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Leptin and cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135585/the-regulation-of-aldosterone-secretion-by-leptin-implications-in-obesity-related-cardiovascular-disease
#1
Jessica L Faulkner, Thiago Bruder-Nascimento, Eric J Belin de Chantemèle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although it has been known for some time that increases in body mass enhance aldosterone secretion, particularly in women, the origin of this elevation in aldosterone production is not well defined. Adipocyte-derived factors have emerged as potential candidates to increase aldosterone production in obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging evidence suggests the presence of a mechanistic link in which the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin stimulates aldosterone production in obesity, thereby creating a positive feedback loop for obesity-associated cardiovascular disease...
November 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115033/molecular-targets-for-the-therapy-of-cancer-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome-transcription-and-growth-factors
#2
REVIEW
Natalia V Yunusova, Irina V Kondakova, Larisa A Kolomiets, Sergey G Afanas'ev, Alena L Chernyshova, Igor V Kudryavtsev, Anastasia A Tsydenova
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is one of the leading risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes mellitus and reproductive system diseases. Currently, not only cardiovascular disease and reproductive history risks related with MS are frequently discussed, but it has been also shown that MS is associated with increased risk of some common cancers (endometrial cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer, colorectal cancer, biliary tract cancers and liver cancer for men). Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms of the involvement of MS components in the pathogenesis of malignant neoplasms...
November 8, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101672/association-between-leptin-and-il-6-concentrations-with-cardiovascular-risk-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#3
José Antonio De Jesús Batún-Garrido, Marisol Salas-Magaña, Isela Esther Juárez-Rojop
Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as leptin and IL-6 play an important role in the development of cardiovascular risk. Determine the relationship between leptin and IL-6 concentrations with cardiovascular risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We determined IL-6 and leptin levels in 77 patients with the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. The cardiovascular risk was calculated using the modified Framingham scale. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 22 considering a significant p < 0.05. Serum leptin concentrations and cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors were compared and found that there was a significant difference between higher leptin values and disease activity (p 0...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097517/neuropeptides-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disease
#4
REVIEW
Agatha A van der Klaauw
BACKGROUND: The global rise in the prevalence of obesity and associated comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer represents a major public health concern. CONTENT: Studies in rodents with the use of global and targeted gene disruption, and mapping of neurocircuitry by using optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) have greatly advanced our understanding of the neural control of body weight...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093301/adipokines-are-associated-with-hypertension-in-metabolically-healthy-obese-mho-children-and-adolescents-a-prospective-population-based-cohort-study
#5
Wenqing Ding, Hong Cheng, Fangfang Chen, Yinkun Yan, Meixian Zhang, Xiaoyuan Zhao, Dongqing Hou, Jie Mi
BACKGROUND: The potential mechanism underlying the relationship between the risk of cardiovascular diseases and metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals remains unclear. The aim of the study was to prospectively investigate the potential role of the adipokines in the association between the MHO phenotype and hypertension in children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 1184 participants at baseline were recruited from a cohort of the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS) study...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073286/differential-adipokine-receptor-expression-on-circulating-leukocyte-subsets-in-lean-and-obese-children
#6
Genoveva Keustermans, Laila B van der Heijden, Berlinda Boer, Rianne Scholman, Roos Nuboer, Gerard Pasterkamp, Berent Prakken, Wilco de Jager, Eric Kalkhoven, Arieke J Janse, Henk S Schipper
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity prevalence has increased worldwide and is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The production of inflammatory adipokines by obese adipose tissue contributes to the development of T2D and CVD. While levels of circulating adipokines such as adiponectin and leptin have been established in obese children and adults, the expression of adiponectin and leptin receptors on circulating immune cells can modulate adipokine signalling, but has not been studied so far...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071802/metabolic-benefits-of-prior-weight-loss-with-and-without-exercise-on-subsequent-6-month-weight-regain
#7
Alice S Ryan, Monica C Serra, Andrew P Goldberg
OBJECTIVE: To determine the 6-month follow-up effects after intentional 6-month weight loss alone (WL) and after weight loss with aerobic exercise (AEX + WL) on body composition, glucose metabolism, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in older postmenopausal women and to identify the mechanisms for weight regain. METHODS: Women (n = 65, BMI > 25 kg/m(2) ) underwent maximal oxygen consumption testing, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography scans, and oral glucose tolerance tests before and after 6 months of AEX + WL or WL and at 12 months ad libitum follow-up...
