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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157971/health-risk-assessment-of-haloacetonitriles-in-drinking-water-based-on-internal-dose
#1
Ying Zhang, Xuemei Han, Zhiguang Niu
To estimate the health risk of haloacetonitriles in different kinds of drinking water, the concentrations of haloacetonitriles in tap water, boiled water and direct drinking water were detected. The physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was used to calculate internal dose in the human body for haloacetonitriles through ingestion, and the probability distributions of the non-carcinogenic risk of haloacetonitriles for human via drinking water were assessed. This study found that the mean concentrations of dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) in tap water, boiled water and direct drinking water were 0...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141527/decreases-in-mixed-venous-blood-o2-saturation-in-cardiac-surgery-patients-following-extubation
#2
Jeffrey Williams, Anna McLean, Jalil Ahari, Arun Jose, Georges Al-Helou, Italo Ibi, Farzad Najam Md, Guillermo Gutierrez
BACKGROUND: Decreases in mixed venous O2 saturation (SvO2) have been reported to occur in postcardiac surgery patients during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Our aim was to establish whether the physiological mechanism responsible for this phenomenon was a decrease in systemic O2 delivery (DO2) or an increase in global O2 consumption ([Formula: see text]O2). METHODS: We studied 21 mechanically ventilated, postoperative cardiac patients for 30 minutes before and 60 minutes after extubation...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138223/effect-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-on-key-components-of-the-placental-and-hepatic-endocannabinoid-system
#3
Kushal Gandhi, Cun Li, Nadezhda German, Cezary Skobowiat, Maira Carrillo, Raja Reddy Kallem, Eneko Larumbe, Stacy Martinez, Marcel Chuecos, Gary Ventolini, Peter Nathanielsz, Natalia Schlabritz-Loutsevitch
INTRODUCTION: Involvement of endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) in obesity is well-characterized. However, information regarding eCB physiology in obesity associated with pregnancy is sparse. METHODS: From at least 9 months before conception, non-pregnant baboons (Papio spp.) were fed a diet of either 45% fat (HFD; n=11) or 12% fat or a control diet (CTR; n=11), and dietary intervention continued through pregnancy. Maternal and fetal venous plasma samples were evaluated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to quantify anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG)...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137910/tamponade-hemodynamic-and-echocardiographic-diagnosis
#4
REVIEW
Mark J Kearns, Keith R Walley
Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that can be readily reversed with timely recognition and appropriate intervention. The clinical diagnosis of cardiac tamponade requires synthesis of a constellation of otherwise non-specific features, based on an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. Whereas echocardiographic examination is a central component of diagnosis, alone it is insufficient to establish the physiologic diagnosis of hemodynamically significant cardiac tamponade. The hemodynamic diagnosis of cardiac tamponade requires clinical evidence of low cardiac output and stroke volume in the setting of elevated cardiac filling pressures, with evidence of increased sympathetic tone (tachycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, etc), and exclusion of other causes of shock as the primary problem (particularly cardiogenic shock)...
November 11, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125447/multiple-echocardiography-abnormalities-associated-with-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-failure
#5
Ashish H Shah, George M Ibrahim, Jun Sasaki, John Ragheb, Sanjiv Bhatia, Toba N Niazi
OBJECTIVE Although endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) with choroid plexus cauterization (CPC) has gained increasing prominence in the management of hydrocephalus caused by intraventricular hemorrhage of prematurity, the rates of long-term shunt independence remain low. Furthermore, limited evidence is available to identify infants who might benefit from the procedure. The authors tested the hypothesis that elevated venous pressure that results from comorbid cardiac disease might predispose patients to ETV/CPC failure and shunt dependence...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120514/assessment-of-venous-hemodynamics-and-volume-homeostasis-during-pregnancy
#6
EDITORIAL
W Gyselaers, M Spaanderman
Venous hemodynamics and volume homeostasis are important aspects of cardiovascular physiology, however today their relevance is still very much underappreciated. Their most important role is maintenance and control of venous return and as such cardiac output. A high flow/low resistance circulation, remaining constant under physiological circumstances, is mandatory for an uncomplicated course of pregnancy. In this paper, characteristics of normal and abnormal venous and volume regulating functions are discussed with respect to normal and pathologic outcomes of pregnancy, and current (non-invasive) methods to assess these functions are summarized...
