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Leptin and endothelial function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393867/endothelial-lrp1-regulates-metabolic-responses-by-acting-as-a-co-activator-of-ppar%C3%AE
#1
Hua Mao, Pamela Lockyer, Luge Li, Christie M Ballantyne, Cam Patterson, Liang Xie, Xinchun Pi
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) regulates lipid and glucose metabolism in liver and adipose tissue. It is also involved in central nervous system regulation of food intake and leptin signalling. Here we demonstrate that endothelial Lrp1 regulates systemic energy homeostasis. Mice with endothelial-specific Lrp1 deletion display improved glucose sensitivity and lipid profiles combined with increased oxygen consumption during high-fat-diet-induced obesity. We show that the intracellular domain of Lrp1 interacts with the nuclear receptor Pparγ, a central regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism, acting as its transcriptional co-activator in endothelial cells...
April 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353649/high-dietary-fructose-direct-or-indirect-dangerous-factors-disturbing-tissue-and-organ-functions
#2
REVIEW
Dong-Mei Zhang, Rui-Qing Jiao, Ling-Dong Kong
High dietary fructose is a major contributor to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, disturbing tissue and organ functions. Fructose is mainly absorbed into systemic circulation by glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and GLUT5, and metabolized in liver to produce glucose, lactate, triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), uric acid (UA) and methylglyoxal (MG). Its extrahepatic absorption and metabolism also take place. High levels of these metabolites are the direct dangerous factors. During fructose metabolism, ATP depletion occurs and induces oxidative stress and inflammatory response, disturbing functions of local tissues and organs to overproduce inflammatory cytokine, adiponectin, leptin and endotoxin, which act as indirect dangerous factors...
March 29, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339937/uterine-artery-leptin-receptors-during-the-ovarian-cycle-and-pregnancy-regulate-angiogenesis-in-ovine-uterine-artery-endothelial-cells%C3%A2
#3
Vladimir E Vargas, Rosalina Villalon Landeros, Gladys E Lopez, Jing Zheng, Ronald R Magness
Leptin regulates body weight, reproductive functions, blood pressure, endothelial function, and fetoplacental angiogenesis. Compared to the luteal phase, the follicular phase and pregnancy are physiological states of elevated estrogen, angiogenesis, and uterine blood flow (UBF). Little is known concerning regulation of uterine artery (UA) angiogenesis by leptin and its receptors. We hypothesized that (1) ex vivo expression of leptin receptors (LEPR) in UA endothelium (UAendo) and UA vascular smooth muscle (UAvsm) is elevated in pregnant versus nonpregnant (Luteal and Follicular) sheep; (2) in vitro leptin treatments differentially modulate mitogenesis in uterine artery endothelial cells from pregnant (P-UAECs) more than in nonpregnant (NP-UAECs) ewes; and (3) LEPR are upregulated in P-UAECs versus NP-UAECs in association with leptin activation of phospho-STAT3 signaling...
April 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288470/circulating-concentrations-of-adipocytokines-and-their-receptors-in-the-isolated-corpus-cavernosum-and-femoral-artery-from-trained-rats-on-a-high-fat-diet
#4
Amanda C S Sponton, Fábio H Silva, Hygor N Araujo, Carmem P Valgas da Silva, Camila de Moraes, Edson Antunes, Angelina Zanesco, Maria A Delbin
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate different signaling pathways by which exercise training would interfere in endothelial function in obesity. Therefore, we examined adipocytokine levels and their receptors in the corpus cavernosum and femoral artery from trained rats on a high-fat diet. METHODS: Functional experiments were performed in control sedentary and trained rats, and sedentary (h-SD) and trained male Wistar rats on a high-fat diet (h-TR)...
2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239164/adipocyte-c1qtnf5-expression-is-bmi-dependently-related-to-early-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-and-systemic-ctrp5-serum-levels-in-obese-children
#5
J T Schwartze, K Landgraf, U Spielau, D Rockstroh, D Löffler, J Kratzsch, W Kiess, A Körner
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The recently identified adipocytokine C1QTNF5 (encodes for CTRP5) has been demonstrated to inhibit pro-metabolic insulin signaling in adipocytes. We hypothesized that adipocyte C1QTNF5 expression in subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue (AT) would correlate with the degree of obesity, systemic CTRP5 serum levels, and early AT and metabolic dysfunction in children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Sc AT samples were obtained from 33 healthy Caucasian lean children aged 10...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219659/dementia-like-pathology-in-type-2-diabetes-a-novel-microrna-mechanism
#6
Anuradha Kalani, Pankaj Chaturvedi, Claudio Maldonado, Philip Bauer, Irving G Joshua, Suresh C Tyagi, Neetu Tyagi
Although type-2 diabetes (T2D) has been reported to increase the risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Dementia-like pathology is attributed to the accumulation of cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) which plays a role in cognitive dysfunction. However, its involvement and regulation in diabetic dementia-like pathology is not well understood. Using T2D db/db (leptin receptor knockout) mice subjected to object recognition and Y-maze behavioral tests, we determined that short-term memory was compromised and that the mice displayed abrupt spontaneous behaviour compared to db/m control mice...
