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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471490/pharmacologic-assessment-of-bovine-ruminal-and-mesenteric-vascular-serotonin-receptor-populations
#1
M A Snider, D L Harmon, J L Klotz
Prior work using a contractility bioassay determined that the serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtype 5-HT2A is present in bovine lateral saphenous veins and plays a role in ergot alkaloid-induced vascular contraction in steers grazing endophyte-infected (Epichloë coenophiala) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). Ergot alkaloids have also been shown to be vasoactive in bovine gut vasculature. To determine what 5-HT receptors are involved in vasoconstriction of gut vasculature, contractility of ruminal and mesenteric arteries and veins collected from cattle were evaluated in the presence of agonists selective for 5-HT1B (CP 93129) 5-HT1D (L-694, 247), 5-HT2A (TCB-2), 5-HT2B (BW 723C86), 5-HT4 (BIMU-8) and 5-HT7 (LP 44) receptors...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471108/redox-stress-in-marfan-syndrome-dissecting-the-role-of-the-nadph-oxidase-nox4-in-aortic-aneurysm
#2
Francesc Jiménez-Altayó, Thayna Meirelles, Eva Crosas-Molist, M Alba Sorolla, Darya Gorbenko Del Blanco, Judit López-Luque, Aleksandra Mas-Stachurska, Ana-Maria Siegert, Fabio Bonorino, Laura Barberà, Carolina García, Enric Condom, Marta Sitges, Fernando Rodríguez-Pascual, Francisco Laurindo, Katrin Schröder, Joaquim Ros, Isabel Fabregat, Gustavo Egea
Marfan syndrome (MFS) is characterized by the formation of ascending aortic aneurysms resulting from altered assembly of extracellular matrix fibrillin-containing microfibrils and dysfunction of TGF-β signaling. Here we identify the molecular targets of redox stress in aortic aneurysms from MFS patients, and investigate the role of NOX4, whose expression is strongly induced by TGF-β, in aneurysm formation and progression in a murine model of MFS. Working models included aortae and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from MFS patients, and a NOX4-deficient Marfan mouse model (Fbn1C1039G/+ -Nox4-/- )...
February 19, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470988/shear-dependent-fibrillogenesis-of-fibronectin-impact-of-platelet-integrins-and-actin-cytoskeleton
#3
Huong Nguyen, Khon Huynh, Volker R Stoldt
Soluble plasma fibronectin (Fn) with its inactive compact structure requires unfolding to assemble into active fibrils, which play a role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Fn fibril assembly involves Fn binding to cell receptors, biomechanical coupling of Fn to the cytoskeleton by integrins, exposure of self-assembly sites via contractile cell forces, and elongation of fibrils by Fn polymerization. In this report, we investigated the effect of platelet integrins and actin cytoskeleton on conformational changes of Fn induced by shear...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470978/contractile-responses-to-endothelin-1-are-regulated-by-pkc-phosphorylation-of-cardiac-myosin-binding-protein-c-in-rat-ventricular-myocytes
#4
Ioannis Smyrnias, Normann Goodwin, Dagmar Wachten, Jonas Skogestad, Jan Magnus Aronsen, Emma L Robinson, Kateryna Demydenko, Anne Segonds-Pichon, David Oxley, Sakthivel Sadayappan, Karin Sipido, Martin D Bootman, H Llewelyn Roderick
The shortening of sarcomeres that co-ordinates the pump function of the heart is stimulated by electrically-mediated increases in [Ca2+ ]. This process of excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) is subject to modulation by neurohormonal mediators that tune the output of the heart to meet the needs of the organism. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent modulator of cardiac function with effects on contraction amplitude, chronotropy and automaticity. The actions of ET-1 are evident during normal adaptive physiological responses and increased under pathophysiological conditions, such as following myocardial infarction and during heart failure, where ET-1 levels are elevated...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470147/repeated-airway-constrictions-in-mice-do-not-alter-respiratory-function
#5
Samuel Mailhot-Larouche, Louis Deschênes, Morgan Gazzola, Katherine Lortie, Cyndi Henry, Bindi Shah Brook, Mathieu C Morissette, Ynuk Bossé
It is suggested that the frequent strain the airways undergo in asthma, due to repeated airway smooth muscle (ASM)-mediated constrictions, contributes to airway wall remodeling. However, the effects of repeated constrictions on airway remodeling, as well as the ensuing impact of this presumptive remodeling on respiratory mechanics, have never been investigated in non-asthmatic subjects. In this study, we set out to determine whether repeated constrictions lead to features that are reminiscent of asthma in non-asthmatic mice...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468941/the-serotonin-hypothesis-in-pulmonary-hypertension-revisited-targets-for-novel-therapies-2017-grover-conference-series
#6
Margaret Mandy R MacLean
Increased synthesis of serotonin and/or activity of serotonin in pulmonary arteries has been implicated in the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The incidence of PAH associated with diet pills such as aminorex, fenfluramine, and chlorphentermine initially led to the "serotonin hypothesis of pulmonary hypertension." Over the last couple of decades there has been an accumulation of convincing evidence that targeting serotonin synthesis or signaling is a novel and promising approach to the development of novel therapies for PAH...
