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Zakaria Aboulbanine, Naïma El Khayati
The use of phase space in medical linear accelerator Monte Carlo (MC) simulations significantly improves the execution time and leads to results comparable to those obtained from full calculations. The classical representation of phase space stores directly the information of millions of particles, producing bulky files. This paper presents a virtual source model (VSM) based on a reconstruction algorithm, taking as input a compressed file of roughly 800 kb derived from phase space data freely available in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) database...
March 19, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Lin Chen, Hai-Fa Xia, You Shang, Shang-Long Yao
Objective: Mechanical ventilation (MV) has long been used as a life-sustaining approach for several decades. However, researchers realized that MV not only brings benefits to patients but also cause lung injury if used improperly, which is termed as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). This review aimed to discuss the pathogenesis of VILI and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Data Sources: This review was based on articles in the PubMed database up to December 2017 using the following keywords: "ventilator-induced lung injury", "pathogenesis", "mechanism", and "biotrauma"...
March 19, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Ying Li, Li-Fang Wang, Jin-Ling Wang, Peng-Fei Tu
This study aimed to prepare andrographolide (AP)-loaded glycyrrhizic acid (GA) micelles (AP-GA)-PMs to enhance the solubility and anti-tumor effect of andrographolide. Firstly, andrographolide (AP) was used as the model drug and glycyrrhizic acid (GA) as carriers to prepare (AP-GA)-PMs. Then the preparation methods and the ratios of drug and carrier were screened and optimized based on particle size, encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading capacity of micelles. Finally, the pharmaceutical characters and the inhibition rate on HepG2 cells were evaluated on the (AP-GA)-PMs prepared by optimal process...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Xin Meng, Harrison Sejoon Kim, Antonio T Lucero, Su Min Hwang, Joy S Lee, Young-Chul Byun, Jiyoung Kim, Byung Keun Hwang, Xiaobing Zhou, Jeanette Young, Michael Telgenhoff
In this work, a novel chlorodisilane precursor, pentachlorodisilane (PCDS, HSi2 Cl5 ), was investigated for the growth of SiNx via hollow cathode plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). Well-defined self-limiting growth behavior was successfully demonstrated over the growth temperature range of 270-360 °C. At identical process conditions, PCDS not only demonstrated approximately >20% higher growth per cycle (GPC) than that of a commercially available chlorodisilane precursor, hexachlorodisilane (HCDS, Si2 Cl6 ), but also delivered a better or at least comparable film quality determined by characterizing the refractive index, wet etch rate, and density of the films...
March 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hae Chang Jeong, Joon Ho Ahn, Min Chul Kim, Doo Sun Sim, Keun Ho Park, Young Joon Hong, Ju Han Kim, Myung Ho Jeong, Ki-Bae Seung, Kiyuk Chang, Youngkeun Ahn
Background/Aims: The optimal percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) strategy in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with multivessel disease (MVD) is uncertain. This study was designed to develop a novel and simple tool for assessing an individualized and optimized PCI strategy in AMI patients with MVD. Methods: In total, 5,025 patients with AMI from nine centers at two universities were enrolled in the prospective Convergent Registry of Catholic and Chonnam University for Acute Myocardial Infarction (COREA-AMI) registry from January 2004 through December 2009...
March 20, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
J Hurtado-Gallego, K Martín-Betancor, I Rodea-Palomares, F Leganés, R Rosal, F Fernández-Piñas
This work describes the construction of two novel self-luminescent bioreporter strains of the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 by fusing the promoter region of the sodA and sodB genes (encoding the superoxide dismutases MnSod and FeSod, respectively) to luxCDABE from Photorhabdus luminescens aimed at detecting pollutants that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly O2 - . Bioreporters were tested against methyl viologen (MV) as the inducer of superoxide anion (O2 - ). Both bioreporters were specific for O2 - and Limits of detection (LODs) and Maximum Permissive Concentrations (MPCs) were calculated: Nostoc sp...
