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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220787/understanding-the-glacial-methane-cycle
#1
Peter O Hopcroft, Paul J Valdes, Fiona M O'Connor, Jed O Kaplan, David J Beerling
Atmospheric methane (CH4) varied with climate during the Quaternary, rising from a concentration of 375 p.p.b.v. during the last glacial maximum (LGM) 21,000 years ago, to 680 p.p.b.v. at the beginning of the industrial revolution. However, the causes of this increase remain unclear; proposed hypotheses rely on fluctuations in either the magnitude of CH4 sources or CH4 atmospheric lifetime, or both. Here we use an Earth System model to provide a comprehensive assessment of these competing hypotheses, including estimates of uncertainty...
February 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214204/detection-of-occult-endocervical-glandular-dysplasia-in-cervical-conization-specimens-for-squamous-lesions
#2
F Sopracordevole, N Clemente, L Alessandrini, J Di Giuseppe, F Cigolot, M Buttignol, A Ciavattini, V Canzonieri
The aim of this work was to evaluate the incidence of occult cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN) and adenocarcinoma of the cervix (AC) in women treated with CO2-laser conization for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or squamocellular cervical cancer (SCC). The medical records of all women with a histological diagnosis of squamous lesions of the uterine cervix (persistent CIN1, CIN2, CIN3 and SCC) who were subsequently treated with CO2-laser conization at our institution, during the period from January 1991 to December 2014, were analyzed in a retrospective case series...
January 12, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194943/nylon-graphene-composite-nonwovens-as-monolithic-conductive-or-capacitive-fabrics
#3
Qin Pan, Eunkyoung Shim, Behnam Pourdeyhimi, Wei Gao
Here we describe a nylon-graphene nonwoven (NGN) composite, prepared via melt-blowing of nylon-6 into nonwoven fabrics and infiltrate those with graphene oxide (GO) in aqueous dispersions, which were further chemically reduced into graphene to offer electrical conductivity. The correlation between the conductivity and the graphene loading is described by the percolation scaling law σ = (p - pc)(t), with an exponent t of 1.2 and a critical concentration pc of 0.005 wt %, the lowest among all the nylon composites reported...
February 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189109/superior-selectivity-and-enhanced-response-characteristics-of-palladium-sensitized-vanadium-pentoxide-nanorods-for-detection-of-nitrogen-dioxide-gas
#4
A A Mane, M P Suryawanshi, J H Kim, A V Moholkar
Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanorods have been deposited onto the glass substrates by spraying 75ml of 30mM vanadium trichloride (VCl3) solution at optimized substrate temperature of 400°C. The XRD study confirms the formation of orthorhombic crystal structure of V2O5 nanorods. The FE-SEM micrograph shows the nanorods-like morphology of V2O5. The presence of palladium (Pd) in the Pd-sensitized V2O5 nanorods is confirmed using EDAX study. The gas sensing measurements show that the Pd-sensitized V2O5 sensing material is an outstanding candidate for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas detection...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152668/evaluation-of-the-antioxidant-activity-of-betula-pendula-leaves-extract-and-its-effects-on-model-foods
#5
Nurul Aini Mohd Azman, Monika Skowyra, Kwestan Muhammad, María Gabriela Gallego, Maria Pilar Almajano
CONTEXT: Betula pendula Roth (Betulaceae) exhibits many pharmacological activities in humans including anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. However, the antioxidant activity of BP towards lipid degradation has not been fully determined. OBJECTIVE: The BP ethanol and methanol extracts were evaluated to determine antioxidant activity by an in vitro method and lyophilized extract of BP was added to beef patties to study oxidative stability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antioxidant activities of extracts of BP were determined by measuring scavenging radical activity against methoxy radical generated by Fenton reaction 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (TEAC) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149809/transoral-endoscopic-thyroidectomy-via-vestibular-approach-operative-steps-and-video
#6
Gianlorenzo Dionigi, Alessandro Bacuzzi, Matteo Lavazza, Davide Inversini, Vincenzo Pappalardo, Luigi Boni, Stefano Rausei, Marcin Barczynski, Ralph P Tufano, Hoon Yub Kim, Angkoon Anuwong
In this video we describe transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA). Inclusion criteria are (I) patients who had a ultrasonographically (US) estimated thyroid diameter not larger than 10 cm; (II) US estimated gland volume ≤45 mL; (III) nodule size ≤50 mm; (IV) a benign tumor, such as a thyroid cyst, single-nodular goiter, or multinodular goiter; (V) follicular neoplasm; (VI) papillary microcarcinoma without evidence of metastasis. The procedure is carried out through three-port technique placed at the oral vestibule, one 10-mm port for 30° endoscope and two additional 5-mm ports for dissecting and coagulating instruments...
