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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678962/open-label-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-and-economic-evaluation-of-a-brief-letter-from-a-gp-on-unscheduled-medical-contacts-associated-with-the-start-of-the-school-year-the-pleasant-trial
#1
Steven A Julious, Michelle J Horspool, Sarah Davis, Matthew Franklin, W Henry Smithson, Paul Norman, Rebecca M Simpson, Heather Elphick, Oscar Bortolami, Cindy Cooper
BACKGROUND: Asthma is seasonal with peaks in exacerbation rates in school-age children associated with the return to school following the summer vacation. A drop in prescription collection in August is associated with an increase in the number of unscheduled contacts after the school return. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a public health intervention delivered in general practice reduced unscheduled medical contacts in children with asthma. DESIGN: Cluster randomised trial with trial-based economic evaluation...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678910/serotype-diversity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-among-salmonella-enterica-isolated-from-patients-at-an-equine-referral-hospital
#2
I M Leon, S D Lawhon, K N Norman, D S Threadgill, N Ohta, J Vinasco, H M Scott
Although Salmonella enterica can produce life-threatening colitis in horses, certain serotypes are more commonly associated with clinical disease. Our aim was to evaluate the proportional morbidity attributed to different serotypes, as well as phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella isolated from patients at an equine referral hospital in the southern United States. Two-hundred-fifty-five Salmonella isolates were obtained from clinical samples of patients admitted to the hospital between 2007 and 2015...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677351/retinal-oxygen-delivery-and-metabolism-in-healthy-and-sickle-cell-retinopathy-subjects
#3
Mahnaz Shahidi, Anthony E Felder, Ou Tan, Norman P Blair, David Huang
Purpose: Reduction in inner retinal oxygen delivery (DO2) can cause retinal hypoxia and impair inner retinal oxygen metabolism (MO2), leading to vision loss. The purpose of the current study was to establish measurements of DO2 and MO2 in healthy subjects and test the hypothesis that DO2 and MO2 are reduced in sickle cell retinopathy (SCR) subjects. Methods: Dual wavelength retinal oximetry and Doppler optical coherence tomography were performed in 12 healthy control and 12 SCR subjects...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677326/the-visual-perception-of-metal
#4
James T Todd, J Farley Norman
The present research was designed to examine how the presence or absence of ambient light influences the appearance of metal. The stimuli depicted three possible objects that were illuminated by three possible patterns of illumination. These were generated by a single point light source, two rectangular area lights, or projecting light onto a translucent white box that contained the object (and the camera) so that the object would be illuminated by ambient light in all directions. The materials were simulated using measured parameters of chrome with four different levels of roughness...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677074/frailty-inflammatory-markers-and-waitlist-mortality-among-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-in-a-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Mara A McAdams-DeMarco, Hao Ying, Alvin G Thomas, Fatima Warsame, Ashton A Shaffer, Christine E Haugen, Jacqueline M Garonzik-Wang, Niraj M Desai, Ravi Varadhan, Jeremy Walston, Silas P Norman, Dorry L Segev
BACKGROUND: Among community-dwelling older adults, frailty is associated with heightened markers of inflammation and subsequent mortality. Although frailty is common among ESRD patients, the role of frailty and markers of inflammation in this population remains unclear. We quantified these associations in patients on the kidney transplant (KT) waitlist and tested whether frailty and/or markers of inflammation improve waitlist mortality risk prediction. METHODS: We studied 1,975 ESRD patients on the KT waitlist (11/1/09-2/28/17) in a multi-center cohort study of frailty...
April 19, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674426/association-of-polygenic-risk-score-with-the-risk-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-and-monoclonal-b-cell-lymphocytosis
#6
Geffen Kleinstern, Nicola J Camp, Lynn R Goldin, Celine M Vachon, Claire M Vajdic, Silvia de Sanjose, J Brice Weinberg, Yolanda Benavente, Delphine Casabonne, Mark Liebow, Alexandra Nieters, Henrik Hjalgrim, Mads Melbye, Bengt Glimelius, Hans-Olov Adami, Paolo Boffetta, Paul Brennan, Marc Maynadie, James McKay, Pier Luigi Cocco, Tait D Shanafelt, Timothy G Call, Aaron Norman, Curtis Hanson, Dennis Robinson, Kari G Chaffee, Angela R Brooks-Wilson, Alain Monnereau, Jacqueline Clavel, Martha Glenn, Karen Curtin, Lucia Conde, Paige M Bracci, Lindsay M Morton, Wendy Cozen, Richard K Severson, Stephen J Chanock, John J Spinelli, James B Johnston, Nathaniel Rothman, Christine F Skibola, Jose F Leis, Neil E Kay, Karin E Smedby, Sonja I Berndt, James R Cerhan, Neil Caporaso, Susan L Slager
Inherited loci have been found to be associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A combined polygenic risk score (PRS) of representative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from these loci may improve risk prediction over individual SNPs. Herein, we evaluated the association of a PRS with CLL risk and its precursor, monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). We assessed its validity and discriminative ability in an independent sample and evaluated effect modification and confounding by family history (FH) of hematological cancers...
