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Multi-electrode array

Bhaskar Dudem, Yeong Hwan Ko, Jung Woo Leem, Joo Ho Lim, Jae Su Yu
We report the hierarchical nano/micro architectured (HNMA)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film-based hybrid energy cells with multi-functionality to simultaneously harvest mechanical, solar, and wind energies. These films consist of nano/micro dual-scale architectures (i.e., nanonipples on inverted micro pyramidal arrays) on the PDMS surface. The HNMA-PDMS is replicable by a facile and cost-effective soft imprint lithography (SIL) using a nanoporous anodic alumina oxide (AAO) film formed on the micro-pyramidal (MP) structured silicon substrate...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yong Hee Kim, Gook Hwa Kim, Min Sun Kim, Sang-Don Jung
A Multi-electrode array (MEA) was fabricated with electrodes consisting of iridium oxide (IrOx) electrochemically deposited on nanoporous gold (NPG) to improve the moderate charge injection limit (ca. 1 mC cm-2) of NPG MEA. IrOx was electrodeposited by performing cyclic voltammetry with an IrOx deposition solution. The IrOx was electrodeposited on Au (EIROF/Au) and on NPG (EIROF/NPG) MEA, and the samples were analyzed in terms of the charge injection limit, charge storage capacity (CSC), and electrochemical impedance...
October 13, 2016: Nano Letters
Dong-Wook Park, Sarah K Brodnick, Jared P Ness, Farid Atry, Lisa Krugner-Higby, Amelia Sandberg, Solomon Mikael, Thomas J Richner, Joseph Novello, Hyungsoo Kim, Dong-Hyun Baek, Jihye Bong, Seth T Frye, Sanitta Thongpang, Kyle I Swanson, Wendell Lake, Ramin Pashaie, Justin C Williams, Zhenqiang Ma
Transparent graphene-based neural electrode arrays provide unique opportunities for simultaneous investigation of electrophysiology, various neural imaging modalities, and optogenetics. Graphene electrodes have previously demonstrated greater broad-wavelength transmittance (∼90%) than other transparent materials such as indium tin oxide (∼80%) and ultrathin metals (∼60%). This protocol describes how to fabricate and implant a graphene-based microelectrocorticography (μECoG) electrode array and subsequently use this alongside electrophysiology, fluorescence microscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and optogenetics...
November 2016: Nature Protocols
Milou M L Dingemans, Marijke G Schütte, Daphne M M Wiersma, Aart de Groot, Regina G D M van Kleef, Fiona M J Wijnolts, Remco H S Westerink
There is an increasing demand for in vitro test systems to detect neurotoxicity for use in chemical risk assessment. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of rat primary cortical cultures grown on multi-well micro-electrode arrays (mwMEAs) to detect effects of chronic 14-day exposure to structurally different insecticides or methylmercury on neuronal activity (mean spike rate; MSR). Effects of chronic exposure to α-cypermethrin, endosulfan, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos(-oxon), methylmercury or solvent control [14days exposure, initiated after baseline recording at day in vitro (DIV)7] were studied in five successive recordings between DIV10 and DIV21...
October 5, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Anne Tscherter, Martina Heidemann, Sonja Kleinlogel, Jürg Streit
Presently there exists no cure for spinal cord injury (SCI). However, transplantation of embryonic tissue into spinal cord (SC) lesions resulted in axon outgrowth across the lesion site and some functional recovery, fostering hope for future stem cell therapies. Although in vivo evidence for functional recovery is given, the exact cellular mechanism of the graft support remains elusive: either the grafted cells provide a permissive environment for the host tissue to regenerate itself or the grafts actually integrate functionally into the host neuronal network reconnecting the separated SC circuits...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Paras R Patel, Huanan Zhang, Matthew T Robbins, Justin B Nofar, Shaun P Marshall, Michael J Kobylarek, Takashi D Y Kozai, Nicholas A Kotov, Cynthia A Chestek
OBJECTIVE: Individual carbon fiber microelectrodes can record unit activity in both acute and semi-chronic (∼1 month) implants. Additionally, new methods have been developed to insert a 16 channel array of carbon fiber microelectrodes. Before assessing the in vivo long-term viability of these arrays, accelerated soak tests were carried out to determine the most stable site coating material. Next, a multi-animal, multi-month, chronic implantation study was carried out with carbon fiber microelectrode arrays and silicon electrodes...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Ann-Lauriene Haag, Violeta Toader, R Bruce Lennox, Peter Grutter
The selective modification of individual components in a biosensor array is challenging. To address this challenge, we present a generalizable approach to selectively modify and characterize individual gold surfaces in an array, in an in situ manner. This is achieved by taking advantage of the potential dependent adsorption/desorption of surface-modified organic molecules. Control of the applied potential of the individual sensors in an array where each acts as a working electrode provides differential derivatization of the sensor surfaces...