December 2016: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143666/measuring-energy-expenditure-in-extracorporeal-lung-support-patients-meep-protocol-feasibility-and-pilot-trial
#7
T Wollersheim, S Frank, M C Müller, V Skrypnikov, N M Carbon, P A Pickerodt, C Spies, K Mai, J Spranger, S Weber-Carstens
PURPOSE: Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard for measuring energy expenditure (EE). Due to O2 uptake and CO2 removal by both the extracorporeal lung support (ECLS) membrane and the lungs, a conventional IC is not feasible and no data available. Our MEEP (Measuring Energy Expenditure in ECLS Patients) protocol enables the determination of the REE in patients with ECLS, the comparison to patients without ECLS, and accuracy assessment of estimating equations. METHODS: In the MEEP protocol, a conventional IC is performed and extended by a calculation of the O2 uptake and the CO2 elimination by the ECLS membrane...
January 16, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139323/photosynthesis-and-aboveground-carbon-allocation-of-two-co-occurring-poplar-species-in-an-urban-brownfield
#8
Diane Radwanski, Frank Gallagher, Dirk W Vanderklein, Karina V R Schäfer
Phytoremediation, a technique used to reclaim heavy metal-contaminated soils, requires an understanding of plant physiological responses to heavy metals. However, the majority of studies documenting heavy metal impact on plant functioning have been performed in laboratory or greenhouse settings. We predicted that increased soil heavy metal concentrations reduce photosynthesis and biomass production in trees growing in metal contaminated soil in a naturally re-vegetated urban brownfield. Leaf gas exchange, leaf carbon and nitrogen concentration, and tree biomass were recorded and compared for Populus deltoides and Populus tremuloides growing in an urban brownfield...
April 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130848/chitosan-coatings-with-enhanced-biostability-in-vivo
#9
Marat O Gallyamov, Ivan S Chaschin, Matvey V Bulat, Natalia P Bakuleva, Gennadii A Badun, Maria G Chernysheva, Olga I Kiselyova, Alexei R Khokhlov
In this article, we study the stability of chitosan coatings applied on glutaraldehyde-stabilized bovine pericardium when exposed to biodegradation in vivo in the course of model subcutaneous tests on rats. The coatings were deposited from carbonic acid solutions, that is, H2 O saturated with CO2 at high pressure. Histological sections of treated pericardium samples demonstrated that the structure of pericardial connective tissues was not significantly altered by the coating application method. It was revealed that the dynamics of biodegradation depended on the total mass of chitosan applied as well as on the DDA of chitosan used...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130342/nfat-regulation-of-cystathionine-gamma-lyase-expression-in-endothelial-cells-is-impaired-in-rats-exposed-to-intermittent-hypoxia
#10
Laura V Gonzalez Bosc, Jessica M Osmond, Wieslawa Giermakowska, Carolyn E Pace, Jennifer L Riggs, Olan Jackson-Weaver, Nancy L Kanagy
Sleep apnea is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and intermittent hypoxia (IH, 20 episodes/hr of 5% O2/5% CO2 for 7 hr/day) to mimic sleep apnea increases blood pressure and impairs H2S-induced vasodilation in rats. The enzyme that produces H2S, cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE), is decreased in rat mesenteric artery endothelial cells (EC) following in vivo IH exposure. In silico analysis identified putative NFAT binding sites in the CSE promoter. Therefore, we hypothesized that IH exposure reduces [Ca(2+)] activation of calcineurin/NFAT to lower CSE expression and impairs vasodilation...
January 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118005/turning-on-the-protonation-first-pathway-for-electrocatalytic-co2-reduction-by-manganese-bipyridyl-tricarbonyl-complexes
#11
Ken T Ngo, Meaghan McKinnon, Bani Mahanti, Remya Narayanan, David C Grills, Mehmed Z Ertem, Jonathan Rochford
Electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to CO is reported for the complex, {fac-Mn(I)([(MeO)2Ph]2bpy)(CO)3(CH3CN)}(OTf), containing four pendant methoxy groups, where [(MeO)2Ph]2bpy = 6,6'-bis(2,6-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,2'-bipyridine. In addition to a steric influence similar to that previously established [Sampson, M. D. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 5460-5471] for the 6,6'-dimesityl-2,2'-bipyridine ligand in [fac-Mn(I)(mes2bpy)(CO)3(CH3CN)](OTf), which prevents Mn(0)-Mn(0) dimerization, the [(MeO)2Ph]2bpy ligand introduces an additional electronic influence combined with a weak allosteric hydrogen-bonding interaction that significantly lowers the activation barrier for C-OH bond cleavage from the metallocarboxylic acid intermediate...
