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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227710/changing-the-treatment-direction-for-opiate-addiction-dr-dole-s-research
#1
Herman Joseph, Joycelyn Sue Woods
Under the leadership of Drs. Vincent P. Dole, Marie Nyswander, and Mary Jeanne Kreek, in collaboration with the psychologist, Norman Gordon and sociologist, Herman Joseph at The Rockefeller University beginning in the 1960s, the first medical treatment for heroin addiction was developed. Drs. Dole, Nyswander and Kreek also developed the first hypothesis of opiate addiction as a metabolic disease. This biological revolution challenged beliefs about addiction, spurred further research and challenged legal positions of the judiciary and the broader criminal justice system (Dole & Nyswander, 1967 )...
December 11, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227204/canada-s-supreme-court-abolishes-promise-of-the-patent
#2
John Norman, Alex Gloor
The Supreme Court of Canada has done away with the 'promise of the patent' doctrine. This doctrine invalidated patents to numerous otherwise useful inventions from 2005 to 2016. The Supreme Court of Canada has clarified that the statutory utility requirement requires only a scintilla of utility related to the subject matter of the invention. This utility must have been demonstrated or soundly predicted as of the Canadian filing date. The decision brings increased certainty to Canada's patent system and more closely aligns it with international norms...
December 11, 2017: Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226485/immunohistologic-analysis-of-spontaneous-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-reinnervation-in-a-rat-model
#3
Andrew J Rosko, Robbi A Kupfer, Sang S Oh, Catherine T Haring, Eva L Feldman, Norman D Hogikyan
OBJECTIVE: After recurrent laryngeal nerve injury (RLN), spontaneous reinnervation of the larynx occurs with input from multiple sources. The purpose of this study was to determine the timing and efficiency of reinnervation across a resected RLN segment in a rat model of RLN injury. STUDY DESIGN: Animal study. METHODS: Twelve male 60-day-old Sprague Dawley rats underwent resection of a 5-mm segment of the right RLN. Rats were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks after nerve injury to harvest the larynx and trachea for immunohistologic analysis...
December 11, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225426/incidence-and-predictors-of-total-knee-arthroplasty-following-knee-arthroscopy
#4
Tristan Camus, Jiho Han, Feroz Osmani, Norman Scott, William J Long
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of knee arthroscopy (KA) in patients with symptomatic meniscal tears or mechanical symptoms and OA, by using conversion to TKA as a final outcome measure. Methods: Retrospective review of all patients with OA who underwent KA in our practice. Results: 1215 KAs were reviewed; 3.9% underwent conversion to TKA at an average of 3.2 years. Conclusion: KA plays a role in delaying TKA in knees with meniscal tears and mechanical symptoms with concurrent OA...
March 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225274/pseudomelanosis-duodeni-and-duodenal-polyp
#5
Yuto Shimamura, Hamzah Akram, Shawn Winer, Norman Marcon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224785/incongruence-between-molecules-and-morphology-a-seven-gene-phylogeny-of-dacini-fruit-flies-paves-the-way-for-reclassification-diptera-tephritidae
#6
Michael San Jose, Camiel Doorenweerd, Luc Leblanc, Norman Barr, Scott Geib, Daniel Rubinoff
Molecular and morphological research often suggest conflicting results. Selective pressure on certain morphologies can confound understanding of evolutionary relationships. Dacini is one of the most diverse tribes of tephritid flies and contains many economically important pest species. Their black and yellow patterned body markings are presumed to act as wasp mimicry, and the characters separating species and groups are limited and in some cases phenotypically plastic. The traditional taxonomy of the tribe is controversial because groupings are based on unique combinations of morphological characters without the use of cladistic methods, though recent phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses have resulted in significant changes to their taxonomy...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224780/a-living-biobank-of-breast-cancer-organoids-captures-disease-heterogeneity
#7
Norman Sachs, Joep de Ligt, Oded Kopper, Ewa Gogola, Gergana Bounova, Fleur Weeber, Anjali Vanita Balgobind, Karin Wind, Ana Gracanin, Harry Begthel, Jeroen Korving, Ruben van Boxtel, Alexandra Alves Duarte, Daphne Lelieveld, Arne van Hoeck, Robert Frans Ernst, Francis Blokzijl, Isaac Johannes Nijman, Marlous Hoogstraat, Marieke van de Ven, David Anthony Egan, Vittoria Zinzalla, Jurgen Moll, Sylvia Fernandez Boj, Emile Eugene Voest, Lodewyk Wessels, Paul Joannes van Diest, Sven Rottenberg, Robert Gerhardus Jacob Vries, Edwin Cuppen, Hans Clevers
Breast cancer (BC) comprises multiple distinct subtypes that differ genetically, pathologically, and clinically. Here, we describe a robust protocol for long-term culturing of human mammary epithelial organoids. Using this protocol, >100 primary and metastatic BC organoid lines were generated, broadly recapitulating the diversity of the disease. BC organoid morphologies typically matched the histopathology, hormone receptor status, and HER2 status of the original tumor. DNA copy number variations as well as sequence changes were consistent within tumor-organoid pairs and largely retained even after extended passaging...
