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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640866/diet-induced-adipose-tissue-expansion-is-mitigated-in-mice-with-a-targeted-inactivation-of-mesoderm-specific-transcript-mest
#1
Rea P Anunciado-Koza, Justin Manuel, Randall L Mynatt, Jingying Zhang, Leslie P Kozak, Robert A Koza
Interindividual variation of white adipose tissue (WAT) expression of mesoderm specific transcript (Mest), a paternally-expressed imprinted gene belonging to the α/β-hydrolase fold protein family, becomes apparent among genetically inbred mice fed high fat diet (HFD) and is positively associated with adipose tissue expansion (ATE). To elucidate a role for MEST in ATE, mice were developed with global and adipose tissue inactivation of Mest. Mice with homozygous (MestgKO) and paternal allelic (MestpKO) inactivation of Mest were born at expected Mendelian frequencies, showed no behavioral or physical abnormalities, and did not perturb expression of the Mest locus-derived microRNA miR-335...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636934/the-tmao-producing-enzyme-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-3-regulates-obesity-and-the-beiging-of-white-adipose-tissue
#2
Rebecca C Schugar, Diana M Shih, Manya Warrier, Robert N Helsley, Amy Burrows, Daniel Ferguson, Amanda L Brown, Anthony D Gromovsky, Markus Heine, Arunachal Chatterjee, Lin Li, Xinmin S Li, Zeneng Wang, Belinda Willard, YongHong Meng, Hanjun Kim, Nam Che, Calvin Pan, Richard G Lee, Rosanne M Crooke, Mark J Graham, Richard E Morton, Carl D Langefeld, Swapan K Das, Lawrence L Rudel, Nizar Zein, Arthur J McCullough, Srinivasan Dasarathy, W H Wilson Tang, Bernadette O Erokwu, Chris A Flask, Markku Laakso, Mete Civelek, Sathyamangla V Naga Prasad, Joerg Heeren, Aldons J Lusis, Stanley L Hazen, J Mark Brown
Emerging evidence suggests that microbes resident in the human intestine represent a key environmental factor contributing to obesity-associated disorders. Here, we demonstrate that the gut microbiota-initiated trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)-generating pathway is linked to obesity and energy metabolism. In multiple clinical cohorts, systemic levels of TMAO were observed to strongly associate with type 2 diabetes. In addition, circulating TMAO levels were associated with obesity traits in the different inbred strains represented in the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636232/a-genetic-stochastic-process-model-for-genome-wide-joint-analysis-of-biomarker-dynamics-and-disease-susceptibility-with-longitudinal-data
#3
Liang He, Ilya Zhbannikov, Konstantin G Arbeev, Anatoliy I Yashin, Alexander M Kulminski
Unraveling the underlying biological mechanisms or pathways behind the effects of genetic variations on complex diseases remains one of the major challenges in the post-GWAS (where GWAS is genome-wide association study) era. To further explore the relationship between genetic variations, biomarkers, and diseases for elucidating underlying pathological mechanism, a huge effort has been placed on examining pleiotropic and gene-environmental interaction effects. We propose a novel genetic stochastic process model (GSPM) that can be applied to GWAS and jointly investigate the genetic effects on longitudinally measured biomarkers and risks of diseases...
June 21, 2017: Genetic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635624/effects-of-type-1-diabetes-risk-alleles-on-immune-cell-gene-expression
#4
REVIEW
Ramesh Ram, Grant Morahan
Genetic studies have identified 61 variants associated with the risk of developing Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). The functions of most of the non-HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) genetic variants remain unknown. We found that only 16 of these risk variants could potentially be linked to a protein-coding change. Therefore, we investigated whether these variants affected susceptibility by regulating changes in gene expression. To do so, we examined whole transcriptome profiles of 600 samples from the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC)...
June 21, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632874/screening-for-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#5
David C Grossman, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Susan J Curry, Michael J Barry, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Maureen G Phipps, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Based on year 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts, approximately 17% of children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years in the United States have obesity, and almost 32% of children and adolescents are overweight or have obesity. Obesity in children and adolescents is associated with morbidity such as mental health and psychological issues, asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, orthopedic problems, and adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes (eg, high blood pressure, abnormal lipid levels, and insulin resistance)...
June 20, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632820/the-nexus-of-stem-cell-derived-beta-cells-and-genome-engineering
#6
Sara D Sackett, Aida Rodriguez, Jon S Odorico
Diabetes, type 1 and type 2 (T1D and T2D), are diseases of epidemic proportions, which are complicated and defined by genetics, epigenetics, environment, and lifestyle choices. Current therapies consist of whole pancreas or islet transplantation. However, these approaches require life-time immunosuppression, and are compounded by the paucity of available donors. Pluripotent stem cells have advanced research in the fields of stem cell biology, drug development, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine, and importantly allows for the interrogation of therapeutic interventions...