February 10, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117532/deprotonation-of-a-hydridoborate-anion
#12
Johannes Landmann, Fabian Keppner, Daniel B Hofmann, Jan A P Sprenger, Mathias Häring, Sven H Zottnick, Klaus Müller-Buschbaum, Nikolai V Ignat'ev, Maik Finze
The first deprotonation of a borohydride anion was achieved by treatment of [BH(CN)3 ](-) with strong non-nucleophilic bases, which resulted in the formation of alkali-metal salts of the tricyanoborate dianion B(CN)3(2-) in up to 97 % yield and 99.5 % purity. [BH(CN)3 ](-) is less acidic than (Me3 Si)2 NH but a stronger acid than iPr2 NH. Less sterically hindered, more nucleophilic bases such as PhLi and MeLi mostly attack a CN group under formation of imine dianions [RC(N)B(CN)3 ](2-) , which can be hydrolyzed to ketones of the [RC(O)B(CN)3 ](-) type...
March 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092920/evolutionary-genomics-of-the-cold-adapted-diatom-fragilariopsis-cylindrus
#13
Thomas Mock, Robert P Otillar, Jan Strauss, Mark McMullan, Pirita Paajanen, Jeremy Schmutz, Asaf Salamov, Remo Sanges, Andrew Toseland, Ben J Ward, Andrew E Allen, Christopher L Dupont, Stephan Frickenhaus, Florian Maumus, Alaguraj Veluchamy, Taoyang Wu, Kerrie W Barry, Angela Falciatore, Maria I Ferrante, Antonio E Fortunato, Gernot Glöckner, Ansgar Gruber, Rachel Hipkin, Michael G Janech, Peter G Kroth, Florian Leese, Erika A Lindquist, Barbara R Lyon, Joel Martin, Christoph Mayer, Micaela Parker, Hadi Quesneville, James A Raymond, Christiane Uhlig, Ruben E Valas, Klaus U Valentin, Alexandra Z Worden, E Virginia Armbrust, Matthew D Clark, Chris Bowler, Beverley R Green, Vincent Moulton, Cock van Oosterhout, Igor V Grigoriev
The Southern Ocean houses a diverse and productive community of organisms. Unicellular eukaryotic diatoms are the main primary producers in this environment, where photosynthesis is limited by low concentrations of dissolved iron and large seasonal fluctuations in light, temperature and the extent of sea ice. How diatoms have adapted to this extreme environment is largely unknown. Here we present insights into the genome evolution of a cold-adapted diatom from the Southern Ocean, Fragilariopsis cylindrus, based on a comparison with temperate diatoms...
January 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075062/specific-arabidopsis-thaliana-malic-enzyme-isoforms-can-provide-anaplerotic-pyruvate-carboxylation-function-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#14
Mariana Beatriz Badia, Robert Mans, Alicia V Lis, Marcos Ariel Tronconi, Cintia Lucía Arias, Verónica Graciela Maurino, Carlos Santiago Andreo, María Fabiana Drincovich, Antonius J A van Maris, Mariel Claudia Gerrard Wheeler
NAD(P)-malic enzyme (NAD(P)-ME) catalyzes the reversible oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate, CO2 , and NAD(P)H and is present as a multigene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. The carboxylation reaction catalyzed by purified recombinant Arabidopsis NADP-ME proteins is faster than those reported for other animal or plant isoforms. In contrast, no carboxylation activity could be detected in vitro for the NAD-dependent counterparts. In order to further investigate their putative carboxylating role in vivo, Arabidopsis NAD(P)-ME isoforms, as well as the NADP-ME2del2 (with a decreased ability to carboxylate pyruvate) and NADP-ME2R115A (lacking fumarate activation) versions, were functionally expressed in the cytosol of pyruvate carboxylase-negative (Pyc(-) ) Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains...