November 9, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110772/the-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-barriers-anatomic-and-physiologic-considerations
#7
Hayrettin Tumani, André Huss, Franziska Bachhuber
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space consists of the intracerebral ventricles, subarachnoid spaces of the spine and brain (e.g., cisterns and sulci), and the central spinal cord canal. The CSF protects the central nervous system (CNS) in different ways involving metabolic homeostasis, supply of nutrients, functioning as lymphatic system, and regulation of intracranial pressure. CSF is produced by the choroid plexus, brain interstitium, and meninges, and it circulates in a craniocaudal direction from ventricles to spinal subarachnoid space from where it is removed via craniocaudal lymphatic routes and the venous system...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099975/chylomicron-derived-fatty-acid-spillover-in-adipose-tissue-a-signature-of-metabolic-health
#8
Marie-Eve Piché, Siôn A Parry, Fredrik Karpe, Leanne Hodson
Context and Objective: Spillover of fatty acids (FAs) into the plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) pool, due to an inability of adipose tissue to accommodate sufficient fat uptake, has been suggested to be a contributing factor to insulin resistance in obesity. Using specific labelling techniques, we compared the proportion of spillover-derived NEFA across a range of adiposity. Participants and Methods: Seventy-one healthy men and women (22-64 years; BMI 20-35 kg/m2) were fed a mixed meal (40g fat) containing [U13C]palmitate to assess the contribution of chylomicron-derived spillover FAs...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092125/significant-drop-in-right-atrial-pressure-does-not-influence-fractional-flow-reserve-coronary-assessment
#9
Roberto Scarsini, Gabriele Pesarini, Fausto Castriota, Corrado Vassanelli, Flavio Ribichini
The effect of a highly elevated level of right atrial filling pressure on fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement remains unclear. Transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention, a recently introduced option for inoperable or high-risk patients, represents a unique model of in-vivo physiology to investigate the eventual influence of central venous pressure on coronary FFR measurements. The case is reported of a patient with a degenerated tricuspid surgical bioprosthesis who underwent transcatheter tricuspid valve-in-valve replacement and concomitant coronary functional assessment with FFR...
May 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084002/central-arteriovenous-anastomosis-to-treat-resistant-hypertension
#10
Vikas Kapil, Paul A Sobotka, Mel D Lobo, Roland E Schmieder
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Novel, interventional treatments have emerged in the last decade for the treatment of resistant hypertension. This review focuses on a unique device that creates a fixed calibre, central iliac arteriovenous anastomosis that is significantly different in haemodynamic and safety profile from traditional haemodialysis fistulae. The background, physiology, and clinical data to date will be presented. RECENT FINDINGS: The single, randomized, controlled clinical trial using the ROX coupler in patients with resistant hypertension demonstrated substantial reductions in both office and ambulatory blood pressure to 12-month postimplantation...
October 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082360/minor-plasma-lipids-modulate-clotting-factor-activities-and-may-affect-thrombosis-risk
#11
Hiroshi Deguchi, Darlene J Elias, John H Griffin
Different minor abundance plasma lipids significantly influence thrombin generation in vitro and significant differences in such lipids are linked to risk for venous thrombosis. Some plasma sphingolipids including glucosylceramide, lyso-sulfatide and sphingosine have anticoagulant properties whereas, conversely, some plasma phospholipid derivatives, including certain lyso-phospholipids and ethanolamides, have procoagulant properties. Plasma metabolite profiling of venous thrombosis patients showed association of venous thrombosis with decreased plasma long-chain acylcarntines, leading to discovery of their anticoagulant activity as inhibitors of factor Xa...
