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Leptin and cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077136/increased-leptin-adiponectin-ratio-relates-to-low-normal-thyroid-function-in-metabolic-syndrome
#1
Lynnda J N van Tienhoven-Wind, Robin P F Dullaart
BACKGROUND: Low-normal thyroid function within the euthyroid range may contribute to increased atherosclerosis susceptibility. The leptin/adiponectin (L/A) ratio is associated with cardiovascular disease and reflects adipose tissue dysfunction. Relationships of the L/A ratio with low-normal thyroid function are unknown. METHODS: Relationships of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (free T4) with leptin, adiponectin and the L/A ratio in euthyroid subjects were documented in 67 fasting subjects with metabolic syndrome (Mets) and 86 euthyroid subjects without MetS (TSH and free T4 levels within the institutional reference range)...
January 11, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068986/leptin-and-adiponectin-as-predictors-of-cardiovascular-risk-after-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Tove Lekva, Annika Elisabet Michelsen, Pål Aukrust, Tore Henriksen, Jens Bollerslev, Thor Ueland
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in later life, but the mechanism remains unclear. Adipokine imbalance in the presence of metabolic dysfunction may be a key event in promoting CVD. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between GDM, cardiovascular risk, and plasma adiponectin, leptin and the leptin/adiponectin (L/A) ratio in pregnancy and at 5 years after the index pregnancy. METHODS: This population-based prospective cohort included 300 women who had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during pregnancy...
January 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068281/pathophysiological-role-of-adiponectin-leptin-and-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-in-the-process-of-atherosclerosis
#3
Daniela Iv Koleva, Maria M Orbetzova, Julia G Nikolova, Tanya I Deneva
Adipose tissue is recognized as a rich source of proinflammatory mediators that may directly contribute to vascular injury, insulin resistance, and atherogenesis. Many studies have shown that adiponectin has antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Adiponectin acts not only as a factor increasing insulin sensitivity, and the protective effect may result from its ability to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines. It negatively regulates the expression of TNF-alpha and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adipose tissue; reduces expression of vascular and intracellular adhesion molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1), E-selectin, interleukin-8 (IL-8)...
December 1, 2016: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063251/perivascular-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-vascular-disease
#4
REVIEW
Ryszard Nosalski, Tomasz J Guzik
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. In vascular pathologies perivascular adipose tissue increases in volume and becomes dysfunctional, with altered cellular composition and molecular characteristics. PVAT dysfunction is characterized by its inflammatory character, oxidative stress, diminished production of vaso-protective adipocyte derived relaxing factors (ADRFs) and increased production of paracrine factors such as resistin, leptin, cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α) and chemokines (RANTES, MCP-1)...
January 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986128/high-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-levels-increase-proinflammatory-and-cardiovascular-markers-in-patients-with-extreme-obesity
#5
Jaime Héctor Gómez-Zamudio, Victoria Mendoza-Zubieta, Aldo Ferreira-Hermosillo, Marío Antonio Molina-Ayala, Adán Valladares-Sálgado, Fernando Suárez-Sánchez, Jose de Jesús Peralta-Romero, Miguel Cruz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity is an important health problem worldwide and many studies have suggested a relationship between obesity and thyroid function, with controversial results. Interestingly, high TSH levels have been involved with the presence of inflammatory state and risk for developing cardiovascular diseases in hypothyroid and obese patients. The aim in this work was to determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with extreme obesity and to determine whether their TSH levels were related to increased serum levels of inflammatory and cardiovascular markers...
August 2016: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922544/fetal-environment-and-glycosylation-status-in-neonatal-cord-blood-a-comprehensive-mass-spectrometry-based-glycosylation-analysis
#6
Ryosuke Sato, Kenji J Tsuchiya, Hideo Matsuzaki, Nori Takei, Hiroaki Itoh, Naohiro Kanayama, Takafumi Suda, Hiroshi Watanabe, Tetsu Ohashi, Masakazu Tanaka, Shin-Ichiro Nishimura, Masato Maekawa
Fetal environment is known to be a major predictive factor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, associations of fetal environment and cord blood glycoforms are uncertain. In this study, we aimed to determine whether glycosylation status in neonatal cord blood is associated with perinatal outcomes reflecting a poor fetal environment.Thirty-six low birth weight (LBW) infants and 120 normal birth weight infants were recruited from a longitudinal birth cohort. We conducted a comprehensive cord blood N-glycan analysis using matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
April 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899860/leptin-attenuates-the-contractile-function-of-adult-rat-cardiomyocytes-involved-in-oxidative-stress-and-autophagy
#7
Liu-Jin Luo, Ying-Ping Liu, Xun Yuan, Gui-Ping Zhang, Ning Hou, Xiao-Qian Wu, Jian-Dong Luo, Gen-Shui Zhang
BACKGROUND: Leptin has been identified as an important protein involved in obesity. As a chronic metabolic disorder, obesity is associated with a high risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, including heart failure. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects and the mechanism of leptin on the contractile function of cardiomyocytes in the adult rat. METHODS: Isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to leptin (1, 10, and 100 nmol/L) for 1 hour...
