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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911356/importance-rat-liver-morphology-and-vasculature-in-surgical-research
#1
Katarína Vdoviaková, Katarína Vdoviaková, Eva Petrovová, Lenka Krešáková, Marcela Maloveská, Jana Teleky, Janka Jenčová, Jozef Živčák, Andrej Jenča
BACKGROUND The laboratory rat is one of the most popular experimental models for the experimental surgery of the liver. The objective of this study was to investigate the morphometric parameters, physiological data, differences in configuration of liver lobes, biliary system, and vasculature (arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels) of the liver in laboratory rats. In addition, this study supports the anatomic literature and identified similarities and differences with human and other mammals. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty laboratory rats were dissected to prepare corrosion casts of vascular system specimens (n=20), determine the lymph vessels and lymph nodes (n=10), and for macroscopic anatomical dissection (n=10) of the rat liver...
December 2, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908340/end-points-of-sepsis-resuscitation
#2
REVIEW
John C Greenwood, Clinton J Orloski
Resuscitation goals for the patient with sepsis and septic shock are to return the patient to a physiologic state that promotes adequate end-organ perfusion along with matching metabolic supply and demand. Ideal resuscitation end points should assess the adequacy of tissue oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption, and be quantifiable and reproducible. Despite years of research, a single resuscitation end point to assess adequacy of resuscitation has yet to be found. Thus, the clinician must rely on multiple end points to assess the patient's overall response to therapy...
February 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898601/fontan-fenestration-closure-prior-to-posterior-spinal-fusion-in-patients-with-single-ventricle-heart-disease
#3
Matthew C Schwartz, David Nykanen, Craig Fleishman, Hamish M Munro, Jonathan Phillips, Raymond D Knapp, Donald Felix
STUDY DESIGN: Case series. OBJECTIVE: To describe transcatheter closure of the Fontan fenestration prior to posterior spinal fusion in two children to prevent paradoxical venous air embolism during the operation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Scoliosis is common among patients with single-ventricle congenital heart disease who have undergone Fontan operation and spinal surgery can offer physiologic benefits. Venous air embolism is a rare, but important reported complication during spinal surgery performed in the prone position...
December 1, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894410/association-of-hfe-gene-mutations-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-the-iranian-population
#4
L Saremi, S Lotfipanah, M Mohammadi, H Hosseinzadeh, A Sayad, Z Saltanatpour
To determine whether the HFE gene variants H63D and C282Y are associated with NAFLD in persons with type 2 diabetes, we conducted a case-control study including 145 case of NAFLD patients with a history of type 2 diabetes and 145 matching control. The genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral venous blood and the genotyping of HFE gene mutations was analyzed using the PCR-RFLP technique. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.0 software by χ2 test, t test and ANOVA (P<0.05). Data showed no increased frequency of HFE mutations in persons with type 2 diabetes and no association between H63D mutation and NAFLD in the study population...
October 31, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893776/diagnostic-value-and-interreader-agreement-of-the-pancreaticolienal-gap-in-pancreatic-cancer-on-mdct
#5
Khoschy Schawkat, Wolfgang Kühn, Daniel Inderbitzin, Beat Gloor, Johannes T Heverhagen, Val Murray Runge, Andreas Christe
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic value and measure interreader agreement of the pancreaticolienal gap (PLG) in the assessment of imaging features of pancreatic carcinoma (PC) on contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (CE-MDCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: CE-MDCT studies in the portal venous phase were retrospectively reviewed for 66 patients with PC. The age- and gender-matched control group comprised 103 healthy individuals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884329/saphenous-artery-based-flap-models-in-rats-new-flap-designs-for-experimental-studies
#6
Ersin Aksam, Berrak Aksam, Mustafa Erol Demirseren, Huban Sibel Orhun Yavuz
BACKGROUND: Experimental research using laboratory animals provides substantial data about reconstructive surgery. However, the literature does not include any experimental studies that have used flap models on the hind limbs of rats. To gain an understanding of the physiology of lower-extremity flaps and of flap failures, this study assessed the cutaneous perforators of the saphenous artery, and new flap models were designed for the hind limbs of rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experiment was designed to include three stages and used 35 rats...
December 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881556/nitrite-and-s-nitrosohemoglobin-exchange-across-the-human-cerebral-and-femoral-circulation-relationship-to-basal-and-exercise-blood-flow-responses-to-hypoxia
#7
Damian M Bailey, Peter Rasmussen, Morten Overgaard, Kevin A Evans, Aske M Bohm, Thomas Seifert, Patrice Brassard, Morten Zaar, Henning B Nielsen, Peter Raven, Niels H Secher
BACKGROUND: -The mechanisms underlying red blood cell (RBC)-mediated hypoxic vasodilation remain controversial with separate roles for nitrite (NO2(-)) and S-nitrosohemoglobin (SNO-Hb) widely contested given their ability to transduce nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity within the microcirculation. To establish their relative contribution in vivo, we quantified arterial-venous (a-v) concentration gradients across the human cerebral and femoral circulation at rest and during exercise, an ideal model system characterized by physiological extremes of O2 tension and blood flow...
