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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431241/akt-pkb-signaling-navigating-the-network
#1
REVIEW
Brendan D Manning, Alex Toker
The Ser and Thr kinase AKT, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), was discovered 25 years ago and has been the focus of tens of thousands of studies in diverse fields of biology and medicine. There have been many advances in our knowledge of the upstream regulatory inputs into AKT, key multifunctional downstream signaling nodes (GSK3, FoxO, mTORC1), which greatly expand the functional repertoire of AKT, and the complex circuitry of this dynamically branching and looping signaling network that is ubiquitous to nearly every cell in our body...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429832/a-genetic-risk-score-that-includes-common-type-2-diabetes-risk-variants-is-associated-with-gestational-diabetes
#2
Vivian K Kawai, Rebecca T Levinson, Abiodun Adefurin, Daniel Kurnik, Sarah P Collier, Douglas Conway, C Michael Stein
OBJECTIVE: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is characterized by maternal glucose intolerance that manifests during pregnancy. Because GDM resembles type 2 diabetes (T2DM), shared genetic predisposition is likely but has not been established. We tested the hypothesis that a genetic risk score (GRS) that included variants known to be associated with T2DM is associated with GDM. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a case-control study using the Vanderbilt Medical Center biobank (BioVU), and calculated a simple-count GRS using 34 variants previously associated with T2DM or fasting glucose in the general population, or with GDM or glucose intolerance in pregnancy...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428690/implications-of-ace-i-d-gene-variants-to-the-genetic-susceptibility-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-asian-indians
#3
G K Bhatti, J S Bhatti, R Vijayvergiya, B Singh
Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has established substantial attention in the recent years as a candidate gene for hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of ACE (I/D) polymorphism with coronary artery disease (CAD) in a north Indian population. A total of 662 subjects (330 CAD patients and 332 healthy controls) were examined for association of ACE gene (I/D) polymorphism and environmental risk factors. The mean age of the CAD patients and control subjects was 60...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428286/a-genetic-analysis-of-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-detoxification-response
#4
Tetsunari Fukushige, Harold E Smith, Johji Miwa, Michael W Krause, John A Hanover
Oxidative damage contributes to human diseases of aging including diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disorders. Reactive oxygen species resulting from xenobiotic and endogenous metabolites are sensed by a poorly understood process, triggering a cascade of regulatory factors and leading to the activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 (SKN-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans). Nrf2/SKN-1 activation promotes the induction of the Phase II detoxification system that serves to limit oxidative stress. We have extended a previous C...
April 19, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427920/genome-improvement-of-the-acarbose-producer-actinoplanes-sp-se50-110-and-annotation-refinement-based-on-rna-seq-analysis
#5
Timo Wolf, Susanne Schneiker-Bekel, Armin Neshat, Vera Ortseifen, Daniel Wibberg, Till Zemke, Alfred Pühler, Jörn Kalinowski
Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 is the natural producer of acarbose, which is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type II. However, until now the transcriptional organization and regulation of the acarbose biosynthesis is only understood rudimentarily. The genome sequence of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 was known before, but was resequenced in this study to remove assembly artifacts and incorrect base callings. The annotation of the genome was refined in a multi-step approach, including modern bioinformatic pipelines, transcriptome and proteome data...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427246/nanotechnology-and-diabetic-wound-healing-a-review
#6
Dinesh Kumar Chellappan, Yap Yenese, Chew Chian Wei, Gaurav Gupta
The incidence of diabetes has been on the rise and the rate of rise since the turn of this century has been phenomenal. One of the various battling issues faced by diabetics all over the globe is the management of diabetic wounds. Currently there are several management strategies to deal with the treatment of diabetic wounds. The conventional methods have several limitations. One of the major limitations is the rate and progression of healing of a diabetic wound when adopting a conventional diabetic wound management therapy...
April 21, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425954/inherited-variation-in-vitamin-d-genes-and-type-1-diabetes-predisposition
#7
REVIEW
Marissa Penna-Martinez, Klaus Badenhoop
The etiology and pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes remain largely elusive with no established concepts for a causal therapy. Efforts to clarify genetic susceptibility and screening for environmental factors have identified the vitamin D system as a contributory pathway that is potentially correctable. This review aims at compiling all genetic studies addressing the vitamin D system in type 1 diabetes. Herein, association studies with case control cohorts are presented as well as family investigations with transmission tests, meta-analyses and intervention trials...
April 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424857/extraction-of-cell-free-dna-from-urine-using-polylysine-coated-silica-particles
#8
Sho Takano, Qingjiang Hu, Takaki Amamoto, Paulo Refinetti, Koshi Mimori, Takashi Funatsu, Masaru Kato
DNA analysis is used for a variety of purposes, including disease diagnosis and DNA profiling; this involves extracting DNA from living organisms. In this study, we prepared polycationic silica particles to extract DNA that has the negatively charged phosphate backbone from solution. The coated particles were prepared by mixing conventional silica gel particles and poly-Lys; these particles could efficiently extract 1.3 μg of cell-free DNA from 50 mL of (male) urine. It is expected that these easily prepared particles (just a mixture of two commercially available chemicals) can be used as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for genetic disorders such as cancer, diabetes, and hypertension...