December 5, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222063/evolutionary-dynamism-in-bryophytes-phylogenomic-inferences-confirm-rapid-radiation-in-the-moss-family-funariaceae
#8
Rafael Medina, Matthew Johnson, Yang Liu, Nicholas Wilding, Terry A Hedderson, Norman Wickett, Bernard Goffinet
Rapid diversifications of plants are primarily documented and studied in angiosperms, which are perceived as evolutionarily dynamic. Recent studies have, however, revealed that bryophytes have also undergone periods of rapid radiation. The speciose family Funariaceae, including the model taxon Physcomitrella patens, is one such lineage. Here, we infer relationships among major lineages within the Entosthodon-Physcomitrium complex from virtually complete organellar exomes (i.e., 123 genes) obtained through high throughput sequencing of genomic libraries enriched in these loci via targeted locus capture...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220554/assessment-of-dietary-sodium-intake-using-a-food-frequency-questionnaire-and-24-hour-urinary-sodium-excretion-a-systematic-literature-review
#9
Rachael M McLean, Victoria L Farmer, Alice Nettleton, Claire M Cameron, Nancy R Cook, Norman R C Campbell
Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are often used to assess dietary sodium intake, although 24-hour urinary excretion is the most accurate measure of intake. The authors conducted a systematic review to investigate whether FFQs are a reliable and valid way of measuring usual dietary sodium intake. Results from 18 studies are described in this review, including 16 validation studies. The methods of study design and analysis varied widely with respect to FFQ instrument, number of 24-hour urine collections collected per participant, methods used to assess completeness of urine collections, and statistical analysis...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219803/accuracy-and-reproducibility-of-the-etest-to-detect-drug-resistant-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-to-contemporary-treatment
#10
John R Papp, Marie-Claire Rowlinson, Norman P O'Connor, Jason Wholehan, Jafar H Razeq, Anita Glennen, Dapne Ware, Peter C Iwen, Lillian V Lee, Celia Hagan
PURPOSE: Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen that continues to evolve to become resistant to known antibiotics. In preparing for potential emergence, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that clinical laboratories maintain or develop protocols to assess antibiotic susceptibly for this organism. This study examines the intra-laboratory variability of using the Etest method to provide consistent MIC values for N. gonorrhoeae and also compared the results of the Etest to known agar dilution MIC values...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219566/dynamical-engineering-of-interactions-in-qudit-ensembles
#11
Soonwon Choi, Norman Y Yao, Mikhail D Lukin
We propose and analyze a method to engineer effective interactions in an ensemble of d-level systems (qudits) driven by global control fields. In particular, we present (i) a necessary and sufficient condition under which a given interaction can be decoupled, (ii) the existence of a universal sequence that decouples any (cancelable) interaction, and (iii) an efficient algorithm to engineer a target Hamiltonian from an initial Hamiltonian (if possible). We illustrate the potential of this method with two examples...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216203/dose-responses-of-vitamin-d3-supplementation-on-arterial-stiffness-in-overweight-african-americans-with-vitamin-d-deficiency-a-placebo-controlled-randomized-trial
#12
Anas Raed, Jigar Bhagatwala, Haidong Zhu, Norman K Pollock, Samip J Parikh, Ying Huang, Robyn Havens, Ishita Kotak, De-Huang Guo, Yanbin Dong
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials are scant and equivocal on whether vitamin D can ameliorate arterial stiffness, particularly in populations at high risk for vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study determined the dose-response effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on arterial stiffness in overweight African Americans with vitamin D deficiency. METHODS: Seventy overweight African Americans (aged 13-45 years) with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels ≤ 20 ng/mL were randomized to monthly oral supplementation of 18,000 IU (~600 IU/day, n = 17), 60,000 IU (~2000 IU/day, n = 18), or 120,000 IU (~4000 IU/day, n = 18) of vitamin D3 or placebo (n = 17) for 16-weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214860/a-comparison-of-unidimensionality-and-measurement-precision-of-the-narcissistic-personality-inventory-and-the-narcissistic-admiration-and-rivalry-questionnaire
#13
Michael P Grosz, Wilco H M Emons, Eunike Wetzel, Marius Leckelt, William J Chopik, Norman Rose, Mitja D Back
The current study compares the closeness to unidimensionality (CU) and measurement precision (MP) of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI)-with either a pairwise forced-choice or 5-point Likert-type scale response format-to the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire (NARQ). Minimum rank factor analysis and item information curves from item response models were utilized. The results mainly confirmed our expectations that NPI subscales are lower in CU and MP compared with NARQ subscales when the NPI was administered with its traditional forced-choice response format...
February 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214624/effects-of-technique-focused-training-in-conjunction-with-physical-readiness-training-on-army-physical-fitness-test-performance
#14
Mark D Thelen, Shane L Koppenhaver, Norman W Gill, Scott W Shaffer
The Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) is a semiannual requirement. While conducting physical readiness training (PRT) is a requirement for all Soldiers, there is no requirement to train Soldiers on techniques that may help to optimize their performance on the APFT. A cohort of 34 officers that attended the Army Medical Department Basic Officer Leadership Course completed a technique-focused training program in conjunction with their required PRT program subsequent to failing one or more events on their initial APFT...