November 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899768/effects-of-dietary-restriction-on-adipose-mass-and-biomarkers-of-healthy-aging-in-human
#8
Daniele Lettieri-Barbato, Esmeralda Giovannetti, Katia Aquilano
In developing countries the rise of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes, reflects the changes in lifestyle habits and wrong dietary choices. Dietary restriction (DR) regimens have been shown to extend health span and lifespan in many animal models including primates. Identifying biomarkers predictive of clinical benefits of treatment is one of the primary goals of precision medicine. To monitor the clinical outcomes of DR interventions in humans, several biomarkers are commonly adopted...
November 29, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896943/ang-1-7-protects-cardiomyocytes-against-hg-induced-injuries-through-inhibiting-ros-activated-leptin-p38-mapk-erk1-2-pathways-but-not-leptin-jnk-pathway-in-vitro
#9
Yiyan Lei, Qing Xu, Bo Zeng, Wei Zhang, Yulan Zhen, Yuansheng Zhai, Fei Cheng, Weiyi Mei, Dongdan Zheng, Jianqiang Feng, Jun Lan, Jingfu Chen
AIMS: Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], recognized as a new bioactive peptide in renin-angiotensin system (RAS), shows biological and pharmacological properties in diabetic cardiovascular diseases. Leptin induced-p38 MAPK pathway has been reported to contribute to the high glucose (HG)-induced injury. In this study, we demonstrated the mechanism that how Ang-(1-7) can protect from HG-stimulated injuries in H9c2 cells. METHODS: H9c2 cells were treated with 35 mM glucose (HG) for 24 h to establish a model of HG-induced damage...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895819/nutrition-insulin-resistance-and-dysfunctional-adipose-tissue-determine-the-different-components-of-metabolic-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Juan Antonio Paniagua
Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat that may be harmful to health. Today, obesity is a major public health problem, affecting in greater or lesser proportion all demographic groups. Obesity is estimated by body mass index (BMI) in a clinical setting, but BMI reports neither body composition nor the location of excess body fat. Deaths from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes accounted for approximately 65% of all deaths, and adiposity and mainly abdominal adiposity are associated with all these disorders...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885059/association-of-grip-strength-with-cardiovascular-risk-markers
#11
Cédric Gubelmann, Peter Vollenweider, Pedro Marques-Vidal
Background Mechanisms underlying the association between grip strength and cardiovascular mortality are poorly understood. We aimed to assess the association of grip strength with a panel of cardiovascular risk markers. Design The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of 3468 adults aged 50-75 years (1891 women) from a population-based sample in Lausanne, Switzerland. Methods Grip strength was measured using a hydraulic hand dynamometer. Cardiovascular risk markers included anthropometry, blood pressure, lipids, glucose, adiposity, inflammatory and other metabolic markers...
January 1, 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884961/therapeutic-silencing-of-fat-specific-protein-27-improves-glycemic-control-in-mouse-models-of-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#12
Cédric Langhi, Noemí Arias, Ananthi Rajamoorthi, Jeannine Basta, Richard G Lee, Ángel Baldán
Obesity is a component of the metabolic syndrome, mechanistically linked to diabetes, fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. Proteins that regulate the metabolic fate of intracellular lipid droplets are potential therapeutic candidates to treat obesity and its related consequences. CIDEC (cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector C), also known in mice as Fsp27 (fat-specific protein 27), is a lipid droplet-associated protein that prevents lipid mobilization and promotes intracellular lipid storage. The consequences of complete loss of FSP27 on hepatic metabolism and on insulin resistance are controversial, as both healthy and deleterious lipodystrophic phenotypes have been reported in Fsp27(-/-) mice...
