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Herbert H Dedo
The tools described in this article are verified to be Greco-Roman medical and surgical instruments for the eye, ear, nose, and throat. They include three myrtle leaf-shaped scalpels, three ear spoons, a "Q-tip," a forceps, a needle, and two arrow-pointed scalpels. One of the arrow-pointed scalpels is nearly identical to a Juerger keratome, suggesting that in Roman times, cataracts were extracted, not just "couched" into the posterior chamber. The description presented here goes beyond traditional archeological claims, because as a head and neck surgeon, I evaluated these instruments from a surgeon's point of view...
October 18, 2016: Laryngoscope
Jie Dai, Jun Zhou, Hongmei Liu, Kaixun Huang
Selenite and ebselen supplementation has been shown to possess anti-cataract potential in some experimental animal models of cataract, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-cataract effects and the underlying mechanisms of selenite and ebselen supplementation on galactose induced cataract in rats, a common animal model of sugar cataract. Transmission electron microscopy images of lens fiber cells (LFC) and lens epithelial cells (LEC) were observed in D-galactose-induced experimental cataractous rats treated with or without selenite and ebselen, also redox homeostasis and expression of proteins such as selenoprotein R (SELR), 15kD selenoprotein (SEP15), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase (CAT), β-crystallin protein, aldose reductase (AR) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) were estimated in the lenses...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Argyrios Chronopoulos, Gabriele Thumann, James Schutz
Positive vitreous pressure (PVP) occurs during anterior segment intraocular surgery associated with acute hypotony and is characterized by forward displacement of the lens-iris diaphragm with shallowing of the anterior chamber resistant to reformation, repeated iris prolapse, and, in severe cases, zonular rupture and vitreous or lens prolapse that can lead to a cascade of intraoperative complications. PVP is particularly common during penetrating keratoplasty (PK), conventional nuclear expression cataract extraction, and repair of anterior open globe injury...
October 14, 2016: Survey of Ophthalmology
Ema Avdagic, Douglas R Lazzaro
PURPOSE: The study was performed to study the effect of cycloplegia on anterior chamber depth (ACD) in cataract eyes. One instrument (Lenstar) was used for all measurements. METHODS: Anterior chamber depth calculations were taken with the Lenstar in cataract eyes with a mean age of 71.9±8.8 years before instilling cycloplegic drops. Two drops of Tropicamide were then instilled in each eye and measurements were retaken between 30 to 45 min later. RESULTS: Cycloplegia with a mild agent used routinely in this practice location showed a statically significant effect on increasing ACD by 0...
September 30, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Bjorn Baselet, Charlotte Rombouts, Abderrafi Mohammed Benotmane, Sarah Baatout, An Aerts
Traditionally, non-cancer diseases are not considered as health risks following exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. Indeed, non-cancer diseases are classified as deterministic tissue reactions, which are characterized by a threshold dose. It is judged that below an absorbed dose of 100 mGy, no clinically relevant tissue damage occurs, forming the basis for the current radiation protection system concerning non-cancer effects. Recent epidemiological findings point, however, to an excess risk of non-cancer diseases following exposure to lower doses of ionizing radiation than was previously thought...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Claudia E Perez-Straziota, J Bradley Randleman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article describes different strategies for corneal measurements and/or intraocular lens (IOL) calculations and proposes a systematic approach for IOL selection in patients who have undergone laser corneal refractive surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Corneal measurements and IOL calculations cannot be obtained accurately with the standard measuring technologies and formulas in patients with history of laser corneal refractive surgery; therefore a variety of methods and formulas, some of which required prerefractive surgery data, have been proposed to improve the accuracy of measurements and calculations...
September 29, 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Euna B Koo, Aubrey L Gilbert, Deborah K VanderVeen
PURPOSE: Amblyopia is a leading cause of low vision and warrants timely management during childhood. We performed a literature review of the management of amblyopia and potential risk factors for amblyopia. METHODS: Literature review of the management of amblyopia and risk factors for amblyopia. RESULTS: Common amblyopia risk factors include anisometropic or high refractive error, strabismus, cataract, and ptosis. Often a conservative approach with spectacles is enough to prevent amblyopia...
October 17, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Kourtney J Davis, David Hinds, Stephen P Motsko, Earl Goehring, Judith K Jones
PURPOSE: Our objective was to highlight the importance of database selection in observational research and to determine the incidence of corticosteroid-related events in patients exposed to fluticasone propionate intranasal spray (FPNS) compared with other intranasal steroids (INS). METHODS: After a feasibility study using an electronic medical record database in the UK (1990-2002), a retrospective cohort study was conducted using a large administrative claims database in the USA from 1994 to 2002 comparing the incidence and rate ratios of steroid-related events among intermittent, sub-chronic, and chronic FPNS use and other INS use episodes...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Maria J S Guerreiro, Lisa Putzar, Brigitte Röder
Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that a brief period of congenital blindness induces long-lasting reorganization within the visual cortex of sight-recovery humans [1, 2]. However, the behavioral consequences of this cross-modal reorganization are not yet known. Here we investigated this question by examining the transfer of motion aftereffects across the visual and auditory modalities within six individuals who had been born blind due to dense bilateral cataracts and regained sight when they were treated at 5-24 months of age...
October 1, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Randall J Olson, Rosa Braga-Mele, Sherleen Huang Chen, Kevin M Miller, Roberto Pineda, James P Tweeten, David C Musch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Ophthalmology
W Ammari, S Harrath, S Mbarek, A Mahmoud, W Chebbi, R Messaoud, M Khairallah
OBJECTIVE: To study socio-demographic characteristics and main causes related to visual impairment (VI) as a function of age bracket and to analyze their trends over time in the district of Mahdia. METHOD: A retrospective review was performed on 1487 cases of visual impairment registered with the social authorities in Mahdia, between 1980 and 2013. The social, demographic, vision exam findings and causes were ascertained and analyzed in an SPSS database. Incidence rates of VI and blindness due to various causes were calculated based on the demographic data from the NSI to estimate the time trends using the general linear regression model and Spearman correlation...
