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Leptin and endothelial function

Kristin K Hoddy, Surabhi Bhutani, Shane A Phillips, Krista A Varady
BACKGROUND: Obesity can have deleterious effects on insulin sensitivity leading to endothelial dysfunction. Whether alternate day fasting (ADF) can ameliorate insulin sensitivity in a way that improves endothelial function remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of ADF on endothelium dependent flow mediated dilation (FMD) in obese subjects with different degrees of insulin resistance. METHODS: Obese non-diabetic adults (n = 54) participated in an 8-week ADF protocol (25% energy intake "fast day", alternated with ad libitum intake "feast day")...
October 27, 2016: Nutr Healthy Aging
Kyung-Ah Kim, Jung-Eun Yim
Quercetin, found abundantly in onion peel, has been known to have antioxidant and anti-obesity effects and improves endothelial function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) on the inflammatory mediators in overweight and obese women. This study was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Thirty-seven healthy overweight and obese women were randomly assigned to two groups, and one group was given a soft capsuled OPE (100 mg quercetin/day, n = 18) and the other group a same capsuled placebo (n = 19) for 12 weeks...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition Research
Roberta Coroniti, Rafal Fario, Didier J Nuno, Laszlo Otvos, Laura Scolaro, Eva Surmacz
Experimental and clinical data suggest that pro-angiogenic, pro-inflammatory and mitogenic cytokine leptin can be implicated in ocular neovascularization and other eye pathologies. At least in part, leptin action appears to be mediated through functional interplay with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF is a potent regulator of neoangiogenesis and vascular leakage with a proven role in conditions such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
I Iwan-Zietek, B Ruszkowska-Ciastek, M Michalska, E Overskaug, K Goralczyk, S Dabrowiecki, D Rosc
Adipokines regulate glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, lipids metabolism, reproduction, as well as endothelial and platelets function. The study compares the plasma and adipose tissue concentrations of total adiponectin, leptin, leptin receptor and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (LAR) in morbidly obese patients. Additionally it evaluates selected adipokines (leptin, adiponectin), endothelial markers and LAR depending on the gender in morbidly obese and non-obese subjects. The study involved 51 patients (31 women aged 21 - 60 (mean age of 39) and 20 men aged 24 to 60 (mean age of 41))...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Jenny Lopez, Outi Huttala, Jertta-Riina Sarkanen, Ilkka Kaartinen, Hannu Kuokkanen, Timo Ylikomi
Proper functioning wound healing strategies are sparse. Adequate vascular formation to the injured area, as well as replacement of the volume loss, is fundamental in soft tissue repair. Tissue engineering strategies have been proposed for the treatment of these injury sites. Novel cell-free substance, human adipose tissue extract (ATE), has been previously shown to induce in vitro angiogenesis and adipogenesis and in vivo soft tissue formation. This study reports the translation of ATE preparation from laboratory to the operating room (OR)...
2016: BioResearch Open Access
Elisa Rubino, Alessandro Vacca, Flora Govone, Annalisa Gai, Silvia Boschi, Milena Zucca, Paola De Martino, Salvatore Gentile, Lorenzo Pinessi, Innocenzo Rainero
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adiponectin, leptin, and resistin are adipocyte-derived secretory factors involved in endothelial function, weight, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Recent studies suggested a role for adipokines in episodic migraine as mediators of inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and resistin in patients with chronic migraine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven chronic migraineurs (20 females, 7 males; mean age 49...
August 22, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Nana Li, Yihe Zhao, Yingying Yue, Liming Chen, Zhi Yao, Wenyan Niu
PURPOSE: Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, is an antidiabetic drug. It has been shown to improve endothelial dysfunction, but the mechanism remains somewhat unclear. Leptin can also improve endothelial function. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is linked to hyperleptinemia, and leptin resistance, how liraglutide influences the effect of leptin on endothelial function, is never reported. We used palmitic acid (PA) to mimic hyperlipidemia in endothelial cells to explore the cardio-protective mechanism of liraglutide and its impact on the role of leptin...