April 19, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674373/study-protocol-quantitative-fibronectin-to-help-decision-making-in-women-with-symptoms-of-preterm-labour-quids-part-2-uk-prospective-cohort-study
#7
Sarah Jane Stock, Lisa M Wotherspoon, Kathleen Anne Boyd, Rachel K Morris, Jon Dorling, Lesley Jackson, Manju Chandiramani, Anna L David, Asma Khalil, Andrew Shennan, Victoria Hodgetts Morton, Tina Lavender, Khalid Khan, Susan Harper-Clarke, Ben Mol, Richard D Riley, John Norrie, Jane Norman
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the QUIDS study is to develop a decision support tool for the management of women with symptoms and signs of preterm labour, based on a validated prognostic model using quantitative fetal fibronectin (fFN) concentration, in combination with clinical risk factors. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study will evaluate the Rapid fFN 10Q System (Hologic, Marlborough, Massachusetts, USA) which quantifies fFN in a vaginal swab. In QUIDS part 2, we will perform a prospective cohort study in at least eight UK consultant-led maternity units, in women with symptoms of preterm labour at 22+0  to 34+6 weeks gestation to externally validate a prognostic model developed in QUIDS part 1...
April 19, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673959/a-200k-snp-chip-reveals-a-novel-pacific-salmon-louse-genotype-linked-to-differential-efficacy-of-emamectin-benzoate
#8
Amber M Messmer, Jong S Leong, Eric B Rondeau, Anita Mueller, Cody A Despins, David R Minkley, Matthew P Kent, Sigbjørn Lien, Brad Boyce, Diane Morrison, Mark D Fast, Joseph D Norman, Roy G Danzmann, Ben F Koop
Antiparasitic drugs such as emamectin benzoate (EMB) are relied upon to reduce the parasite load, particularly of the sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on farmed salmon. The decline in EMB treatment efficacy for this purpose is an important issue for salmon producers around the world, and particularly for those in the Atlantic Ocean where widespread EMB tolerance in sea lice is recognized as a significant problem. Salmon farms in the Northeast Pacific Ocean have not historically experienced the same issues with treatment efficacy, possibly due to the relatively large population of endemic salmonid hosts that serve to both redistribute surviving lice and dilute populations potentially under selection by introducing naïve lice to farms...
April 16, 2018: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673620/effects-of-opioid-and-non-opioid-analgesics-on-responses-to-psychosocial-stress-in-humans
#9
Anya K Bershad, Melissa A Miller, Greg J Norman, Harriet de Wit
Both preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that the endogenous opioid system is involved in responses to stress. For example, in animal models opioid agonists reduce isolation distress whereas opioid antagonists increase isolation distress. We recently reported that the mixed mu agonist and kappa antagonist buprenorphine dampened responses to acute psychosocial stress in humans. Now we extend this to study the effects of a pure mu-opioid agonist, hydromorphone, and a non-opioid analgesic, acetaminophen, on response to social stress...
April 16, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672845/drug-induced-proarrhythmia-and-torsade-de-pointes-a-primer-for-students-and-practitioners-of-medicine-and-pharmacy
#10
REVIEW
J Rick Turner, Ignacio Rodriguez, Emily Mantovani, Gary Gintant, Peter R Kowey, Ralph J Klotzbaugh, Krishna Prasad, Philip T Sager, Norman Stockbridge, Colette Strnadova
Multiple marketing withdrawals due to proarrhythmic concerns occurred in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom in the late 1980s to early 2000s. This primer reviews the clinical implications of a drug's identified proarrhythmic liability, the issues associated with these safety-related withdrawals, and the actions taken by the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) and by regulatory agencies in terms of changing drug development practices and introducing new nonclinical and clinical tests to asses proarrhythmic liability...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671031/short-term-decreased-physical-activity-with-increased-sedentary-behaviour-causes-metabolic-derangements-and-altered-body-composition-effects-in-individuals-with-and-without-a-first-degree-relative-with-type-2-diabetes
#11
Kelly A Bowden Davies, Victoria S Sprung, Juliette A Norman, Andrew Thompson, Katie L Mitchell, Jason C G Halford, Jo A Harrold, John P H Wilding, Graham J Kemp, Daniel J Cuthbertson
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Low physical activity levels and sedentary behaviour are associated with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effects of a short-term reduction in physical activity with increased sedentary behaviour on metabolic profiles and body composition, comparing the effects in individuals with first-degree relatives with type 2 diabetes (FDR+ve) vs those without (FDR-ve). METHODS: Forty-five habitually active participants (16 FDR+ve [10 female, 6 male] and 29 FDR-ve [18 female, 11 male]; age 36 ± 14 years) were assessed at baseline, after 14 days of step reduction and 14 days after resuming normal activity...