April 19, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424468/effect-of-handgrip-on-coronary-artery-disease-and-myocardial-infarction-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#9
Lin Xu, Yuan Tao Hao
Observational studies have reported an association of handgrip strength with risk of cardiovascular disease. However, residual confounding and reverse causation may have influenced these findings. A Mendelian randomization (MR) study was conducted to examine whether handgrip is causally associated with cardiovascular disease. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs3121278 and rs752045, were used as the genetic instruments for handgrip. The effect of each SNP on coronary artery disease/myocardial infarction (CAD/MI) was weighted by its effect on handgrip strength, and estimates were pooled to provide a summary measure for the effect of increased handgrip on risk of CAD/MI...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422298/bridging-type-2-diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease-assembling-the-puzzle-pieces-in-the-quest-for-the-molecules-with-therapeutic-and-preventive-potential
#10
REVIEW
Ana Marta de Matos, Maria Paula de Macedo, Amélia Pilar Rauter
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two age-related amyloid diseases that affect millions of people worldwide. Broadly supported by epidemiological data, the higher incidence of AD among type 2 diabetic patients led to the recognition of T2D as a tangible risk factor for the development of AD. Indeed, there is now growing evidence on brain structural and functional abnormalities arising from brain insulin resistance and deficiency, ultimately highlighting the need for new approaches capable of preventing the development of AD in type 2 diabetic patients...
April 19, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422118/nutrient-regulation-of-%C3%AE-cell-function-what-do-islet-cell-animal-studies-tell-us
#11
REVIEW
R Carlessi, K N Keane, C Mamotte, P Newsholme
Diabetes mellitus is widely recognised as one of the most serious metabolic diseases worldwide, and its incidence in Asian countries is growing at an alarming rate. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is closely associated with age, sedentary lifestyle and poor diet. In T2DM, β-cell dysfunction will occur before hyperglycaemia develops. Excessive levels of glucose, lipid and various inflammatory factors interact at the level of the pancreatic islet to promote β-cell dysfunction. Pancreatic β-cell lines have been widely utilised since the early 1980s and have contributed a large volume of important information regarding molecular, metabolic and genetic mechanisms that regulate insulin secretion...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420495/fetal-programming-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Aleksandra Marciniak, Jolanta Patro-Małysza, Żaneta Kimber-Trojnar, Beata Marciniak, Jan Oleszczuk, Bożena Leszczyńska-Gorzelak
Prenatal development is currently recognized as a critical period in the etiology of human diseases. This is particularly so when an unfavorable environment interacts with a genetic predisposition. The fetal programming concept suggests that maternal nutritional imbalance and metabolic disturbances may have a persistent and intergenerational effect on the health of offspring and on the risk of diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.
April 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417558/the-tcn2-variant-of-rs9606756-ile23val-acts-as-risk-loci-for-obesity-related-traits-and-mediates-by-interacting-with-apo-a1
#13
Prashantha Hebbar, Fadi Alkayal, Rasheeba Nizam, Motasem Melhem, Naser Elkum, Sumi Elsa John, Mohamed Abufarha, Osama Alsmadi, Thangavel Alphonse Thanaraj
OBJECTIVE: Despite alarming obesity levels in the Arabian Peninsula, its population lacks convincingly identified genetic determinants of obesity. A genome-wide association study was performed for obesity-related anthropometric traits in Arabs and to decipher mechanisms by which the variants mediate traits. METHODS: The Illumina HumanOmniExpress BeadChip was used to genotype 1,353 Arab individuals (largely with Class I obesity) from Kuwait. Genome-wide association tests for obesity-related anthropometric traits were performed...
