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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676634/impact-of-seasonal-winter-air-pollution-on-health-across-the-lifespan-in-mongolia-and-some-putative-solutions
#1
David Warburton, Nicole Warburton, Clarence Wigfall, Ochir Chimedsuren, Delgerzul Lodoisamba, Sereeter Lodoysamba, Badarch Jargalsaikhan
Environmental pollution of the air, water, and soil comprise an increasingly urgent challenge to global health, well-being, and productivity. The impact of environmental pollution arguably has its greatest impact across the lifespan on children, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women and their unborn children, not only because of their vulnerability during development, but also because of their subsequent longevity. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, is a highly instructive, perhaps extreme, example of what happens with recent, rapid urbanization...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676623/nicotine-downregulates-the-compensatory-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-angiotensin-type-2-receptor-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system
#2
Xinping Yue, Tyler M Basting, Thomas W Flanagan, Jiaxi Xu, Thomas D Lobell, Nicholas W Gilpin, Jason D Gardner, Eric Lazartigues
RATIONALE: Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. The importance of the renin-angiotensin system in the development of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease is well established. Angiotensin-II, by means of its type 1 receptor (angiotensin type 1 receptor, AT1 R), promotes increased sympathetic activity, salt and water reabsorption, vasoconstriction, inflammation, and aldosterone and vasopressin release, contributing to tissue fibrosis, endothelium dysfunction, and hypertension...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676622/low-to-moderate-arsenic-exposure-and-respiratory-health-in-american-indian-communities
#3
Martha Powers, Tiffany R Sanchez, Maria Grau-Perez, Fawn Yeh, Kevin Francesconi, Walter Goessler, Christine M George, Christopher Heaney, Lyle G Best, Jason Umans, Robert H Brown, Ana Navas-Acien
RATIONALE: Exposure to inorganic arsenic, through drinking naturally-contaminated water, is an established cause of lung cancer. Evidence on the impact of arsenic exposure on lung function, however, is less conclusive. The evidence available, mostly from populations exposed to water arsenic levels >100 μg/L, suggests that arsenic exposure is associated with lower lung function. Prospective studies and studies examining low-to-moderate levels of water arsenic exposure (<50 μg/L) the level relevant for U...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665591/development-of-ph-dependent-nanospheres-for-nebulisation-in-vitro-diffusion-aerodynamic-and-cytotoxicity-studies
#4
Pradum P Ige, Sagar R Pardeshi, Raju O Sonawane
The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro performance of nebulized nanosuspension formulation when nebulized using ultrasonic nebulizer. The present investigation deals with successful formulation of Beclomethasone dipropionate loaded HPMCP nanospheres prepared by solvent evaporation technique using PEG 400 as a stabilizer. Beclomethasone dipropionate is a water insoluble drug molecule was encapsulated in HPMCP nanospheres to have pH dependent solubility at basic pH for targeted drug delivery in lung and studied for in vitro cytotoxicity and immediate release capability...
April 17, 2018: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664837/chronic-alcohol-ingestion-worsens-survival-and-alters-gut-epithelial-apoptosis-and-cd8-t-cell-function-after-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pneumonia-induced-sepsis
#5
Nathan J Klingensmith, Katherine T Fay, John D Lyons, Ching-Wen Chen, Shunsuke Otani, Zhe Liang, Deena B Chihade, Eileen M Burd, Mandy L Ford, Craig M Coopersmith
Mortality is higher in septic patients with a history of alcohol use disorder than in septic patients without a history of chronic alcohol usage. We have previously described a model of chronic alcohol ingestion followed by sepsis from cecal ligation and puncture in which alcohol-fed septic mice have higher mortality than water-fed septic mice, associated with altered gut integrity and increased production of TNF and IFNγ by splenic CD4 T cells without alterations in CD8 T cell function. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this represents a common host response to the combination of alcohol and sepsis by creating a new model in which mice with chronic alcohol ingestion were subjected to a different model of sepsis...
