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Multi-electrode array

Daniela Aversa, Alessandro Martini, Ezia Guatteo, Antonio Pisani, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Nicola Berretta
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: One of the hallmarks of ventral midbrain dopamine (DA)-releasing neurons is membrane hyperpolarization in response to somato-dendritic D2 receptors (D2 Rs) stimulation. At early postnatal age, under sustained DA, this inhibitory response is followed by a slow recovery, resulting in dopamine inhibition reversal (DIR). In the present investigation we aimed to get a better insight onto the cellular mechanisms underlying DIR. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We performed single unit extracellular recordings with a multi-electrode array (MEA) device and conventional patch-clamp recordings on midbrain mouse slices...
June 22, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Mackenna Hill, Estefania Rios, Shyam Kumar Sudhakar, Douglas Roossien, Ciara Maria Caldwell, Dawen Cai, Omar Ahmed, Scott Lempka, Cynthia A Chestek
OBJECTIVE: Neural recording is important for a wide variety of clinical applications. Until recently, recording from the surface of the brain, even when using micro-electrocorticography (µECoG) arrays, was not thought to enable recording from individual neurons. Recent results suggest that when the surface electrode contact size is sufficiently small, it may be possible to record single neurons from the brain's surface. In this study, we use computational techniques to investigate the ability of surface electrodes to record the activity of single neurons...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Wadood Haq, Johannes Dietter, Sylvia Bolz, Eberhart Zrenner
OBJECTIVE: A feasibility study for a transmitter based subretinal prosthesis, generating visual responses in blind mouse retina is presented. APPROACH: Degenerated rd1 mouse retina were stimulated in subretinal configuration by local glutamate (Glu) or NMDA application via micropipettes (~1.5 μm) and thereby the outer retinal activity was recorded by calcium-imaging or the ganglion cell (GC) activity was recorded by the multi-electrode array system. The network mediated activation of GC via bipolar cells was approved by the administration of Glu receptor blockers...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Anke M Tukker, Fiona M J Wijnolts, Aart de Groot, Remco H S Westerink
Neurotoxicity testing still relies on ethically debated, expensive and time consuming in vivo experiments, which are unsuitable for high-throughput toxicity screening. There is thus a clear need for a rapid in vitro screening strategy that is preferably based on human-derived neurons to circumvent interspecies translation. Recent availability of commercially obtainable human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons and astrocytes holds great promise in assisting the transition from the current standard of rat primary cortical cultures to an animal-free alternative...
June 14, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Rongkang Yin, Zheng Xu, Ming Mei, Zhaolong Chen, Kai Wang, Yanlin Liu, Tao Tang, Manish Kr Priydarshi, Xuejuan Meng, Siyuan Zhao, Bing Deng, Hailin Peng, Zhongfan Liu, Xiaojie Duan
Visual electrophysiology measurements are important for ophthalmic diagnostic testing. Electrodes with combined optical transparency and softness are highly desirable, and sometimes indispensable for many ocular electrophysiology measurements. Here we report the fabrication of soft graphene contact lens electrodes (GRACEs) with broad-spectrum optical transparency, and their application in conformal, full-cornea recording of electroretinography (ERG) from cynomolgus monkeys. The GRACEs give higher signal amplitude than conventional ERG electrodes in recordings of various full-field ERG responses...
June 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Damion K Corrigan, Vincent Vezza, Holger Schulze, Till T Bachmann, Andrew R Mount, Anthony J Walton, Jonathan G Terry
For analytical applications involving label-free biosensors and multiple measurements, i.e., across an electrode array, it is essential to develop complete sensor systems capable of functionalization and of producing highly consistent responses. To achieve this, a multi-microelectrode device bearing twenty-four equivalent 50 µm diameter Pt disc microelectrodes was designed in an integrated 3-electrode system configuration and then fabricated. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used for initial electrochemical characterization of the individual working electrodes...