January 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881962/cigarette-smoking-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-vascular-inflammation-and-injury-are-attenuated-by-antioxidant-supplementation-in-an-animal-model
#13
Moustafa Al Hariri, Kazem Zibara, Wissam Farhat, Yasmine Hashem, Nadia Soudani, Farah Al Ibrahim, Eva Hamade, Asad Zeidan, Ahmad Husari, Firas Kobeissy
Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cigarette smoking remains a global health epidemic with associated detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. In this work, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on cardiovascular system in an animal model. The study then evaluated the effects of antioxidants (AO), represented by pomegranate juice, on cigarette smoke induced cardiovascular injury. This study aims at evaluating the effect of pomegranate juice supplementation on the cardiovascular system of an experimental rat model of smoke exposure...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856635/micrornaa-155-deficiency-leads-to-decreased-atherosclerosis-increased-white-adipose-tissue-obesity-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-novel-mouse-model-of-obesity-paradox
#14
Anthony Virtue, Candice Johnson, Jahaira Lopez-Pastraña, Ying Shao, Hangfei Fu, Xinyuan Li, Ya-Feng Li, Ying Yin, Jietang Mai, Victor Rizzo, Michael Tordoff, Zsolt Bagi, Huimin Shan, Xiaohua Jiang, Hong Wang, Xiao-Feng Yang
Obesity paradox (OP) describes a widely observed clinical finding of improved cardiovascular fitness and survival in some overweight or obese patients. The molecular mechanisms underlying OP remain enigmatic partly due to a lack of animal models mirroring OP in patients. Using apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice on high-fat (HF) diet as an atherosclerotic obesity model, we demonstrated: 1) microRNA-155 (miRNA-155, miR-155) is significantly upregulated in aortas of ApoE-/- mice; and miR-155 deficiency in ApoE-/- mice inhibits atherosclerosis; 2) ApoE-/-/miR-155-/- (DKO) mice show HF diet-induced obesity, adipocyte hypertrophy and present with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); 3) DKO mice demonstrate HF diet-induced elevations of plasma leptin, resistin, fed-state and fasting insulin, increased expression of adipogenic transcription factors, but lack glucose intolerance and insulin resistance...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832688/changes-in-body-mass-index-and-lipid-profile-in-psoriatic-patients-after-treatment-with-standard-protocol-of-infliximab
#15
Amir Houshang Ehsani, Hossein Mortazavi, Kamran Balighi, Mahboubeh Sadat Hosseini, Arghavan Azizpour, Seyyedeh Pardis Hejazi, Azadeh Goodarzi, Seyyedeh Bahareh Darvari
Psoriasis is a chronic and inflammatory dermatologic disease. Psoriasis may predispose to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. However, the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor in mediating this risk is controversial. Regarding frequent use of infliximab in psoriasis, and the hypothesis that anti TNF-α treatment may increase Body Mass Index (BMI) and alter lipid profile in these patients, the aim of this study was to assess changes in BMI and Lipid Profile and level of leptin in Psoriatic Patients under Treatment of Standard Protocol of Infliximab in a 24 week period...
September 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816807/tobacco-smoking-and-cytokine-levels-in-human-epicardial-adipose-tissue-impact-of-smoking-cessation
#16
Lukas Mach, Helena Bedanova, Miroslav Soucek, Michal Karpisek, Petr Nemec, Marek Orban
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a source of a number of cytokines which could act in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The potential relationship between known cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking, dyslipidaemia or diabetes mellitus and EAT humoral signalling, has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we designed and conducted a cross-sectional study to determine whether selected cardiovascular risk factors are linked to levels of cytokines in epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT)...
December 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812119/daesiho-tang-is-an-effective-herbal-formulation-in-attenuation-of-obesity-in-mice-through-alteration-of-gene-expression-and-modulation-of-intestinal-microbiota
#17
Ahtesham Hussain, Mukesh Kumar Yadav, Shambhunath Bose, Jing-Hua Wang, Dongwoo Lim, Yun-Kyung Song, Seong-Gyu Ko, Hojun Kim
BACKGROUND: Obesity has become a major global health challenge due to its increasing prevalence, and the associated health risk. It is the main cause of various metabolic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke and certain forms of cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study we evaluated the anti-obesity property of Daesiho-tang (DSHT), an herbal medicine, using high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice as a model. Our results showed that DSHT ameliorated body weight gain, decreased total body fat, regulated expression of leptin and adiponectin genes of adipose tissue and exerted an anti-diabetic effect by attenuating fasting glucose level and serum insulin level in HFD-fed animals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798459/does-leptin-cause-an-increase-in-blood-pressure-in-animals-and-humans
#18
Stephanie E Simonds, Jack T Pryor, Michael A Cowley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death globally. The risk for the development of CVDs is significantly increased in obesity. Leptin, the product of white adipose tissue, appears to contribute to the development of CVDs in obesity. Here, we discuss the premise that leptin engages the sympathetic nervous system and contributes to elevated blood pressure (BP) developing in obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: The long-term regulation of BP is dependent on the activity of the autonomic nervous system and specifically the sympathetic nervous system...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798347/associations-between-vitamin-d-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-african-americans-are-partly-explained-by-circulating-adipokines-and-c-reactive-protein-the-jackson-heart-study
#19
Rumana J Khan, Samson Y Gebreab, Pia Riestra, Mario Sims, Amadou Gaye, Ruihua Xu, Sharon K Davis
BACKGROUND: Although it is recognized that vitamin D deficiency is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and is more common in African Americans (AAs), the pathologic mechanisms by which vitamin D may influence these risk factors are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: We explored the association between vitamin D status, as reflected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, and CVD risk factors including mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), plasma HDL cholesterol, and waist circumference (WC) in adult AAs...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798245/leptin-levels-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-a-meta-analysis
#20
Sai-Hua Zheng, Dan-Feng Du, Xue-Lian Li
OBJECTIVE: Conflicting results regarding leptin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have been reported. We summarize all available evidence from human participant studies to evaluate leptin levels in PCOS. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Web of Science databases were searched with English-language restriction for only human beings from the inception to December 31, 2015. Search terms included PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS) and leptin...
October 26, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
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