April 16, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664629/made-in-water-a-stable-microporous-cu-i-carboxylate-framework-cityu-7-for-co-2-water-and-iodine-uptake
#6
Jie Liu, Ran Xiao, Yan-Lung Wong, Xiao-Ping Zhou, Matthias Zeller, Allen D Hunter, Qianrong Fang, Li Liao, Zhengtao Xu
Using water as the sole solvent, the bifunctional molecule tetrakis(methylthio)-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (TMBD) was reacted with Cu(CH3 CN)4 BF4 to form a robust microporous metal-organic framework (MOF, CityU-7) featuring Cu(I) ions being simultaneously bonded to the carboxyl and thioether donors. The MOF solid is stable in air and can be easily activated by heating, without the need for treatment with organic solvents. The subnanoscopic pores (ca. 0.6 nm) of the host net allow for uptake of CO2 and H2 O but exhibit lesser sorption for N2 at 77 K...
April 17, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663924/interaction-between-hydrophobic-au-nanoparticles-and-pulmonary-surfactant-dppc-monolayers
#7
Kangzhen Zhang, Lianke Liu, Tingting Bai, Zhirui Guo
Hydrophobic nanoparticles from the air get into the lungs through inhalation and firstly interact with pulmonary surfactant, which is essential for normal lung function. 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) is the major component of pulmonary surfactant. Interaction between Langmuir monolayer of DPPC and hydrophobic Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) were investigated in this study by atomic force microscope. The experimental results indicated that incorporation of hydrophobic Au NPs into the monolayer hindered the phase transition, reduced the compressibility of monolayer and disrupted the large micro-domains in liquid-condensed (LC) phase into smaller ones...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660237/multiplexed-isobaric-tag-based-profiling-of-seven-murine-tissues-following-in-vivo-nicotine-treatment-using-a-minimalistic-proteomics-strategy
#8
Joao A Paulo, Mark P Jedrychowski, Edward T Chouchani, Lawrence Kazak, Steven P Gygi
Nicotine is a major addictive compound in tobacco and a component of smoking-related products, such as e-cigarettes. Once internalized, nicotine can perturb many cellular pathways and can induce alterations in proteins across different cell types, however the mechanisms thereof remain undetermined. We hypothesize that both tissue-specific and global protein abundance alterations result from nicotine exposure. As such, we present the first proteome analysis of multiple tissues from nicotine-exposed mice. We treat mice via oral administration of nicotine at 200μg/mL in drinking water for 21 days...
April 16, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658581/microrna%C3%A2-146a-toll%C3%A2-like-receptor-4-signaling-protects-against-severe-burn%C3%A2-induced-remote-acute-lung-injury-in-rats-via-anti%C3%A2-inflammation
#9
Jinhua Luo, Jianhua Zhan, Haoyuan You, Xing Cheng
The present study investigated the preventive effects of microRNA (miR)‑146a against severe burn‑induced remote acute lung injury (ALI) in rats and the underlying mechanism. The surface area of the skin was immersed in 100˚C water for 5‑10 sec on the dorsal surface. The expression level of miR‑146a was significantly downregulated in rats with burn‑induced ALI. Downregulation of miR‑146a increased inflammation, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) expression in a model of ALI in vitro via the promotion of the Toll‑like receptor (TLR)4/nuclear factor (NF)‑κB signaling pathway...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657962/a-robust-method-for-estimating-b0-inhomogeneity-field-in-the-liver-by-mitigating-fat-signals-and-phase-wrapping
#10
Antonis Matakos, James M Balter, Yue Cao
We developed an optimized and robust method to estimate liver B0 field inhomogeneity for monitoring and correcting susceptibility-induced geometric distortion in magnetic resonance images for precision therapy. A triple-gradient-echo acquisition was optimized for the whole liver B0 field estimation within a single-exhale breath-hold scan on a 3 T scanner. To eliminate chemical-shift artifacts, fat signals were chosen in-phase between 2 echoes with an echo time difference (ΔTE) of 2.3 milliseconds. To avoid phase-wrapping, other 2 echoes provided a large field dynamic range (1/ΔTE) to cover the B0 field inhomogeneity...