2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632336/serious-life-events-and-the-risk-of-latent-autoimmune-diabetes-in-adults-lada-and-type-2-diabetes
#7
B Rasouli, T Andersson, P-O Carlsson, R Hjort, J E Löfvenborg, M Martinell, L Groop, T Tuomi, S Carlsson
AIM: It has been suggested that experiencing serious life events may promote Type 1 diabetes in children. Studies in adults are lacking, as are studies on the interaction of life events with genetic factors. We aimed to investigate life events and the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and Type 2 diabetes while taking into account HLA genotype. METHODS: Analysis was based on 425 incident cases of LADA, 1417 incident cases of Type 2 diabetes and 1702 population-based controls recruited in Sweden between 2010 and 2016...
June 20, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632032/plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-type-1-tag-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-type-2-and-diabetic-retinopathy
#8
Vasileios Siokas, Efthimios Dardiotis, Thomas Sokolakis, Maria Kotoula, Sophia V Tachmitzi, Dimitrios Z Chatzoulis, Pavlina Almpanidou, Ioannis Stefanidis, Georgios M Hadjigeorgiou, Evangelia E Tsironi
BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence for genetic susceptibility to the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in DR risk remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate possible influence of PAI-1 gene region polymorphisms on the risk of DR and on the risk of developing DR early vs late in the course of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: A total of 138 patients with DR, 107 patients with T2DM without DR, and 315 healthy controls were recruited...
February 28, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629388/the-albumin-exendin-4-recombinant-protein-e2hsa-improves-glycemic-control-and-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-spontaneous-diabetic-kkay-mice
#9
Caina Li, Shaocong Hou, Shuainan Liu, Yi Huan, Sujuan Sun, Quan Liu, Zhufang Shen
BACKGROUND: E2HSA is a genetic fusion protein that consists of two tandem exendin-4 molecules that are covalently bonded to recombinant human serum albumin via a peptide linker. Previous studies have demonstrated that E2HSA significantly decreased blood glucose levels, improved β-cell function and promoted β-cell proliferation in diabetic db/dB mice. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits of E2HSA on glucose and lipid metabolism in a spontaneous diabetes animal model, KKAy mice. METHODS: E2HSA was acutely administered at doses of 1, 3 and 9 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection in diabetic KKAy mice with exendin-4 (2 μg/kg) as a positive reference, and then the non-fasting blood glucose and food intake levels were dynamically monitored...
June 19, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628790/associated-illness-severity-in-schizophrenia-and-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Benjamin I Perry, Dhanya Salimkumar, Daniel Green, Anne Meakin, Andrew Gibson, Deepali Mahajan, Tayyeb Tahir, Swaran P Singh
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to elucidate whether schizophrenia and type II diabetes mellitus may present with associated illness severity, in light of accumulating evidence to suggest both conditions have important shared inflammatory components with many shared inflammatory genetic factors. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review employing PRISMA criteria, searching EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Web of Science and Google Scholar to February 1st, 2017, for clinical studies assessing schizophrenia severity alongside dysglycaemia...
June 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628359/the-genetic-basis-for-sex-differences-in-obesity-and-lipid-metabolism
#11
Jenny C Link, Karen Reue
Men and women exhibit significant differences in obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. To provide better diagnosis and treatment for both sexes, it is important to identify factors that underlie the observed sex differences. Traditionally, sex differences have been attributed to the differential effects of male and female gonadal secretions (commonly referred to as sex hormones), which substantially influence many aspects of metabolism and related diseases. Less appreciated as a contributor to sex differences are the fundamental genetic differences between males and females, which are ultimately determined by the presence of an XX or XY sex chromosome complement...
June 19, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626027/selective-activation-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-in-renal-proximal-tubule-induces-tubulointerstitial-fibrosis
#12
Jessica M Overstreet, Yinqiu Wang, Xin Wang, Aolei Niu, Leslie S Gewin, Bing Yao, Raymond C Harris, Ming-Zhi Zhang
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and renal fibrosis; however, the causative role of sustained EGFR activation is unclear. Here, we generated a novel kidney fibrotic mouse model of persistent EGFR activation by selectively expressing the EGFR ligand, human heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), in renal proximal tubule epithelium. Human HB-EGF expression increased tyrosine kinase phosphorylation of EGFR and the subsequent activation of downstream signaling pathways, including ERK and AKT, as well as the profibrotic TGF-β1/SMAD pathway...
June 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626026/protein-kinase-c%C3%AE-activates-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-protein-by-influencing-its-ubiquitin-proteasome-degradation
#13
Haoran Tai, Xiaobo Wang, Jiao Zhou, Xiaojuan Han, Tingting Fang, Hui Gong, Ning Huang, Honghan Chen, Jianqiong Qin, Ming Yang, Xiawei Wei, Li Yang, Hengyi Xiao
PKCβ is a serine-threonine kinase associated with obesity and diabetic complications; its activation contributes to weight gain, and deletion of its gene results in resistance to genetic- and diet-induced obesity. Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) protein is a recently identified RNA demethylase, and its overexpression in mice leads to increased body weight as well as fat mass. Although sharing some features in anabolism regulation, PKCβ and FTO have not been investigated together; therefore, their relationship has not been established...
