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Multi-electrode array

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209189/spike-triggered-regression-for-synaptic-connectivity-reconstruction-in-neuronal-networks
#1
Yaoyu Zhang, Yanyang Xiao, Douglas Zhou, David Cai
How neurons are connected in the brain to perform computation is a key issue in neuroscience. Recently, the development of calcium imaging and multi-electrode array techniques have greatly enhanced our ability to measure the firing activities of neuronal populations at single cell level. Meanwhile, the intracellular recording technique is able to measure subthreshold voltage dynamics of a neuron. Our work addresses the issue of how to combine these measurements to reveal the underlying network structure. We propose the spike-triggered regression (STR) method, which employs both the voltage trace and firing activity of the neuronal population to reconstruct the underlying synaptic connectivity...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187552/implantable-computer-controlled-adaptive-multi-electrode-positioning-system-amep
#2
Enrico Ferrea, Lalitta Suriya-Arunroj, Dirk Hoehl, Uwe Thomas, Alexander Gail
Acute neuronal recordings performed with metal microelectrodes in non-human primates allow investigating the neural substrate of complex cognitive behaviors. Yet, the daily re-insertion and positioning of the electrodes prevents recording from many neurons simultaneously, limiting the suitability of these types of recordings for brain-computer-interface applications or for large-scale population statistical methods on a trial-by-trial basis. In contrast, chronically implanted multi-electrode arrays offer the opportunity to record from many neurons simultaneously, but immovable electrodes prevent optimization of the signal during and after implantation and cause the tissue response to progressively impair the transduced signal quality, thereby limiting the number of different neurons that can be recorded over the lifetime of the implant...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180616/changes-in-cortical-network-connectivity-with-long-term-brain-machine-interface-exposure-after-chronic-amputation
#3
Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Mukta Vaidya, Joshua Southerland, Islam Badreldin, Ahmed Eleryan, Kazutaka Takahashi, Kai Qian, Marc W Slutzky, Andrew H Fagg, Karim Oweiss, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos
Studies on neural plasticity associated with brain-machine interface (BMI) exposure have primarily documented changes in single neuron activity, and largely in intact subjects. Here, we demonstrate significant changes in ensemble-level functional connectivity among primary motor cortical (MI) neurons of chronically amputated monkeys exposed to control a multiple-degree-of-freedom robot arm. A multi-electrode array was implanted in M1 contralateral or ipsilateral to the amputation in three animals. Two clusters of stably recorded neurons were arbitrarily assigned to control reach and grasp movements, respectively...
November 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178940/restoration-of-motor-control-and-proprioceptive-and-cutaneous-sensation-in-humans-with-prior-upper-limb-amputation-via-multiple-utah-slanted-electrode-arrays-useas-implanted-in-residual-peripheral-arm-nerves
#4
Suzanne Wendelken, David M Page, Tyler Davis, Heather A C Wark, David T Kluger, Christopher Duncan, David J Warren, Douglas T Hutchinson, Gregory A Clark
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in sophisticated robotic hands, intuitive control of and sensory feedback from these prostheses has been limited to only 3-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) with 2 sensory percepts in closed-loop control. A Utah Slanted Electrode Array (USEA) has been used in the past to provide up to 81 sensory percepts for human amputees. Here, we report on the advanced capabilities of multiple USEAs implanted in the residual peripheral arm nerves of human amputees for restoring control of 5 DOF and sensation of up to 131 proprioceptive and cutaneous hand sensory percepts...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172153/ajmaline-blocks-ina-and-ikr-without-eliciting-differences-between-brugada-syndrome-patient-and-control-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiac-clusters
#5
Duncan C Miller, Stephen C Harmer, Ariel Poliandri, Muriel Nobles, Elizabeth C Edwards, James S Ware, Tyson V Sharp, Tristan R McKay, Leo Dunkel, Pier D Lambiase, Andrew Tinker
The class Ia anti-arrhythmic drug ajmaline is used clinically to unmask latent type I ECG in Brugada syndrome (BrS) patients, although its mode of action is poorly characterised. Our aims were to identify ajmaline's mode of action in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs), and establish a simple BrS hiPSC platform to test whether differences in ajmaline response could be determined between BrS patients and controls. Control hiPSCs were differentiated into spontaneously contracting cardiac clusters...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170135/temporally-coordinated-spiking-activity-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurons-co-cultured-with-astrocytes
#6
Tasuku Kayama, Ikurou Suzuki, Aoi Odawara, Takuya Sasaki, Yuji Ikegaya
In culture conditions, human induced-pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC)-derived neurons form synaptic connections with other cells and establish neuronal networks, which are expected to be an in vitro model system for drug discovery screening and toxicity testing. While early studies demonstrated effects of co-culture of hiPSC-derived neurons with astroglial cells on survival and maturation of hiPSC-derived neurons, the population spiking patterns of such hiPSC-derived neurons have not been fully characterized...
