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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454283/investigating-antibiotics-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-microbial-contaminants-in-groundwater-in-relation-to-the-proximity-of-urban-areas
#1
Edina Szekeres, Cecilia Maria Chiriac, Andreea Baricz, Tiberiu Szőke-Nagy, Ildiko Lung, Maria-Loredana Soran, Knut Rudi, Nicolae Dragos, Cristian Coman
Groundwater is an essential public and drinking water supply and its protection is a goal for global policies. Here, we investigated the presence and prevalence of antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and microbial contamination in groundwater environments at various distances from urban areas. Antibiotic concentrations ranged from below detection limit to 917 ng/L, being trimethoprim, macrolide, and sulfonamide the most abundant antibiotic classes. A total of eleven ARGs (aminoglycoside, β-lactam, chloramphenicol, Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B - MLSB, sulfonamide, and tetracycline), one antiseptic resistance gene, and two MGEs were detected by qPCR with relative abundances ranging from 6...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444468/a-major-component-of-vitamin-e-%C3%AE-tocopherol-inhibits-the-anti-tumor-activity-of-crizotinib-against-cells-transformed-by-eml4-alk
#2
Yuki Uchihara, Takayuki Kidokoro, Kenji Tago, Tadahiko Mashino, Hiroomi Tamura, Megumi Funakoshi-Tago
Crizotinib is an inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and is of significant therapeutic benefit to patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring the EML4-ALK fusion gene. In the present study, we demonstrated that α-tocopherol, a major component of vitamin E, attenuated the effects of crizotinib independently of its anti-oxidant properties. α-Tocopherol significantly inhibited crizotinib-induced apoptosis in cells transformed by EML4-ALK. It also effectively attenuated the crizotinib-induced inhibition of EML4-ALK and its downstream molecules, STAT3 and ERK, and suppressed the inhibitory effects of crizotinib on EML4-ALK-mediated transformation in the focus formation assay...
February 11, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444439/differential-effector-engagement-by-oncogenic-kras
#3
Tina L Yuan, Arnaud Amzallag, Rachel Bagni, Ming Yi, Shervin Afghani, William Burgan, Nicole Fer, Leslie A Strathern, Katie Powell, Brian Smith, Andrew M Waters, David Drubin, Ty Thomson, Rosy Liao, Patricia Greninger, Giovanna T Stein, Ellen Murchie, Eliane Cortez, Regina K Egan, Lauren Procter, Matthew Bess, Kwong Tai Cheng, Chih-Shia Lee, Liam Changwoo Lee, Christof Fellmann, Robert Stephens, Ji Luo, Scott W Lowe, Cyril H Benes, Frank McCormick
KRAS can bind numerous effector proteins, which activate different downstream signaling events. The best known are RAF, phosphatidylinositide (PI)-3' kinase, and RalGDS families, but many additional direct and indirect effectors have been reported. We have assessed how these effectors contribute to several major phenotypes in a quantitative way, using an arrayed combinatorial siRNA screen in which we knocked down 41 KRAS effectors nodes in 92 cell lines. We show that every cell line has a unique combination of effector dependencies, but in spite of this heterogeneity, we were able to identify two major subtypes of KRAS mutant cancers of the lung, pancreas, and large intestine, which reflect different KRAS effector engagement and opportunities for therapeutic intervention...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436629/cognitive-improvement-following-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-induced-by-voluntary-running%C3%A2-wheel-exercise-is-associated-with-lncmalat1%C3%A2-mediated-apoptosis-inhibition
#4
Jin-Lin Shang, Qing Cheng, Sheng-Jie Duan, Lu Li, Li-Ya Jia
Previous human and animal studies demonstrated that voluntary exercise may improve cognitive function and facilitate neuronal plasticity in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) models. However, the possible underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Metastasis‑associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), may be associated with the functions and dysfunctions of endothelial cells. The present study investigated whether spontaneous running‑wheel (RW) exercise‑induced MALAT1 expression changes may be associated with the cognitive improvement of mice following I/R injury...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432911/tephrosin-attenuates-sepsis-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-rats-by-impeding-expression-of-icam-1-and-mip-2
#5
Jiaorong Yang, Helan Tian, Xiaomo Huang
Acute lung injury (ALI), a devastating form of respiratory infections, is characterized by increased edema, release of cytokines, weakened arterial oxygenation and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes. The objective of the research envisaged was to reveal protective effects of tephrosin (TP) in ALI. In the present investigation, sepsis was triggered in rats by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) method, and TP was administered intraperitonially. Five groups - Group A (control), Group B (Sham group) Group C (infected and untreated), and Group D and E (infected and treated with 25 and 50 mg/kg TP respectively) - of ten rats each, were used for the investigation...