April 2018: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468592/experimental-protocol-for-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-model-of-polymicrobial-sepsis-and-assessment-of-vascular-functions-in-mice
#7
Santosh Kumar Mishra, Soumen Choudhury
Sepsis is the systemic inflammatory response syndrome that occurs during infection and is exacerbated by the inappropriate immune response encountered by the affected individual. Despite extensive research, sepsis in humans is one of the biggest challenges for clinicians. The high mortality rate in sepsis is primarily due to hypoperfusion-induced multiorgan dysfunctions , resulting from a marked decrease in peripheral resistance. Vascular dysfunctions are further aggravated by sepsis-induced impairment in myocardial contractility...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467331/pten-deficiency-promotes-pathological-vascular-remodeling-of-human-coronary-arteries
#8
Karen S Moulton, Marcella Li, Keith Strand, Shawna Burgett, Penn McClatchey, Rebecca Tucker, Seth B Furgeson, Sizhao Lu, Bruce Kirkpatrick, Joseph C Cleveland, Raphael A Nemenoff, Amrut V Ambardekar, Mary Cm Weiser-Evans
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is an essential regulator of the differentiated vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype. Our goal was to establish that PTEN loss promotes SMC dedifferentiation and pathological vascular remodeling in human atherosclerotic coronary arteries and nonatherosclerotic coronary arteries exposed to continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs). Arteries were categorized as nonatherosclerotic hyperplasia (NAH), atherosclerotic hyperplasia (AH), or complex plaque (CP)...
February 22, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467323/von-hippel-lindau-mutations-disrupt-vascular-patterning-and-maturation-via-notch
#9
Alexandra Arreola, Laura Beth Payne, Morgan H Julian, Aguirre A de Cubas, Anthony B Daniels, Sarah Taylor, Huaning Zhao, Jordan Darden, Victoria L Bautch, W Kimryn Rathmell, John C Chappell
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene mutations induce neural tissue hemangioblastomas, as well as highly vascularized clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs). Pathological vessel remodeling arises from misregulation of HIFs and VEGF, among other genes. Variation in disease penetrance has long been recognized in relation to genotype. We show Vhl mutations also disrupt Notch signaling, causing mutation-specific vascular abnormalities, e.g., type 1 (null) vs. type 2B (murine G518A representing human R167Q). In conditional mutation retina vasculature, Vhl-null mutation (i...
February 22, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467250/different-contributions-of-nonmuscle-myosin-iia-and-iib-to-the-organization-of-stress-fiber-subtypes-in-fibroblasts
#10
Masahiro Kuragano, Taro Qp Uyeda, Keiju Kamijo, Yota Murakami, Masayuki Takahashi
Stress fibers (SFs) are contractile, force-generating bundled structures that can be classified into three subtypes, namely, ventral SFs (vSFs), transverse arcs (TAs), and dorsal SFs. Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) is the main component of SFs. This study examined the roles of the NMII isoforms NMIIA and NMIIB in the organization of each SF subtype in immortalized fibroblasts. Knockdown (KD) of NMIIA (a major isoform) resulted in loss of TAs from the lamella and caused the lamella to lose its flattened shape. Exogenous expression of NMIIB rescued this defect in TA formation...
