions regarding the magnitude of variability of pharyngeal pressure phenomena. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize in healthy individuals the inter-subject and recording-site specific variability of pharyngeal peristaltic pressure phenomena...
June 20, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634191/cd36-knockout-mice-are-protected-against-lithogenic-diet-induced-gallstones
#6
Yan Xie, Vincenza Cifarelli, Terri Pietka, Elizabeth P Newberry, Susan M Kennedy, Amin Khalifeh-Soltani, Robin Clugston, Kamran Atabai, Nada A Abumrad, Nicholas O Davidson
The scavenger receptor and multiligand transporter CD36 functions to promote cellular free fatty acid uptake and regulates aspects of both hepatic and intestinal cholesterol metabolism. However, the role of CD36 in regulating canalicular and biliary cholesterol transport and secretion is unknown. Here we show that germline Cd36 knockout mice are protected against lithogenic diet (LD) induced gallstones compared to congenic (C57BL6/J) controls. Cd36 knockout mice crossed into congenic L-Fabp knockout mice (DKO mice) demonstrated protection against LD induced gallstones, reversing the susceptibility phenotype observed in L-Fabp knockout mice...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633918/traction-force-and-its-regulation-during-cytokinesis-in-dictyostelium-cells
#7
Md Golam Sarowar Jahan, Shigehiko Yumura
Cytokinesis is the final stage of cell division. Dictyostelium cells have multiple modes of cytokinesis, including cytokinesis A, B and C. Cytokinesis A is a conventional mode, which depends on myosin II in the contractile ring. Myosin II null cells divide depending on substratum-attachment (cytokinesis B) or in a multi-polar fashion independent of the cell cycle (cytokinesis C). We investigated the traction stress exerted by dividing cells in the three different modes using traction force microscopy. In all cases, the traction forces were directed inward from both poles...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633669/impact-of-exercise-programs-among-helicopter-pilots-with-transient-lbp
#8
Knut Andersen, Roald Baardsen, Ingvild Dalen, Jan Petter Larsen
BACKGROUND: Flight related low back pain (LBP) among helicopter pilots is frequent and may influence flight performance. Prolonged confined sitting during flights seems to weaken lumbar trunk (LT) muscles with associated secondary transient pain. Aim of the study was to investigate if structured training could improve muscular function and thus improve LBP related to flying. METHODS: 39 helicopter pilots (35 men and 4 women), who reported flying related LBP on at least 1 of 3 missions last month, were allocated to two training programs over a 3-month period...
June 20, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633298/protein-expression-in-tension-wood-formation-monitored-at-high-tissue-resolution-in-populus
#9
Joakim Bygdell, Vaibhav Srivastava, Ogonna Obudulu, Manoj K Srivastava, Robert Nilsson, Björn Sundberg, Johan Trygg, Ewa J Mellerowicz, Gunnar Wingsle
Tension wood (TW) is a specialized tissue with contractile properties that is formed by the vascular cambium in response to gravitational stimuli. We quantitatively analysed the proteomes of Populus tremula cambium and its xylem cell derivatives in stems forming normal wood (NW) and TW to reveal the mechanisms underlying TW formation. Phloem-, cambium-, and wood-forming tissues were sampled by tangential cryosectioning and pooled into nine independent samples. The proteomes of TW and NW samples were similar in the phloem and cambium samples, but diverged early during xylogenesis, demonstrating that reprogramming is an integral part of TW formation...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633074/programming-cells-for-cardiac-repair
#10
REVIEW
Rocco Romagnuolo, Michael A Laflamme
Because the heart is a poorly regenerative organ, there has been considerable interest in developing novel cell-based approaches to restore lost contractile function after myocardial infarction (MI). While a wide variety of candidate cell types have been tested in animal MI models, the vast majority of clinical trials have used adult stem cell types, usually derived from bone marrow. These studies have generally yielded disappointing results, an outcome that may reflect in part the limited cardiogenic potential of the adult stem cell sources employed...
