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Enoch Odame Anto, William K B A Owiredu, Samuel Asamoah Sakyi, Cornelius Archer Turpin, Richard K D Ephraim, Linda Ahenkorah Fondjo, Christian Obirikorang, Eric Adua, Emmanuel Acheampong
BACKGROUND: Advanced maternal age (AMA) has been associated with negative pregnancy outcomes. Oxidative stress (OS) and defective placental dysfunction are contributing factors. This study determined the association between AMA and adverse pregnancy outcomes, OS biomarkers and angiogenic growth mediators (AGMs) in normal pregnancies. METHODS: This prospective cohort study conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology (O&G) Department of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) finally included 175 normal pregnant women comprising, 58 AMA (35-45 years), 55 (30-34 years) and 62 optimal childbearing age (20-29 years)...
2018: PloS One
Sushila Arya, Zuber D Mulla, Sanja Kupesic Plavsic
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the maternal outcome in women with very advanced maternal age (VAMA) at childbirth (>45 years) compared to advanced maternal age (35-39 and 40-44 years). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using the Texas Public Use Data File, years 2013-2014. Maternal age was a three-level variable: 35-39 (referent), 40-44, and 45-59 years (VAMA). Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) for the two older age groups for various obstetrical and nonobstetrical complications were calculated from log-binomial regression models...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
Ahmed A Nassr, Sherif A Shazly, Mari C Trinidad, Sherif A El-Nashar, Amber M Marroquin, Brian C Brost
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association of ultrasound measurement of maternal abdominal subcutaneous and pre-peritoneal fat thickness in relation to the subsequent diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GDM), and to assess the association of body fat index (BFI), compared to conventional body mass index (BMI), with respect to the development of some obstetric related complications. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study included non-diabetic pregnant women who were scheduled for fetal anatomic survey...
July 6, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Raymond Li, Jade Lodge, Christopher Flatley, Sailesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking is associated with a number of adverse outcomes with a dose-dependent increase in risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the obstetric and perinatal outcomes in women who smoked during pregnancy. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of women who smoked during pregnancy and birthed at a major perinatal centre in Australia between January 2000 and April 2017. The study cohort was compared to a cohort of women who did not smoke in pregnancy...
July 17, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Grace Njau, Agricola Odoi
Objectives The objective of this study was to identify maternal and provider predictors of newborn screening (NBS) refusal in North Dakota between 2011 and 2014. Methods Records of 40,440 live resident births occurring in North Dakota between 2011 and 2014 were obtained from the North Dakota Department of Health and included in the study. Factor-specific percentages of NBS refusals and 95% confidence intervals were computed for each predictor. Since the outcome is rare, multivariable Firth logistic regression was used to investigate maternal and provider predictors of NBS refusal...
July 16, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Hazel Edwards, Richard Hamilton
Detection rates of congenital cardiac malformations have traditionally remained low. The NHS Fetal Anomaly Screening Programme (FASP) aims to increase these detection rates for various reasons, including influencing perinatal management and aiding parental decision making. The inclusion of the three vessel view and trachea (3VT) view in 2015 aimed to improve detection rates of arch abnormalities in particular. This study evaluated the early impact of the new initiative at one NHS Trust. Departmental screen-positive rates were compared for a full year before and after implementation...
May 2018: Ultrasound: Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
Oreoluwa Olaloko, Raihan Mohammed, Utkarsh Ojha
Approximately 15 million babies worldwide are born premature, and complications of prematurity are one of the leading causes of death in neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are two of the most common and serious consequences of prematurity. Synthetic corticosteroids, including dexamethasone, have been central in efforts to treat and prevent BPD. There is strong evidence to show that prenatal corticosteroids reduce infant mortality and the incidence of NRDS, leading to their widespread use in obstetric units...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
Kaled Zimmo, Katariina Laine, Erik Fosse, Mohammed Zimmo, Hadil Ali-Masri, Manuela Zucknick, Åse Vikanes, Sahar Hassan
OBJECTIVE: To explore the rates, characteristics and indications for episiotomy among women delivering vaginally for the first time, as well as parous women. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, population-based birth cohort study. SETTING: Obstetric departments in six Palestinian government hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: All women with singleton vaginal births (n=29 165) from 1 March 2015 until 1 March 2016. METHODS: All women were divided into two groups: first vaginal birth group (n=9108), including primiparous women and women with their first vaginal birth after one caesarean section, and the parous group (n=20 057)...
July 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Artemis Mavridi, Georgia Ntali, Marianna Theodora, Kimon Stamatelopoulos, Lina Michala
BACKGROUND: Turner syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality, due to a total or partial loss of one of the X chromosomes and is mostly characterized clinically by short stature and primary ovarian insufficiency. Spontaneous pregnancies are rare (5%) and of relatively high risk. This is one of few reported cases of spontaneous conception and favorable prognosis in a patient with Turner syndromeand a 45,X/47,XXX karyotype CASE: A 21 year old woman with Turner mosaicism (45,X/47,XXX) that had a full term, uncomplicated pregnancy after spontaneous conception, giving birth to a healthy female (46,XX) infant...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Jonathan S Zipursky, Donald A Redelmeier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
José M Belizán, Nicole Minckas, Elizabeth M McClure, Sarah Saleem, Janet L Moore, Shivaprasad S Goudar, Fabian Esamai, Archana Patel, Elwyn Chomba, Ana L Garces, Fernando Althabe, Margo S Harrison, Nancy F Krebs, Richard J Derman, Waldemar A Carlo, Edward A Liechty, Patricia L Hibberd, Pierre M Buekens, Robert L Goldenberg
BACKGROUND: Caesarean section prevalence is increasing in Asia and Latin America while remaining low in most African regions. Caesarean section delivery is effective for saving maternal and infant lives when they are provided for medically-indicated reasons. On the basis of ecological studies, caesarean delivery prevalence between 9% and 19% has been associated with better maternal and perinatal outcomes, such as reduced maternal land fetal mortality. However, the specific prevalence of obstetric and medical complications that require caesarean section have not been established, especially in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs)...
