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David R Diercks, Brian P Gorman, Johannes J L Mulders
Six precursors were evaluated for use as in situ electron beam-induced deposition capping layers in the preparation of atom probe tomography specimens with a focus on near-surface features where some of the deposition is retained at the specimen apex. Specimens were prepared by deposition of each precursor onto silicon posts and shaped into sub-70-nm radii needles using a focused ion beam. The utility of the depositions was assessed using several criteria including composition and uniformity, evaporation behavior and evaporation fields, and depth of Ga+ ion penetration...
October 17, 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Alyne O Lavinsky, Kelly C Detmann, Josimar V Reis, Rodrigo T Ávila, Matheus L Sanglard, Lucas F Pereira, Lílian M V P Sanglard, Fabrício A Rodrigues, Wagner L Araújo, Fábio M DaMatta
Silicon (Si) has been recognized as a beneficial element to improve rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain yield. Despite some evidence suggesting that this positive effect is observed when Si is supplied along the reproductive growth stage (from panicle initiation to heading), it remains unclear whether its supplementation during distinct growth phases can differentially impact physiological aspects of rice and its yield and the underlying mechanisms. Here, we investigated the effects of additions/removals of Si at different growth stages and their impacts on rice yield components, photosynthetic performance, and expression of genes (Lsi1, Lsi2 and Lsi6) involved in Si distribution within rice shoots...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Kavanal P Prasanthkumar, Juan R Alvarez-Idaboy, Pavitra V Kumar, Beena G Singh, K Indira Priyadarsini
2-Thiocytosine (TC) and 2-thiouracil (TU) were subjected to hydrated electron (eaq(-)), formate radical (CO2˙(-)) and 2-hydroxypropan-2-yl radical ((CH3)2˙COH) reactions in aqueous medium. Transients were characterized by absorption spectroscopy and the experimental findings were rationalized by DFT calculations at LC-ωPBE and M06-2X levels using a 6-311+G(d,p) basis set and SMD solvation. In eaq(-) reactions, a ring N-atom protonated radical of TC and an exocyclic O-atom protonated radical of TU were observed via addition of eaq(-) and subsequent protonation by solvent molecules...
October 10, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Timothy P Lodge, Takeshi Ueki
Room temperature ionic liquids are of great interest for many advanced applications, due to the combination of attractive physical properties with essentially unlimited tunability of chemical structure. High chemical and thermal stability, favorable ionic conductivity, and complete nonvolatility are just some of the most important physical characteristics that make ionic liquids promising candidates for emerging technologies. Examples include separation membranes, actuators, polymer gel electrolytes, supercapacitors, ion batteries, fuel cell membranes, sensors, printable plastic electronics, and flexible displays...
October 5, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Pradeep H Lakshminarayana, Adiba A Geeti, Umer M Darr, David A Kaufman
Dead space fraction (V d/V t) measurement performed using volumetric capnography requires arterial blood gas (ABG) sampling to estimate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2). In recent years, transcutaneous capnography (PtcCO2) has emerged as a noninvasive method of estimating PaCO2. We hypothesized that PtcCO2 can be used as a substitute for PaCO2 in the calculation of V d/V t. In this prospective pilot comparison study, 30 consecutive postcardiac surgery mechanically ventilated patients had V d/V t calculated separately using volumetric capnography by substituting PtcCO2 for PaCO2...
2016: Critical Care Research and Practice
O O Olujimi, G R E E Ana, O O Ogunseye, V T Fabunmi
Charcoal production is often accompanied with gaseous and particulate emission into the atmosphere and occupationally exposed workers could be affected. This cross sectional comparative study was carried out to assess the levels of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5) generated during the phases of charcoal production and their relationship with certain biomarkers among charcoal workers (subjects) and non-charcoal workers (controls) such as carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb), forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and body mass index (BMI) in Igbo-Ora, Oyo State and Alabata, Ogun State, which are two of the major hubs of charcoal production in South Western Nigeria...
2016: SpringerPlus
N F Santos-Sánchez, R Valadez-Blanco, B Hernández-Carlos, A Torres-Ariño, P C Guadarrama-Mendoza, R Salas-Coronado
Despite microalgae recently receiving enormous attention as a potential source of biodiesel, their use is still not feasible as an alternative to fossil fuels. Recently, interest in microalgae has focused on the production of bioactive compounds such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which provide microalgae a high added value. Several considerations need to be assessed for optimizing PUFA production from microalgae. Firstly, a microalgae species that produces high PUFA concentrations should be selected, such as Nannochloropsis gaditana, Isochrysis galbana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and Crypthecodinium cohnii, with marine species gaining more attention than do freshwater species...