November 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153256/intraoperative-force-and-electrocochleography-measurements-in-an-animal-model-of-cochlear-implantation
#7
J Lo, C Bester, A Collins, C Newbold, A Hampson, S Chambers, H Eastwood, S O'Leary
To preserve residual hearing, techniques for monitoring and reducing the effects of trauma during cochlear implant surgery are being developed. This study examines the relationships between intraoperative recordings (electrode insertion force and electrocochleography), trauma, and hearing loss after cochlear implantation. The study also evaluated the efficacy of intravenous steroids for reducing hearing loss after implantation. Thirty-two normal-hearing guinea pigs were randomly implanted with electrode arrays of differing stiffness ('hard' or 'soft')...
November 9, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151990/robot-embodied-neuronal-networks-as-an-interactive-model-of-learning
#8
Abraham M Shultz, Sangmook Lee, Mary Guaraldi, Thomas B Shea, Holly C Yanco
Background and Objective: The reductionist approach of neuronal cell culture has been useful for analyses of synaptic signaling. Murine cortical neurons in culture spontaneously form an ex vivo network capable of transmitting complex signals, and have been useful for analyses of several fundamental aspects of neuronal development hitherto difficult to clarify in situ. However, these networks lack the ability to receive and respond to sensory input from the environment as do neurons in vivo...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133907/a-primacy-code-for-odor-identity
#9
Christopher D Wilson, Gabriela O Serrano, Alexei A Koulakov, Dmitry Rinberg
Humans can identify visual objects independently of view angle and lighting, words independently of volume and pitch, and smells independently of concentration. The computational principles underlying invariant object recognition remain mostly unknown. Here we propose that, in olfaction, a small and relatively stable set comprised of the earliest activated receptors forms a code for concentration-invariant odor identity. One prediction of this "primacy coding" scheme is that decisions based on odor identity can be made solely using early odor-evoked neural activity...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133846/large-scale-matching-of-function-to-the-genetic-identity-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#10
Filippo Pisano, Erin Zampaglione, Niall McAlinden, Jennifer Roebber, Martin D Dawson, Keith Mathieson, Alexander Sher
Understanding the role of neurons in encoding and transmitting information is a major goal in neuroscience. This requires insight on the data-rich neuronal spiking patterns combined, ideally, with morphology and genetic identity. Electrophysiologists have long experienced the trade-offs between anatomically-accurate single-cell recording techniques and high-density multi-cellular recording methods with poor anatomical correlations. In this study, we present a novel technique that combines large-scale micro-electrode array recordings with genetic identification and the anatomical location of the retinal ganglion cell soma...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131818/electrical-stimulus-artifact-cancellation-and-neural-spike-detection-on-large-multi-electrode-arrays
#11
Gonzalo E Mena, Lauren E Grosberg, Sasidhar Madugula, Paweł Hottowy, Alan Litke, John Cunningham, E J Chichilnisky, Liam Paninski
Simultaneous electrical stimulation and recording using multi-electrode arrays can provide a valuable technique for studying circuit connectivity and engineering neural interfaces. However, interpreting these measurements is challenging because the spike sorting process (identifying and segregating action potentials arising from different neurons) is greatly complicated by electrical stimulation artifacts across the array, which can exhibit complex and nonlinear waveforms, and overlap temporarily with evoked spikes...