July 2017: Res Pract Thromb Haemost
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079016/the-8-year-experience-of-the-florence-referral-ecmo-center-and-retrieval-team-for-acute-respiratory-failure
#12
Giovanni Cianchi, Chiara Lazzeri, Manuela Bonizzoli, Stefano Batacchi, Morena Cozzolino, Marco Ciapetti, Pasquale Bernardo, Andrea Franci, Marco Chiostri, Adriano Peris
OBJECTIVE: Many extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) centers for respiratory failure and ECMO mobile teams were instituted during the H1N1 pandemic. Data on transportation are scarce and heterogeneous. The authors therefore described the experience of their referral ECMO center for severe respiratory failure from 2009 to 2016 and gave a comprehensive report of transfers performed by their mobile ECMO team. DESIGN: Observational retrospective study. SETTING: An intensive care unit (ECMO referral center) in a teaching hospital...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078890/novel-mouse-models-of-hepatic-artery-infusion
#13
Minhyung Kim, Daniel T Fisher, Colin A Powers, Emmanuel M Gabriel, Alexis M Korman, Sandra Sexton, Andrei V Gudkov, Joseph J Skitzki
BACKGROUND: The liver has unique anatomy in that most blood flow to normal hepatocytes is derived from the portal venous system, whereas liver tumors obtain their nutrient blood supply exclusively from the hepatic artery. The focused arterial delivery of anticancer agents to liver tumors has been performed for decades; however, preclinical models to standardize drug regimens and examine novel agents have been lacking. The purpose of this study was to establish preclinical hepatic artery infusion (HAI) models in a mouse and to evaluate the safety and delivery capability of the models...
November 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076174/new-technology-mimics-physiologic-pulsatile-flow-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#14
Gengo Sunagawa, Jamshid H Karimov, Raymond Dessoffy, Nicole Byram, Patrick Grady, Martin Sinkewich, Jeffrey P Naber, Douglas Vincent, Shinji Okano, Robert D Stewart, Shiva M Sale, Nader Moazami, Kiyotaka Fukamachi
The VentriFlo True Pulse Pump (Design Mentor, Inc., Pelham, NH, USA) is the first blood pump designed to mimic human arterial waveforms in a standard oxygenation circuit. Our aim was to demonstrate the feasibility and safety of this pump in preparation for future studies to determine possible clinical advantages. We studied four piglets (41.4-46.2 kg): three with an implanted VentriFlo pulsatile pump and one with the nonpulsatile ROTAFLOW pump (MAQUET Holding B.V. & Co. KG, Rastatt, Germany) as a control. Hemodynamics was monitored during 6-h cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) support and for 2 h after weaning off CPB...
October 27, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074714/potential-for-non-invasive-assessment-of-lung-inhomogeneity-using-highly-precise-highly-time-resolved-measurements-of-gas-exchange
#15
James E Mountain, Peter Santer, David Patrick O'Neill, Nicholas M J Smith, Luca Ciaffoni, John H Couper, Grant A D Ritchie, Gus Hancock, Jonathan P Whiteley, Peter A Robbins
Inhomogeneity in the lung impairs gas exchange and can be an early marker of lung disease. We hypothesised that highly precise measurements of gas exchange contain sufficient information to quantify many aspects of the inhomogeneity non-invasively. Our aim was to explore whether one parameterization of lung inhomogeneity could both fit such data and provide reliable parameter estimates. A mathematical model of gas exchange in an inhomogeneous lung was developed, containing inhomogeneity parameters for compliance, vascular conductance and deadspace, all relative to lung volume...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072862/lymph-drainage-from-the-chylocyst-induced-hemodilution-in-an-in-vivo-rabbit-study
#16
Kumiko Ajima, Yoshiko Kawai, Daisuke Maejima, Shigeru Suzuki, Sachiho Yano, Moyuru Hayashi, Atsushi Katsumata, Maki Kaidoh, Yumiko Yokoyama, Toshio Ohhashi
To confirm our previous study that abdominal respiration has induced hemodilution in human subjects, we performed in-vivo experiments involving anesthetized rabbits. Fifteen 6- to 7-month-old male Japanese white rabbits were used in the animal experiments. Anesthesia was maintained with 2.5%-3.0% isoflurane under N2O + 100% O2 inhalation. Ventilation was maintained at 40 mL/breath for 20 breaths/min. Physiological saline solution was administered at rated 18 mL/h during the experiments. First, we attempted to evaluate lymph flow through the thoracic duct using Sonazoid-based contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)-guided method and then investigated the effects of manual lymph drainage of the chylocyst on the numbers of red blood cells (RBC), hematocrit (Ht) levels, and the blood concentrations of total protein (TP) and hemoglobin (Hb)...