February 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427430/multiple-environmental-factors-influence-the-importance-of-the-phosphodiesterase-dipa-upon-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-swarming
#6
Anne E Mattingly, Nachiket Kamatkar, Bradley R Borlee, Joshua D Shrout
Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits flagellar-mediated swimming in liquid and swarming on hydrated surfaces under diverse nutrient conditions. Prior studies have implicated a phosphodiesterase, DipA, in regulating these flagella-mediated motilities, but collectively, the necessity for DipA was unclear. In this study, we find that the media composition conditionally constrains the influence of DipA on flagellar motility. We show that DipA exhibits more influence on minimal media supplemented with glutamate or glucose where flagellar motility was negated for the dipA mutant...
February 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424539/novel-ligustrazine-based-analogs-of-piperlongumine-potently-suppress-proliferation-and-metastasis-of-colorectal-cancer-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#7
Yu Zou, Di Zhao, Chang Yan, Yanpeng Ji, Jin Liu, Jinyi Xu, Yisheng Lai, Jide Tian, Yihua Zhang, Zhangjian Huang
Piperlongumine 1 increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and preferably induces cancer cell apoptosis by triggering different pathways. However, the poor solubility of 1 limits its intensive investigation and clinical application. Ligustrazine possesses a water-soluble pyrazine skeleton and can inhibit proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. We synthesized compound 3 by replacement of the trimethoxyphenyl of 1 with ligustrazine moiety, and further introduced 2-Cl, -Br, and -I to 3 for synthesis of 4-6, respectively...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423953/does-intravenous-infusion-influence-diagnostic-ultrasound-induced-pulmonary-capillary-hemorrhage
#8
Douglas L Miller, Zhihong Dong, Chunyan Dou, Krishnan Raghavendran
OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary diagnostic ultrasound (US) can induce pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) in mammals. This singular biological effect of diagnostic US imaging was discovered more than 25 years ago but remains poorly understood. Our objective here was to investigate rapid infusion of intravenous fluids as a possible stressor for capillaries, which might enhance pulmonary diagnostic US-induced PCH. METHODS: Rats were anesthetized with Telazol (Zoetis, Inc, Kalamazoo, MI), which yielded relatively low pulmonary diagnostic US-induced PCH, or Telazol and xylazine, which yielded relatively high pulmonary diagnostic US-induced PCH...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423916/epiproteome-profiling-of-cadmium-transformed-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells-by-quantitative-histone-post-translational-modification-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay
#9
Zhan-Ling Liang, Dan-Dan Wu, Yue Yao, Fei-Yuan Yu, Lei Yang, Heng Wee Tan, Machteld N Hylkema, Marianne G Rots, Yan-Ming Xu, Andy T Y Lau
Cadmium (Cd), a carcinogenic toxic metal, is pervasively distributed in the soil, water and air. Chronic exposure to Cd has been correlated to lung disease development including cancers. Although many studies have been conducted to investigate the proteome response of cells challenged with Cd, the epiproteomic responses (i.e., global histone post-translational modifications [PTMs]), particularly in human lung cells, are largely unexplored. Here, we provide an epiproteome profiling of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) chronically treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ), with the aim of identifying global epiproteomic signatures in response to Cd epigenotoxicity...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421236/mitoq-improves-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-heart-failure-induced-by-pressure-overload
#10
Rogério Faustino Ribeiro Junior, Erinne Rose Dabkowski, Kadambari Chandra Shekar, Kelly A O Connell, Peter A Hecker, Michael P Murphy
Heart failure remains a major public-health problem with an increase in the number of patients worsening from this disease. Despite current medical therapy, the condition still has a poor prognosis. Heart failure is complex but mitochondrial dysfunction seems to be an important target to improve cardiac function directly. Our goal was to analyze the effects of MitoQ (100 µM in drinking water) on the development and progression of heart failure induced by pressure overload after 14 weeks. The main findings are that pressure overload-induced heart failure in rats decreased cardiac function in vivo that was not altered by MitoQ...