November 11, 2016: Nanotechnology
Mikaela Therrien, Rishel Vohnoutka, Edward Boumil, Mary Guaraldi, Sangmook Lee, Thomas B Shea
The nervous system is composed of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. One major class of inhibitory neurons release the neurotransmitter γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABAergic inhibitory activity maintains the balance that is disrupted in conditions such as epilepsy. At least some GABAergic neurons are initially excitatory and undergo a developmental conversion to convert to inhibitory neurons. The mechanism(s) behind this conversion are thought to include a critical developmental increase in excitatory activity...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Enzo Wanke, Francesca Gullo, Elena Dossi, Gaetano Valenza, Andrea Becchetti
Astrocytes reuptake synaptically released glutamate with electrogenic transporters (GluT), and buffer the spike-dependent extracellular K(+) ([K(+)]o) excess with background K(+) channels. We studied neuronal spikes and the slower astrocytic signals on reverberating neocortical cultures and organotypic slices from mouse brains. Spike trains and glial responses were simultaneously captured from individual sites of multi-electrode arrays (MEA), by splitting the recorded traces into appropriate filters, and reconstructing the original signal by deconvolution...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Guangfu Jiang, Xia Liu, Yaqin Wang, Sanpeng Ruan, Honglan Qi, Yong Yang, Qishe Zhou, Chengxiao Zhang
A multi-functional eletrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) imaging analyzer including both a photomultiplier tube and charged coupled device as detectors has been developed. The ECL imaging analyzer can effectively work for electrochemical study, ECL intensity detection at electrode array, and ECL imaging at bipolar electrodes or electrode array. As an ECL imaging example, an ECL biosensor for visual detection of matrix metalloproteinase 7 in the range from 0.05 to 1 ng/mL is demonstrated.
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Tabassum A Kennedy, Nathan Connell, Timothy Szczykutowicz, Sebastian Schafer, Kevin Royalty, Sara Nace, Brian Gartrell, Samuel Gubbels
HYPOTHESIS: Flat-panel computed tomography (FPCT) will allow more accurate localization of cochlear implants with decreased metallic artifact and decreased radiation dose when compared with multi-detector CT (MDCT). BACKGROUND: The measurement of scalar location and intra-scalar position of cochlear implantation (CI) electrodes using computed tomography (CT) is complicated by metallic image artifact and insufficient scalar resolution. FPCT has been shown to improve upon the resolution of MDCT while reducing artifact...
September 23, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Isha Gupta, Alexantrou Serb, Ali Khiat, Ralf Zeitler, Stefano Vassanelli, Themistoklis Prodromakis
Advanced brain-chip interfaces with numerous recording sites bear great potential for investigation of neuroprosthetic applications. The bottleneck towards achieving an efficient bio-electronic link is the real-time processing of neuronal signals, which imposes excessive requirements on bandwidth, energy and computation capacity. Here we present a unique concept where the intrinsic properties of memristive devices are exploited to compress information on neural spikes in real-time. We demonstrate that the inherent voltage thresholds of metal-oxide memristors can be used for discriminating recorded spiking events from background activity and without resorting to computationally heavy off-line processing...
2016: Nature Communications
Felix Hempel, Jessica Ka-Yan Law, Thanh Chien Nguyen, Walid Munief, Xiaoling Lu, Vivek Pachauri, Anna Susloparova, Xuan Thang Vu, Sven Ingebrandt
Electrophysiological biosensors embedded in planar devices represent a state of the art approach to measure and evaluate the electrical activity of biological systems. This measurement method allows for the testing of drugs and their influences on cells or tissues, cytotoxicity, as well as the direct implementation into biological systems in vivo for signal transduction. Multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) with metal or metal-like electrodes on glass substrates are one of the most common, well-established platforms for this purpose...
