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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454067/considering-our-methods-methodological-issues-with-rodent-models-of-appetite-and-obesity-research
#1
Thomas A Lutz
A large number of animal models are currently used in appetite and obesity research. Because the worldwide incidence of obesity continues to climb, it is imperative that animal models sharing characteristics of human obesity and its co-morbidities be used appropriately in the quest for novel preventions or treatments. There is probably no animal model, at least in rodents, that recapitulates all aspects of "common" human obesity and its comorbidities, but rodent models allow insight into specific mechanisms of disease or its consequences...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453110/genetics-of-type-1-diabetes
#2
REVIEW
Catherine C Robertson, Stephen S Rich
Type 1 diabetes is the most common autoimmune disorder in childhood, characterized by the development of autoimmunity through unknown environmental insults in genetically susceptible individuals. There are now over 50 regions of the genome that harbor type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes, with much of the genetic risk now well-defined in youth of Northern European ancestry. The impact of these genetic variants on initiation and progression of the autoimmune process (islet autoimmunity) is now being understood; however, studies are only now being conducted to understand the function of the variants associated with type 1 diabetes risk...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453109/genetic-basis-of-diabetic-kidney-disease-and-other-diabetic-complications
#3
REVIEW
Niina Sandholm, Per-Henrik Groop
Diabetic kidney disease and other long-term complications are common in diabetes, and comprise the main cause of co-morbidity and premature mortality in individuals with diabetes. While familial clustering and heritability have been reported for all diabetic complications, the genetic background and the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. In recent years, genome-wide association studies have identified a few susceptibility loci for the renal complications as well as for diabetic retinopathy, diabetic cardiovascular disease and mortality...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452961/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-dpp-4i-combined-with-vitamin-d3-an-exploration-to-treat-new-onset-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-and-latent-autoimmune-diabetes-in-adults-in-the-future
#4
Marcelo Maia Pinheiro, Felipe Moura Maia Pinheiro, Maria Luisa Trabachin
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by destruction of pancreatic beta cells through cell injury caused primarily by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8 + ). The pathophysiological basis of T1DM seems to be an imbalance between a reduced function of T regulatory lymphocytes and an increased inflammatory activity of Th17 lymphocytes caused by increased production of inflammatory cytokines, as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and IFN-gamma due to environmental factors and genetic predisposition...
February 13, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452900/prevalence-and-correlates-of-hypertension-outcome-of-a-free-medical-screening-in-oke-ogun-area-of-oyo-state-nigeria-west-africa
#5
REVIEW
Rasaki O Shittu, Louis O Odeigah, Kasali O Fakorede, Biliaminu A Sikiru, Abdullateef G Sule, Yusuf Musah, Folorunsho M Adeyemi
Literature abounds on prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria and urban areas of Oyo state but none in Oke-Ogun geopolitical zone, which constitutes 10 local governments of the 33 in Oyo state, despite the fact that they have high genetic and environmental predisposition to developing high blood pressure. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure and associated risk factors among indigenes of Oke-ogun, Oyo state. A total of 10,000 respondents were recruited using proportionate sampling techniques...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452776/women-specific-risk-factors-for-heart-failure-a-genetic-approach
#6
REVIEW
Jet van der Kemp, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Folkert W Asselbergs, N Charlotte Onland-Moret
Heart failure is a complex disease, which is presented differently by men and women. Several studies have shown that reproductive factors, such as age at natural menopause, parity and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), may play a role in the development of heart failure. Shared genetics may provide clues to underlying mechanisms; however, this has never been examined. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to explore whether any reproductive factor is potentially related to heart failure in women, based on genetic similarities...