April 17, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417008/association-of-gene-coding-variation-and-resting-metabolic-rate-in-a-multi-ethnic-sample-of-children-and-adults
#14
Jacklyn N Hellwege, Digna R Velez Edwards, Sari Acra, Kong Chen, Maciej S Buchowski, Todd L Edwards
BACKGROUND: Resting metabolic rates (RMR) vary across individuals. Understanding the determinants of RMR could provide biological insight into obesity and its metabolic consequences such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: The present study measured RMR using reference standard indirect calorimetry and evaluated genetic variations from an exome array in a sample of children and adults (N = 262) predominantly of African and European ancestry with a wide range of ages (10 - 67 years old) and body mass indices (BMI; 16...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416300/pyrophosphate-supplementation-prevents-chronic-and-acute-calcification-in-abcc6-deficient-mice
#15
Viola Pomozi, Christopher Brampton, Koen van de Wetering, Janna Zoll, Bianca Calio, Kevin Pham, Jesse B Owens, Joel Marh, Stefan Moisyadi, András Váradi, Ludovic Martin, Carolin Bauer, Jeanette Erdmann, Zouhair Aherrahrou, Olivier Le Saux
Soft tissue calcification occurs in several common acquired pathologies, such as diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, or can result from genetic disorders. ABCC6, a transmembrane transporter primarily expressed in liver and kidneys, initiates a molecular pathway inhibiting ectopic calcification. ABCC6 facilitates the cellular efflux of ATP, which is rapidly converted into pyrophosphate (PPi), a major calcification inhibitor. Heritable mutations in ABCC6 underlie the incurable calcification disorder pseudoxanthoma elasticum and some cases of generalized arterial calcification of infancy...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416283/activation-of-irf1-in-human-adipocytes-leads-to-phenotypes-associated-with-metabolic-disease
#16
Max Friesen, Raymond Camahort, Youn-Kyoung Lee, Fang Xia, Robert E Gerszten, Eugene P Rhee, Rahul C Deo, Chad A Cowan
The striking rise of obesity-related metabolic disorders has focused attention on adipocytes as critical mediators of disease phenotypes. To better understand the role played by excess adipose in metabolic dysfunction it is crucial to decipher the transcriptional underpinnings of the low-grade adipose inflammation characteristic of diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Through employing a comparative transcriptomics approach, we identified IRF1 as differentially regulated between primary and in vitro-derived genetically matched adipocytes...
April 5, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415790/hyperglycemia-via-activation-of-thromboxane-a2-receptor-impairs-the-integrity-and-function-of-blood-brain-barrier-in-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#17
Zhihong Zhao, Jue Hu, Xiaoping Gao, Hui Liang, Haiya Yu, Suosi Liu, Zhan Liu
Diabetes is one of high risk factors for cardio- and cerebra-vascular diseases, including stroke, atherosclerosis and hypertension. This study was conducted to elucidate whether and how thromboxane receptor (TPr) activation contributes to blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction in diabetes. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) were cultured. The levels of phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) at Ser1177 (p-eNOS) and Akt at Ser473 (p-Akt) were assayed by western blot. Exposure of HBMECs to either high glucose (HG) or thromboxane A2 (TxA2) mimetic U46619, significantly reduced p-eNOS and p-Akt...
March 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414676/pheochromocytoma-of-the-organ-zuckerkandl
#18
C Lee, E Chang, J Gimenez, R McCarron
INTRODUCTION: Pheochromocytomas (PCCs);, or intra-adrenal paragangliomas (PGLs);, are neuroendocrine tumors arising within the adrenal medulla. Extra-adrenal paragangliomas may arise in the sympathetic or parasympathetic paraganglia and more rarely in other organs. One of the most common extra-adrenal sites is in the organ of Zuckerkandl, a collection of chromaffin cells near the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery or near the aortic bifurcation. The following is a case of a patient with resistant hypertension secondary to an extra-adrenal paraganglioma in the organ of Zuckerkandl...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413180/role-of-hormone-sensitive-lipase-in-leptin-promoted-fat-loss-and-glucose-lowering
#19
Mikio Takanashi, Yoshino Taira, Sachiko Okazaki, Satoru Takase, Takeshi Kimura, Cheng Cheng Li, Peng Fei Xu, Akari Noda, Ichiro Sakata, Hidetoshi Kumagai, Yuichi Ikeda, Yoko Iizuka, Naoya Yahagi, Hitoshi Shimano, Jun-Ichi Osuga, Shun Ishibashi, Takashi Kadowaki, Hiroaki Okazaki
AIM: Myriad biological effects of leptin may lead to broad therapeutic applications for various metabolic diseases, including diabetes and its complications; however, in contrast to its anorexic effect, the molecular mechanisms underlying adipopenic and glucose-lowering effects of leptin have not been fully understood. Here we aim to clarify the role of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in leptin's action. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) and HSL-deficient (HSLKO) mice were made hyperleptinemic by two commonly-used methods: adenovirus-mediated overexpression of leptin and continuous subcutaneous infusion of leptin by osmotic pumps...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412319/genetic-and-non-genetic-factors-affecting-the-quality-of-anticoagulation-control-and-vascular-events-in-atrial-fibrillation
#20
Yun Kyung Park, Mi Ji Lee, Jae Ha Kim, Jin Soo Lee, Rae Woong Park, Gyeong-Moon Kim, Chin-Sang Chung, Kwang Ho Lee, June Soo Kim, Soo-Youn Lee, Oh Young Bang
BACKGROUND: Warfarin has a narrow therapeutic window. We hypothesized that genetic factors related to warfarin metabolism (CYP2C9) and activity (VKORC1) would show stronger associations than modifiable factors with the quality of anticoagulation control and risks for thromboembolism and hemorrhage. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort analysis, clinical and genetic data were collected from 380 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who were followed for an average observation period of 4 years...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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