June 2017: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656123/selenium-supplementation-prevents-metabolic-and-transcriptomic-responses-to-cadmium-in-mouse-lung
#11
Xin Hu, Joshua D Chandler, Jolyn Fernandes, Michael L Orr, Li Hao, Karan Uppal, David C Neujahr, Dean P Jones, Young-Mi Go
BACKGROUND: The protective effect of selenium (Se) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity is well documented, but underlying mechanisms are unclear. METHODS: Male mice fed standard diet were given Cd (CdCl2 , 18 μmol/L) in drinking water with or without Se (Na2 SeO4, 20 μmol/L) for 16 weeks. Lungs were analyzed for Cd concentration, transcriptomics and metabolomics. Data were analyzed with biostatistics, bioinformatics, pathway enrichment analysis, and combined transcriptome-metabolome-wide association study...
April 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652814/health-risk-assessment-on-hazardous-ingredients-in-household-deodorizing-products
#12
Minjin Lee, Joo-Hyon Kim, Daeyeop Lee, Jaewoo Kim, Hyunwoo Lim, Jungkwan Seo, Young-Kwon Park
The inhalation of a water aerosol from a humidifier containing disinfectants has led to serious lung injuries in Korea. To promote the safe use of products, the Korean government enacted regulations on the chemicals in various consumer products that could have adverse health effects. Given the concern over the potential health risks associated with the hazardous ingredients in deodorizing consumer products, 17 ingredients were analyzed and assessed according to their health risk on 3 groups by the application type in 47 deodorizing products...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652553/mahonia-oiwakensis-extract-and-its-bioactive-compounds-exert-anti-inflammatory-activities-and-vegf-production-through-m2-macrophagic-polarization-and-stat6-activation
#13
Yea-Chen Liu, Yu-Ying Hsiao, Kuo-Lung Ku, Hui-Fen Liao, Wei-Chun Chao
Macrophages play an indispensable role in the host immune defense. Macrophages can undergo polarization into classically (M1) and alternatively (M2) activated macrophages. M1 macrophages activate immune and inflammatory response, while M2 macrophages are involved in tissue remodeling. Mahonia oiwakensis (Mo) is a herbal medicine in Asia used for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties; however, the mechanism is unclear. This study analyzed the effect of Mo extracts and its effects on the polarization of both macrophage RAW264...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648804/computation-assisted-nanopore-detection-of-thorium-ions
#14
Golbarg M Roozbahani, Xiaohan Chen, Youwen Zhang, Oscar Juarez, Dien Li, Xiyun Guan
Thorium is a well-known radioactive and chemically toxic contaminant in the environment. The continuous exposure to thorium may cause an increased risk of developing lung and liver diseases as well as lung, pancreas and bone cancer. Due to its use in nuclear industry and other industrial applications, thorium may be accidentally released to the environment from its mining and processing plants. In this work, we developed a rapid, real-time, and label-free nanopore sensor for Th4+ detection by using an aspartic acid-containing peptide as a chelating agent and tuning the electrolyte solution pH to control the net charges of the peptide ligand and its metal ion complex...
April 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644056/lung-ultrasonography-in-end-stage-renal-disease-moving-from-evidence-to-practice-a-narrative-review
#15
Daniel W Ross, Mohammed M Abbasi, Kenar D Jhaveri, Mala Sachdeva, Ilene Miller, Richard Barnett, Mangala Narasimhan, Paul Mayo, Massini Merzkani, Anna T Mathew
Traditionally, point of care ultrasonography in nephrology has been used for renal biopsies and dialysis line placement. However, there is an emerging literature supporting the value of point of care lung ultrasonography in the assessment of volume status for dialysis patients. We conducted a review and identified 12 studies that examined the utility of lung ultrasonography in assessing volume status in patients with end-stage renal disease. We conclude that lung ultrasonography can be used to determine volume status in chronic dialysis patients by identifying lung congestion using the B-line score...