February 21, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467248/alpha-catenin-dependent-cytoskeletal-tension-controls-yap-activity-in-the-heart
#11
Alexia Vite, Caimei Zhang, Roslyn Yi, Sabrina Emms, Glenn L Radice
Shortly after birth, muscle cells of the mammalian heart lose their ability to divide. At the same time, the N-cadherin/catenin cell adhesion complex accumulates at the cell termini creating a specialized type of cell-cell contact called the intercalated disc (ICD). To investigate the relationship between ICD maturation and proliferation, αE-catenin ( Ctnna1 ) and αT-catenin ( Ctnna3 ) genes were deleted to generate cardiac-specific α-catenin double knockout (DKO) mice. DKO mice exhibited aberrant N-cadherin expression, mislocalized actomyosin activity, and increased cardiomyocyte proliferation that was dependent on Yap activity...
February 21, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467196/specific-activation-of-the-alternative-cardiac-promoter-of-cacna1c-by-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor
#12
Thassio R Mesquita, Gaelle Auguste, Debora Falcón, Gema Ruiz-Hurtado, Rogelio Salazar-Enciso, Jessica Sabourin, Florence Lefebvre, Say Viengchareun, Hussein Kobeissy, Patrick Lechêne, Valerie Nicolas, Amaya Fernández-Celis, Susana Gomez, Sandra Lauton-Santos, Eric Morel, Angelica Rueda, Natalia López-Andrés, Ana M Gomez, Marc Lombes, Jean-Pierre Benitah
<u>Rationale:</u> The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists belong to the current therapeutic armamentarium for the management of cardiovascular diseases, but the mechanisms conferring their beneficial effects are poorly understood. Part of the cardiovascular effects of MR are due to the regulation of L-type Cav 1.2 Ca2+ channel expression, which is generated by tissue-specific alternative promoters as a long 'cardiac' (Cav 1.2-LNT) or a short 'vascular' (Cav 1.2-SNT) N-terminal transcripts...
February 21, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466836/tgf%C3%AE-1-induced-expression-of-caldesmon-mediates-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#13
Sandeep M Nalluri, Joseph W O'Connor, Gage A Virgi, Samantha E Stewart, Dan Ye, Esther W Gomez
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process that mediates organ development and wound healing, and in pathological contexts it can contribute to the progression of fibrosis and cancer. During EMT, cells exhibit marked changes in cytoskeletal organization and increased expression of a variety of actin associated proteins. Here, we sought to determine the role of caldesmon in mediating EMT in response to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. We find that the expression level and phosphorylation state of caldesmon increase as a function of time following induction of EMT by TGFβ1 and these changes in caldesmon correlate with increased focal adhesion number and size and increased cell contractility...
February 21, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466489/moderate-continuous-aerobic-exercise-training-improves-cardiomyocyte-contractility-in-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptor-knockout-mice
#14
Aurora Corrêa Rodrigues, Antônio José Natali, Daise Nunes Queiroz da Cunha, Alexandre Jayme Lopes Dantas Costa, Anselmo Gomes de Moura, Miguel Araújo Carneiro-Júnior, Leonardo Bonato Félix, Patrícia Chakur Brum, Thales Nicolau Prímola-Gomes
BACKGROUND: The lack of cardiac β1-adrenergic receptors (β1-AR) negatively affects the regulation of both cardiac inotropy and lusitropy, leading, in the long term, to heart failure (HF). Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (MCAE) is recommended as an adjunctive therapy for patients with HF. OBJECTIVE: We tested the effects of MCAE on the contractile properties of left ventricular (LV) myocytes from β1 adrenergic receptor knockout (β1ARKO) mice. METHODS: Four- to five-month-old male wild type (WT) and β1ARKO mice were divided into groups: WT control (WTc) and trained (WTt); and β1ARKO control (β1ARKOc) and trained (β1ARKOt)...