March 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452408/genome-wide-association-study-identifies-seven-novel-susceptibility-loci-for-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#7
Yukihiro Shiga, Masato Akiyama, Koji M Nishiguchi, Kota Sato, Nobuhiro Shimozawa, Atsushi Takahashi, Yukihide Momozawa, Makoto Hirata, Matsuda Koichi, Taiki Yamaji, Motoki Iwasaki, Shoichiro Tsugane, Isao Oze, Haruo Mikami, Mariko Naito, Kenji Wakai, Munemitsu Yoshikawa, Masahiro Miyake, Kenji Yamashiro, Kenji Kashiwagi, Takeshi Iwata, Fumihiko Mabuchi, Mitsuko Takamoto, Mineo Ozaki, Kazuhide Kawase, Makoto Aihara, Makoto Araie, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Yoshiaki Kiuchi, Makoto Nakamura, Yasuhiro Ikeda, Koh-Hei Sonoda, Tatsuro Ishibashi, Koji Nitta, Aiko Iwase, Shiroaki Shirato, Yoshitaka Oka, Mamoru Satoh, Makoto Sasaki, Nobuo Fuse, Yoichi Suzuki, Ching-Yu Cheng, Chiea Chuen Khor, Mani Baskaran, Shamira Perera, Tin Aung, Eranga N Vithana, Jessica N Cooke Bailey, Jae H Kang, Louis R Pasquale, Jonathan L Haines, Janey L Wiggs, Kathryn P Burdon, Puya Gharahkhani, Alex W Hewitt, David A Mackey, Stuart MacGregor, Jamie E Craig, R Rand Allingham, Micheal Hauser, Adeyinka Ashaye, Donald L Budenz, Stephan Akafo, Susan E I Williams, Yoichiro Kamatani, Toru Nakazawa, Michiaki Kubo
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide for which 15 disease-associated loci had been discovered. Among them, only 5 loci have been associated with POAG in Asians. We carried out a genome-wide association study and a replication study that included a total of 7,378 POAG cases and 36,385 controls from a Japanese population. After combining the GWAS and the two replication sets, we identified 11 POAG-associated loci, including 4 known (CDKN2B-AS1, ABCA1, SIX6 and AFAP1) and 7 novel loci (FNDC3B, ANKRD55-MAP3K1, LMX1B, LHPP, HMGA2, MEIS2 and LOXL1) at a genome-wide significance level (p < 5...
February 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451713/glucose-effectiveness-is-a-critical-pathogenic-factor-leading-to-the-emergence-of-glucose-intolerance-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-an-ignored-hypothesis
#8
F P Alford, J E Henriksen, C Rantzau, H Beck-Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Although the ability of glucose to mediate its own in vivo metabolism is long documented, the quantitative measurement of whole body glucose-mediated glucose disposal at basal insulin levels, [glucose effectiveness (GE)], followed the introduction of the Minimal Model IVGTT technique. METHODS: A literature review, combined with our own studies, of the role of GE in glucose metabolism in normal and "at risk" individuals, was undertaken to determine GE's contribution to glucose homeostasis...
February 16, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450745/clinical-management-of-women-with-monogenic-diabetes-during-pregnancy
#9
REVIEW
Laura T Dickens, Rochelle N Naylor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Monogenic diabetes accounts for 1-2% of all diabetes cases, but is frequently misdiagnosed as type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes. Accurate genetic diagnosis directs management, such as no pharmacologic treatment for GCK-MODY, low-dose sulfonylureas for HNF1A-MODY and HNF4A-MODY, and high-dose sulfonylureas for K ATP channel-related diabetes. While diabetes treatment is defined for the most common causes of monogenic diabetes, pregnancy poses a challenge to management...
February 15, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450569/pharmacogenomics-in-diabetes-outcomes-of-thiamine-therapy-in-trma-syndrome
#10
Abdelhadi M Habeb, Sarah E Flanagan, Mohamed A Zulali, Mohamed A Abdullah, Renata Pomahačová, Veselin Boyadzhiev, Lesby E Colindres, Guillermo V Godoy, Thiruvengadam Vasanthi, Ramlah Al Saif, Aria Setoodeh, Amirreza Haghighi, Alireza Haghighi, Yomna Shaalan, Andrew T Hattersley, Sian Ellard, Elisa De Franco
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetes is one of the cardinal features of thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anaemia (TRMA) syndrome. Current knowledge of this rare monogenic diabetes subtype is limited. We investigated the genotype, phenotype and response to thiamine (vitamin B 1 ) in a cohort of individuals with TRMA-related diabetes. METHODS: We studied 32 individuals with biallelic SLC19A2 mutations identified by Sanger or next generation sequencing. Clinical details were collected through a follow-up questionnaire...
