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Ying Xue, Yuting Xie, Bo Xue, Nan Hu, Guowei Zhang, Huaijin Guan, Min Ji
P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated ion channel, plays an important role in glaucomatous retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptotic death, in which activated retinal Müller glial cells may be involved by releasing ATP. In the present study, we investigated whether and how activated Müller cells may induce changes in P2X7R expression in RGCs by using immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques. Intravitreal injection of DHPG, a group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR I) agonist, induced upregulation of GFAP expression, suggestive of Müller cell activation (gliosis), as we previously reported...
2016: BioMed Research International
Jeremy S Lum, Francesca Fernandez, Natalie Matosin, Jessica L Andrews, Xu-Feng Huang, Lezanne Ooi, Kelly A Newell
Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1/mGluR5) play an integral role in neurodevelopment and are implicated in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. mGluR1 and mGluR5 are expressed as homodimers, which is important for their functionality and pharmacology. We examined the protein expression of dimeric and monomeric mGluR1α and mGluR5 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus throughout development (juvenile/adolescence/adulthood) and in the perinatal phencyclidine (PCP) model of schizophrenia...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bo Xue, Yuting Xie, Ying Xue, Nan Hu, Guowei Zhang, Huaijin Guan, Min Ji
Müller cell reactivation (gliosis) is an early response in glaucomatous retina. Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of P2X7 receptors results in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis. Here, the issues of whether and how activated Müller cells may contribute to RGC apoptosis through P2X7 receptors were investigated. Either intravitreal injection of (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), a group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR I) agonist, in normal rat retinas, or DHPG treatment of purified cultured rat retinal Müller cells induced an increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, indicative of Müller cell gliosis...
October 6, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Tathagata Sengupta, Rishi Das, Sumantra Chattarji
Acute stress has been shown to facilitate but not increase metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) mediated Long-Term Depression (LTD) in the hippocampus. However, the effect of chronic stress on mGluR dependent LTD has not been investigated. Moreover, whether stress leads to a transient modification LTD threshold or a more stable change in synaptic plasticity needs to be addressed. In the present study, we have explored the effects of both a ten-day long and a single day immobilization stress protocol on mGluR-LTD at the CA3:CA1synapse in the hippocampus of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, a day after applying stress...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
S Y Yau, C A Bostrom, J Chiu, C J Fontaine, S Sawchuk, A Meconi, R C Wortman, E Truesdell, A Truesdell, C Chiu, B N Hryciw, B D Eadie, M Ghilan, B R Christie
Fragile-X syndrome (FXS) is caused by the transcriptional repression of the Fmr1 gene resulting in loss of the Fragile-X mental retardation protein (FMRP). This leads to cognitive impairment in both male and female patients, however few studies have focused on the impact of FXS in females. Significant cognitive impairment has been reported in approximately 35% of women who exhibit a heterozygous Fmr1 gene mutation, however to date there is a paucity of information regarding the mechanistic underpinnings of these deficits...
September 19, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Joshua Levitz, Chris Habrian, Shashank Bharill, Zhu Fu, Reza Vafabakhsh, Ehud Y Isacoff
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate cellular responses to a wide variety of extracellular stimuli. GPCR dimerization may expand signaling diversity and tune functionality, but little is known about the mechanisms of subunit assembly and interaction or the signaling properties of heteromers. Using single-molecule subunit counting on class C metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), we map dimerization determinants and define a heterodimerization profile. Intersubunit fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements reveal that interactions between ligand-binding domains control the conformational rearrangements underlying receptor activation...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Christine Gebhardt, Oliver von Bohlen Und Halbach, Michael D Hadler, Christian Harteneck, Doris Albrecht
Recently we have shown that capsaicin attenuates the strength of LTP in the lateral amygdala (LA) and demonstrated that this effect is mediated by the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPV1. Here we further show that capsaicin, which is thought to act primarily through TRPV1, modifies long term depression (LTD) in the LA. Yet the application of various TRPV1 antagonists does not reverse this effect and it remains in TRPV1-deficient mice. In addition, voltage gated calcium channels, nitric oxide and CB1 receptors are not involved...
September 12, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Ni Ai, Richard D Wood, Eric Yang, William J Welsh
PURPOSE: Novel therapeutics are greatly needed that target specific pathological receptors and pathways involved in Neuropathic Pain (NP). Extending our previous work published in this Journal on Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) modulators, we now investigate the therapeutic potential of niclosamide in modulating aberrant glutamate transmission in NP. METHOD: Calcium mobilization assays and cross-receptor selectivity experiments are conducted to characterize the pharmacological activity of niclosamide...
September 8, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Anna Pittaluga
Group I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors consists of mGlu1 and mGlu5 receptor subtypes. These receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS), where they preferentially mediate facilitatory signaling in neurones and glial cells, mainly by favoring phospholipase (PLC) translocation. Based on the literature so far available, group I Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are preferentially expressed at the postsynaptic side of chemical synapsis, where they participate in the progression of the chemical stimulus...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Kellie S Gross, Dieter D Brandner, Luis A Martinez, M Foster Olive, Robert L Meisel, Paul G Mermelstein
The group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1a and mGluR5) are important modulators of neuronal structure and function. Although these receptors share common signaling pathways, they are capable of having distinct effects on cellular plasticity. We investigated the individual effects of mGluR1a or mGluR5 activation on dendritic spine density in medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which has become relevant with the potential use of group I mGluR based therapeutics in the treatment of drug addiction...