February 19, 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466427/endothelial-mineralocorticoid-receptor-ablation-does-not-alter-blood-pressure-kidney-function-or-renal-vessel-contractility
#15
Sidsel B Laursen, Stine Finsen, Niels Marcussen, Susan E Quaggin, Pernille B L Hansen, Henrik Dimke
Aldosterone blockade confers substantial cardiovascular and renal protection. The effects of aldosterone on mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) expressed in endothelial cells (EC) within the renal vasculature have not been delineated. We hypothesized that lack of MR in EC may be protective in renal vasculature and examined this by ablating the Nr3c2 gene in endothelial cells (EC-MR) in mice. Blood pressure, heart rate and PAH clearance were measured using indwelling catheters in conscious mice. The role of the MR in EC on contraction and relaxation was investigated in the renal artery and in perfused afferent arterioles...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465260/the-effect-of-knee-ankle-orthosis-stiffness-on-the-parameters-of-walking
#16
Seyedmohammad Abtahi, Nima Jamshidi, Aram Ghaziasgar
The purpose of this simulation study was to analyze the effect of variation in Knee-Ankle-Foot-Orthosis stiffness on the joint power and the energy cost of walking. The effect of contractile tissue was simulated using linear elastic spring and viscous dampers in knee and ankle joints. Then, joint angles, ground reaction force, were collected from Twenty chronic hemiparesis subjects (15 males and 5 females) and twenty control subjects (14 males and 6 females), and spring stiffness were considered as the inputs...
February 21, 2018: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464562/the-sarcoendoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-atpase
#17
Joseph O Primeau, Gareth P Armanious, M'Lynn E Fisher, Howard S Young
The calcium pump (a.k.a. Ca2+ -ATPase or SERCA) is a membrane transport protein ubiquitously found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of all eukaryotic cells. As a calcium transporter, SERCA maintains the low cytosolic calcium level that enables a vast array of signaling pathways and physiological processes (e.g. synaptic transmission, muscle contraction, fertilization). In muscle cells, SERCA promotes relaxation by pumping calcium ions from the cytosol into the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), the main storage compartment for intracellular calcium...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464522/protective-effects-of-a-modified-apelin-12-and-dinitrosyl-iron-complexes-in-experimental-cardioplegic-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#18
Irina Studneva, Valentin Shulzhenko, Oksana Veselova, Oleg Pisarenko
The maintenance of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability has been recognized as an important component of myocardial protection during cardiac surgery. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of using two NO-donating compounds in cardioplegia and reperfusion: (i) a modified peptide apelin-12 (MA12) that activates endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and (ii) dinitrosyl iron complexes with reduced glutathione (DNIC-GS), a natural NO vehicle. Isolated perfused working rat hearts were subjected to normothermic global ischemia and reperfusion...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464367/inalambric-biofeedback-devices-to-analyze-strength-manifestation-in-military-population
#19
Rosa Delgado-Moreno, José Juan Robles-Pérez, Susana Aznar, Vicente Javier Clemente-Suarez
The study of the effect of stress on both combatants physiological and anatomical systems have been poor studied in the specific literature. The present research aimed to study the effect of combat stress in strength manifestations of leg flexor-extensor muscles and the anaerobic metabolism of soldiers. Before and after asymmetrical combat simulation were analyzed parameters of blood lactate concentration, explosive leg strength manifestation and contractile capacity of leg muscle in 186 professional soldiers...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463879/redox-control-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-function-and-plasticity
#20
REVIEW
Brittany G Durgin, Adam C Straub
Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) play a major role in vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and hypertension. It has long been established in vitro that contractile SMC can phenotypically switch to function as proliferative and/or migratory cells in response to stimulation by oxidative stress, growth factors, and inflammatory cytokines. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are oxidative stressors implicated in driving vascular diseases, shifting cell bioenergetics, and increasing SMC proliferation, migration, and apoptosis...
February 20, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
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