June 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625550/maternal-exposure-to-western-diet-affects-adult-body-composition-and-voluntary-wheel-running-in-a-genotype-specific-manner-in-mice
#14
Layla Hiramatsu, Jarren Kay, Zoe Thompson, Jennifer Singleton, Gerald Claghorn, Ralph Lacerda de Albuquerque, Brittany Ho, Brett Ho, Gabriela Sanchez, Theodore Garland
Some human diseases, including obesity, Type II diabetes, and numerous cancers, are thought to be influenced by environments experienced in early life, including in utero. Maternal diet during the perinatal period may be especially important for adult offspring energy balance, potentially affecting both body composition and physical activity. This effect may be mediated by the genetic background of individuals, including, for example, potential "protective" mechanisms for individuals with inherently high levels of physical activity or high basal metabolic rates...
June 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625319/polymorphic-variants-rs3088442-and-rs2292334-in-the-organic-cation-transporter-3-oct3-gene-and-susceptibility-against-type-2-diabetes-role-of-their-interaction
#15
Abdolkarim Mahrooz, Ahad Alizadeh, Mohammad Bagher Hashemi-Soteh, Maryam Ghaffari-Cherati, Seyyedeh Raheleh Hosseyni-Talei
AIMS: In this study, we investigated whether two common variants (rs3088442G>A and rs2292334G>A) in the organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) gene, a high-capacity transporter widely expressed in various tissues, affect susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in patients newly diagnosed with T2D. METHODS: We performed a study with 150 newly diagnosed patients with T2D and 152 controls. The genetic analyses were performed using the restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) after PCR amplification...
February 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625227/a-brief-review-of-salient-factors-influencing-adult-eating-behaviour
#16
Christine Emilien, James H Hollis
A better understanding of the factors that influence eating behaviour is of importance as our food choices are associated with the risk of developing chronic diseases such as obesity, CVD, type 2 diabetes or some forms of cancer. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests that the industrial food production system is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emission and may be unsustainable. Therefore, our food choices may also contribute to climate change. By identifying the factors that influence eating behaviour new interventions may be developed, at the individual or population level, to modify eating behaviour and contribute to society's health and environmental goals...
June 19, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624668/kcnq1-gene-polymorphism-is-associated-with-glycaemic-response-to-treatment-with-dpp-4-inhibitors
#17
Ivana Gotthardová, Martin Javorský, Lucia Klimčáková, Milan Kvapil, Zbynek Schroner, Miriam Kozárová, Zuzana Malachovská, Anna Ürgeová, Jozef Židzik, Ivan Tkáč
AIMS: Only afew gene variants were associated with the response to dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4I). KCNQ1 gene variants were previously related both to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and incretin effect. We hypothesized that T2D related KCNQ1 variants would be associated with smaller glucose-lowering effect of DDP4I. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in 137 Caucasian subjects with T2D who were followed for 6months after initiation of DPP4I treatment. Genotyping for KCNQ1 rs163184 and rs151290 was performed using PCR-HRMA and PCR-RFLP methods, respectively...
May 19, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623919/effects-of-karela-bitter-melon-momordica-charantia-on-genes-of-lipids-and-carbohydrates-metabolism-in-experimental-hypercholesterolemia-biochemical-molecular-and-histopathological-study
#18
Dalia Yossri Saad, Mohamed Mohamed Soliman, Ahmed A Baiomy, Magdy Hassan Yassin, Hanan Basiouni El-Sawy
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia is a serious diseases associated with type-2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disorders and liver diseases. Humans seek for safe herbal medication such as karela (Momordica charantia/bitter melon) to treat such disorders to avoid side effect of pharmacotherapies widely used. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups; control group with free access to food and water, cholesterol administered group (40 mg/kg BW orally); karela administered group (5 g /kg BW orally) and mixture of cholesterol and karela...
June 17, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622040/analysis-of-differential-genetic-expression-in-endometrial-polyps-of-postmenopausal-women
#19
J K Troncon, J Meola, F J Candido-Dos-Reis, O B Poli-Neto, A A Nogueira, J C Rosa-E-Silva
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the expression of four genetic markers (PTEN, BCL2, MLH1, and CTNNB1), linked to endometrial carcinogenesis, in endometrial polyps of patients with and without postmenopausal bleeding in order to determine whether symptomatic endometrial polyps have a genetic phenotype similar to that of endometrial cancer. METHODS: Samples were obtained hysteroscopically from endometrial polyps of postmenopausal patients, and the expression of genetic markers involved in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer (PTEN, BCL2, MLH1, and CTNNB1) was analyzed...
June 16, 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620495/familial-partial-lipodystrophy-and-proteinuric-renal-disease-due-to-a-missense-c-1045c%C3%A2-%C3%A2-t-lmna-mutation
#20
Athanasios Fountas, Zoe Giotaki, Evangelia Dounousi, George Liapis, Alexandra Bargiota, Agathocles Tsatsoulis, Stelios Tigas
Proteinuric renal disease is prevalent in congenital or acquired forms of generalized lipodystrophy. In contrast, an association between familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD) and renal disease has been documented in very few cases. A 22-year-old female patient presented with impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hirsutism and oligomenorrhea. On examination, there was partial loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue in the face, upper and lower limbs, bird-like facies with micrognathia and low set ears and mild acanthosis nigricans...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
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