November 13, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130902/dielectrophoresis-based-multi-step-nanowire-assembly-on-a-flexible-superstrate
#12
Xin Wang, Ke Chen, Linbo Liu, Nan Xiang, Zhonghua Ni
Abstract Nanowire assembly based on dielectrophoresis (DEP) could be a useful and efficient tool for fabricating nanowire-based devices. Although there have been extensive reports on the DEP nanowire assembly, the new approaches that make DEP more facile and affordable are still desirable. Herein, we present an approach using the reusable electrodes to assemble silver nanowires onto a removable, independent polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. The PET film is placed on the reusable electrodes, and a sinusoidal AC voltage is applied to the electrodes to induce DEP force for nanowire assembly upon the flexible film...
November 13, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129967/single-particle-analyzer-of-mass-a-charge-detection-mass-spectrometer-with-a-multi-detector-electrostatic-ion-trap
#13
Andrew G Elliott, Samuel I Merenbloom, Satrajit Chakrabarty, Evan R Williams
A new charge detection mass spectrometer that combines array detection and electrostatic ion trapping to repeatedly measure the masses of single ions is described. This instrument has four detector tubes inside an electrostatic ion trap with conical electrodes (cone trap) to provide multiple measurements of an ion on each pass through the trap resulting in a signal gain over a conventional trap with a single detection tube. Simulations of a cone trap and a dual ion mirror trap design indicate that more passes through the trap per unit time are possible with the latter...
March 2017: International Journal of Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126946/sensory-percepts-induced-by-microwire-array-and-dbs-microstimulation-in-human-sensory-thalamus
#14
Brandon D Swan, Lynne B Gasperson, Max O Krucoff, Warren M Grill, Dennis A Turner
BACKGROUND: Microstimulation in human sensory thalamus (ventrocaudal, VC) results in focal sensory percepts in the hand and arm which may provide an alternative target site (to somatosensory cortex) for the input of prosthetic sensory information. Sensory feedback to facilitate motor function may require simultaneous or timed responses across separate digits to recreate perceptions of slip as well as encoding of intensity variations in pressure or touch. OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of evoking sensory percepts on separate digits with variable intensity through either a microwire array or deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode, recreating "natural" and scalable percepts relating to the arm and hand...
October 27, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126472/a-novel-visible-light-driven-photoelectrochemical-immunosensor-based-on-multi-amplification-strategy-for-ultrasensitive-detection-of-microcystin-lr
#15
Jie Wei, Aori Qileng, Yun Yan, Hongtao Lei, Shengsen Zhang, Weipeng Liu, Yingju Liu
An ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay based on multiple signal amplification strategy was fabricated for the detection of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). The CdS/TiO2 nanorod arrays (CdS/TiO2 NRAs) modified FTO electrode, which can weaken the self-oxidation by photogenerated holes of CdS nanoparticles, and limit the recombination of electron-hole pairs and broaden optical absorption of TiO2 NRAs, was used as a visible-light driven material to immobilize antigens. Then, Fe3O4 nanoparticles/polydopamine (Fe3O4@PDA) was used as the carrier to load secondary antibody (Ab2) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), where Fe3O4 nanoparticles and HRP can synergistically accelerate the oxidation of 4-chloro-1-naphthol (4-CN) by H2O2 to produce biocatalytic precipitation (BCP) on the surface of modified electrode...