October 25, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064604/changes-of-metabolic-disorders-associated-peripheral-cytokine-adipokine-traffic-in-non-obese-chronic-back-patients-responsive-to-burst-spinal-cord-stimulation
#8
Sajjad Muhammad, Shafqat R Chaudhry, Thomas L Yearwood, Joachim K Krauss, Thomas M Kinfe
OBJECTIVES: In our previous study, anti-inflammatory IL-10 serum levels were significantly elevated after burst spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in back pain patients and correlated with pain intensity. This current study extended cytokine analysis including metabolic-associated adipokine/cytokine serum assessment in chronic back pain patients with co-existing metabolic disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: At baseline and after three months of burst SCS treatment, leptin (LP), adiponectin (AN), and ghrelin (GH) were recorded in non-/pre-obese chronic back pain patients with co-existing metabolic disorders and compared to age-/gender-matched healthy controls (HC)...
October 24, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045048/relationship-of-circulating-spexin-with-markers-of-cardiovascular-disease-a-pilot-study-in-adolescents-with-obesity
#9
S Kumar, M J Hossain, A Javed, I J Kullo, P B Balagopal
PURPOSE: Spexin, a novel peptide, has potential implications in obesity, satiety and energy homeostasis. The current study examined the relationship of spexin with various biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and endothelial function in adolescents with obesity. METHODS: Nineteen adolescents with obesity (age, 15.8 ± 1.7 years) were studied. Spexin, leptin and various cardiovascular disease biomarkers were measured. Endothelial function was assessed by high-resolution Doppler ultrasonography of the right brachial artery...
October 18, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044854/targeted-proteomic-analysis-of-habitual-coffee-consumption
#10
Marilyn C Cornelis, Stefan Gustafsson, Johan Ärnlöv, Sölve Elmståhl, Stefan Söderberg, Johan Sundström, Karl Michaëlsson, Lars Lind, Erik Ingelsson
BACKGROUND: Coffee drinking has been implicated in mortality and a variety of diseases but potential mechanisms underlying these associations are unclear. Large-scale systems epidemiological approaches may offer novel insights to mechanisms underlying associations of coffee with health. OBJECTIVE: We performed an analysis of known and novel protein markers linked to cardiovascular disease and their association with habitual coffee intake in the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS, n=816) and followed-up top proteins in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM, n=635) and EpiHealth (n=2418)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036612/cd40l-controls-obesity-associated-vascular-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-mice-translational-aspects-for-man
#11
Sebastian Steven, Mobin Dib, Michael Hausding, Fatemeh Kashani, Matthias Oelze, Swenja Kröller-Schön, Alina Hanf, Steffen Daub, Siyer Roohani, Yves Gramlich, Esther Lutgens, Eberhard Schulz, Christian Becker, Karl J Lackner, Hartmut Kleinert, Christoph Knosalla, Beate Niesler, Philipp S Wild, Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber
Aims: CD40 ligand (CD40L) signaling controls vascular oxidative stress and related dysfunction in angiotensin-II-induced arterial hypertension by regulating vascular immune cell recruitment and platelet activation. Here we investigated the role of CD40L in experimental hyperlipidemia. Methods and Results: Male wild type and CD40L-/- mice (C57BL/6 background) were subjected to high fat diet for sixteen weeks. Weight, cholesterol, HDL and LDL levels, endothelial function (isometric tension recording), oxidative stress (NADPH oxidase expression, dihydroethidium fluorescence) and inflammatory parameters (inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-6 expression) were assessed...
September 26, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031355/adverse-effects-of-the-metabolic-acidosis-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Kraut, Nicolaos E Madias
The kidney has the principal role in the maintenance of acid-base balance, and therefore, a fall in renal net acid excretion and positive H(+) balance often leading to reduced serum [HCO3(-)] are observed in the course of CKD. This metabolic acidosis can be associated with muscle wasting, development or exacerbation of bone disease, hypoalbuminemia, increased inflammation, progression of CKD, protein malnutrition, alterations in insulin, leptin, and growth hormone, and increased mortality. Importantly, some of the adverse effects can be observed even in the absence of overt hypobicarbonatemia...
