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Multi-electrode array

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662453/response-of-cultured-neuronal-network-activity-after-high-intensity-power-frequency-magnetic-field-exposure
#1
Atsushi Saito, Masayuki Takahashi, Kei Makino, Yukihisa Suzuki, Yasuhiko Jimbo, Satoshi Nakasono
High-intensity and low frequency (1-100 kHz) time-varying electromagnetic fields stimulate the human body through excitation of the nervous system. In power frequency range (50/60 Hz), a frequency-dependent threshold of the external electric field-induced neuronal modulation in cultured neuronal networks was used as one of the biological indicator in international guidelines; however, the threshold of the magnetic field-induced neuronal modulation has not been elucidated. In this study, we exposed rat brain-derived neuronal networks to a high-intensity power frequency magnetic field (hPF-MF), and evaluated the modulation of synchronized bursting activity using a multi-electrode array (MEA)-based extracellular recording technique...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621176/functionalized-thick-film-impedance-sensors-for-use-in-in-vitro-cell-culture
#2
Heike Bartsch, Martin Baca, Uta Fernekorn, Jens Müller, Andreas Schober, Hartmut Witte
Multi-electrode arrays find application in electrophysiological recordings. The quality of the captured signals depends on the interfacial contact between electrogenic cells and the electronic system. Therefore, it requires reliable low-impedance electrodes. Low-temperature cofired ceramic technology offers a suitable platform for rapid prototyping of biological reactors and can provide both stable fluid supply and integrated bio-hardware interfaces for recordings in electrogenic cell cultures. The 3D assembly of thick film gold electrodes in in vitro bio-reactors has been demonstrated for neuronal recordings...
April 5, 2018: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581430/lfp-beta-amplitude-is-linked-to-mesoscopic-spatio-temporal-phase-patterns
#3
Michael Denker, Lyuba Zehl, Bjørg E Kilavik, Markus Diesmann, Thomas Brochier, Alexa Riehle, Sonja Grün
Beta oscillations observed in motor cortical local field potentials (LFPs) recorded on separate electrodes of a multi-electrode array have been shown to exhibit non-zero phase shifts that organize into planar waves. Here, we generalize this concept to additional classes of salient patterns that fully describe the spatial organization of beta oscillations. During a delayed reach-to-grasp task we distinguish planar, synchronized, random, circular, and radial phase patterns in monkey primary motor and dorsal premotor cortices...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573745/monocular-enucleation-alters-retinal-waves-in-the-surviving-eye
#4
Samuel Wilson Failor, Arash Ng, Hwai-Jong Cheng
BACKGROUND: Activity in neurons drives afferent competition that is critical for the refinement of nascent neural circuits. In ferrets, when an eye is lost in early development, surviving retinogeniculate afferents from the spared eye spread across the thalamus in a manner that is dependent on spontaneous retinal activity. However, how this spontaneous activity, also known as retinal waves, might dynamically regulate afferent terminal targeting remains unknown. METHODS: We recorded retinal waves from retinae ex vivo using multi-electrode arrays...
March 24, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572643/novel-mapping-strategies-for-ventricular-tachycardia-ablation
#5
REVIEW
Zaid Aziz, Roderick Tung
Despite advances in antiarrhythmic and device therapy, ventricular tachycardia (VT) continues to be a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality. During scar-mediated monomorphic ventricular tachycardia ablation, the search for critical isthmus sites continues to be the primary goal during successful ablative procedures. However, given the overwhelming hemodynamic instability of most ventricular arrhythmias (> 70%), VT ablation is increasingly performed during sinus rhythm. This technique requires either a greater reliance on isthmus surrogates, or more extensive ablation techniques and is a more probabilistic approach to substrate modification...