April 18, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669729/closed-loop-systems-in-type-1-diabetes
#12
EDITORIAL
Norman Waugh, Amanda Adler, Ian Craigie, Timothy Omer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669630/social-justice-and-human-caring-a-model-of-caring-science-as-a-hopeful-paradigm-for-moral-justice-for-humanity
#13
Jean Watson
The only true standard of greatness of any civilization is our sense of social and moral responsibility in translating material wealth to human values and achieving our full potential as a caring society. -The Right Honorable Norman Kirk, Former Prime Minister of New Zealand.
April 1, 2018: Creative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668074/a-20-year-experience-with-nocardiosis-in-solid-organ-transplant-sot-recipients-in-the-southwestern-united-states-a-single-center-study
#14
Aneela Majeed, Norman Beatty, Ahmad Iftikhar, Adeela Mushtaq, Julia Fisher, Pryce Gaynor, Jeeyong C Kim, Jose Luis Marquez, Francisco E Mora, Anca Georgescu, Tirdad Zangeneh
BACKGROUND: Nocardiosis is a life-threatening opportunistic infection. Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at higher risk (incidence 0.04% to 3.5%) of developing nocardiosis. Rate of nocardiosis in the Southwestern US may be high due to environmental factors. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review study on 54 SOT patients diagnosed with Nocardia between 1997 and 2016 at our center. To explore the association of various risk factors with both the development of disseminated disease and mortality, a series of Fisher's exact tests was used...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667884/egg-and-banana-sign-a-novel-diagnostic-ct-marker-for-pulmonary-hypertension
#15
Chris L Scelsi, William B Bates, Yulia V Melenevsky, Gyanendra K Sharma, Norman B Thomson, Jayanth H Keshavamurthy
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively determine whether the egg-and-banana sign, defined as the visualization of the main pulmonary artery (PA) at the level of the aortic arch, is a sensitive and specific diagnostic marker for pulmonary hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 186 patients who, between January 2014 and July 2017, received right heart catheterizations and underwent CT studies that included the aortic arch within 140 days of catheterization were evaluated in this retrospective study...
April 18, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667709/the-outlet-patch-gastric-heterotopia-of-the-colo-rectum-and-anus
#16
Abul Ala Syed Rifat Mannan, Michael Vieth, Armen Khararjian, Binny Khandakar, Dora Lam-Himlin, David Heydt, Feriyl Bhaijee, Henry J Venbrux, Kathleen Byrnes, Lysandra Voltaggio, Norman Barker, Songyang Yuan, Elizabeth Montgomery
AIMS: Gastric heterotopia (GH) has been described throughout the gastrointestinal tract. However, the colorectal region is an extremely rare location for it. We describe the clinicopathologic features of GH of the colon, rectum, and anus. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 33 cases in 20 males and 13 females (median age 54 years; range, 4 months to 73 years). Sites included the rectum (N=26), anus (N=4), ileocecal junction (N=1), ascending colon (N=1) and descending colon (N=1)...
April 18, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666309/hospital-admissions-associated-with-medication-non-adherence-a-systematic-review-of-prospective-observational-studies
#17
Pajaree Mongkhon, Darren M Ashcroft, C Norman Scholfield, Chuenjid Kongkaew
BACKGROUND: Medication non-adherence in ambulatory care has received substantial attention in the literature, but less so as it affects acute care. Accordingly, we aimed to estimate the frequency with which non-adherence to medication contributes to hospital admissions. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and PubMed (until December 2017) to identify prospective observational studies that examined prevalence rates of hospital admissions associated with medication non-adherence...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666216/progress-towards-platform-chemical-production-using-clostridium-autoethanogenum
#18
REVIEW
Rupert O J Norman, Thomas Millat, Klaus Winzer, Nigel P Minton, Charlie Hodgman
Since 2013, there has been an explosion in the number of research articles published on Clostridium autoethanogenum , an acetogen capable of producing platform chemicals such as ethanol and 2,3-butanediol from greenhouse gases. However, no review focusing solely on C. autoethanogenum has appeared in the literature. This review outlines the research conducted into this organism in three broad categories (Enzymology, Genetics, and Systems Biology) and suggestions for future research are offered.
April 17, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666059/vision-for-nci-outlined-by-new-director
#19
(no author information available yet)
Speaking at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2018, Norman "Ned" Sharpless, MD, the new director of the NCI, outlined his vision for the agency and spoke about four areas on which he'd like to focus its efforts: workforce training and development, basic science, "big data," and clinical trials.
April 17, 2018: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665357/second-trimester-surgical-abortion-practices-in-the-united-states
#20
Katharine O White, Heidi E Jones, Jade Shorter, Wendy V Norman, Edith Guilbert, E Steve Lichtenberg, Maureen Paul
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether second-trimester surgical abortion practices of U.S. providers agree with evidence-based policy guidelines. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of abortion facilities in the U.S. identified via publicly available resources and professional networks from June through December 2013. RESULTS: Of 703 identified facilities, 383 (54%) participated including 172 clinicians providing second-trimester surgical abortions (D&Es)...
April 14, 2018: Contraception
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