September 9, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
R Reshma, S R Mishra, N Thakur, M S Parmar, A Somal, M K Bharti, S Pandey, V Chandra, V S Chouhan, M R Verma, G Singh, G T Sharma, V P Maurya, M Sarkar
The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the modulatory role of leptin on bubaline granulosa cells (GCs) and luteal cells (LCs) functions using an in vitro cell culture system and to establish a cross talk between leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). GCs were collected from group IV follicles (>13 mm size) and LCs from mid-luteal phase corpus luteum and were grown in serum-containing media supplemented with leptin at three different dose rates (0.1, 1, and 10 ng/mL) and time durations (24, 48, and 72 hours)...
October 15, 2016: Theriogenology
Hanna Schweighöfer, Christoph Rummel, Joachim Roth, Bernhard Rosengarten
BACKGROUND: Stimulation of the vagus nerve has modulating, anti-inflammatory effects on the cellular immune response in the blood and the spleen, stabilizing brain function. Here, we aimed to investigate its potential effects on immune-to-brain communication focusing on neurophysiological readouts and leukocyte migration to the brain during severe sepsis-like endotoxemia. METHODS: Systemic inflammation was induced by intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 mg/kg)...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Zhenyu Liang, Laiyu Liu, Haijin Zhao, Yang Xia, Weizhen Zhang, Yanmei Ye, Mei Jiang, Shaoxi Cai
Asthma is considered as a clinical and molecularly heterogeneous disorder. Systemic inflammation is suggested to play an important role in a group of asthma patients. We hypothesized that there is a subgroup of patients with asthma characterized by systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to discriminate asthma subtypes based on circulating biomarkers and to determine whether a systemic inflammatory endotype of asthma could be identified. In the present cross-sectional study, 50 patients with untreated asthma were prospectively recruited from a single academic outpatient clinic, and characterized with respect to clinical, functional, and inflammatory parameters...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jong-Ho Kim, Soon Jun Hong, Chi-Yeon Park, Jae Hyung Park, Seung-Cheol Choi, Sang-Keun Woo, Jung Woo Yu, Gi Jeong Cheon, Hyung Joon Joo, Do-Sun Lim
Intramyocardial injection of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) with other cell types in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) animal models has consistently shown promising clinical regenerative capacities. We investigated the effects of intramyocardial injections of mouse ASC (mASC) with mouse endothelial cells (mEC) on left ventricular function and generation of pericardial fat in AMI rats. AMI rat models were created by ligating left anterior descending coronary artery and were randomly assigned into four groups: control (n = 10), mASC (n = 10), mEC (n = 10) and mASC+mEC (n = 10) via direct intramyocardial injections, and each rat received 1x106 cells around three peri-infarct areas...
2016: PloS One
Andrea Chiricozzi, Annunziata Raimondo, Serena Lembo, Francesca Fausti, Valentina Dini, Antonio Costanzo, Giuseppe Monfrecola, Nicola Balato, Fabio Ayala, Marco Romanelli, Anna Balato
INTRODUCTION: Psoriasis is a chronic skin disorder associated with several comorbid conditions. In psoriasis pathogenesis, the role of some cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-17, has been elucidated. Beside their pro-inflammatory activity, they may also affect glucose and lipid metabolism, possibly promoting insulin resistance and obesity. On the other hand, adipose tissue, secreting adipokines such as chemerin, visfatin, leptin, and adiponectin, not only regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, and endothelial cell function regulation, but it may contribute to inflammation...
June 27, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Hao Li, Min Li, Ping Liu, YaPing Wang, Heng Zhang, HongBin Li, ShiFeng Yang, Yan Song, YanRong Yin, Lan Gao, Si Cheng, Jun Cai, Gang Tian
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with nephropathy. Along with common risk factors such as hypertension and hyperglycemia, adipocytokines released from perirenal adipose tissue (PRAT) are implicated in the pathogenesis of MetS nephropathy. The study was designed to elucidate the adverse effects of PRAT-derived leptin on nephropathy and to determine whether the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist telmisartan exerts a renoprotective effect by decreasing the PRAT-derived leptin level in the high-fat diet-induced MetS rat...