October 26, 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070134/-comparison-of-therapeutic-efficacy-of-anticoagulation-and-its-combination-with-catheter-directed-thrombolysis-for-deep-venous-thrombosis-of-lower-extremities
#17
Shao-Fei Su, Yu-Feng Tian, Lin-Bao Chen, Bo Yan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of anticoagulation(AC) and its combination with catheter-directed thrombolysis(CDT) for deep venous thrombosis of lower extremities. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-nine patients with deep venous thrombosis of early lower extremities treated in our hospital from May 2011 to September 2013 were selected and randomly divided into the AC group(n= 66) and CDT+AC group(n= 73). The thrombolytic effects, adverse reactions, post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) and quality of life were evaluated...
October 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061467/an-interactive-simulation-tool-for-patient-specific-clinical-decision-support-in-single-ventricle-physiology
#18
Timothy Conover, Anthony M Hlavacek, Francesco Migliavacca, Ethan Kung, Adam Dorfman, Richard S Figliola, Tain-Yen Hsia
OBJECTIVE: Modeling of single-ventricle circulations has yielded important insights into their unique flow dynamics and physiology. Here we translated a state-of-the-art mathematical model into a patient-specific clinical decision support interactive Web-based simulation tool and show validation for all 3 stages of single-ventricular palliation. METHODS: Via the adoption a validated lumped parameter method, complete cardiovascular-pulmonary circulatory models of all 3 stages of single-ventricle physiology were created within a simulation tool...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054305/scimitar-syndrome-in-children-and-adults-natural-history-outcomes-and-risk-analysis
#19
Hanjay Wang, David Kalfa, Marlon S Rosenbaum, Jonathan N Ginns, Matthew J Lewis, Julie S Glickstein, Emile A Bacha, Paul J Chai
BACKGROUND: Scimitar syndrome involves congenital anomalous pulmonary venous return to the inferior vena cava. Optimal management remains controversial. We describe the natural history of disease, nonsurgical and surgical outcomes, and risk factors for poor outcomes at our institution. METHODS: Patients with anomalous pulmonary venous return to the inferior vena cava documented on echocardiography at our institution between January 1994 and January 2015 were reviewed retrospectively...
October 18, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052280/reappraisal-of-systemic-venous-chemoreceptors-might-they-explain-the-matching-of-breathing-to-metabolic-rate-in-humans
#20
M J Parkes
What is the topic of this review? One of the major unanswered questions in physiology is that of how breathing matches metabolic rate. Venous chemoreceptors seem to have been dismissed since the 1960s. What advances does it highlight? New evidence shows that their apparent dismissal needs reappraisal. The paper on which this depends has more than one interpretation, and another paper obtained the opposite result. Previous search ignored all locations between skeletal muscle and the right heart. Oxygen sensors other than the arterial chemoreceptors do exist...
October 19, 2017: Experimental Physiology
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