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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775414/venoarterial-communication-mediates-arterial-wall-shear-stress-induced-maternal-uterine-vascular-remodeling-during-pregnancy
#1
Nga Ling Ko, Liam John, Aaron Gelinne, Maurizio Mandala, George Osol
Although expansive remodeling of the maternal uterine circulation during pregnancy is essential for maintaining uteroplacental perfusion and normal fetal growth, the underlying physiological mechanisms are not well understood. Using a rat model, surgical approaches were used to alter uterine hemodynamics and wall shear stress (WSS) in order to evaluate the effects of WSS and venoarterial communication (e.g. transfer of placentally derived growth signals from post-placental veins to pre-placental arteries) on gestational uterine vascular remodeling...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773496/reflections-on-methodical-approaches-to-hematopoietic-stem-cell-collection-in-children
#2
REVIEW
Claudia Del Fante, Jerard Seghatchian, Cesare Perotti
Pediatric peripheral blood stem cell collection (PBSC) is challenging because it has potentially more side effects than in adults due to the small body mass and unique physiology of children. The extracorporeal volume of the cell separator device, poor venous access and metabolic complications due to citrate toxicity are the main problems to face during PBSC collection. These aspects are more relevant in very low body weight (BW) children of 20 kg or lower. An efficient, experienced and well-prepared team of pediatricians, apheresis physicians and nurses, and physicians involved in CVC positioning is crucial to performing a safe PBSC collection...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767569/teaching-tip-development-of-veterinary-anesthesia-simulations-for-pre-clinical-training-design-implementation-and-evaluation-based-on-student-perspectives
#3
Jana L Jones, Jim Rinehart, Jacqueline Jordan Spiegel, Ryane E Englar, Brian K Sidaway, Joie Rowles
Anesthesia simulations have been used in pre-clinical medical training for decades to help learners gain confidence and expertise in an operating room environment without danger to a live patient. The authors describe a veterinary anesthesia simulation environment (VASE) with anesthesia scenarios developed to provide a re-creation of a veterinarian's task environment while performing anesthesia. The VASE uses advanced computer technology with simulator inputs provided from standard monitoring equipment in common use during veterinary anesthesia and a commercial canine training mannequin that allows intubation, ventilation, and venous access...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767351/evaluating-the-methods-used-for-measuring-cerebral-blood-flow-at-rest-and-during-exercise-in-humans
#4
REVIEW
Michael M Tymko, Philip N Ainslie, Kurt J Smith
The first accounts of measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) in humans were made by Angelo Mosso in ~1880, who recorded brain pulsations in patients with skull defects. In 1890, Charles Roy and Charles Sherrington determined in animals that brain pulsations-assessed via a similar method used by Mosso-were altered during a variety of stimuli including sensory nerve stimulation, asphyxia, and pharmacological interventions. Between 1880 and 1944, measurements for CBF were typically relied on skull abnormalities in humans...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765329/the-role-of-macrophages-in-acute-and-chronic-wound-healing-and-interventions-to-promote-pro-wound-healing-phenotypes
#5
REVIEW
Paulina Krzyszczyk, Rene Schloss, Andre Palmer, François Berthiaume
Macrophages play key roles in all phases of adult wound healing, which are inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. As wounds heal, the local macrophage population transitions from predominantly pro-inflammatory (M1-like phenotypes) to anti-inflammatory (M2-like phenotypes). Non-healing chronic wounds, such as pressure, arterial, venous, and diabetic ulcers indefinitely remain in inflammation-the first stage of wound healing. Thus, local macrophages retain pro-inflammatory characteristics. This review discusses the physiology of monocytes and macrophages in acute wound healing and the different phenotypes described in the literature for both in vitro and in vivo models...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764550/-predictive-value-of-central-venous-to-arterial-carbon-dioxide-partial-pressure-difference-for-fluid-responsiveness-in-septic-shock-patients-a-prospective-clinical-study
#6
Guangyun Liu, Huibin Huang, Hanyu Qin, Bin Du
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure difference (Pcv-aCO2 ) before and after rapid rehydration test (fluid challenge) in predicting the fluid responsiveness in patients with septic shock. METHODS: A prospective observation was conducted. Forty septic shock patients admitted to medical intensive care unit (ICU) of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from October 2015 to June 2017 were enrolled. All of the patients received fluid challenge in the presence of invasive hemodynamic monitoring...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746600/impact-of-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-on-cerebral-hemodynamic-in-paediatric-patients-with-post-traumatic-brain-swelling-treated-by-surgical-decompression
#7
Silvia De Rosa, Gianluca Villa, Paola Franchi, Aldo Mancino, Federica Tosi, Marina Alessandra Martin, Simona Bazzano, Giorgio Conti, Silvia Maria Pulitanò