October 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Arul M Varman, Lian He, Rhiannon Follenfant, Weihua Wu, Sarah Wemmer, Steven A Wrobel, Yinjie J Tang, Seema Singh
Sphingobium sp. SYK-6 is a soil bacterium boasting a well-studied ligninolytic pathway and the potential for development into a microbial chassis for lignin valorization. An improved understanding of its metabolism will help researchers in the engineering of SYK-6 for the production of value-added chemicals through lignin valorization. We used (13)C-fingerprinting, (13)C metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA), and RNA-sequencing differential expression analysis to uncover the following metabolic traits: (i) SYK-6 prefers alkaline conditions, making it an efficient host for the consolidated bioprocessing of lignin, and it also lacks the ability to metabolize sugars or organic acids; (ii) the CO2 release (i...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Christina D Bruce, Craig D Steinback, Uday V Chauhan, Jamie R Pfoh, Maria Abrosimova, Emily R Vanden Berg, Rachel J Skow, Margie H Davenport, Trevor A Day
The central respiratory chemoreflex contributes to blood gas homeostasis, particularly in response to accumulation of brainstem CO2 . Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) affects chemoreceptor stimulation inversely through CO2 washout from brainstem tissue. Voluntary breath-holding imposes alterations in blood gases, eliciting respiratory chemoreflexes, potentially contributing to breath-hold duration (i.e., break-point). However, the effects of cerebrovascular reactivity on break-point have yet to be determined...
September 12, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Giovanni Antonio Lutzu, Lanlan Zhang, Zhaohui Zhang, Tianzhong Liu
Porphyridium cruentum is one of the most valued microalgae species able to produce both pigments and exopolysaccharides. Conventional liquid suspended cultivation in ponds and photobioreactors show its disadvantages in lower cultivation efficiency and higher stirring power consumption due to the high viscosity of the medium by the accumulation of polysaccharides. In this work, a new method of culture (called attached cultivation) based on the growth of microalgae using a supporting surface was successfully applied to the cultivation of P...
September 10, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Emilio Garcia-Robledo, Lars D M Ottosen, Niels V Voigt, M W Kofoed, Niels P Revsbech
Biogas production is a key factor in a sustainable energy supply. It is possible to get biogas with very high methane content if the biogas reactors are supplied with exogenous hydrogen, and one of the technologies for supplying hydrogen is through gas permeable membranes. In this study the activity and stratification of hydrogen consumption above such a membrane was investigated by use of microsensors for hydrogen and pH. A hydrogenotrophic methanogenic community that was able to consume the hydrogen flux within 0...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
A A Mane, M P Suryawanshi, J H Kim, A V Moholkar
The molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) thin films have been successfully deposited onto the glass substrates using chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) deposition technique at various substrate temperatures ranging from 300°C to 450°C with an interval of 50°C. The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, optical and gas sensing properties of MoO3 thin films has been thoroughly investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that all the films have an orthorhombic crystal structure and are polycrystalline in nature...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Q Wang, X F Lan, L N Zhou, J P Zhou, N Li, C J Gu, Q Y Li
OBJECTIVE: To explore the correlation between intermittent hypoxia (IH)-induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and release of cytochrome C (cytC) from mitochondria. METHODS: HUVECs in IH groups were exposed to repetitive cycles (1% O2 5 min alternating with 21% O2 5 min, 37 ℃, 5% CO2) for different exposure time (8, 16 and 24 h, respectively), while the control group were placed in an ordinary incubator (21% O2, 37 ℃, 5% CO2) for 24 h...
August 9, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
M I Romero-Hermida, J M Romero-Enrique, V Morales-Flórez, L Esquivias
Adsorption of flue gases by single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) has been studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The flue gas is modeled as a ternary mixture of N2, CO2, and O2, emulating realistic compositions of the emissions from power plants. The adsorbed flue gas is in equilibrium with a bulk gas characterized by temperature T, pressure p, and mixture composition. We have considered different SWCNTs with different chiralities and diameters in a range between 7 and 20 Å. Our results show that the CO2 adsorption properties depend mainly on the bulk flue gas thermodynamic conditions and the SWCNT diameter...