March 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Cláudia S Nóbrega, Bart Devreese, Sofia R Pauleta
The trihemic bacterial cytochrome c peroxidase from Escherichia coli, YhjA, is a membrane-anchored protein with a C-terminal domain homologous to the classical bacterial peroxidases and an additional N-terminal (NT) heme binding domain. Recombinant YhjA is a 50 kDa monomer in solution with three c-type hemes covalently bound. Here is reported the first biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of YhjA and of the NT domain demonstrating that NT heme is His63/Met125 coordinated. The reduction potentials of P (active site), NT and E hemes were established to be - 170 mV, + 133 mV and + 210 mV, respectively, at pH 7...
March 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ahmed Ma'mun, Mohamed K Abd El-Rahman, Mohamed Abd El-Kawy
In recent years, the whole field of ion-selective electrodes(ISEs) in pharmaceutical sciences has expanded far beyond its original roots. The diverse range of opportunities offered by ISEs was broadly used in a number of pharmaceutical applications, with topics presented ranging from bioanalysis of drugs and metabolites, to protein binding studies, green analytical chemistry, impurity profiling, and drug dissolution in biorelevant media. Inspired from these advances and with the aim of extending the functional capabilities of ISEs, the primary focus of the present paper is the utilization of ISE as a tool in personalized medicine...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Zhiqiang Jiang, Xiaoyan Dong, Yan Sun
Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) aggregation is crucial for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, and surface charge of nanoparticles (NPs) has been recognized as an important factor influencing Aβ aggregation. Herein, we report a systematic study on the issue with a series of self-assembled chitosan-hyaluronic acid composite (CH) NPs of different surface charges (CH1 to CH7, zeta potentials from +38 to -35 mV). Both the positive and negative CH NPs inhibited Aβ aggregation and the inhibitory effect increased with increasing the surface charges density...
March 8, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
Guanyu Chen, Darren Svirskis, Weiyue Lu, Man Ying, Yuan Huang, Jingyuan Wen
Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analogue effective against a number of cancers. However, the full potential of this drug has not been realised, in part due to low oral bioavailability and frequent dosing requirements. This study reports the synthesis, in-vitro, ex-vivo and in-vivo evaluation of trimethyl chitosan (TMC) - CSKSSDYQC (CSK) peptide conjugates capable of enhancing the oral bioavailability of gemcitabine due to the ability to target intestinal goblet cells and promote intestinal cellular uptake. TMC was synthesized by a novel two-step methylation method to improve quanternization and yield...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Hye-Yeon Seok, Linh Vu Nguyen, Hee-Yeon Park, Vaishali N Tarte, Jimin Ha, Sun-Young Lee, Yong-Hwan Moon
Functional studies of CCCH-type zinc finger proteins in abiotic stress responses have largely focused on tandem CCCH-type zinc finger (TZF) genes, whereas the study of functional roles of non-TZF genes in abiotic stress responses has largely been neglected. Here, we investigated the functional roles of AtC3H17, a non-TZF gene of Arabidopsis, in salt stress responses. AtC3H17 expression significantly increased under NaCl, mannitol, and ABA treatments. AtC3H17-overexpressing transgenic plants (OXs) were more tolerant under NaCl and MV treatment conditions than the wild type (WT)...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Rahman Barry, Errington Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Rib fractures after blunt trauma contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality in the elderly. METHODS: Retrospective review of 255 patients ≥65 years old at a level 2 trauma center over 6 years, who sustained blunt trauma resulting in rib fractures. Outcomes measured include mortality, hospital length of stay(LOS), intensive care unit(ICU) admission, ICU LOS, need for MV, and MV days. RESULTS: There were 24 deaths (9...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Kensuke Teramoto, Shunsuke Inoue, Shigeki Tokita, Ryo Yasuhara, Yoshihide Nakamiya, Takeshi Nagashima, Kazuaki Mori, Masaki Hashida, Shuji Sakabe
We have demonstrated that a pulsed electromagnetic wave (Sommerfeld wave) of subterahertz frequency and 11-MV/m field strength can be induced on a metal wire by the interaction of an intense femtosecond laser pule with an adjacent metal foil at a laser intensity of 8.5×10^{18}W/cm^{2}. The polarity of the electric field of this surface wave is opposite to that obtained by the direct interaction of the laser with the wire. Numerical simulations suggest that an electromagnetic wave associated with electron emission from the foil induces the surface wave...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Gaby Aphram, Laurent De Kerchove, Stefano Mastrobuoni, Emiliano Navarra, Silvia Solari, Saadallah Tamer, Jerome Baert, Alain Poncelet, Jean Rubay, Parla Astarci, Philippe Noirhomme, Gebrine El Khoury