August 2016: Hypertension
Charlotte E Bussey, Sarah B Withers, Robert G Aldous, Gillian Edwards, Anthony M Heagerty
OBJECTIVE: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) exerts an anticontractile effect in response to various vasoconstrictor agonists, and this is lost in obesity. A recent study reported that bariatric surgery reverses the damaging effects of obesity on PVAT function. However, PVAT function has not been characterized after weight loss induced by caloric restriction, which is often the first line treatment for obesity. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Contractility studies were performed using wire myography on small mesenteric arteries with and without PVAT from control, diet-induced obese, calorie restricted and sustained weight loss rats...
July 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Claudio Joo Turoni, Zulema Chaila, Rossana Chahla, María Cristina Bazán de Casella, María Peral de Bruno
UNLABELLED: Low birthweight (LBW) increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Few studies have established its impact at early ages. AIMS: To study endothelial function (EF) and arterial stiffness (AS) and their relationship to early markers of CVD risk in children with LBW. METHODS: In children with LBW (4-6 years; n = 53), anthropometric, haemodynamic and laboratory parameters, including HOMA-IR, hs-CRP, adiponectin and leptin, were determined...
2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
H Makino, A Tanaka, H Hosoda, R Koezuka, M Tochiya, Y Ohata, T Tamanaha, Y Miyamoto, K Kangawa, I Kishimoto
AIM: To compare the effects of the basal insulin analogues glargine and detemir on endothelial function and adipocytokine levels in people with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We studied 32 people with Type 2 diabetes whose blood glucose control was unsatisfactory while receiving only oral hypoglycaemic drugs. Participants were randomized to either insulin glargine or detemir for 24 weeks and then crossed over to the other treatment without a washout period. Flow-mediated vasodilatation, adipocytokine levels (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and leptin/adiponectin ratio), and fasting ghrelin levels were monitored...
December 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Masumi Iijima, Nobuo Yoshimoto, Tomoaki Niimi, Andrés D Maturana, Shun'ichi Kuroda
Mammalian receptors are recognized as target molecules for drug discovery, and chemical libraries have been screened for both potential antagonists and agonists mainly by ligand-binding assays using immobilized receptors. A bio-nanocapsule (BNC) of approximately 30 nm that displays a tandem form of the protein A-derived immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc-binding Z domains (denoted as ZZ-BNC) has been developed for both clustering and oriented immobilization of IgGs on the solid phase of immunosensors. In this study, human IgG1 Fc-fused vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor was immobilized through ZZ-BNC on the sensor chip of quartz crystal microbalance (ZZ-BNC-coating)...
June 2016: Biotechnology Journal
Magdalena Kwaśniewska, Tomasz Kostka, Anna Jegier, Elżbieta Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Joanna Leszczyńska, Ewa Rębowska, Milena Orczykowska, Wojciech Drygas
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to examine the association between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), cardiovascular biomarkers and atherosclerosis among asymptomatic men with stable LTPA level throughout the 25-year prospective observation. METHODS: Out of 101 asymptomatic men prospectively observed for their lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors, the cohort of 62 individuals (mean age 59.9 years) maintained a stable LTPA level during the 25-year observation...
April 5, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Hao Zhang, Lingwei Sun, Ziyu Wang, Mingtian Deng, Haitao Nie, Guomin Zhang, Tiewei Ma, Feng Wang
The objectives of this study were to determine how dietary supplementation of N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected L-arginine (RP-Arg) in nutrient-restricted pregnant Hu sheep would affect (1) maternal endocrine status; (2) maternal, fetal, and placental antioxidation capability; and (3) placental development. From day 35 to day 110 of gestation, 32 Hu ewes carrying twin fetuses were allocated randomly into four groups: 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations, 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20g/day RP-Arg, and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5g/day NCG product...
June 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Anne-Cécile Huby, Laszlo Otvos, Eric J Belin de Chantemèle
Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in males and females. Whether obesity triggers cardiovascular disease via similar mechanisms in both the sexes is, however, unknown. In males, the adipokine leptin highly contributes to obesity-related cardiovascular disease by increasing sympathetic activity. Females secrete 3× to 4× more leptin than males, but do not exhibit high sympathetic tone with obesity. Nevertheless, females show inappropriately high aldosterone levels that positively correlate with adiposity and blood pressure (BP)...
May 2016: Hypertension
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