2016: PloS One
D Jantas, A Gręda, S Gołda, M Korostyński, W Lasoń
Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) modulates neuronal excitability. Here, we evaluated the neuroprotective potential of four structurally diverse activators of group II and III mGluRs: an orthosteric agonist of group II (LY354740), an orthosteric agonist of group III (ACPT-I), an allosteric agonist of mGluR7 (AMN082) and a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of mGluR4 (VU0361737). Neurotoxicity was induced by the pro-apoptotic agents: staurosporine (St) and doxorubicin (Dox) or the excitotoxic factor glutamate (Glu)...
December 2016: Neuropharmacology
I V Ryzhova, A D Nozdrachev, T V Tobias, I V Orlov, V N Chikhman, S D Solnushkin
A possible effect of nitric oxide (NO) on metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) function in the amino acid afferent synapse was investigated in the isolated labyrinth of the frog Rana temporaria. The modification of the amplitude of responses of metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist trans-ACPD was analyzed during bath applied NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine SNAP (0.1-100 μM) or nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME. It was shown that NO donor SNAP (1 μM) inhibited mGluR induced responses, and the inhibitor of NO-synthase L-NAME (100 μM) increased the amplitude of trans-ACPD evoked answers...
July 2016: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Yanke Zhang, Baobing Gao, Yan Xiong, Fangshuo Zheng, Xin Xu, Yong Yang, Yida Hu, Xuefeng Wang
SH3 and multiple ankyrin (ANK) repeat domain 3 (SHANK3) is a synaptic scaffolding protein enriched in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. SHANK3 plays an important role in the formation and maturation of excitatory synapses. In the brain, SHANK3 directly or indirectly interacts with various synaptic molecules including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR), and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor. Previous studies have shown that Autism spectrum disorder is a result of mutations of the main SHANK3 isoforms, which may be due to deficit in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity...
September 3, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Maria Gomis-González, Arnau Busquets-Garcia, Carlos Matute, Rafael Maldonado, Susana Mato, Andrés Ozaita
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common monogenetic cause of intellectual disability. The cognitive deficits in the mouse model for this disorder, the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (Fmr1) knockout (KO) mouse, have been restored by different pharmacological approaches, among those the blockade of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor. In this regard, our previous study showed that the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist rimonabant normalized a number of core features in the Fmr1 knockout mouse. Rimonabant was commercialized at high doses for its anti-obesity properties, and withdrawn from the market on the bases of mood-related adverse effects...
August 31, 2016: Genes
Idrish Ali, Stephanie Boets, Pieter Janssens, Annemie Van Eetveldt, Halima Amhaoul, Xavier Langlois, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere
Dysregulation in the glutamatergic function is considered a major contributor to hyperexcitatory neuronal networks in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Studies in animal models of MTLE have shown positive outcomes of augmenting group 2-metabotropic receptor functions that can regulate neuronal excitability from extrasynaptic locations. To assist in efficient translation of these findings to the clinical settings, we aimed to characterise the expression of mGluR2/3 receptors in the brain areas relevant to MTLE...
August 13, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Zhong-Feng Wang, Xiong-Li Yang
Glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness, is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by optic nerve degeneration related to apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In the pathogenesis of RGC death following the onset of glaucoma, functional changes of glutamate receptors are commonly regarded as important risk factors. During the past several years, we have explored the mechanisms underlying RGC apoptosis and retinal Müller cell reactivation (gliosis) in a rat chronic ocular hypertension (COH) model...
August 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Kristina Valentinova, Manuel Mameli
Excitatory and inhibitory transmission onto lateral habenula (LHb) neurons is instrumental for the expression of positive and negative motivational states. However, insights into the molecular mechanisms modulating synaptic transmission and the repercussions for neuronal activity within the LHb remain elusive. Here, we report that, in mice, activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors triggers long-term depression at excitatory (eLTD) and inhibitory (iLTD) synapses in the LHb. mGluR-eLTD and iLTD rely on mGluR1 and PKC signaling...
August 30, 2016: Cell Reports
Owen D Jones
Synapses undergo significant structural and functional reorganization in response to varying patterns of stimulation. These forms of plasticity are considered fundamental to cognition and neuronal homeostasis. An increasing number of reports highlight the importance of activity-dependent synaptic strengthening (long term potentiation: LTP) for learning. However, the functional significance of activity-dependent weakening of synapses (long term depression: LTD) remains relatively poorly understood. One form of synaptic weakening, induced by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), has received significant attention from a mechanistic point of view and because of its augmentation in a murine model of Fragile X Syndrome...
August 18, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Xiaoqun Zhang, Ning Yao, Karima Chergui
Several forms of long-term depression (LTD) of glutamatergic synaptic transmission have been identified in the dorsal striatum and in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Such experience-dependent synaptic plasticity might play important roles in reward-related learning. The GABAA receptor agonist muscimol was recently found to trigger a long-lasting depression of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the NAc of adolescent mice, but the mechanisms that underlie this novel form of LTD were not studied. Here we examined the effect of muscimol applied in the perfusion solution on the amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials/population spikes (fEPSP/PSs) in mouse brain slices...
September 2016: Learning & Memory
L K Friedman, A Sharma, M Corcia, T Webster, L Qazi, D Simsovits, Y Khalil, S Hu, M Kantrowitz, H Hong
The present study examined whether a single or multiple episode(s) of status epilepticus induced with kainic acid (KA) during the first 3 weeks of postnatal (P) development would aberrantly stimulate proliferation zones that alters migration to potentially injured areas and whether they would be blocked by selective Group I mGluR antagonists. mGluR1α (LY367385) and mGluR5 (MPEP) antagonists were administered 2h following KA-induced status epilepticus and animals were examined after 7days. Proliferating cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ), third ventricle, hippocampus, amygdala cortical complex were analyzed with the proliferative marker, Ki67; and two complementary retrograde dye tracers...
November 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
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