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Yasemin Saygili, Magnus Söderberg, Norman Pellet, Fabrizio Giordano, Yiming Cao, Ana B Munoz-Garcia, Shaik Mohammed Zakeeruddin, Nick Vlachopoulos, Michele Pavone, Gerrit Boschloo, Ladislav Kavan, Jacques-E Moser, Michael Grätzel, Anders Hagfeldt, Marina Freitag
Redox mediators play a major role determining the photocurrent and the photovoltage in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). To maintain the photocurrent, the reduction of oxidized dye by the redox mediator should be significantly faster than the back electron transfer between TiO2 and the oxidized dye. The driving force for dye regeneration with the redox mediator should be sufficiently low to provide high photovoltages. With our introduction of new copper complexes as promising redox mediators in DSCs both criteria are satisfied to enhance power conversion efficiencies...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Holly Depinet, Karen Copeland, Joseph Gogain, Halim Hennes, Norman A Paradis, Rebecca Andrews-Dickert, Cheryl W Vance, David S Huckins
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of pediatric acute appendicitis can be difficult. Although scoring systems such as the Pediatric Appendicitis Score (PAS) are helpful, they lack adequate sensitivity and specificity as standalone diagnostics. When used for risk stratification, they often result in large percentages of moderate-risk patients requiring further diagnostic evaluation. METHODS: We applied a biomarker panel (the APPY1 Test) that has high sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) to patients with PAS in the moderate-risk range (3-7) and reclassified those patients with a negative result to the low-risk group...
August 10, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Christian Toso, Axel Andres, Norman Kneteman, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, Pietro Majno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Dung V Le, Andrea C Alfaro, Norman L C Ragg, Zoë Hilton, Nick King
Geoduck clams (Panopea spp.) are the longest-lived and largest deep burrowing bivalve. Their unique morphology allows them to live buried in the sediment at depths of up to 1 m. The endemic New Zealand geoduck (Panopea zelandica Quoy and Gaimard, 1835) has recently been identified as a potential species for aquaculture. However, very little is known about the biology and physiology of this entirely subtidal geoduck species. Currently, the New Zealand geoduck fishery relies entirely upon wild harvests, but farms are expected to emerge as cultivation protocols are established...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Vijay M Vulava, D Syreeta Vaughn, Larry D McKay, Steven G Driese, Lee W Cooper, Fu-Min Menn, Norman S Levine, Gary S Sayler
We assessed whether coal tar present in contaminated streambed sediments can be mobilized by flood events and be re-deposited in an adjacent floodplain. The study was conducted within a contaminated urban stream where coal tar wastes were released into a 4-km reach from a coke plant in Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA. Sediments containing visible amounts of coal tar were dredged from the streambed in 1997-98 and 2007 as part of a cleanup effort. However, post-dredging sampling indicated that very high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) remained in streambed sediments...
October 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Andrea L Roberts, Norman J Johnson, Jarvis T Chen, Merit E Cudkowicz, Marc G Weisskopf
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mortality in the United States. METHODS: The National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS), a United States-representative, multistage sample, collected race/ethnicity and socioeconomic data prospectively. Mortality information was obtained by matching NLMS records to the National Death Index (1979-2011). More than 2 million persons (n = 1,145,368 women, n = 1,011,172 men) were included, with 33,024,881 person-years of follow-up (1,299 ALS deaths , response rate 96%)...
October 14, 2016: Neurology
Hanna N Wetzel, Vladimir L Tsibulsky, Andrew B Norman
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has shown potential as a treatment for cocaine abuse. The humanized recombinant anti-cocaine monoclonal antibody (mAb) with the preclinical designation h2E2 has been shown to decrease cocaine concentrations in the brain in rats, but its effects on cocaine self-administration behavior have never been tested. METHODS: The amount of cocaine needed to reinstate self-administration behavior (priming threshold) was calculated and the inter-injection intervals at unit doses of 0...
October 6, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Lorra Garey, Charles Jardin, Brooke Y Kauffman, Carla Sharp, Clayton Neighbors, Norman B Schmidt, Michael J Zvolensky
The Barriers to Cessation Scale (BCS; Macnee & Talsma, 1995a) was developed to assess global and specific perceived barriers that may interfere with the quit process. Although the BCS is widely used in the literature, little scientific work has been devoted to examining the psychometric properties of the measure. Thus, the present study sought to address this gap by evaluating the BCS in a sample of 497 treatment-seeking smokers. The current study examined the factor structure of the BCS, measurement invariance of the BCS subscales across sex and over 2 time points, and evaluated construct validity...
August 15, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Wenjin Liu, Jeff M Snell, William R Jeck, Katherine A Hoadley, Matthew D Wilkerson, Joel S Parker, Nirali Patel, Yohannie B Mlombe, Gift Mulima, N George Liomba, Lindsey L Wolf, Carol G Shores, Satish Gopal, Norman E Sharpless
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is endemic in regions of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where it is the third most common cancer. Here, we describe whole-exome tumor/normal sequencing and RNA transcriptomic analysis of 59 patients with ESCC in Malawi. We observed similar genetic aberrations as reported in Asian and North American cohorts, including mutations of TP53, CDKN2A, NFE2L2, CHEK2, NOTCH1, FAT1, and FBXW7. Analyses for nonhuman sequences did not reveal evidence for infection with HPV or other occult pathogens...