June 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632736/from-the-motor-cortex-to-the-movement-and-back-again
#11
Wondimu W Teka, Khaldoun C Hamade, William H Barnett, Taegyo Kim, Sergey N Markin, Ilya A Rybak, Yaroslav I Molkov
The motor cortex controls motor behaviors by generating movement-specific signals and transmitting them through spinal cord circuits and motoneurons to the muscles. Precise and well-coordinated muscle activation patterns are necessary for accurate movement execution. Therefore, the activity of cortical neurons should correlate with movement parameters. To investigate the specifics of such correlations among activities of the motor cortex, spinal cord network and muscles, we developed a model for neural control of goal-directed reaching movements that simulates the entire pathway from the motor cortex through spinal cord circuits to the muscles controlling arm movements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631554/the-effects-of-platelet-activating-factor-on-uterine-contractility-perfusion-hypoxia-and-pain-in-mice
#12
Kevin M Hellman, Peter Y Yu, Folabomi A Oladosu, Chaya Segel, Alice Han, Pottumarthi V Prasad, Tamas Jilling, Frank F Tu
It is widely hypothesized that menstrual pain is triggered by prostaglandin synthesis that evokes high-pressure uterine contractions and ischemia. However, the effects of molecules implicated in menstrual pain on uterine contractility, perfusion, and oxygenation in vivo have been rarely demonstrated. Studies in women that do not respond to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have reported elevated levels of platelet-activating factor (PAF). To establish in vivo evidence of PAF's capability to impair uterine homeostasis and to elicit visceral pain, we examined the effects of the PAF receptor agonist (carbamyl PAF [CPAF]) in comparison to other molecules hypothesized to play a role in uterine pain in mice...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630914/deregulated-ca-2-cycling-underlies-the-development-of-arrhythmia-and-heart-disease-due-to-mutant-obscurin
#13
Li-Yen R Hu, Maegen A Ackermann, Peter A Hecker, Benjamin L Prosser, Brendan King, Kelly A O'Connell, Alyssa Grogan, Logan C Meyer, Christopher E Berndsen, Nathan T Wright, W Jonathan Lederer, Aikaterini Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos
Obscurins are cytoskeletal proteins with structural and regulatory roles encoded by OBSCN. Mutations in OBSCN are associated with the development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Specifically, the R4344Q mutation present in immunoglobulin domain 58 (Ig58) was the first to be linked with the development of HCM. To assess the effects of R4344Q in vivo, we generated the respective knock-in mouse model. Mutant obscurins are expressed and incorporated normally into sarcomeres...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630041/dysregulated-zn-2-homeostasis-impairs-cardiac-type-2-ryanodine-receptor-and-mitsugumin-23-functions-leading-to-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-leakage
#14
Benedict Reilly-O'Donnell, Gavin B Robertson, Angela Karumbi, Connor McIntyre, Wojciech Bal, Miyuki Nishi, Hiroshi Takeshima, Alan J Stewart, Samantha J Pitt
Aberrant Zn2+-homeostasis is associated with dysregulated intracellular Ca2+ release resulting in chronic heart failure. In the failing heart, a small population of cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2) display sub-conductance state gating leading to Ca2+ leakage from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) stores, which impairs cardiac contractility. Previous evidence suggests contribution of RyR2-independent Ca2+ leakage through an uncharacterized mechanism. We sought to examine the role of Zn2+ in shaping intracellular Ca2+ release in cardiac muscle...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629760/cardiac-overexpression-of-epac1-in-transgenic-mice-rescues-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-and-inhibits-jak-stat-pathway
#15
Huiling Jin, Takayuki Fujita, Meihua Jin, Reiko Kurotani, Iyuki Namekata, Shogo Hamaguchi, Yuko Hidaka, Wenqian Cai, Kenji Suita, Yoshiki Ohnuki, Yasumasa Mototani, Kouichi Shiozawa, Rajesh Prajapati, Chen Liang, Masanari Umemura, Utako Yokoyama, Motohiko Sato, Hikaru Tanaka, Satoshi Okumura, Yoshihiro Ishikawa
Pro-inflammatory cytokines are released in septic shock and impair cardiac function via the Jak-STAT pathway. It is well known that sympathetic stimulation leads to coupling of the β-adrenergic receptor/Gs/adenylyl cyclase, a membrane-bound enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP, thereby stimulating protein kinase A (PKA) and ultimately compensating for cardiac dysfunction. The mechanism of such compensation by catecholamine has been traditionally understood as PKA-mediated enforcement of cardiac contractility...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629628/left-ventricular-outflow-tract-obstruction-and-its-impact-on-systolic-ventricular-function-and-exercise-capacity-in-adults-with-a-subaortic-right-ventricle