April 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195016/corrigendum
#7
(no author information available yet)
Lin CC, Wang YP, Lee KS, Liaw SF, Chiu CH. Effect of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty on leptin and endothelial function in sleep apnea. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2014;123(1):40-46. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0003489414521385 ).
March 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153991/sex-based-differences-in-cardiometabolic-biomarkers
#8
Jeanney Lew, Monika Sanghavi, Colby R Ayers, Darren K McGuire, Torbjørn Omland, Dorothee Atzler, Maria O Gore, Ian Neeland, Jarett D Berry, Amit Khera, Anand Rohatgi, James A de Lemos
BACKGROUND: Few data are available comparing cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarker profiles between women and men in the general population. We analyzed sex-based differences in multiple biomarkers reflecting distinct pathophysiological pathways, accounting for differences between women and men in CVD risk factors, body composition, and cardiac morphology. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from the Dallas Heart Study, a multiethnic population-based study...
February 7, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135608/egf-and-hydrocortisone-as-critical-factors-for-the-co-culture-of-adipogenic-differentiated-ascs-and-endothelial-cells
#9
Ann-Cathrin Volz, Birgit Huber, Alina Maria Schwandt, Petra Juliane Kluger
In vitro composed vascularized adipose tissue is and will continue to be in great demand e.g. for the treatment of extensive high-graded burns or the replacement of tissue after tumor removal. Up to date, the lack of adequate culture conditions, mainly a culture medium, decelerates further achievements. In our study, we evaluated the influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hydrocortisone (HC), often supplemented in endothelial cell (EC) specific media, on the co-culture of adipogenic differentiated adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and microvascular endothelial cells (mvECs)...
January 20, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035343/effects-of-different-degrees-of-insulin-resistance-on-endothelial-function-in%C3%A2-obese%C3%A2-adults-undergoing-alternate-day%C3%A2-fasting
#10
Kristin K Hoddy, Surabhi Bhutani, Shane A Phillips, Krista A Varady
BACKGROUND: Obesity can have deleterious effects on insulin sensitivity leading to endothelial dysfunction. Whether alternate day fasting (ADF) can ameliorate insulin sensitivity in a way that improves endothelial function remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of ADF on endothelium dependent flow mediated dilation (FMD) in obese subjects with different degrees of insulin resistance. METHODS: Obese non-diabetic adults (n = 54) participated in an 8-week ADF protocol (25% energy intake "fast day", alternated with ad libitum intake "feast day")...
October 27, 2016: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812515/the-effect-of-onion-peel-extract-on-inflammatory-mediators-in-korean-overweight-and-obese-women
#11
Kyung-Ah Kim, Jung-Eun Yim
Quercetin, found abundantly in onion peel, has been known to have antioxidant and anti-obesity effects and improves endothelial function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) on the inflammatory mediators in overweight and obese women. This study was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Thirty-seven healthy overweight and obese women were randomly assigned to two groups, and one group was given a soft capsuled OPE (100 mg quercetin/day, n = 18) and the other group a same capsuled placebo (n = 19) for 12 weeks...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790618/designer-leptin-receptor-antagonist-allo-aca-inhibits-vegf-effects-in-ophthalmic-neoangiogenesis-models
#12
Roberta Coroniti, Rafal Fario, Didier J Nuno, Laszlo Otvos, Laura Scolaro, Eva Surmacz
Experimental and clinical data suggest that pro-angiogenic, pro-inflammatory and mitogenic cytokine leptin can be implicated in ocular neovascularization and other eye pathologies. At least in part, leptin action appears to be mediated through functional interplay with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF is a potent regulator of neoangiogenesis and vascular leakage with a proven role in conditions such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779476/association-of-adiponectin-and-leptin-to-adiponectin-ratio-with-the-function-of-platelets-in-morbidly-obese-patients
#13
I Iwan-Zietek, B Ruszkowska-Ciastek, M Michalska, E Overskaug, K Goralczyk, S Dabrowiecki, D Rosc
Adipokines regulate glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, lipids metabolism, reproduction, as well as endothelial and platelets function. The study compares the plasma and adipose tissue concentrations of total adiponectin, leptin, leptin receptor and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (LAR) in morbidly obese patients. Additionally it evaluates selected adipokines (leptin, adiponectin), endothelial markers and LAR depending on the gender in morbidly obese and non-obese subjects. The study involved 51 patients (31 women aged 21 - 60 (mean age of 39) and 20 men aged 24 to 60 (mean age of 41))...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679753/cytokine-rich-adipose-tissue-extract-production-from-water-assisted-lipoaspirate-methodology-for-clinical-use
#14
Jenny Lopez, Outi Huttala, Jertta-Riina Sarkanen, Ilkka Kaartinen, Hannu Kuokkanen, Timo Ylikomi
Proper functioning wound healing strategies are sparse. Adequate vascular formation to the injured area, as well as replacement of the volume loss, is fundamental in soft tissue repair. Tissue engineering strategies have been proposed for the treatment of these injury sites. Novel cell-free substance, human adipose tissue extract (ATE), has been previously shown to induce in vitro angiogenesis and adipogenesis and in vivo soft tissue formation. This study reports the translation of ATE preparation from laboratory to the operating room (OR)...