June 9, 2018: Sensors
Christiane Jungen, Katharina Scherschel, Nadja I Bork, Pawel Kuklik, Christian Eickholt, Helge Kniep, Niklas Klatt, Stephan Willems, Viacheslav O Nikolaev, Christian Meyer
Since its invention in the late 19th century, the Langendorff ex vivo heart perfusion system continues to be a relevant tool for studying a broad spectrum of physiological, biochemical, morphological, and pharmacological parameters in centrally denervated hearts. Here, we describe a setup for the modulation of the intracardiac autonomic nervous system and the assessment of its influence on basic electrophysiology, arrhythmogenesis, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) dynamics. The intracardiac autonomic nervous system is modulated by the mechanical dissection of atrial fat pads-in which murine ganglia are located mainly-or by the usage of global as well as targeted pharmacological interventions...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Timothy Esler, Matias Maturana, Robert R Kerr, David B Grayden, Anthony N Burkitt, Hamish Meffin
Responses of retinal ganglion cells to direct electrical stimulation have been shown experimentally to be well described by linear-nonlinear models. These models rely on the simplifying assumption that retinal ganglion cell responses to stimulation with an array of electrodes are driven by a simple linear weighted sum of stimulus current amplitudes from each electrode, known as the "electrical receptive field". <i>Objective</i>. This paper aims to demonstrate the biophysical basis of the linear-nonlinear model and the electrical receptive field to facilitate the development of improved stimulation strategies for retinal implants...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Jennifer L Zick, Rachael K Blackman, David A Crowe, Bagrat Amirikian, Adele L DeNicola, Theoden I Netoff, Matthew V Chafee
We employed multi-electrode array recording to evaluate the influence of NMDA receptors (NMDAR) on spike-timing dynamics in prefrontal networks of monkeys as they performed a cognitive control task measuring specific deficits in schizophrenia. Systemic, periodic administration of an NMDAR antagonist (phencyclidine) reduced the prevalence and strength of synchronous (0-lag) spike correlation in simultaneously recorded neuron pairs. We employed transfer entropy analysis to measure effective connectivity between prefrontal neurons at lags consistent with monosynaptic interactions and found that effective connectivity was persistently reduced following exposure to the NMDAR antagonist...
May 26, 2018: Neuron
Alessio Paolo Buccino, Michael Kordovan, Torbjørn V Bækø Ness, Benjamin Merkt, Philipp Dominik Häfliger, Marianne Fyhn, Gert Cauwenberghs, Stefan Rotter, Gaute T Einevoll
Neural circuits typically consist of many different types of neurons, and one faces the challenge to disentangle their individual contributions in measured neural activity. Classification of cells into inhibitory and excitatory neurons, and localization of neurons based on extracellular recordings are frequently employed procedures. Current approaches, however, need a lot of human intervention, which makes them slow, biased, and unreliable. Based on recent advances in deep learning techniques and exploiting the availability of neuron models with quasi-realistic 3D morphology and physiological properties, we present a framework for automatized and objective classification and localization of cells based on the spatiotemporal profiles of the extracellular action potential recorded by multi-electrode arrays...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Li Lu, Briana Popeney, J David Dickman, Dora E Angelaki
Monitoring the activity patterns of a large population of neurons over many days in awake animals is a valuable technique in the field of systems neuroscience. One key component of this technique consists of the precise placement of multiple electrodes into desired brain regions and the maintenance of their stability. Here, we describe a protocol for the construction of a 3D-printable hyperdrive, which includes eighteen independently adjustable tetrodes, and is specifically designed for in vivo extracellular neural recording in freely behaving rats...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Martin Thunemann, Yichen Lu, Xin Liu, Kıvılcım Kılıç, Michèle Desjardins, Matthieu Vandenberghe, Sanaz Sadegh, Payam A Saisan, Qun Cheng, Kimberly L Weldy, Hongming Lyu, Srdjan Djurovic, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale, Anna Devor, Duygu Kuzum
Recent advances in optical technologies such as multi-photon microscopy and optogenetics have revolutionized our ability to record and manipulate neuronal activity. Combining optical techniques with electrical recordings is of critical importance to connect the large body of neuroscience knowledge obtained from animal models to human studies mainly relying on electrophysiological recordings of brain-scale activity. However, integration of optical modalities with electrical recordings is challenging due to generation of light-induced artifacts...