January 11, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058442/%C3%AF-phosphorene-a-new-allotrope-of-phosphorene
#15
Haidi Wang, Xingxing Li, Zhao Liu, Jinlong Yang
Based on the crystal structure prediction, we propose a new allotrope of phosphorene, ψ-phosphorene (ψ-P), with a porous structure, which is both thermally and dynamically stable in comparison with the previously reported allotropes. Due to its unique atom configuration, ψ-P has highly orientation-dependent mechanical properties and excellent flexibility. Calculations using the HSE functional predict that ψ-P is semiconducting with an indirect band gap of 1.57 eV and possesses anisotropic transport properties...
January 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049739/outside-xylem-vulnerability-not-xylem-embolism-controls-leaf-hydraulic-decline-during-dehydration
#16
Christine Scoffoni, Caetano Albuquerque, Craig R Brodersen, Shatara V Townes, Grace P John, Megan K Bartlett, Thomas N Buckley, Andrew J McElrone, Lawren Sack
Leaf hydraulic supply is crucial to maintaining open stomata for CO2 capture and plant growth. During drought-induced dehydration, the leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) declines, which contributes to stomatal closure and, eventually, to leaf death. Previous studies have tended to attribute the decline of Kleaf to embolism in the leaf vein xylem. We visualized at high resolution and quantified experimentally the hydraulic vulnerability of xylem and outside-xylem pathways and modeled their respective influences on plant water transport...
February 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043691/the-joule-thomson-coefficient-as-a-criterion-for-efficient-operating-conditions-in-supercritical-fluid-chromatography
#17
Donald P Poe, Shawn Helmueller, Stephanie Kobany, Hannah Feldhacker, Krzysztof Kaczmarski
When an SFC column is operated in a traditional oven with forced air at low pressures near the critical temperature, severe efficiency losses can occur. The mobile phase cools as it expands along the column, forming axial and radial temperature gradients. In this study we present a simple model based on a virtual fluid to predict the conditions which lead to the onset of efficiency loss. The model shows that the Joule-Thomson coefficient is an important factor leading to efficiency loss in packed columns under forced air conditions...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013141/closed-nutrient-recycling-via-microbial-catabolism-in-an-eco-engineered-self-regenerating-mixed-anaerobic-microbiome-for-hydrogenotrophic-methanogenesis
#18
Savvas Savvas, Joanne Donnelly, Tim P Patterson, Richard Dinsdale, Sandra R Esteves
A novel eco-engineered mixed anaerobic culture was successfully demonstrated for the first time to be capable of continuous regeneration in nutrient limiting conditions. Microbial catabolism has been found to support a closed system of nutrients able to enrich a culture of lithotrophic methanogens and provide microbial cell recycling. After enrichment, the hydrogenotrophic species was the dominating methanogens while a bacterial substratum was responsible for the redistribution of nutrients. q-PCR results indicated that 7% of the total population was responsible for the direct conversion of the gases...
March 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010843/an-in-source-multiple-collision-neutral-loss-filtering-based-nontargeted-metabolomics-approach-for-the-comprehensive-analysis-of-malonyl-ginsenosides-from-panax-ginseng-p-%C3%A2-quinquefolius-and-p-%C3%A2-notoginseng
#19
Xiao-Jian Shi, Wen-Zhi Yang, Shi Qiu, Chang-Liang Yao, Yao Shen, Hui-Qin Pan, Qi-Rui Bi, Min Yang, Wan-Ying Wu, De-An Guo
The simultaneous identification and quantification of target metabolites from herbal medicines are difficult to implement by the full-scan MS based nontargeted metabolomics approaches. Here an in-source multiple collision-neutral loss filtering (IMC-NLF) based nontargeted metabolomics approach is developed and applied to identify and quantify the variations of malonyl-ginsenosides, a common group of acyl saponins with potential anti-diabetic activity, among Panax ginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng...
February 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010808/acute-effects-of-temperature-and-hypercarbia-on-cutaneous-and-branchial-gas-exchange-in-the-south-american-lungfish-lepidosiren-paradoxa
#20
Lucas A Zena, Kênia C Bícego, Glauber S F da Silva, Humberto Giusti, Mogens L Glass, Adriana P Sanchez
The South American lungfish, Lepidosiren paradoxa inhabits seasonal environments in the Central Amazon and Paraná-Paraguay basins that undergo significant oscillations in temperature throughout the year. They rely on different gas exchange organs, such as gills and skin for aquatic gas exchange while their truly bilateral lungs are responsible for aerial gas exchange; however, there are no data available on the individual contributions of the skin and the gills to total aquatic gas exchange in L. paradoxa...
January 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
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