2016: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553954/investigating-the-role-of-adipokines-in-chronic-migraine
#15
Elisa Rubino, Alessandro Vacca, Flora Govone, Annalisa Gai, Silvia Boschi, Milena Zucca, Paola De Martino, Salvatore Gentile, Lorenzo Pinessi, Innocenzo Rainero
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adiponectin, leptin, and resistin are adipocyte-derived secretory factors involved in endothelial function, weight, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Recent studies suggested a role for adipokines in episodic migraine as mediators of inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and resistin in patients with chronic migraine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven chronic migraineurs (20 females, 7 males; mean age 49...
August 22, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457805/liraglutide-ameliorates-palmitate-induced-endothelial-dysfunction-through-activating-ampk-and-reversing-leptin-resistance
#16
Nana Li, Yihe Zhao, Yingying Yue, Liming Chen, Zhi Yao, Wenyan Niu
PURPOSE: Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, is an antidiabetic drug. It has been shown to improve endothelial dysfunction, but the mechanism remains somewhat unclear. Leptin can also improve endothelial function. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is linked to hyperleptinemia, and leptin resistance, how liraglutide influences the effect of leptin on endothelial function, is never reported. We used palmitic acid (PA) to mimic hyperlipidemia in endothelial cells to explore the cardio-protective mechanism of liraglutide and its impact on the role of leptin...
September 9, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381558/modulatory-role-of-leptin-on-ovarian-functions-in-water-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis
#17
R Reshma, S R Mishra, N Thakur, M S Parmar, A Somal, M K Bharti, S Pandey, V Chandra, V S Chouhan, M R Verma, G Singh, G T Sharma, V P Maurya, M Sarkar
The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the modulatory role of leptin on bubaline granulosa cells (GCs) and luteal cells (LCs) functions using an in vitro cell culture system and to establish a cross talk between leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). GCs were collected from group IV follicles (>13 mm size) and LCs from mid-luteal phase corpus luteum and were grown in serum-containing media supplemented with leptin at three different dose rates (0.1, 1, and 10 ng/mL) and time durations (24, 48, and 72 hours)...
October 15, 2016: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357828/modulatory-effects-of-vagal-stimulation-on-neurophysiological-parameters-and-the-cellular-immune-response-in-the-rat-brain-during-systemic-inflammation
#18
Hanna Schweighöfer, Christoph Rummel, Joachim Roth, Bernhard Rosengarten
BACKGROUND: Stimulation of the vagus nerve has modulating, anti-inflammatory effects on the cellular immune response in the blood and the spleen, stabilizing brain function. Here, we aimed to investigate its potential effects on immune-to-brain communication focusing on neurophysiological readouts and leukocyte migration to the brain during severe sepsis-like endotoxemia. METHODS: Systemic inflammation was induced by intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 mg/kg)...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27336865/a-systemic-inflammatory-endotype-of-asthma-with-more-severe-disease-identified-by-unbiased-clustering-of-the-serum-cytokine-profile
#19
Zhenyu Liang, Laiyu Liu, Haijin Zhao, Yang Xia, Weizhen Zhang, Yanmei Ye, Mei Jiang, Shaoxi Cai
Asthma is considered as a clinical and molecularly heterogeneous disorder. Systemic inflammation is suggested to play an important role in a group of asthma patients. We hypothesized that there is a subgroup of patients with asthma characterized by systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to discriminate asthma subtypes based on circulating biomarkers and to determine whether a systemic inflammatory endotype of asthma could be identified. In the present cross-sectional study, 50 patients with untreated asthma were prospectively recruited from a single academic outpatient clinic, and characterized with respect to clinical, functional, and inflammatory parameters...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27336402/intramyocardial-adipose-derived-stem-cell-transplantation-increases-pericardial-fat-with-recovery-of-myocardial-function-after-acute-myocardial-infarction
#20
Jong-Ho Kim, Soon Jun Hong, Chi-Yeon Park, Jae Hyung Park, Seung-Cheol Choi, Sang-Keun Woo, Jung Woo Yu, Gi Jeong Cheon, Hyung Joon Joo, Do-Sun Lim
Intramyocardial injection of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) with other cell types in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) animal models has consistently shown promising clinical regenerative capacities. We investigated the effects of intramyocardial injections of mouse ASC (mASC) with mouse endothelial cells (mEC) on left ventricular function and generation of pericardial fat in AMI rats. AMI rat models were created by ligating left anterior descending coronary artery and were randomly assigned into four groups: control (n = 10), mASC (n = 10), mEC (n = 10) and mASC+mEC (n = 10) via direct intramyocardial injections, and each rat received 1x106 cells around three peri-infarct areas...
2016: PloS One
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