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Leptin and cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228651/adipokines-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-comprehensive-review
#1
Ales Smekal, Jan Vaclavik
Adipokines are peptides that signal the functional status of adipose tissue to the brain and other target organs. In adipose tissue dysfunction, adipokine secretion is altered, and this can contribute to a spectrum of obesity-associated conditions including cardiovascular disease. Some adipokines have anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects (omentin, apelin, adiponectin). Others are pro-inflammatory with negative impact on cardiovascular function (leptin, visfatin, resistin, adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein)...
February 16, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205394/obesity-and-kidney-disease-hidden-consequences-of-the-epidemic
#2
Csaba P Kovesdy, Susan L Furth, Carmine Zoccali
Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic, and its prevalence has been projected to grow by 40% in the next decade. This increasing prevalence has implications for the risks of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and also for Chronic Kidney Disease. A high body mass index is one of the strongest risk factors for new-onset Chronic Kidney Disease. In individuals affected by obesity, a series of complex pathophysiologic changes occur that lead to the development of Chronic Kidney Disease. These include on the one hand effects mediated by the downstream consequences of obesity (such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension), but also direct effects of adipose tissue, via humoral factors such as leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin)...
March 2017: Journal of Renal Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193268/adipokines-insulin-resistance-and-adiposity-as-a-predictors-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-child-survivors-of-lymphoma-and-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-of-a-developing-country
#3
Lourdes Barbosa-Cortés, Mardia López-Alarcón, Juan Manuel Mejía-Aranguré, Miguel Klünder-Klünder, María Del Carmen Rodríguez-Zepeda, Hugo Rivera-Márquez, Alan de la Vega-Martínez, Jorge Martin-Trejo, Juan Shum-Luis, Karina Solis-Labastida, Enrique López-Aguilar, Guadalupe Matute-González, Roberto Bernaldez-Rios
BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of evidence indicating that pediatric survivors of cancer are at a greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome. This study evaluated some probable predictors of metabolic syndrome (MS), such as leptin and adiponectin concentrations, the leptin/adiponectin ratio, insulin resistance, and adiposity, in a sample of child survivors of lymphoma and leukemia in Mexico City. METHODS: Fifty two children (leukemia n = 26, lymphoma n = 26), who were within the first 5 years after cessation of therapy, were considered as eligible to participate in the study...
February 13, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185529/elevated-levels-of-adipokines-predict-outcome-after-acute-myocardial-infarction-a-long-term-follow-up-of-the-glucose-tolerance-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-cohort
#4
Viveca Ritsinger, Kerstin Brismar, Klas Malmberg, Linda Mellbin, Per Näsman, Lars Rydén, Stefan Söderberg, Åke Tenerz, Anna Norhammar
OBJECTIVE: Adiponectin and leptin are associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Information on the prognostic value after an acute myocardial infarction is still conflicting. METHODS: Patients (n = 180) without known diabetes and with admission glucose of <11 mmol/L admitted for an acute myocardial infarction in 1998-2000 were followed for mortality and cardiovascular events (first of cardiovascular mortality/acute myocardial infarction/stroke/heart failure) until the end of 2011 (median: 11...
March 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185154/the-role-of-adipocytokines-in-coronary-atherosclerosis
#5
REVIEW
Luca Liberale, Aldo Bonaventura, Alessandra Vecchiè, Casula Matteo, Franco Dallegri, Fabrizio Montecucco, Federico Carbone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to overview the pathophysiological role of adipocytokines in atherogenesis, focusing on their potential role as biomarkers of coronary disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several lines of evidence indicated adipose tissue not only as depot but rather as an endocrine organ. In this context, the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory adipocytokines has been shown to critically regulate vascular homeostasis in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions...
February 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177667/ursolic-acid-suppresses-leptin-induced-cell-proliferation-in-rat-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#6
Ya-Mei Yu, Chiang-Chin Tsai, Yu-Wen Tzeng, Weng-Cheng Chang, Su-Yin Chiang, Ming-Fen Lee
Accumulating lines of evidence indicate that high leptin levels are associated with adverse cardiovascular health in obese individuals. Proatherogenic effects of leptin include endothelial cell activation, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Ursolic acid (UA) has been reported to exhibit multiple biological effects including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of UA on leptin-induced biological responses in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)...
January 29, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153991/sex-based-differences-in-cardiometabolic-biomarkers
#7
Jeanney Lew, Monika Sanghavi, Colby R Ayers, Darren K McGuire, Torbjørn Omland, Dorothee Atzler, Maria O Gore, Ian Neeland, Jarett D Berry, Amit Khera, Anand Rohatgi, James A de Lemos
BACKGROUND: Few data are available comparing cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarker profiles between women and men in the general population. We analyzed sex-based differences in multiple biomarkers reflecting distinct pathophysiological pathways, accounting for differences between women and men in CVD risk factors, body composition, and cardiac morphology. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from the Dallas Heart Study, a multiethnic population-based study...