May 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Saul Jaime, Jose E Cavazos, Yihong Yang, Hanbing Lu
BACKGROUND: fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal has been widely used as a surrogate for neural activity. However, interpreting differences in BOLD fMRI based on underlying neuronal activity remains a challenge. Concurrent rsMRI data collection and electrophysiological recording in combination with microiontophoretically injected modulatory chemicals allows for improved understanding of the relationship between resting state BOLD and neuronal activity. NEW METHODS: Simultaneous fMRI, multi-channel intracortical electrophysiology and focal pharmacological manipulation data to be acquired longitudinally in rats for up to 2 months...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Karla R Sanchez, Mahlet D Mersha, Harbinder S Dhillon, Murali K Temburni
Bis-phenols, such as bis-phenol A (BPA) and bis-phenol-S (BPS), are polymerizing agents widely used in the production of plastics and numerous everyday products. They are classified as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) with estradiol-like properties. Long-term exposure to EDCs, even at low doses, has been linked with various health defects including cancer, behavioral disorders, and infertility, with greater vulnerability during early developmental periods. To study the effects of BPA on the development of neuronal function, we used an in vitro neuronal network derived from the early chick embryonic brain as a model...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Johanna Pilas, Yasemen Yazici, Thorsten Selmer, Michael Keusgen, Michael J Schöning
Multi-analyte biosensors may offer the opportunity to perform cost-effective and rapid analysis with reduced sample volume, as compared to electrochemical biosensing of each analyte individually. This work describes the development of an enzyme-based biosensor system for multi-parametric determination of four different organic acids. The biosensor array comprises five working electrodes for simultaneous sensing of ethanol, formate, d-lactate, and l-lactate, and an integrated counter electrode. Storage stability of the biosensor was evaluated under different conditions (stored at +4 °C in buffer solution and dry at −21 °C, +4 °C, and room temperature) over a period of 140 days...
May 8, 2018: Sensors
Ziyue Li, Yilin Song, Guihua Xiao, Fei Gao, Shengwei Xu, Mixia Wang, Yu Zhang, Fengru Guo, Jie Liu, Yang Xia, Xinxia Cai
Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic neurological disorder, characterized by sudden, repeated and transient central nervous system dysfunction. For better understanding of TLE, bio-nanomodified microelectrode arrays (MEA) are designed, for the achievement of high-quality simultaneous detection of glutamate signals (Glu) and multi-channel electrophysiological signals including action potentials (spikes) and local field potentials (LFPs). The MEA was fabricated by Micro-Electro-Mechanical System fabrication technology and all recording sites were modified with platinum black nano-particles, the average impedance decreased by nearly 90 times...
June 1, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Bryan D Moyer, Justin K Murray, Joseph Ligutti, Kristin Andrews, Philippe Favreau, John B Jordan, Josie H Lee, Dong Liu, Jason Long, Kelvin Sham, Licheng Shi, Reto Stöcklin, Bin Wu, Ruoyuan Yin, Violeta Yu, Anruo Zou, Kaustav Biswas, Les P Miranda
Identification of voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 inhibitors for chronic pain therapeutic development is an area of vigorous pursuit. In an effort to identify more potent leads compared to our previously reported GpTx-1 peptide series, electrophysiology screening of fractionated tarantula venom discovered the NaV1.7 inhibitory peptide JzTx-V from the Chinese earth tiger tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao. The parent peptide displayed nominal selectivity over the skeletal muscle NaV1.4 channel. Attribute-based positional scan analoging identified a key Ile28Glu mutation that improved NaV1...
2018: PloS One
Matthew D Yates, Sarah Barr Engel, Brian J Eddie, Nikolai Lebedev, Anthony P Malanoski, Leonard M Tender
Here, we describe the long-distance (multi-cell-length) extracellular electron transport (LD-EET) that occurs in an anode-grown mixed community biofilm (MCB) enriched from river sediment that contains 3%-45% Geobacter spp. High signal-to-noise temperature-dependent electrochemical gating measurements (EGM) using interdigitated microelectrode arrays reveal a peak-shaped electrical conductivity vs. potential dependency, indicating MCB acts as a redox conductor, similar to pure culture anode-grown Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms (GSB)...
June 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Jessica Rodgers, Steven Hughes, Carina A Pothecary, Laurence A Brown, Doron G Hickey, Stuart N Peirson, Mark W Hankins
Melanopsin (OPN4) is an opsin photopigment expressed within intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) that mediate non-image forming (NIF) responses to light. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human melanopsin (hOPN4), Pro10Leu and Thr394Ile, have recently been associated with abnormal NIF responses to light, including Seasonal Affective Disorder. It has been suggested these behavioural changes are due to altered melanopsin signalling. However, there is currently no direct evidence to support this...
April 30, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
E Josiah Lutton, Wim J E P Lammers, Sean James, Hugo A van den Berg, Andrew M Blanks
KEY POINTS: Coordinated contraction of the uterine smooth muscle is essential to parturition. Histologically and physiologically defined pacemaker structures have not been identified in uterine smooth muscle. Here we report combined electrophysiological and histological evidence of zones associated with pacemaker activity in the rat myometrium. Our method relies crucially on the integration of histological and electrophysiological data in an in silico three-dimensional reconstruction of the rat myometrium at 10 μm resolution...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Physiology
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