February 15, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449058/-epidemiology-of-lower-extremity-artery-disease
#11
Victor Aboyans, Marie-Antoinette Sevestre, Ileana Désormais, Philippe Lacroix, Gerry Fowkes, Michael H Criqui
It is estimated that more than 200 million individuals are affected by lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) worldwide. This prevalence has increased between 2000 and 2010 by 25%, especially in low/middle income countries. In France, about one million people are affected by this condition. Almost two-thirds of patients with LEAD are asymptomatic. This explains the interest of the measurement of the ankle-brachial index (ABI), an objective and harmless diagnostic tool. An ABI≤0.90 is considered as diagnostic for LEAD...
February 12, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448118/calcium-channel-blockers-as-drug-repurposing-candidates-for-gestational-diabetes-mining-large-scale-genomic-and-electronic-health-records-data-to-repurpose-medications
#12
Jeffery A Goldstein, Lisa A Bastarache, Joshua C Denny, Dan M Roden, Jill M Pulley, David M Aronoff
New therapeutic approaches are needed for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but must show safety and efficacy in a historically understudied population. We studied associations between electronic medical record (EMR) phenotypes and genetic variants to uncover drugs currently considered safe in pregnancy that could treat or prevent GDM. We identified 129 systemically active drugs considered safe in pregnancy targeting the proteins produced from 196 genes. We tested for associations between GDM and/or type 2 diabetes (DM2) and 306 SNPs in 130 genes represented on the Illumina Infinium Human Exome Bead Chip (DM2 was included due to shared pathophysiological features with GDM)...
February 12, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445185/iron-overload-accelerates-the-progression-of-diabetic-retinopathy-in-association-with-increased-retinal-renin-expression
#13
Kapil Chaudhary, Wanwisa Promsote, Sudha Ananth, Rajalakshmi Veeranan-Karmegam, Amany Tawfik, Pachiappan Arjunan, Pamela Martin, Sylvia B Smith, Muthusamy Thangaraju, Oleg Kisselev, Vadivel Ganapathy, Jaya P Gnana-Prakasam
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness among working-age adults. Increased iron accumulation is associated with several degenerative diseases. However, there are no reports on the status of retinal iron or its implications in the pathogenesis of DR. In the present study, we found that retinas of type-1 and type-2 mouse models of diabetes have increased iron accumulation compared to non-diabetic retinas. We found similar iron accumulation in postmortem retinal samples from human diabetic patients...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444737/offspring-birth-weight-and-cardiovascular-mortality-among-parents-the-role-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#14
F Shaikh, M K Kjøllesdal, Ø Naess
An inverse association between offspring birth weight (BW) and higher risk of parental cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity has been reported. Shared environmental, genetic and intrauterine factors may be responsible for explaining these associations. We studied the role of parental CVD risk factors in the association between offspring BW and CVD mortality among mothers and fathers. All births registered in Medical Birth Registry Norway (1967-2012) were linked to three health surveys, National Educational Registry and Cause of Death Registry...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444504/the-snp-rs915014-in-mthfr-regulated-by-mirna-associates-with-atherosclerosis
#15
Xinye Liu, Lingxu Wang, Hao Chi, Jin Wang, Qian Zheng, Jingye Li, Yong Li, Dongwei Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The association between the genetic polymorphisms located in either the exon or untranslated region of MTHFR and the risk of human atherosclerosis has been well-documented. This study analyzed MTHFR polymorphisms at the 3'-untranslated region for association with risk and outcome of atherosclerosis in a Chinese Han population. METHODS: The hospital based case-control study was conducted with 500 patients and 600 healthy volunteers as control enrolled...