February 7, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122721/adverse-metabolic-phenotype-of-female-offspring-exposed-to-preeclampsia-in-utero-a-characterization-of-the-bph-5-mouse-in-postnatal-life
#8
Elizabeth F Sutton, Heinrich E Lob, Jiunn Song, Yunwei Xia, Scott D Butler, Chin-Chi Liu, Leanne M Redman, Jenny L Sones
Preeclampsia (PE) is a devastating disorder of pregnancy that classically presents with maternal hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. In addition to being a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity/mortality, epidemiological and prospective studies have revealed long term consequences for both the mother and baby of preeclamptic pregnancies, including chronic hypertension as well as other cardiovascular diseases and metabolic derangements. To better understand the effect of in utero exposure of PE on offspring, we utilized the BPH/5 mouse, a spontaneous model of the maternal and fetal PE syndrome...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117839/the-genetic-overlap-between-mood-disorders-and-cardiometabolic-diseases-a-systematic-review-of-genome-wide-and-candidate-gene-studies
#9
REVIEW
A T Amare, K O Schubert, M Klingler-Hoffmann, S Cohen-Woods, B T Baune
Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (meta-GWASs) and candidate gene studies have identified genetic variants associated with cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases and mood disorders. Although previous efforts were successful for individual disease conditions (single disease), limited information exists on shared genetic risk between these disorders. This article presents a detailed review and analysis of cardiometabolic diseases risk (CMD-R) genes that are also associated with mood disorders...
January 24, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077136/increased-leptin-adiponectin-ratio-relates-to-low-normal-thyroid-function-in-metabolic-syndrome
#10
Lynnda J N van Tienhoven-Wind, Robin P F Dullaart
BACKGROUND: Low-normal thyroid function within the euthyroid range may contribute to increased atherosclerosis susceptibility. The leptin/adiponectin (L/A) ratio is associated with cardiovascular disease and reflects adipose tissue dysfunction. Relationships of the L/A ratio with low-normal thyroid function are unknown. METHODS: Relationships of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (free T4) with leptin, adiponectin and the L/A ratio in euthyroid subjects were documented in 67 fasting subjects with metabolic syndrome (Mets) and 86 euthyroid subjects without MetS (TSH and free T4 levels within the institutional reference range)...
January 11, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068986/leptin-and-adiponectin-as-predictors-of-cardiovascular-risk-after-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Tove Lekva, Annika Elisabet Michelsen, Pål Aukrust, Tore Henriksen, Jens Bollerslev, Thor Ueland
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in later life, but the mechanism remains unclear. Adipokine imbalance in the presence of metabolic dysfunction may be a key event in promoting CVD. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between GDM, cardiovascular risk, and plasma adiponectin, leptin and the leptin/adiponectin (L/A) ratio in pregnancy and at 5 years after the index pregnancy. METHODS: This population-based prospective cohort included 300 women who had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during pregnancy...
January 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068281/pathophysiological-role-of-adiponectin-leptin-and-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-in-the-process-of-atherosclerosis
#12
Daniela Iv Koleva, Maria M Orbetzova, Julia G Nikolova, Tanya I Deneva
Adipose tissue is recognized as a rich source of proinflammatory mediators that may directly contribute to vascular injury, insulin resistance, and atherogenesis. Many studies have shown that adiponectin has antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Adiponectin acts not only as a factor increasing insulin sensitivity, and the protective effect may result from its ability to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines. It negatively regulates the expression of TNF-alpha and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adipose tissue; reduces expression of vascular and intracellular adhesion molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1), E-selectin, interleukin-8 (IL-8)...
December 1, 2016: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063251/perivascular-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-vascular-disease
#13
REVIEW
Ryszard Nosalski, Tomasz J Guzik
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. In vascular pathologies perivascular adipose tissue increases in volume and becomes dysfunctional, with altered cellular composition and molecular characteristics. PVAT dysfunction is characterized by its inflammatory character, oxidative stress, diminished production of vaso-protective adipocyte derived relaxing factors (ADRFs) and increased production of paracrine factors such as resistin, leptin, cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α) and chemokines (RANTES, MCP-1)...
January 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986128/high-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-levels-increase-proinflammatory-and-cardiovascular-markers-in-patients-with-extreme-obesity
#14
Jaime Héctor Gómez-Zamudio, Victoria Mendoza-Zubieta, Aldo Ferreira-Hermosillo, Marío Antonio Molina-Ayala, Adán Valladares-Sálgado, Fernando Suárez-Sánchez, Jose de Jesús Peralta-Romero, Miguel Cruz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity is an important health problem worldwide and many studies have suggested a relationship between obesity and thyroid function, with controversial results. Interestingly, high TSH levels have been involved with the presence of inflammatory state and risk for developing cardiovascular diseases in hypothyroid and obese patients. The aim in this work was to determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with extreme obesity and to determine whether their TSH levels were related to increased serum levels of inflammatory and cardiovascular markers...