September 14, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Kiyoshi Takasuna, Keiichi Asakura, Seiichi Araki, Hiroyuki Ando, Katsuyuki Kazusa, Takashi Kitaguchi, Takeshi Kunimatsu, Shinobu Suzuki, Norimasa Miyamoto
Recent increasing evidence suggests that the currently-used platforms in vitro IKr and APD, and/or in vivo QT assays are not fully predictive for TdP, and do not address potential arrhythmia (VT and/or VF) induced by diverse mechanisms of action. In addition, other cardiac safety liabilities such as functional dysfunction of excitation-contraction coupling (contractility) and structural damage (morphological damage to cardiomyocytes) are also major causes of drug attrition, but current in vitro assays do not cover all these liabilities...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Chris Clarke, Robert Rieger, Martin Schuettler, Nick Donaldson, John Taylor
Detection and classification of electroneurogram (ENG) signals in the peripheral nervous system can be achieved by velocity selective recording (VSR) using multi-electrode arrays. This paper describes an implantable VSR-based ENG recording system representing a significant development in the field since it is the first system of its type that can record naturally evoked ENG and be interfaced wirelessly using a low data rate transcutaneous link. The system consists of two CMOS ASICs one of which is placed close to the multi-electrode cuff array (MEC), whilst the other is mounted close to the wireless link...
September 16, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Cosima Prahm, Korbinian Eckstein, Max Ortiz-Catalan, Georg Dorffner, Eugenijus Kaniusas, Oskar C Aszmann
BACKGROUND: Controlling a myoelectric prosthesis for upper limbs is increasingly challenging for the user as more electrodes and joints become available. Motion classification based on pattern recognition with a multi-electrode array allows multiple joints to be controlled simultaneously. Previous pattern recognition studies are difficult to compare, because individual research groups use their own data sets. To resolve this shortcoming and to facilitate comparisons, open access data sets were analysed using components of BioPatRec and Netlab pattern recognition models...
2016: BMC Research Notes
John W Sessions, David G Armstrong, Sandra Hope, Brian D Jensen
Traditional methods for addressing chronic wounds focus on correcting dysfunction by controlling extracellular elements. This review highlights technologies that take a different approach - enhancing chronic wound healing by genetic modification to wound beds. Featured cutaneous transduction/transfection methods include viral modalities (i.e. adenoviruses, adeno-associated viruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses) and conventional non-viral modalities (i.e. naked DNA injections, micro-seeding, liposomal reagents, particle bombardment, and electroporation)...
August 30, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Spela Kos, Tanja Blagus, Maja Cemazar, Ursa Lampreht Tratar, Monika Stimac, Lara Prosen, Tanja Dolinsek, Urska Kamensek, Simona Kranjc, Lars Steinstraesser, Gaëlle Vandermeulen, Véronique Préat, Gregor Sersa
Skin is an attractive target for gene electrotransfer. It consists of different cell types that can be transfected, leading to various responses to gene electrotransfer. We demonstrate that these responses could be controlled by selecting the appropriate electrotransfer parameters. Specifically, the application of low or high electric pulses, applied by multi-electrode array, provided the possibility to control the depth of the transfection in the skin, the duration and the level of gene expression, as well as the local or systemic distribution of the transgene...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Erdogan Guk, Manoj Ranaweera, Vijay Venkatesan, Jung-Sik Kim
Management of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) thermal gradients is vital to limit thermal expansion mismatch and thermal stress. However, owing to harsh operation conditions of SOFCs and limited available space in stack configuration, the number of techniques available to obtain temperature distribution from the cell surface is limited. The authors previously developed and studied a thermocouple array pattern to detect surface temperature distribution on an SOFC in open circuit conditions. In this study, the performance in terms of mechanical durability and oxidation state of the thin film thermoelements of the thermocouple array on the porous SOFC cathode is investigated...
2016: Sensors
Doyeon Kim, Geumbee Lee, Daeil Kim, Junyeong Yun, Sang-Soo Lee, Jeong Sook Ha
In this study, we report the fabrication of a high performance flexible micro-supercapacitor (MSC) with an organic gel electrolyte containing a redox-active additive, referred to as poly(methyl methacrylate)-propylene carbonate-lithium perchlorate-hydroquinone (PMMA-PC-LiClO4-HQ). Hexagonal MSCs fabricated on thin polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films had interdigitated electrodes made of spray-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on Au. The addition of HQ as a redox-active additive enhanced not only the specific capacitance but also the energy density of the MSCs dramatically, which is approximately 35 times higher than that of MSCs without the HQ additive...
August 25, 2016: Nanoscale
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