February 8, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444352/predictive-performance-of-a-genetic-risk-score-using-11-susceptibility-alleles-for-the-incidence-of-type-2-diabetes-in-a-general-japanese-population-a-nested-case-control-study
#16
A Goto, M Noda, M Goto, K Yasuda, T Mizoue, T Yamaji, N Sawada, M Iwasaki, M Inoue, S Tsugane
AIMS: To assess the predictive ability of a genetic risk score for the incidence of Type 2 diabetes in a general Japanese population. METHODS: This prospective case-control study, nested within a Japan Public Health Centre-based prospective study, included 466 participants with incident Type 2 diabetes over a 5-year period (cases) and 1361 control participants, as well as 1463 participants with existing diabetes and 1463 control participants. Eleven susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms, identified through genome-wide association studies and replicated in Japanese populations, were analysed...
February 14, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444168/identifying-genetic-risk-loci-for-diabetic-complications-and-showing-evidence-for-heterogeneity-of-type-1-diabetes-based-on-complications-risk
#17
Nandita Mukhopadhyay, Janelle A Noble, Manika Govil, Mary L Marazita, David A Greenberg
There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a genetically heterogeneous disease. However, the extent of this heterogeneity, and what observations may distinguish different forms, is unclear. One indicator may be T1D-related microvascular complications (MVCs), which are familial, but occur in some families, and not others. We tested the hypothesis that T1D plus MVC is genetically distinct from T1D without MCV. We studied 415 families (2,462 individuals, 896 with T1D) using genome-wide linkage analysis, comparing families with and without MVC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441581/genetic-polymorphisms-of-htr2c-lep-and-lepr-on-metabolic-syndromes-in-patients-treated-with-atypical-antipsychotic-drugs
#18
Apichaya Puangpetch, Weerapon Unaharassamee, Napa Jiratjintana, Napatrupron Koomdee, Chonlaphat Sukasem
OBJECTIVE: Single nucleotide polymorphisms in serotonin 2C receptor (HTR2C), leptin (LEP), and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes are reportedly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome (MS). We investigated whether HTR2C:rs518147 (-697G/C), rs12836771 (A/G), LEP: rs7799039 (-2548G/A) and LEPR:rs1137101 (668A/G) are related to MS in psychotic disorder patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 200 patients was conducted; genetic polymorphisms in HTR2C (rs518147 and rs12836771), LEP (rs7799039) and LEPR (rs1137101) were genotyped...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440655/functional-variants-identified-efficiently-through-an-integrated-transcriptome-and-epigenome-analysis
#19
Fanlin Meng, Guohong Yuan, Xiurui Zhu, Yiming Zhou, Dong Wang, Yong Guo
Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous genetic loci associated with complex diseases, the underlying molecular mechanisms of how these loci contribute to disease pathogenesis remain largely unknown, due to the lack of an efficient strategy to identify these risk variants. Here, we proposed a new strategy termed integrated transcriptome and epigenome analysis (iTEA) to identify functional genetic variants in non-coding elements. We considered type 2 diabetes mellitus as a model and identified a well-known diabetic risk variant rs35767 using iTEA...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440150/night-shift-work-genetic-risk-and-type-2-diabetes-in-the-uk-biobank
#20
Céline Vetter, Hassan S Dashti, Jacqueline M Lane, Simon G Anderson, Eva S Schernhammer, Martin K Rutter, Richa Saxena, Frank A J L Scheer
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of past and current night shift work and genetic type 2 diabetes vulnerability on type 2 diabetes odds. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the UK Biobank, we examined associations of current ( N = 272,214) and lifetime ( N = 70,480) night shift work exposure with type 2 diabetes risk (6,770 and 1,191 prevalent cases, respectively). For 180,704 and 44,141 unrelated participants of European ancestry (4,002 and 726 cases, respectively) with genetic data, we assessed whether shift work exposure modified the relationship between a genetic risk score (comprising 110 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) for type 2 diabetes and prevalent diabetes...
February 12, 2018: Diabetes Care
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