#16
Annina Stauber, Céline Wey, Matthias Greutmann, Daniel Tobler, Kerstin Wustmann, Andreas Wahl, Emanuela R Valsangiacomo Buechel, Matthias Wilhelm, Markus Schwerzmann
BACKGROUND: In biventricular hearts the filling and contractility of one ventricle affects the performance of the other. In this study, we compared right ventricular systolic function and exercise capacity in patients with a subaortic right ventricle (RV) in relation to the presence of a left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO). METHODS: Retrospective chart review of adults with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA) or with a previous atrial switch procedure for complete TGA (D-TGA)...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628756/atypical-sympathomimetic-drug-lerimazoline-mediates-contractile-effects-in-rat-aorta-predominantly-by-5-ht2a-receptors
#17
Eldina Rizvić, Goran Janković, Slađana Kostić-Rajačić, Miroslav M Savić
Lerimazoline is a sympathomimetic drug that belongs to the imidazoline class of compounds, and is used as a nasal decongestant. Studies on lerimazoline are rare, and its pharmacological profile is not completely understood. Here, we analyzed the affinity of lerimazoline for dopamine receptor D2, serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors and α1-adrenoceptor, and investigated lerimazoline contractile effects in isolated rat thoracic aorta. We also determined the effect of several antagonists on the contractile response to lerimazoline, including prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), RX 821002 and rauwolscine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonists), JP 1302 (α2C-adrenoceptor antagonist), methiothepin (non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist), SB 224289 (5-HT1B receptor antagonist), BRL 15572 (5-HT1D receptor antagonist), and ketanserin (5-HT2A receptor antagonist)...
June 19, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628273/exposure-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-vascular-endothelial-and-smooth-muscle-cells-in-coculture-to-hemodynamics-induces-primary-vascular-cell-like-phenotypes
#18
Maria S Collado, Banumathi K Cole, Robert A Figler, Mark Lawson, David Manka, Michael B Simmers, Steve Hoang, Felipe Serrano, Brett R Blackman, Sanjay Sinha, Brian R Wamhoff
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be differentiated into vascular endothelial (iEC) and smooth muscle (iSMC) cells. However, because iECs and iSMCs are not derived from an intact blood vessel, they represent an immature phenotype. Hemodynamics and heterotypic cell:cell communication play important roles in vascular cell phenotypic modulation. Here we tested the hypothesis that hemodynamic exposure of iECs in coculture with iSMCs induces an in vivo-like phenotype. iECs and iSMCs were cocultured under vascular region-specific blood flow hemodynamics, and compared to hemodynamic cocultures of blood vessel-derived endothelial (pEC) and smooth muscle (pSMC) cells...
June 19, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627770/electrochemically-powered-energy-conserving-carbon-nanotube-artificial-muscles
#19
Jae Ah Lee, Na Li, Carter S Haines, Keon Jung Kim, Xavier Lepró, Raquel Ovalle-Robles, Seon Jeong Kim, Ray H Baughman
While artificial muscle yarns and fibers are potentially important for many applications, the combination of large strokes, high gravimetric work capacities, short cycle times, and high efficiencies are not realized for these fibers. This paper demonstrates here electrochemically powered carbon nanotube yarn muscles that provide tensile contraction as high as 16.5%, which is 12.7 times higher than previously obtained. These electrochemical muscles can deliver a contractile energy conversion efficiency of 5...
June 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627603/role-of-stem-cell-factor-in-the-regulation-of-icc-proliferation-and-detrusor-contraction-in-rats-with-an-underactive-bladder
#20
Jianli Feng, Jin Gao, Shan Zhou, Yuanfeng Liu, Yu Zhong, Yong Shu, Ming Sen Meng, Jiaqiang Yan, Danning Sun, Qiang Fang, Daodong Sun
Stem cell factor (SCF) is critical in regulating the proliferation, differentiation and function of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), which are closely associated with smooth muscle dysfunction. The present study aimed to examine the effect of SCF on ICC proliferation and detrusor contraction in rats with an underactive bladder. Sprague‑Dawley rats were divided into four groups comprising control, control+SCF, detrusor underactivity (DU), and DU+SCF groups. The ICC count was determined using immunofluorescence; serum levels of SCF were determined using an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay; mRNA and protein levels of c‑kit and SCF in tissues were assessed using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses, respectively...
June 9, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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