October 2017: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213331/noninvasive-prenatal-diagnosis-of-fetal-aneuploidy-by-circulating-fetal-nucleated-red-blood-cells-and-extravillous-trophoblasts-using-silicon-based-nanostructured-microfluidics
#15
Chung-Er Huang, Gwo-Chin Ma, Hei-Jen Jou, Wen-Hsiang Lin, Dong-Jay Lee, Yi-Shing Lin, Norman A Ginsberg, Hsin-Fu Chen, Frank Mau-Chung Chang, Ming Chen
Background: Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) based on cell-free DNA in maternal circulation has been accepted worldwide by the clinical community since 2011 but limitations, such as maternal malignancy and fetoplacental mosaicism, preclude its full replacement of invasive prenatal diagnosis. We present a novel silicon-based nanostructured microfluidics platform named as "Cell Reveal™" to demonstrate the feasibility of capturing circulating fetal nucleated red blood cells (fnRBC) and extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVT) for cell-based noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (cbNIPD)...
2017: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212578/to-treat-or-not-to-treat-the-effects-of-pain-on-experimental-parameters
#16
Norman C Peterson, Elizabeth A Nunamaker, Patricia V Turner
A common dilemma faced by all animal bioethics committees arises when exceptions are proposed to the use of analgesics in painful procedures. The committee and researcher must weigh the possible confounding effects of including additional drugs (analgesics) in their treatment regimen against the moral obligation to perform humane research. Often neglected in these considerations are the potential confounding effects of unrelieved pain and consistency with pain-relieving practices in human medicine. In this review, we summarize what is currently known regarding the molecular and physiologic effects of pain and analgesics in common animal models used across several therapeutic areas...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212560/concurrent-benzodiazepine-use-in-older-adults-treated-with-antidepressants-in-asia
#17
Xiao-Mei Zhong, Fei Wang, Qinge Zhang, Gabor S Ungvari, Chee H Ng, Helen F K Chiu, Tian-Mei Si, Kang Sim, Ajit Avasthi, Sandeep Grover, Mian-Yoon Chong, Kok-Yoon Chee, Shigenobu Kanba, Min-Soo Lee, Shu-Yu Yang, Pichet Udomratn, Roy A Kallivayalil, Andi J Tanra, Margarita M Maramis, Winston W Shen, Norman Sartorius, Rathi Mahendran, Chay-Hoon Tan, Naotaka Shinfuku, Yu-Tao Xiang
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the combined use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants in older psychiatric patients. This study examined the prescription pattern of concurrent benzodiazepines in older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia, and explored its demographic and clinical correlates. METHODS: The data of 955 older adults with any type of psychiatric disorders were extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) project...
December 7, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211775/potential-to-curb-the-environmental-burdens-of-american-beef-consumption-using-a-novel-plant-based-beef-substitute
#18
Benjamin Goldstein, Rebekah Moses, Norman Sammons, Morten Birkved
The food demands of the United States (US) impart significant environmental pressures. The high rate of consumption of beef has been shown to be the largest driver of food-borne greenhouse gas emissions, water use and land occupation in the US diet. The environmental benefits of substituting animal products with vegetal foods are well documented, but significant psychological barriers persist in reducing meat consumption. Here we use life cycle assessment to appraise the environmental performance of a novel vegetal protein source in the mean US diet where it replaces ground beef, and in vegetarian and vegan diets where it substitutes for legumes, tofu and other protein sources...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211722/enhancing-mitochondrial-proteostasis-reduces-amyloid-%C3%AE-proteotoxicity
#19
Vincenzo Sorrentino, Mario Romani, Laurent Mouchiroud, John S Beck, Hongbo Zhang, Davide D' Amico, Norman Moullan, Francesca Potenza, Adrien W Schmid, Solène Rietsch, Scott E Counts, Johan Auwerx
Alzheimer's disease is a common and devastating disease characterized by aggregation of the amyloid-β peptide. However, we know relatively little about the underlying molecular mechanisms or how to treat patients with Alzheimer's disease. Here we provide bioinformatic and experimental evidence of a conserved mitochondrial stress response signature present in diseases involving amyloid-β proteotoxicity in human, mouse and Caenorhabditis elegans that involves the mitochondrial unfolded protein response and mitophagy pathways...
December 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211690/assessment-of-a-combined-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometer-sensor-system-for-detecting-biologically-relevant-volatile-compounds
#20
Oliver Gould, Tom Wieczorek, Ben de Lacy Costello, Raj Persad, Norman Ratcliffe
There have been a number of studies in which metal oxide sensors (MOS) have replaced conventional analytical detectors in gas chromatography systems. However, despite the use of these instruments in a range of applications including breath research the sensor responses (i.e. resistance changes w.r.t. concentration of VCs) remain largely unreported. This paper addresses that issue by comparing the response of a metal oxide sensor directly with a mass spectrometer (MS), whereby both detectors are interfaced to the same GC column using an s-swafer...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
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