October 6, 2016: JCI Insight
Jack Li, Samir Saba, Norman C Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Amy O'Donnell, Catherine McParlin, Stephen C Robson, Fiona Beyer, Eoin Moloney, Andrew Bryant, Jennifer Bradley, Colin Muirhead, Catherine Nelson-Piercy, Dorothy Newbury-Birch, Justine Norman, Emma Simpson, Brian Swallow, Laura Yates, Luke Vale
BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 85% of all women during pregnancy, but for the majority self-management suffices. For the remainder, symptoms are more severe and the most severe form of NVP - hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) - affects 0.3-1.0% of pregnant women. There is no widely accepted point at which NVP becomes HG. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for NVP and HG...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Norman Lu, Yun-Peng Yeh, Guan-Bo Wang, Tsung-Yao Feng, Yang-Hsin Shih, Dong Chen
Visible light-induced photocatalysis is potentially advantageous and could be an efficient approach to degrade contaminants because it can be used to selectively target specific wavelength for decomposition of organic contaminants in water and wastewater. This study demonstrates the photodegradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) using [Pt(3,3'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bpy)(1,2-benzenedithiolate)] (Complex 1)-sensitized and [Pt(4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bpy)(1,2-benzenedithiolate)] (Complex 2)-sensitized titanium dioxide (TiO2) under blue or yellow light (420 or 580 nm, respectively) irradiation in water...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Neil M Goldenberg, Benjamin E Steinberg, James T Rutka, Robert Chen, Val Cabral, Norman D Rosenblum, Andras Kapus, Warren L Lee
BACKGROUND: Physicians have traditionally been at the forefront of medical research, bringing clinical questions to the laboratory and returning with ideas for treatment. However, we have anecdotally observed a decline in the popularity of basic science research among trainees. We hypothesized that fewer resident physicians have been pursuing basic science research training over time. METHODS: We examined records from residents in the Surgeon-Scientist and Clinician-Investigator programs at the University of Toronto (1987-2016)...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
Yuto Shimamura, Shawn Winer, Norman Marcon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Sandeep K Krishnan, Norman E Lepor
Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte disorder associated with life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias and increased mortality. Patients at greatest risk for hyperkalemia include those with diabetes and those with impaired renal function in whom a defect in the excretion of renal potassium may already exist. Hyperkalemia is likely to become more common clinically because angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are increasingly being used in higher doses and are thought to confer cardiovascular and renal protection...
2016: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
Teige C Bourke, Catherine R Lowrey, Sean P Dukelow, Stephen D Bagg, Kathleen E Norman, Stephen H Scott
BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect our ability to perform daily activities, although it can be difficult to identify the underlying functional impairment(s). Recent theories highlight the importance of sensory feedback in selecting future motor actions. This selection process can involve multiple processes to achieve a behavioural goal, including selective attention, feature/object recognition, and movement inhibition. These functions are often impaired after stroke, but existing clinical measures tend to explore these processes in isolation and without time constraints...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Amanda M Raines, Mary E Oglesby, Nicholas P Allan, Nicole A Short, Norman B Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: Whereas a triple vulnerability model has been used to evaluate several anxiety- and mood-related conditions, no research has purposefully examined hoarding from this perspective. METHOD: Using a multivariate approach, the current study evaluated the unique relations between hoarding and a general biological (e.g., neuroticism), psychological (e.g., anxiety sensitivity), and hoarding-specific vulnerability (e.g., saving cognitions) within 526 individuals...
2016: Psychiatry
Mohammed Asmal, Sophie Lane, Meijuan Tian, Gabrielle Nickel, Colin Venner, Brennan Dirk, Jimmy Dikeakos, Corinne Luedemann, Linh Mach, Harikrishnan Balachandran, Adam Buzby, Srinivas Rao, Norman Letvin, Yong Gao, Eric J Arts
For studies on vaccines and therapies for HIV disease, SIV-HIV chimeric viruses harboring the HIV-1 env gene (SHIVenv) remain the best virus in non-human primate models. However, there are still very few SHIVenv viruses that can cause AIDS in non-CD8-depleted animals. In the present study, a recently created CCR5-using SHIVenv_B3 virus with env gene derived from acute/early HIV-1 infections (AHI) successfully established pathogenic infection in macaques. Through a series of investigations on the evolution, mutational profile, and phenotype of the virus and the resultant humoral immune response in infected rhesus macaques, we found that the E32K mutation in the Env C1 domain was associated with macaque pathogenesis, and that the electrostatic interactions in Env may favor E32K at the gp120 N terminus and "lock" the binding to heptad repeat 1 of gp41 in the trimer and produce a SHIVenv with increased fitness and pathogenesis during macaque infections...
October 6, 2016: Virology
Xiaojing Yan, Liangliang Sun, Guijie Zhu, Olivia F Cox, Norman J Dovichi
A tryptic digest generated from Xenopus laevis fertilized embryos was fractionated by reversed phase liquid chromatography. One set of 30 fractions was analyzed by 100-min CZE-ESI-MS/MS separations (50 hr total instrument time), and a second set of 15 fractions was analyzed by 3-hr UPLC-ESI-MS/MS separations (45 hr total instrument time). CZE-MS/MS produced 70% as many protein IDs (4,134 vs. 5,787) and 60% as many peptide IDs (22,535 vs. 36,848) as UPLC-MS/MS with similar instrument time (50 h vs. 45 h) but with 50 times smaller total consumed sample amount (1...
October 10, 2016: Proteomics
R B Murphy, R E Norman, J M White, M V Perkins, M R Johnston
The synthesis of a tetra-porphyrin molecular tweezer with two binding sites is described. The bis-porphyrin binding sites are aligned by a polycyclic scaffold and linked via a freely rotating phenyl diimide core. Synthesis was achieved using a divergent approach employing a novel coupling method for linking two polycyclic units to construct the core, with a copper(ii)-mediated phenyl boronic acid coupling found to extend to our polycyclic imide derivative. We expect this chemistry to be a powerful tool in accessing functional polycyclic supramolecular architectures in applications where north/south reactivity and/or directional interactions between modules are important...
September 21, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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