August 2016: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922544/fetal-environment-and-glycosylation-status-in-neonatal-cord-blood-a-comprehensive-mass-spectrometry-based-glycosylation-analysis
#15
Ryosuke Sato, Kenji J Tsuchiya, Hideo Matsuzaki, Nori Takei, Hiroaki Itoh, Naohiro Kanayama, Takafumi Suda, Hiroshi Watanabe, Tetsu Ohashi, Masakazu Tanaka, Shin-Ichiro Nishimura, Masato Maekawa
Fetal environment is known to be a major predictive factor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, associations of fetal environment and cord blood glycoforms are uncertain. In this study, we aimed to determine whether glycosylation status in neonatal cord blood is associated with perinatal outcomes reflecting a poor fetal environment.Thirty-six low birth weight (LBW) infants and 120 normal birth weight infants were recruited from a longitudinal birth cohort. We conducted a comprehensive cord blood N-glycan analysis using matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
April 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899860/leptin-attenuates-the-contractile-function-of-adult-rat-cardiomyocytes-involved-in-oxidative-stress-and-autophagy
#16
Liu-Jin Luo, Ying-Ping Liu, Xun Yuan, Gui-Ping Zhang, Ning Hou, Xiao-Qian Wu, Jian-Dong Luo, Gen-Shui Zhang
BACKGROUND: Leptin has been identified as an important protein involved in obesity. As a chronic metabolic disorder, obesity is associated with a high risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, including heart failure. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects and the mechanism of leptin on the contractile function of cardiomyocytes in the adult rat. METHODS: Isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to leptin (1, 10, and 100 nmol/L) for 1 hour...
November 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899768/effects-of-dietary-restriction-on-adipose-mass-and-biomarkers-of-healthy-aging-in-human
#17
Daniele Lettieri-Barbato, Esmeralda Giovannetti, Katia Aquilano
In developing countries the rise of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes, reflects the changes in lifestyle habits and wrong dietary choices. Dietary restriction (DR) regimens have been shown to extend health span and lifespan in many animal models including primates. Identifying biomarkers predictive of clinical benefits of treatment is one of the primary goals of precision medicine. To monitor the clinical outcomes of DR interventions in humans, several biomarkers are commonly adopted...
November 29, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896943/ang-1-7-protects-cardiomyocytes-against-hg-induced-injuries-through-inhibiting-ros-activated-leptin-p38-mapk-erk1-2-pathways-but-not-leptin-jnk-pathway-in-vitro
#18
Yiyan Lei, Qing Xu, Bo Zeng, Wei Zhang, Yulan Zhen, Yuansheng Zhai, Fei Cheng, Weiyi Mei, Dongdan Zheng, Jianqiang Feng, Jun Lan, Jingfu Chen
AIMS: Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], recognized as a new bioactive peptide in renin-angiotensin system (RAS), shows biological and pharmacological properties in diabetic cardiovascular diseases. Leptin induced-p38 MAPK pathway has been reported to contribute to the high glucose (HG)-induced injury. In this study, we demonstrated the mechanism that how Ang-(1-7) can protect from HG-stimulated injuries in H9c2 cells. METHODS: H9c2 cells were treated with 35 mM glucose (HG) for 24 h to establish a model of HG-induced damage...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895819/nutrition-insulin-resistance-and-dysfunctional-adipose-tissue-determine-the-different-components-of-metabolic-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Juan Antonio Paniagua
Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat that may be harmful to health. Today, obesity is a major public health problem, affecting in greater or lesser proportion all demographic groups. Obesity is estimated by body mass index (BMI) in a clinical setting, but BMI reports neither body composition nor the location of excess body fat. Deaths from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes accounted for approximately 65% of all deaths, and adiposity and mainly abdominal adiposity are associated with all these disorders...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885059/association-of-grip-strength-with-cardiovascular-risk-markers
#20
Cédric Gubelmann, Peter Vollenweider, Pedro Marques-Vidal
Background Mechanisms underlying the association between grip strength and cardiovascular mortality are poorly understood. We aimed to assess the association of grip strength with a panel of cardiovascular risk markers. Design The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of 3468 adults aged 50-75 years (1891 women) from a population-based sample in Lausanne, Switzerland. Methods Grip strength was measured using a hydraulic hand dynamometer. Cardiovascular risk markers included anthropometry, blood pressure, lipids, glucose, adiposity, inflammatory and other metabolic markers...
January 1, 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
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