INTRODUCTION: The objective of our present study is to evaluate the impact of different PEEP levels on cerebral hemodynamic, gas exchanges and respiratory system mechanics in paediatric patients with post-traumatic brain swelling treated with decompressive craniectomy (DC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective physiologic study was carried out on 14 paediatric patients presenting with severe traumatic brain swelling treated with DC. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was performed on the middle cerebral artery bilaterally after DC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732185/ambulatory-veno-venous-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#8
REVIEW
Jonas Andersson Lindholm
Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) is used for support in patients with severe respiratory failure. The method allows extracorporeal gas exchange and may replace the patient's lung function for weeks and even years. ECMO is not a contraindication for lung transplant. The most important factor for a good outcome is the physiological status of the patient when accepted for transplantation. Ambulatory ECMO makes it possible for the patient to exercise and walk, and provides the best outcome for high risk patients in severe respiratory failure...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732184/spontaneous-breathing-during-veno-venous-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#9
REVIEW
Stefania Crotti, Nicola Bottino, Elena Spinelli
Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) has started to be applied in awake spontaneously breathing patients as an alternative to invasive mechanical ventilation. As the physiologic cardiorespiratory variability is increased in this condition, the dynamic interaction between patient respiratory activity and extracorporeal system function affects the clinical management. The effect of extracorporeal CO2 removal on patient respiratory drive is variable and not always predictable, with some patients responding to CO2 removal with a decrease in respiratory rate and effort and other patients demonstrating a persistently high work of breathing independent on CO2 unload...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731648/a-retrospective-comparative-analysis-of-risk-factors-and-outcomes-in-carbapenem-susceptible-and-carbapenem-nonsusceptible-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bloodstream-infections-tigecycline-significantly-increases-the-mortality
#10
Tingting Xiao, Wei Yu, Tianshui Niu, Chen Huang, Yonghong Xiao
Background: Carbapenem-nonsusceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (CnSKP) is rapidly emerging as a life-threatening nosocomial infection. The efficacy of tigecycline in the treatment of bloodstream infections (BSIs) remains controversial. Methods: Data from a total of 428 patients with carbapenem-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (CSKP) and CnSKP BSIs were collected at a single center between January 2013 and December 2015. A three-part analysis was conducted to identify the risk factors associated with CnSKP, explore prognosis, and evaluate treatments...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730077/ex-vivo-normothermic-porcine-pancreas-a-physiological-model-for-preservation-and-transplant-study
#11
Rohan Kumar, Wen Yuan Chung, Franscois Runau, John David Isherwood, Kean Guan Kuan, Kevin West, Giuseppe Garcea, Ashley Robert Dennison
INTRODUCTION: An ex vivo normothermic porcine pancreas perfusion (ENPPP) model was established to investigate effects of machine perfusion pressures on graft preservation. METHODOLOGY: Nine porcine pancreata were perfused with autologous blood at 50 mmHg (control) pressure. Graft viability was compared against four ex-vivo porcine pancreata perfused at 20 mmHg ('low') pressure. Arterio-venous oxygen gas differentials, biochemistry, and graft insulin responses to glucose stimulation were compared...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721032/iron-physiological-requirements-in-chinese-adults-assessed-by-the-stable-isotope-labeling-technique
#12
Jie Cai, Tongxiang Ren, Yuhui Zhang, Zhilin Wang, Lingyan Gou, Zhengwu Huang, Jun Wang, Jianhua Piao, Xiaoguang Yang, Lichen Yang
Background: Iron is a kind of essential trace mineral in the human body, while the studies on its physiological requirement are very limited recently, especially in China. And most studies were performed with the radioisotope tracer technique, which was harmful to health. This study aimed to first get the value of iron physiological requirements in Chinese adults assessed by the stable isotope labeling technique. Methods: Forty-four eligible young Chinese healthy adults were randomly recruited from the Bethune Military Medical College (Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China) between January 2010 and March 2011, and 19 subjects were included in the final data analysis...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708570/longer-operative-time-is-associated-with-increased-adverse-events-after-anterior-cervical-diskectomy-and-fusion-15-minute-intervals-matter
#13
Nathaniel T Ondeck, Daniel D Bohl, Ryan P McLynn, Jonathan J Cui, Patawut Bovonratwet, Kern Singh, Jonathan N Grauer
Little is known about the impact of operative time, as an independent and interval variable, on general health perioperative outcomes following anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion. Therefore, patients undergoing a 1-level anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion were identified in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Operative time (as an interval variable) was tested for association with perioperative outcomes using a multivariate regression that was adjusted for differences in baseline characteristics...