OBJECTIVES: Mitral valve (MV) repair is the gold standard for treatment of degenerative mitral regurgitation. A variety of surgical techniques allow surgeons to achieve a high rate of MV repair even with MV diseases of other aetiologies. However, a certain number of repairs fail over time. The aim of this study was to review our single-centre experience of MV re-repair and analyse the mode of repair failure, re-repair safety and efficiency in relation to the initial aetiology. METHODS: Between 1997 and 2015, 91 patients underwent redo MV re-repair...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Xuan Shi, Huu Hao Ngo, Langtao Sang, Pengkang Jin, Xiaochang C Wang, Guanghua Wang
In this study, a pilot combined sewer system was constructed to characterize the pollutant transformation in sewer sediment. The results showed that particulate contaminants deposited from sewage could be transformed into dissolved matter by distinct pollutant transformation pathways. Although the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) was varied from -80 mV to -340 mV in different region of the sediment, the fermentation was the dominant process in all regions of the sediment, which induced hydrolysis and decomposition of particulate contaminants...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Tingting Liu, Shuo Wang, Qiuju Zhang, Liang Chen, Weihua Hu, Chang Ming Li
Ultrasmall ruthenium phosphide nanoparticles grown on reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (Ru2P/RGO-20) are reported as a highly efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalyst. It achieves a current density of -10 mA cm-2 at extremely low overpotentials of -22 and -13 mV under acidic and alkaline conditions, respectively, superior to those of commercial Pt/C.
March 16, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Feiyang Yu, Ya Gao, Zhongling Lang, Yuanyuan Ma, Liying Yin, Jing Du, Huaqiao Tan, Yonghui Wang, Yangguang Li
Molybdenum carbides are considered as one type of privileged noble-metal-free electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reactions (HER) due to their d-band electron structure, which is similar to Pt. Especially, the electronic structure of such materials can be further adjusted by elemental doping to improve their electrocatalytic activity. Herein, we selected the Anderson-type polyoxometalates (POMs) (NH4)n[TMMo6O24H6]·5H2O (TM = Ni2+, Co2+, n = 4; TM = Fe3+, Cr3+, n = 3) as precursors to prepare new transition-metal-doped Mo2C materials...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Shuo Liu, Lei Yang, Yannan Yuan, Huichao Li, Jing Tian, Sijia Lu, Ning Wang, Jiafu Ji
Objective: To analyze cancer incidence data in Beijing in 2014 and temporal trends for selected common cancers during 2005 and 2014. Methods: A total of 144 secondary and tertiary hospitals reported newly diagnosed cancer cases to Beijing Cancer Registry, which covers 13 million residents in Beijing. The cancer incidence rate was calculated in strata by cancer type, sex, age group and area. The population composition of China in 1982 and Segi's population structure were used to calculate age-standardized rates...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
Gulsah Kinali, Ferda Dokuztuğ Üçsular
[Purpose] This study aimed to establish a scientific and clinical basis for the development of a method for the early diagnosis of cumulative trauma disorders experienced by mothers of disabled children. [Subjects and Methods] Ten volunteer mothers who came to a rehabilitation centre for the treatment of their children were included in this study. Surface electromyography measurements were taken during maximum isometric contraction through the extensor muscle motor point of the wrist of the mothers, and hand grip strength was measured...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Marwa M Abu-Serie
Liver cancer is mainly originated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Due to difference in pH between normal and tumor cell microenvironments, targeting hepatic CSCs exploiting pH-dependent charge switchable nanoparticles (NPs) is extremely required to limit nonselective toxicity to normal hepatocytes (NHCs) and to completely eliminate the root of cancer origin. In this study, NPs were prepared from cationic chitosan and then coated with anionic albumin namely uncoated and coated NPs, respectively. Both NPs were loaded with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) which is an inhibitor of the critical enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 1A1, for CSCs survival...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
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