September 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025435/withania-somnifera-as-a-potential-candidate-to-ameliorate-high%C3%A2-fat-diet-induced-anxiety-and-neuroinflammation
#13
Taranjeet Kaur, Gurcharan Kaur
BACKGROUND: The epidemic of obesity has reached alarming levels in both developing and developed nations. Excessive calorie intake and sedentary lifestyle due to technological advancements are the main causal factors for overweight and obesity among the human population. Obesity has been associated with a number of co-morbidities such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegeneration and dementia. The progression of neurological disorders in obese subjects has been mainly attributed to neuroinflammation...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016249/factors-associated-with-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-ageing-black-south-african-women
#14
Philippe Jean-Luc Gradidge
BACKGROUND: The incidence of obesity and related metabolic diseases is high and increasing in sub-Saharan African women. Evidence on the determinants of these diseases is limited, particularly in black South African women. OBJECTIVE: This PhD review attempts to understand the determinants of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a population of ageing urban-dwelling black South African women. METHODS: Drawing on the longitudinal Birth-to-Twenty-Plus cohort, data were collected in 2002/03 and 2012/13, including information on behavioural factors (smoking, sitting time, physical activity, smokeless tobacco, and alcohol consumption), body-size perception, body composition (measures of adiposity and lean mass), blood pressure, and cardiometabolic biomarkers (lipid profile, fasting insulin, fasting blood glucose, insulin resistance, leptin, and adiponectin)...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993758/experimental-models-of-maternal-obesity-and-neuroendocrine-programming-of-metabolic-disorders-in-offspring
#15
REVIEW
Clare M Reynolds, Stephanie A Segovia, Mark H Vickers
Evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have clearly shown that disease risk in later life is increased following a poor early life environment, a process preferentially termed developmental programming. In particular, this work clearly highlights the importance of the nutritional environment during early development with alterations in maternal nutrition, including both under- and overnutrition, increasing the risk for a range of cardiometabolic and neurobehavioral disorders in adult offspring characterized by both adipokine resistance and obesity...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967613/relationship-of-serum-leptin-with-some-biochemical-anthropometric-parameters-and-abdominal-fat-volumes-as-measured-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Nawal S Hijjawi, Ali M Al-Radaideh, Kholoud I Al-Fayomi, Nisreen A Nimer, Hadeel A Alabadi, Rana M Al-Zu'bi, Lana M Agraib, Sabika S Allehdan, Reema F Tayyem
AIMS: To measure the level of leptin in volunteers and correlate it with several anthropometric, biochemical variables and abdominal fat volumes. METHODS: The level of leptin was investigated in 167 disease-free volunteers. Serum levels of IL-6, adiponectin, and resistin, blood lipid profile (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) were determined. Waist circumference (WC) was measured using tape and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images...
September 22, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966594/the-role-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-in-the-pathophysiology-of-obesity
#17
REVIEW
Daniela Guarino, Monica Nannipieri, Giorgio Iervasi, Stefano Taddei, Rosa Maria Bruno
Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions globally and represents a major cause of comorbidities, mostly related to cardiovascular disease. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction has a two-way relationship with obesity. Indeed, alterations of the ANS might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity, acting on different pathways. On the other hand, the excess weight induces ANS dysfunction, which may be involved in the haemodynamic and metabolic alterations that increase the cardiovascular risk of obese individuals, i...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947858/psoriasis-and-cardiovascular-risk-do-promising-new-biomarkers-have-clinical-impact
#18
REVIEW
Sirje Kaur, Külli Kingo, Mihkel Zilmer
Epidemiological studies suggest an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with psoriasis (PS). Therefore, emphasis has lately been laid on the necessity for clinical evaluation of the risk of CVD in these patients. The systemic inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin- (IL-) 6, which have long been used to predict future CVD in the general population, are increased manyfold in patients with PS. Lipid abnormalities characterized by elevated triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and higher concentrations of LDL cholesterol and its oxidized form are also prevalent in patients...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922364/association-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-with-serum-level-of-cystatin-c-in-type-2-diabetes
#19
Tomomi Murai, Noriko Takebe, Kan Nagasawa, Yusuke Todate, Riyuki Nakagawa, Rieko Nakano, Mari Hangai, Yutaka Hasegawa, Yoshihiko Takahashi, Kunihiro Yoshioka, Yasushi Ishigaki
OBJECTIVE: Accumulation of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is considered to be a cardiovascular risk factor independent from visceral adiposity, obesity, hypertension and diabetes. We explored the parameters related to EAT accumulation, aiming to clarify the novel pathophysiological roles of EAT in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: We examined the laboratory values, including cystatinC, and surrogate markers used for evaluating atherosclerosis. EAT was measured as the sum of the adipose tissue area, obtained by plain computed tomography scans in 208 subjects with T2DM but no history of coronary artery disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915328/cns-targets-of-adipokines
#20
Craig Beall, Lydia Hanna, Kate L J Ellacott
Our understanding of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ has been transformed over the last 20 years. During this time, a number of adipocyte-derived factors or adipokines have been identified. This article will review evidence for how adipokines acting via the central nervous system (CNS) regulate normal physiology and disease pathology. The reported CNS-mediated effects of adipokines are varied and include the regulation of energy homeostasis, autonomic nervous system activity, the reproductive axis, neurodevelopment, cardiovascular function, and cognition...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
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