April 27, 2018: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705033/biophysics-of-bold-fmri-investigated-with-animal-models
#14
Seong-Gi Kim
The widely-used BOLD fMRI signal depends on various anatomical, physiological, and imaging parameters. Thus, it is important to examine its biophysical and physiological source in order to optimize, model and accurately interpret fMRI. Animal models have been used to investigate these issues to take systematic measurements and combine with conventional invasive approaches. Here, we reviewed and discussed multiple issues, including the echo time-dependent intravascular contribution and extravascular contributions, gradient-echo vs...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702188/consistent-head-up-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-haemodynamics-are-observed-across-porcine-and-human-cadaver-translational-models
#15
Johanna Moore, Joe Holley, Nicolas Segal, Mike Lick, José Labarère, Ralph J Frascone, Kenneth Dodd, Aaron Robinson, Charles Lick, Lauren Klein, Andrew Ashton, Angela McArthur, Adamantios Tsangaris, Anna Makaretz, Mike Makaretz, Guillaume Debaty, Paul E Pepe, Keith Lurie
AIM: The objectives were: 1) replicate key elements of Head Up (HUP) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) physiology in a traditional swine model of ventricular fibrillation (VF), 2) compare HUP CPR physiology in pig cadavers (PC) to the VF model 3) develop a new human cadaver (HC) CPR model, and 4) assess HUP CPR in HC. METHODS: Nine female pigs were intubated, and anesthetized. Venous, arterial, and intracranial access were obtained. After 6 min of VF, CPR was performed for 2 min epochs as follows: Standard (S)-CPR supine (SUP), Active compression decompression (ACD) CPR + impedance threshold device (ITD-16) CPR SUP, then ACD + ITD HUP CPR...
April 24, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699449/the-femoral-vein-diameter-and-its-correlation-with-sex-age-and-body-mass-index-an-anatomical-parameter-with-clinical-relevance
#16
Jonas Keiler, Ronald Seidel, Andreas Wree
Background The femoral vein diameter is a critical factor when assessing endoprosthetic valve size for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. To examine the previously stated correlation between body mass index and femoral vein diameter and to re-assess the anatomical and physiological demands for a valve implant for chronic venous insufficiency treatment, we measured the femoral vein diameter in 82 subjects. Method Femoral vein diameters (164 legs) were measured with B-mode sonography both in supine position at rest and in upright position during Valsalva maneuver...
January 1, 2018: Phlebology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692274/isolating-the-direct-effects-of-adverse-developmental-conditions-on-in-vivo-cardiovascular-function-at-adulthood-the-avian-model
#17
K L Skeffington, C Beck, N Itani, D A Giussani
It is now well accepted that exposure to adverse environmental conditions in utero can predispose a fetus to disease later in life. Using an avian model to study the programming of disease has a unique advantage as it allows isolation of the direct effects of adverse conditions on fetal physiology, without any confounding effects via the mother or placenta. However, experiments in avian models are limited by the lack of well-established surgical protocols for the adult bird, which we have established in this study...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691178/a-higher-altitude-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-venous-thromboembolisms-after-total-hip-arthroplasty
#18
Dhanur Damodar, Chester J Donnally, Jonathan I Sheu, Tsun Y Law, Martin W Roche, Victor H Hernandez
BACKGROUND: High altitudes lead to physiological changes that may predispose to venous thromboembolisms (VTEs) including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (PE). No prior study has evaluated if there is also a higher risk of VTEs for total hip arthroplasties (THAs) performed at higher elevations. The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify if undergoing THA at a higher altitude center (>4000 feet above sea level) is an independent risk factor for a postoperative VTE...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680174/human-serum-albumin-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Stephane Arques
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and oxidative stress are at the forefront in the onset and development of atherosclerosis and many cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological evidence is that low serum albumin levels are linked to incident ischemic heart disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke and venous thromboembolism, independent of risk factors, body mass index and inflammation. Hypoalbuminemia has also emerged as an independent prognosticator in many cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, congenital heart disease, infective endocarditis and stroke, even after adjusting for usual causal factors and prognostic markers...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675862/hemodialysis-a-model-for-extreme-physiology-in-a-vulnerable-patient-population
#20
REVIEW
Jeroen P Kooman, Krassimir Katzarski, Frank M van der Sande, Karel M Leunissen, Peter Kotanko
Hemodialysis (HD) is a lifesaving treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease, which is very efficient in the correction of abnormalities of the internal environment. However, this efficiency also induces significant hemodynamic, thermal, and respiratory stressors. These have parallels with the extreme physiologic demands which are normally mainly experienced by healthy subjects under adverse environmental conditions, with the difference that they must be endured by a vulnerable patient population. Hemodynamic stress induced by ultrafiltration leads to a decline in circulating blood volume, which may result in intradialytic hypotension (IDH) and changes in tissue perfusion, which may have long-term consequences for the function of vital organs such as the brain and the heart...
April 19, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
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