August 2018: Lancet Global Health
Mutaz Dana, Eitan Fibach
BACKGROUND: Fetal-maternal hemorrhage (FMH) occurs when fetal red blood cells (RBC) pass into the maternal circulation as a result of obstetric- or trauma-related complications to pregnancy. Their detection in the maternal blood is commonly used as a diagnostic test. There is, however, a serious and general limitation to this test that is sometimes ignored. Fetal RBC carrying the father's antigens (most crucially, the ABO blood antigens) may be incompatible with the mother's plasma. They are expected to be eliminated by the maternal natural antibodies, thus, negative results may be false...
July 16, 2018: Neonatology
Shimos A Alshareef, Abubakr M Nasr, Ishag Adam
Background: Pre-eclampsia is the main cause of maternal and perinatal adverse effects. Although the exact mechanism and pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia are not yet fully understood, there are recent studies on the association between various infections and pre-eclampsia. This study investigated the association between maternal Toxoplasma gondii infection and pre-eclampsia. Methods: A case-control study was conducted at Saad Abualila Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan. The cases were pregnant women with pre-eclampsia and the controls were healthy pregnant women...
July 13, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
P Kocián, J de Haan, E H Cardonick, C Uzan, C A R Lok, R Fruscio, M J Halaska, F Amant
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer in pregnancy is rare, with an incidence of 0.8 per 100,000 pregnancies. Advanced disease (stage III or IV) is diagnosed more frequently in pregnant patients. We aimed to review all cases of colorectal cancer in pregnancy from the International Network on Cancer, Infertility and Pregnancy database in order to learn more about this rare disease and improve its management. METHODS: Data on the demographic features, symptoms, histopathology, diagnostic and therapeutic interventions and outcomes (obstetric, neonatal and maternal) were analysed...
July 16, 2018: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Lennart Rune Fredrik Blomqvist, Annika Margareta Strandell, Fariba Baghaei, Margareta Sofia Elisabet Hellgren
Increased platelet activation is involved in obstetric complications such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation. It is of interest to study platelet aggregation during pregnancy, since increased aggregation theoretically could be a mechanism associated with placenta-mediated complications, which possibly could be prevented by drugs inhibiting platelet aggregation. There are, however, few robust studies describing platelet aggregation during normal pregnancy. The present longitudinal study was performed in order to study platelet aggregation during normal pregnancy resulting in a healthy child, during the puerperium and in nonpregnant, fertile women...
July 16, 2018: Platelets
T D Naidoo, J Moodley
BACKGROUND: Occult anal sphincter disruption, following childbirth may contribute to the development of anal incontinence (AI). The type and mechanism of injury may differ between first and subsequent deliveries. OBJECTIVES: To describe the effect of pregnancy and delivery on the endosonographic morphology of the anal sphincter and on anal sphincter pressures, and to highlight any differences in these between nulliparous and multiparous Black African and Indian women...
June 2018: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
J Wilkinson, S Bhattacharya, J M N Duffy, M S Kamath, J Marjoribanks, S Repping, A Vail, M van Wely, C M Farquhar
The history of obstetrics and gynaecology is not a tale of evidence-based practice. Tradition, expert opinion, and the lure of new technology have frequently superseded evidence as the primary driver for clinical decision making. The proof can be found in a litany of dubious interventions which have gained widespread popularity despite an absence of high quality data attesting to their effectiveness and, in some cases, ample credible evidence demonstrating harm. As a specialty, we have relied on investigations including X-ray pelvimetry and antenatal stress tests, subjected innumerable women to stilboestrol and thalidomide, and have performed routine episiotomy in all primigravid women 1,...
July 16, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Ingrid Chern, Clyner Antalan, Tod Aeby, Mark Hiraoka
The objective of this study was to compare the examination scores before and after implementation of a study program based on high yield topics on the Council of Resident Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology (CREOG) In-Training Examination. This prospective cohort study compared scores from academic years 2012 to 2014 of University of Hawai'i obstetrics and gynecology residents who participated in a directed study program based on selected high yield topics from the CREOG Test Item Summary Booklet. Topics were considered high yield if more than 75% of the program residents answered the topic questions incorrectly during the immediately preceding CREOG In-Training Examination administration...
July 2018: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
Kaled Mikki Zimmo, Katariina Laine, Erik Fosse, Mohammed Zimmo, Hadil Ali-Masri, Bettina Böttcher, Manuela Zucknick, Åse Vikanes, Sahar Hassan
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: In Palestine, episiotomy is frequently used among primiparous women.This study assesses the effect of training birth attendants in applying bimanual perineal support during delivery by either animated instruction on tablets or hands-on training on episiotomy rates among primiparous women. METHODS: An interventional cohort study was performed from 15 October 2015 to 31 January 2017, including all primiparous women with singletons and noninstrumental vaginal deliveries at six Palestinian hospitals...
July 14, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
Olga Bougie, Scott L Zuckerman, Noah Switzer, Jeffrey How, Michael Sey
OBJECTIVE: The effect of resident involvement during obstetrics and gynaecology (OB/GYN) surgery on surgical outcomes is unclear. This study sought to review the evidence systematically for the influence of resident participation in OB/GYN surgery on (1) operative time, (2) estimated blood loss, and (3) perioperative complications. METHOD: Published studies were identified via searches of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
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