October 13, 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Qi Fan, Yonglong Zhang, Yanfeng Liu, Jin Yang, Dan Li, Yating Tang, Lei Cai, Zhennan Zhao, Peng Zhou, Yi Lu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the development of cataracts, and glutaredoxins (Grxs) play a major protective role against oxidative stress in the lens. This study aimed to reveal the global regulatory network of Grx1. METHODS: Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was used in a proteome-wide quantitative approach to identify the Grx1 regulatory signaling cascades at a subcellular resolution in response to oxidative stress...
October 17, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Rajesh Choudhary, Surendra H Bodakhe
AIMS: Previously we found that cadmium chloride (CdCl2) exposure substantially elevates hypertension and potentiates cataract formation. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker against cataractogenesis in the CdCl2-induced hypertensive animal model. MAIN METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley albino rats (150-180g) were randomly selected and assigned to four groups (n=6). Among the four groups, one group (normal) received 0...
October 12, 2016: Life Sciences
Dulcia W N Tan, Soo Ghim Lim, Tina T Wong, Subbu S Venkatraman
Currently, infections following cataract surgery are not as effectively managed with antibiotic eye drops, which suffer from poor bioavailability of drug and low patient compliance. The ideal solution, which can help to overcome the issue of drug wastage and poor bioavailabilty, as well as the need for frequent applications (patient inconvenience), is a drug-eluting intraocular lens (IOL). We describe a novel approach to such a drug-eluting lens by using a peripheral IOL attachment as a drug depot to deliver antibiotics, Levofloxacin (LFX) or Moxifloxacin (MFX)...
2016: PloS One
Nir Sorkin, Amir Rosenblatt, Irina S Barequet
PURPOSE: To compare measurements of axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), keratometry (K), and the refractive predictability of the Aladdin and IOLMaster biometry devices in cataract surgery patients. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of eyes undergoing cataract surgery. Data were retrieved on AL, ACD, and K measurements obtained by the Aladdin and the IOLMaster. Furthermore, the postoperative refractive prediction errors were compared between the devices...
October 12, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
D Wiwatwongwana, P Vichitvejpaisal, L Thaikruea, J Klaphajone, A Tantong, A Wiwatwongwana
PurposeTo investigate the anxiolytic effects of binaural beat embedded audio in patients undergoing cataract surgery under local anesthesia.MethodsThis prospective RCT included 141 patients undergoing cataract surgery under local anesthesia. The patients were randomized into three groups; the Binaural beat music group (BB), the plain music intervention group (MI), and a control group (ear phones with no music). Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate were measured on admission, at the beginning of and 20 min after the start of the operation...
October 14, 2016: Eye
Yusuke Ito, Ikuo Yamazaki, Yoichi Kikuchi, Eri O'uchi, Toshihiro O'uchi, Hiroaki Kato, Kazuki Hotta
Recognizing imaging characteristics after ophthalmic surgery is necessary for radiologists to prevent misdiagnosis. We review typical appearances of intraorbital implanted devices and materials on CT and MRI with demonstration of the common surgical procedures. EX-PRESS glaucoma filtration devices appear as punctate areas of metal attenuation on CT and are typically placed at the corneoscleral junction. The imaging manifestations after cataract extraction are absence of the native lens of ovoid mass and the intraocular lens with high attenuation on CT and low signal intensity on MRI...
October 13, 2016: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Jessica Mani Penny Tevaraj, Evelyn Tai Li Min, Raja Azmi Mohd Noor, Azhany Yaakub, Wan Hazabbah Wan Hitam
Neurofibromatosis type 2 usually presents with bilateral acoustic schwannomas. We highlight the rare presentation of neurofibromatosis initially involving third nerve. A 23-year-old Malay female presented with left eye drooping of the upper lid and limitation of upward movement for 8 years. It was associated with right-sided body weakness, change in voice, and hearing disturbance in the right ear for the past 2 years. On examination, there was mild ptosis and limitation of movement superiorly in the left eye...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
Jyoti Khadka, Jinhai Huang, Haisi Chen, Chengwei Chen, Rongrong Gao, Fangjun Bao, Sifang Zhang, Qinmei Wang, Konrad Pesudovs
PURPOSE: To assess cataract surgery outcome using the Rasch scaled Chinese version of the Catquest short-form. METHODS: The Chinese translated and culturally adapted version of the Catquest-9SF was interviewer-administered to patients, pre and post cataract surgery. Rasch analysis was performed on the baseline data to revise the Catquest. For the surgical outcome assessment, we stacked pre- and post-surgical Catquest data to demonstrate improvement in visual function scores and responsiveness of the instrument to cataract surgery...
2016: PloS One
Satoshi Ogasawara, Kouhei Hashizume, Takashi Okuno, Toshiyasu Imaizumi, Yui Inomata, Yu Tezuka, Atushi Sanbe, Daijiro Kurosaka
PURPOSE: We investigated whether heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) was involved in ultraviolet radiation type B (UVR-B)-induced lens opacity (cataract) using HSF1 heterozygous mice. We also examined the effects of geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), an inducer of heat-shock proteins via activation of HSF, on the UVR-B-induced cataract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male HSF1(+/-) and WT mice were unilaterally exposed to UVR-B (total: 1200mJ) at 16 weeks of age. At 48 h after the last UVR-B irradiation, the lens was isolated and the induction of the cataract was quantified as the cataract area ratio (opacity area/anterior capsule)...
October 12, 2016: Current Eye Research
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