November 15, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873373/cardiac-output-and-blood-flow-redistribution-in-the-fetus-with-d-loop-transposition-of-the-great-arteries-and-intact-ventricular-septum-insights-into-the-pathophysiology
#8
Max E Godfrey, Kevin G Friedman, Monika Drogosz, Abraham M Rudolph, Wayne Tworetzky
OBJECTIVES: Although the postnatal physiology of D-loop transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum (DTGA-IVS) is well established, little is known about fetal DTGA-IVS. In the normal fetus, the pulmonary valve (PV) is larger than the aortic valve (AoV), there is exclusive right to left flow at the foramen ovale (FO) and ductus arteriosus (DA), and the left ventricle (LV) ejects 40% of combined ventricular output (CVO) through the aorta, primarily to the brain. In DTGA-IVS, the LV ejects O2 -rich blood to the pulmonary artery, theoretically leading to pulmonary vasodilation, increased branch pulmonary arterial flow and reduced DA flow...
November 22, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861429/clinical-implications-of-physiological-flow-adjustment-in-continuous-flow-left-ventricular-assist-devices
#9
Vakhtang Tchantchaleishvili, Jessica G Y Luc, Caitlin M Cohan, Kevin Phan, Laila Hübbert, Steven W Day, H Todd Massey
There is increasing evidence for successful management of end-stage heart failure with continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) technology. However, passive flow adjustment at fixed CF-LVAD speed is susceptible to flow balancing issues as well as adverse hemodynamic effects relating to the diminished arterial pulse pressure and flow. With current therapy, flow cannot be adjusted with changes in venous return, which can vary significantly with volume status. This limits the performance and safety of CF-LVAD...
November 15, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859553/gene-expression-and-activity-profiling-reveal-a-significant-contribution-of-exo-phosphotransferases-to-the-extracellular-nucleotides-metabolism-in-huvec-endothelial-cells
#10
Magdalena Wujak, Anna Hetmann, Dorota Porowińska, Katarzyna Roszek
Purinergic signaling maintains local tissue homeostasis in blood vessels via the regulation of vascular tone, blood platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, differentiation as well as inflammatory responses. Extracellular purines are important signaling molecules in the vasculature, and both purine-hydrolysing and -phosphorylating enzymes are considered to selectively govern extracellular nucleotide/nucleoside metabolism. Recent studies have provided some evidence for the existence of these enzymes in a soluble form in human blood and their secretion into the extracellular space under physiological and pathological conditions...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857961/physiologic-and-performance-effects-of-sago-supplementation-before-and-during-cycling-in-a-warm-humid-environment
#11
Mohd Rahimi Che Jusoh, Stephen R Stannard, Toby Mündel
The present study determined whether 0.8g/kg bodyweight sago ingested before (Pre-Sago) or during (Dur-Sago) exercise under warm-humid conditions (30 ± 2°C, 78 ± 3 % RH; 20 km·h(-1) frontal airflow) conferred a performance and/or physiological benefit compared to a control (Control) condition. Eight trained, male cyclists/triathletes (45 ± 4 y, VO2peak: 65 ± 10 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), peak aerobic power: 397 ± 71 W) completed 3 15-min time-trials (∼75% VO2peak) pre-loaded with 45 min of steady-state (∼55% VO2peak) cycling following > 24 h standardization of training and diet...
April 2016: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851867/physiological-basis-of-vascular-autocalibration-vasa-comparison-to-hypercapnia-calibration-methods
#12
Samira M Kazan, Laurentius Huber, Guillaume Flandin, Dimo Ivanov, Peter Bandettini, Nikolaus Weiskopf
PURPOSE: The statistical power of functional MRI (fMRI) group studies is significantly hampered by high intersubject spatial and magnitude variance. We recently presented a vascular autocalibration method (VasA) to account for vascularization differences between subjects and hence improve the sensitivity in group studies. Here, we validate the novel calibration method by means of direct comparisons of VasA with more established measures of baseline venous blood volume (and indirectly vascular reactivity), the M-value...
November 9, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832556/can-femoral-venous-pressure-be-used-as-an-estimate-for-standard-vesical-intra-abdominal-pressure-measurement
#13
A E Howard, A Regli, E Litton, M M Malbrain, A-M Palermo, B L De Keulenaer
Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is highly prevalent in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit and is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. The present study investigated whether femoral venous pressure (FVP) can be used as a surrogate parameter for intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measured via the bladder in IAH grade II (IAP <20 mmHg) or grade III (IAP ≥20 mmHg). This was a single-centre prospective study carried out in a tertiary adult intensive care unit. IAP was measured via the bladder with a urinary catheter with simultaneous recording of the FVP via a femoral central line...
November 2016: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831835/imaging-of-neurologic-conditions-in-pregnant-patients
#14
Sangam Kanekar, Shante Bennett
A number of physiologic, hormonal, immunologic, and hemodynamic changes take place in the maternal body during pregnancy. The majority of these changes are essential for maintaining the normal course of pregnancy. However, these changes may also cause acute or chronic conditions that affect various biologic systems in the mother. In addition, conditions of the central and peripheral nervous systems can cause a variety of neurologic symptoms and complications. Neurologic signs and symptoms in pregnant and postpartum women may be due to the exacerbation of a preexisting medical condition, the initial manifestation of a primary central nervous system-related problem, or a neurologic problem unique to pregnancy and the postpartum period...