November 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123169/plasmonic-chromatic-electrode-with-low-resistivity
#16
Young Gyu Moon, Yun Seon Do, Min Ho Lee, Bo Yeon Hwang, Dong Jun Jeong, Byeong-Kwon Ju, Kyung Cheol Choi
We report on the optical and electrical properties of a novel plasmonic chromatic electrode (PCE). The PCE was composed of a metallic nano-hole array and ITO layer as a dielectric for electrical property. The structure design was optimized to obtain the matched condition between surface plasmon modes at the top and bottom metal-dielectric interfaces for high transmittance. The fabricated PCEs have high transmittance of 25~40% and low resistivity (level of 10(-5) Ωcm) compared to conventional electrodes. Due to the multi-functionality and simple structure of PCEs, we predict the PCEs can be applied for advanced industrial use such as, high resolution, flexible, and stretchable devices...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119176/a-novel-microfluidic-microelectrode-chip-for-a-significantly-enhanced-monitoring-of-npy-receptor-activation-in-live-mode
#17
Franziska D Zitzmann, Heinz-Georg Jahnke, Felix Nitschke, Annette G Beck-Sickinger, Bernd Abel, Detlev Belder, Andrea A Robitzki
Lab-on-a-chip devices that combine, e.g. chemical synthesis with integrated on-chip analytics and multi-compartment organ-on-a-chip approaches, are a fast and attractive evolving research area. While integration of appropriate cell models in microfluidic setups for monitoring the biological activity of synthesis products or test compounds is already in focus, the integration of label-free bioelectronic analysis techniques is still poorly realized. In this context, we investigated the capabilities of impedance spectroscopy as a non-destructive real-time monitoring technique for adherent cell models in a microfluidic setup...
November 9, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111670/non-neurotoxic-nanodiamond-probes-for-intraneuronal-temperature-mapping
#18
David A Simpson, Emma Morrisroe, Julia M McCoey, Alain H Lombard, Dulini C Mendis, François Treussart, Liam T Hall, Steven Petrou, Lloyd C L Hollenberg
Optical biomarkers have been used extensively for intracellular imaging with high spatial and temporal resolution. Extending the modality of these probes is a key driver in cell biology. In recent years, the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in nanodiamond has emerged as a promising candidate for bioimaging and biosensing with low cytotoxicity and stable photoluminescence. Here we study the electrophysiological effects of this quantum probe in primary cortical neurons. Multielectrode array recordings across five replicate studies showed no statistically significant difference in 25 network parameters when nanodiamonds are added at varying concentrations over various time periods, 12-36 h...
November 13, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107716/pacsin-2-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-a-normal-cardiac-function-in-the-developing-mouse-heart
#19
Judith Semmler, Jan Kormann, Sureshkumar Perumal Srinivasan, Annette Köster, Daniel Sälzer, Michael Reppel, Jürgen Hescheler, Markus Plomann, Filomain Nguemo
The Pacsin proteins (Pacsin 1, 2 and 3) play an important role in intracellular trafficking and thereby signal transduction in many cells types. This study was designed to examine the role of Pacsin 2 in cardiac development and function. We investigated the development and electrophysiological properties of Pacsin 2 knockout (P2KO) hearts and single cardiomyocytes isolated from 11.5 and 15.5days old fetal mice. Immunofluorescence experiments confirmed the lack of Pacsin 2 protein expression in P2KO cardiac myocytes in comparison to wildtype (WT)...
October 28, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107523/a-large-scale-semi-chronic-microdrive-recording-system-for-non-human-primates
#20
Nicholas M Dotson, Steven J Hoffman, Baldwin Goodell, Charles M Gray
Multi-electrode recordings in the non-human primate provide a critical method for measuring the widely distributed activity patterns that underlie brain function. However, common techniques rely on small, often immovable arrays, or microdrives, that are only capable of manipulating a small number of closely spaced probes. These techniques restrict the number of cortical areas that can be simultaneously sampled and are typically not capable of reaching subcortical targets. To overcome these limitations, we developed a large-scale, semi-chronic microdrive recording system with up to 256 independently movable microelectrodes spanning an entire cerebral hemisphere...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
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