April 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643996/selective-lysis-of-breast-carcinomas-by-simultaneous-stimulation-of-sodium-channels-and-blockade-of-sodium-pumps
#16
Harry J Gould, Jack Norleans, T David Ward, Chasiti Reid, Dennis Paul
Sodium influx through voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) coupled with balanced removal of sodium ions via Na+ , K+ -ATPase is a major determinant of cellular homeostasis and intracellular ionic concentration. Interestingly, many metastatic carcinomas express high levels of these channels. We hypothesized that if excess VGSCs are activated and Na+ , K+ -ATPase is simultaneously blocked, the intracellular Na+ concentration should increase, resulting in water movement into the cell, causing swelling and lytic cell death...
March 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642694/integrated-quadruple-stress-echocardiography
#17
Eugenio Picano, Doralisa Morrone, Maria C Scali, Alda Huqi, Katia Coviello, Quirino Ciampi
Stress Echocardiography (SE) is an established diagnostic technique. For 40 years, the cornerstone of the technique has been the detection of regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA), due to the underlying physiologically-relevant epicardial coronary artery stenosis. In the last decade, three new parameters (more objective than RWMA) have shown the potential to integrate and comple- ment RWMA: 1- B-lines, also known as ultrasound lung comets, as a marker of extra-vascular lung water, measured using lung ultrasound with the 4-site simplified scan symmetrically of the antero- lateral thorax on the third intercostal space, from mid-axillary to anterior axillary and mid- clavicular line; 2-left ventricular contractile reserve (LVCR), assessed as the peak stress/rest ratio of left ventricular force, also known as elastance (systolic arterial pressure by cuff sphygmomanome- ter/end-systolic volume from 2D echocardiography); 3- coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) on left anterior descending coronary artery, calculated as peak stress/rest ratio of diastolic peak flow velocity assessed using pulsed-wave Doppler...
April 11, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629567/influence-of-foliar-spray-of-ethephon-and-water-stress-on-the-essential-oil-composition-and-impact-on-the-cytotoxic-activity-of-thymus-vulgaris-aerial-parts
#18
H M Hassan, S A Mina, M M Bishr, S M A Khalik
Thymus vulgaris, (Lamiaceae), essential oils composition and yield, were found to be greatly influenced by water stress and growth enhancers. Therefore, three controlled cultivation conditions were applied to achieve the highest essential oil productivity of T. vulgaris. The essential oils obtained by hydro-distillation of the aerial parts were analyzed using (GC-MS). The tested plant subjected to drought showed a 66% increase in the essential oil yield, while those subjected to drought stress and foliar spray showed 57...
April 9, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628583/pressure-controlled-volume-guaranteed-mode-improves-respiratory-dynamics-during-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-a-comparison-with-conventional-modes
#19
Apoorwa Kothari, Deepa Baskaran
Background: Pneumoperitoneum and altered positioning 1in laparoscopic cholecystectomy predispose to alterations in cardiorespiratory physiology. We compared the effects of volume controlled, pressure controlled, and the newly introduced pressure controlled-volume guaranteed ventilation (PCV-VG) modes of ventilation on respiratory mechanics and oxygenation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five physical status American Society of Anesthesiologists Classes I and II patients with normal lungs undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to receive volume controlled ventilation (VCV), pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV), or PCV-VG modes of ventilation during general anesthesia...
January 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628454/mass-size-distribution-and-concentration-of-metals-from-personal-exposure-to-arc-welding-fume-in-pipeline-construction-a-case-report
#20
Show-Yi Yang, Jia-Ming Lin, Li-Hao Young, Ching-Wen Chang
We investigate exposure to welding fume metals in pipeline construction, which are responsible for severe respiratory problems. We analyzed air samples obtained using size-fractioning cascade impactors that were attached to the welders performing shielded metal and gas tungsten arc welding outdoors. Iron, aluminum, zinc, chromium, manganese, copper, nickel, and lead concentrations in the water-soluble (WS) and water-insoluble (WI) portions were determined separately, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
April 7, 2018: Industrial Health
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