August 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
V Sricharoenchaikul, D Atong, P Sornkade, J Nisamaneenate
Thermal conversion of cassava rhizome was performed using a modular downdraft gasifier with the addition of Ni-based catalysts as promising tar eliminating and produced gas upgrading techniques. The activities of a synthesized 5% Ni/dolomite pellet catalyst prepared by impregnation method were investigated in a secondary reactor downstream of the gasifier. High reforming activity of the Ni/dolomite pellet catalyst on tar reduction was achieved. The conversion to H2 and CO was improved via steam reforming of methane and char reaction with CO2...
August 19, 2016: Environmental Technology
P Parrilla Vázquez, E Hakme, S Uclés, V Cutillas, M Martínez Galera, A R Mughari, A R Fernández-Alba
The aim of this research was to adapt the QuEChERS method for routine pesticide multiresidue analysis in edible vegetable oil samples using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Several clean-up approaches were tested: (a) D-SPE with Enhanced Matrix Removal-Lipid (EMR-Lipid™); (b) D-SPE with PSA; (c) D-SPE with Z-Sep; (d) SPE with Z-Sep. Clean-up methods were evaluated in terms of fat removal from the extracts, recoveries and extraction precision for 213 pesticides in different matrices (soybean, sunflower and extra-virgin olive oil)...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
G Hughes, R M Pemberton, P R Fielden, J P Hart
A reagentless glutamate biosensor was applied to the determination of glutamate released from liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) in response to toxic challenge from various concentrations of paracetamol. A screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) containing the electrocatalyst Meldola's Blue (MB-SPCE) served as the electron mediator for the oxidation of NADH. A mixture of the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and the biopolymer chitosan (CHIT) were drop-coated onto the surface of the transducer (MB-SPCE) in a simple one step fabrication process...
August 24, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Kristian Brat, Zuzana Tothova, Zdenek Merta, Alice Taskova, Pavel Homolka, Martina Vasakova, Jana Skrickova, Vladimir Sramek, Lyle J Olson, Ivan Cundrle
BACKGROUND: Ventilatory efficiency (V˙e/V˙co2 slope [minute ventilation to carbon dioxide output slope]) has been shown to predict morbidity and mortality in lung resection candidates. Patients with increased V˙e/V˙co2 during exercise also exhibit an increased V˙e/V˙co2 ratio and a decreased end-tidal CO2 at rest. This study hypothesized that ventilatory values at rest predict respiratory complications and death in patients undergoing thoracic surgical procedures. METHODS: Inclusion criteria for this retrospective, multicenter study were thoracotomy and cardiopulmonary exercise testing as part of routine preoperative assessment...
August 2, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
E Del Olmo, O García-Álvarez, A Maroto-Morales, M Ramón, M Iniesta-Cuerda, F Martinez-Pastor, V Montoro, A J Soler, J J Garde, M R Fernández-Santos
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are fundamental for intracellular signalling. In spermatozoa, they are involved both to apoptosis and to capacitation, and changes in ROS levels can alter the balance between these two processes. Oestrous sheep serum (OSS) is considered an efficient agent for in vitro capacitation of ram spermatozoa. We have explored the effects of OSS on ram sperm physiology, especially on ROS production, during in vitro capacitation. Semen samples from 15 rams were cryopreserved. After thawing, samples were submitted to four treatments: control (CTL), 10% OSS supplementation for in vitro sperm capacitation, caspase inhibitor (INH, Z-VAD-FMK 100 μM) and OSS (10%) plus caspase inhibitor (I + E)...
October 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
N Kampman, A Busch, P Bertier, J Snippe, S Hangx, V Pipich, Z Di, G Rother, J F Harrington, J P Evans, A Maskell, H J Chapman, M J Bickle
Storage of anthropogenic CO2 in geological formations relies on a caprock as the primary seal preventing buoyant super-critical CO2 escaping. Although natural CO2 reservoirs demonstrate that CO2 may be stored safely for millions of years, uncertainty remains in predicting how caprocks will react with CO2-bearing brines. This uncertainty poses a significant challenge to the risk assessment of geological carbon storage. Here we describe mineral reaction fronts in a CO2 reservoir-caprock system exposed to CO2 over a timescale comparable with that needed for geological carbon storage...
2016: Nature Communications
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