November 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831520/total-anomalous-pulmonary-venous-connection-preoperative-anatomy-physiology-imaging-and-interventional-management-of-postoperative-pulmonary-venous-obstruction
#15
REVIEW
Matthew D Files, Brian Morray
Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection refers to a spectrum of cardiac anomalies where the pulmonary veins fail to return to the left atrium and the pulmonary venous blood returns through a systemic vein or directly to the right atrium. There is a wide anatomical variety of venous connections and degrees of pulmonary venous obstruction that affect the presentation, surgical repair, and outcomes. In this review, we explore the preoperative physiology, echocardiographic diagnosis, and approach to postoperative complications...
November 9, 2016: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827796/effect-of-body-position-and-ventilation-on-umbilical-artery-and-venous-blood-flows-during-delayed-umbilical-cord-clamping-in-preterm-lambs
#16
Stuart B Hooper, Kelly J Crossley, Valerie A Zahra, Jeroen van Vonderen, Alison Moxham, Andrew W Gill, Martin Kluckow, Arjan B Te Pas, Euan M Wallace, Graeme R Polglase
OBJECTIVE: While delayed umbilical cord clamping (UCC) is thought to facilitate placental to infant blood transfusion, the physiological factors regulating flow in the umbilical arteries and veins during delayed UCC is unknown. We investigated the effects of gravity, by changing fetal height relative to the placenta, and ventilation on umbilical blood flows and the cardiovascular transition during delayed UCC at birth. METHODS: Catheters and flow probes were implanted into preterm lambs (128 days) prior to delivery to measure pulmonary, carotid, umbilical artery (UaBF) and umbilical venous (UvBF) blood flows...
November 8, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821162/physiological-effects-of-invasive-ventilation-with-neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-nava-in-a-crossover-study
#17
Jean-Michel Liet, François Barrière, Bénédicte Gaillard-Le Roux, Pierre Bourgoin, Arnaud Legrand, Nicolas Joram
BACKGROUND: Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) is a mode of assisted mechanical ventilation that delivers inspiratory pressure proportionally to the electrical activity of the diaphragm. To date, no pediatric study has focused on the effects of NAVA on hemodynamic parameters. This physiologic study with a randomized cross-over design compared hemodynamic parameters when NAVA or conventional ventilation (CV) was applied. METHODS: After a baseline period, infants received NAVA and CV in a randomized order during two consecutive 30-min periods...
November 8, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817953/mechanically-assisted-bidirectional-cavopulmonary-shunt-in-neonates-and-infants-an-acute-human-pilot-study
#18
Osami Honjo, Sandra L Merklinger, John B Poe, Anne-Marie Guerguerian, Hargen Zhang, Katherine L Taylor, Glen S Van Arsdell
OBJECTIVE: Poor survival following surgical palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) raises the question of the need for a paradigm shift. This is the first human study to investigate the possibility of primary "in-series" palliation in neonates and infants with HLHS in an acute setting with the aid of 2 types of mechanical assist: superior vena cava (SVC)-to-pulmonary artery (PA) pump assist and SVC-to-right atrium (RA) oxygenation assist. METHODS: By rearranging the cannula sites and flow rates for modified ultrafiltration, 2 types of mechanically assisted bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt (BCPS) circulation were simulated for 20 minutes...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816099/editorial-commentary-should-the-virchow-triad-have-been-a-quartet-is-high-altitude-a-risk-factor-for-deep-venous-thrombosis-after-knee-arthroscopy
#19
EDITORIAL
Thomas R Hackett, Jonathan A Godin
The Virchow triad includes stasis of blood flow, endothelial injury, and hypercoagulability. It forms the physiological foundation for the development of one of our most dreaded complications: deep venous thrombosis. Although the complication rate after knee arthroscopy remains low, significant morbidity may be associated with thromboembolic events. Tyson et al. report an increased incidence of venous thromboembolism in knee operations performed at higher altitudes versus those conducted closer to sea level...
November 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807197/venous-imaging-based-biomarkers-in-acute-ischaemic-stroke
#20
REVIEW
Josep Munuera, Gerard Blasco, María Hernández-Pérez, Pepus Daunis-I-Estadella, Antoni Dávalos, David S Liebeskind, Max Wintermark, Andrew Demchuk, Bijoy K Menon, Götz Thomalla, Kambiz Nael, Salvador Pedraza, Josep Puig
Vascular neuroimaging plays a decisive role in selecting the best therapy in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. However, compared with the arterial system, the role of veins has not been thoroughly studied. In this review, we present the major venous imaging-based biomarkers in ischaemic stroke. First, the presence of hypodense veins in the monophasic CT angiography ipsilateral to the arterial occlusion. Second, the asymmetry of venous drainage in the pathological cerebral hemisphere on CT and MRI dynamic angiography...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
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