February 1, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412867/urinary-1-hydroxypyrene-and-smoking-are-determinants-of-line-1-and-ahrr-promoter-methylation-in-coke-oven-workers
#11
Jin Yang, Yanli Liu, Huitao Zhang, Hongjie Zhang, Wubin Wang, Yanfeng Fan
Coke oven emissions (COE) containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are predominant toxic constituents of particulate air pollution that have been linked to increased risk of lung cancer. Aberrant DNA methylation is one of the best known epigenetic changes in human cancers and healthy subjects exposed to carcinogens. The purpose of this study is to explore the factors influencing the methylation of long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) and aryl-hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR) in coke oven workers...
February 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410836/field-energetics-and-lung-function-in-wild-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-in-sarasota-bay-florida
#12
A Fahlman, M Brodsky, R Wells, K McHugh, J Allen, A Barleycorn, J C Sweeney, D Fauquier, M Moore
We measured respiratory flow rates, and expired O2 in 32 (2-34 years, body mass [Mb] range: 73-291 kg) common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during voluntary breaths on land or in water (between 2014 and 2017). The data were used to measure the resting O2 consumption rate ([Formula: see text], range: 0.76-9.45 ml O2 min-1 kg-1) and tidal volume (VT, range: 2.2-10.4 l) during rest. For adult dolphins, the resting VT, but not [Formula: see text], correlated with body mass (Mb, range: 141-291 kg) with an allometric mass-exponent of 0...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408882/modeling-for-influenza-vaccines-and-adjuvants-profile-for-safety-prediction-system-using-gene-expression-profiling-and-statistical-tools
#13
Eita Sasaki, Haruka Momose, Yuki Hiradate, Keiko Furuhata, Mamiko Takai, Hideki Asanuma, Ken J Ishii, Takuo Mizukami, Isao Hamaguchi
Historically, vaccine safety assessments have been conducted by animal testing (e.g., quality control tests and adjuvant development). However, classical evaluation methods do not provide sufficient information to make treatment decisions. We previously identified biomarker genes as novel safety markers. Here, we developed a practical safety assessment system used to evaluate the intramuscular, intraperitoneal, and nasal inoculation routes to provide robust and comprehensive safety data. Influenza vaccines were used as model vaccines...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405784/carvacrol-nanoemulsion-evokes-cell-cycle-arrest-apoptosis-induction-and-autophagy-inhibition-in-doxorubicin-resistant-a549-cell-line
#14
Imran Khan, Ashutosh Bahuguna, Monika Bhardwaj, Tejinder Pal Khaket, Sun Chul Kang
Carvacrol is a monoterpenoid flavonoid found abundantly in thyme plants. Its physiochemical instability and partial solubility in water is the principal limitation for its industrial use. Hence, we made a carvacrol nanoemulsion (CANE) using ultrasonication method and characterized it by dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique which revealed a negative surface charge (-29.89 mV) with 99.1 nm average droplet size. CANE effectively induced apoptosis in doxorubicin-resistant A549 lung carcinoma cells (A549 DR ) evident by the elevated expression of apoptotic proteins such as Bax, Cytochrome C, and Cleaved caspase 3 and 9...
February 6, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402347/effects-of-intracage-ammonia-on-markers-of-pulmonary-endothelial-integrity-in-mice-housed-in-static-microisolation-cages
#15
Michael Eichner, Jeanette E Purcell, Jeffrey D Fortman
Time-weighted exposure limits to ammonia are established for humans; however similar guidelines have not been defined for laboratory rodents. The Guide recommends maintaining air pollutants at concentrations below levels irritating to mucous membranes but does not provide specific values. Numerous studies have examined ammonia and its effects on animal health, yet none have assessed the effects of naturally occurring intracage ammonia on the lower pulmonary tree and pulmonary endothelial and epithelial integrity in mice...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402248/acute-and-sub-acute-oral-toxicity-of-dracaena-cinnabari-resin-methanol-extract-in-rats
#16
Nashwan Abdullah Al-Afifi, Aied Mohammed Alabsi, Marina Mohd Bakri, Anand Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Dracaena cinnabari (DC) is a perennial tree that located on the Southern coast of Yemen native to the Socotra Island. This tree produces a deep red resin known as the Dragon's blood, the Twobrother's Blood or Damm Alakhwain. The current study performed to evaluate the safety of the DC resin methanol extract after a single or 28 consecutive daily oral administrations. METHODS: In assessing the safety of DC resin methanol extract, acute and sub-acute oral toxicity tests performed following OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, with slight modifications...
February 5, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399807/ethylene-vinyl-acetate-foam-as-a-new-lung-substitute-in-radiotherapy
#17
Enrique Marqués, Pedro J Mancha
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) foam as a new lung substitute in radiotherapy and to study its physical and dosimetric characteristics METHODS: We calculated the ideal vinyl acetate (VA) content of EVA foam sheets to mimic the physical and dosimetric characteristics of the ICRU lung tissue. We also computed the water-to- medium mass collision stopping power ratios, mass attenuation coeffcients, CT numbers, effective atomic numbers and electron densities for: ICRU lung tissue, the RANDO commercial phantom, scaled WATER and EVA foam sheets with varying VA contents in a range between the minimum and maximum values supplied by the manufacturer...
February 5, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393707/kaempferol-attenuates-acute-lung-injury-in-caecal-ligation-and-puncture-model-of-sepsis-in-mice
#18
Dipankar Jyoti Rabha, Thakur Uttam Singh, Soya Rungsung, Tarun Kumar, Subhashree Parida, Madhu Cholenahalli Lingaraju, Avishek Paul, Monalisa Sahoo, Dinesh Kumar
AIM OF THE STUDY: Kaempferol is a flavonoid and important part of the diet. Kaempferol has shown antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antidiabetic activities in various studies. However, protective potential of kaempferol in acute lung injury induced by sepsis and its mechanism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of kaempferol in sepsis-induced acute lung injury in mice and its possible mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute lung injury was induced by CLP surgery in mice...
February 2, 2018: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393397/development-of-single-nanometer-sized-ultrafine-oxygen-bubbles-to-overcome-the-hypoxia-induced-resistance-to-radiation-therapy-via-the-suppression-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor%C3%A2-1%C3%AE
#19
Misaki Iijima, Navchaa Gombodorj, Yoshiaki Tachibana, Kohsuke Tachibana, Takehiko Yokobori, Kyoko Honma, Takashi Nakano, Takayuki Asao, Ryusuke Kuwahara, Kazuhiro Aoyama, Hidehiro Yasuda, Matthew Kelly, Hiroyuki Kuwano, Dai Yamanouchi
Radiation therapy can result in severe side-effects, including the development of radiation resistance. The aim of this study was to validate the use of oxygen nanobubble water to overcome resistance to radiation in cancer cell lines via the suppression of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF‑1α) subunit. Oxygen nanobubble water was created using a newly developed method to produce nanobubbles in the single-nanometer range with the ΣPM-5 device. The size and concentration of the oxygen nanobubbles in the water was examined using a cryo-transmission electron microscope...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386028/pulmonary-exposure-to-carbonaceous-nanomaterials-and-sperm-quality
#20
Astrid Skovmand, Anna Jacobsen Lauvås, Preben Christensen, Ulla Vogel, Karin Sørig Hougaard, Sandra Goericke-Pesch
BACKGROUND: Semen quality parameters are potentially affected by nanomaterials in several ways: Inhaled nanosized particles are potent inducers of pulmonary inflammation, leading to the release of inflammatory mediators. Small amounts of particles may translocate from the lungs into the lung capillaries, enter the systemic circulation and ultimately reach the testes. Both the inflammatory response and the particles may induce oxidative stress which can directly affect spermatogenesis...
January 31, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
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