March 23, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554331/in-vitro-platform-of-allogeneic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocyte-transplantation-for-cardiac-conduction-defects
#6
Akira Yoshida, Jong-Kook Lee, Satoki Tomoyama, Keiko Miwa, Keiichi Shirakawa, Sanae Hamanaka, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Shigeru Miyagawa, Yoshiki Sawa, Issei Komuro, Yasushi Sakata
Aims: The aim of the present study is to develop in vitro experimental analytical method for the electrophysiological properties of allogeneic induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) in cardiac conduction defect model. Methods and results: Cardiomyocytes were derived from rat induced pluripotent stem cells CMs (riPSC-CMs) using an embryoid body-based differentiation method with the serial application of growth factors including activin-A, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4), and inhibitor of wnt production 2 (IWP-2)...
March 15, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554219/prrt2-controls-neuronal-excitability-by-negatively-modulating-na-channel-1-2-1-6-activity
#7
Floriana Fruscione, Pierluigi Valente, Bruno Sterlini, Alessandra Romei, Simona Baldassari, Manuela Fadda, Cosimo Prestigio, Giorgia Giansante, Jacopo Sartorelli, Pia Rossi, Alicia Rubio, Antonio Gambardella, Thierry Nieus, Vania Broccoli, Anna Fassio, Pietro Baldelli, Anna Corradi, Federico Zara, Fabio Benfenati
Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) is the causative gene for a heterogeneous group of familial paroxysmal neurological disorders that include seizures with onset in the first year of life (benign familial infantile seizures), paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia or a combination of both. Most of the PRRT2 mutations are loss-of-function leading to haploinsufficiency and 80% of the patients carry the same frameshift mutation (c.649dupC; p.Arg217Profs*8), which leads to a premature stop codon. To model the disease and dissect the physiological role of PRRT2, we studied the phenotype of neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells from previously described heterozygous and homozygous siblings carrying the c...
March 15, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521279/flexible-microelectrode-array-for-interfacing-with-the-surface-of-neural-ganglia
#8
Zachariah J Sperry, Kyounghwan Na, Saman S Parizi, Hillel J Chiel, John Seymour, Euisik Yoon, Tim M Bruns
The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are promising nerve structures for sensory neural interfaces because they provide centralized access to primary afferent cell bodies and spinal reflex circuitry. In order to harness this potential, new electrode technologies are needed which take advantage of the unique properties of DRG, specifically the high density of neural cell bodies at the dorsal surface. Here we report initial <i>in vivo</i> results from the development of a flexible non-penetrating polyimide electrode array interfacing with the surface of ganglia...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503091/establishment-of-immunodeficient-retinal-degeneration-model-mice-and-functional-maturation-of-human-esc-derived-retinal-sheets-after-transplantation
#9
Satoshi Iraha, Hung-Ya Tu, Suguru Yamasaki, Takahiro Kagawa, Motohito Goto, Riichi Takahashi, Takehito Watanabe, Sunao Sugita, Shigenobu Yonemura, Genshiro A Sunagawa, Take Matsuyama, Momo Fujii, Atsushi Kuwahara, Akiyoshi Kishino, Naoshi Koide, Mototsugu Eiraku, Hidenobu Tanihara, Masayo Takahashi, Michiko Mandai
Increasing demand for clinical retinal degeneration therapies featuring human ESC/iPSC-derived retinal tissue and cells warrants proof-of-concept studies. Here, we established two mouse models of end-stage retinal degeneration with immunodeficiency, NOG-rd1-2J and NOG-rd10, and characterized disease progress and immunodeficient status. We also transplanted human ESC-derived retinal sheets into NOG-rd1-2J and confirmed their long-term survival and maturation of the structured graft photoreceptor layer, without rejection or tumorigenesis...
March 13, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496611/optogenetic-fmri-and-electrophysiological-identification-of-region-specific-connectivity-between-the-cerebellar-cortex-and-forebrain
#10
Katrina Y Choe, Carlos F Sanchez, Neil G Harris, Thomas S Otis, Paul J Mathews
Complex animal behavior is produced by dynamic interactions between discrete regions of the brain. As such, defining functional connections between brain regions is critical in gaining a full understanding of how the brain generates behavior. Evidence suggests that discrete regions of the cerebellar cortex functionally project to the forebrain, mediating long-range communication potentially important in motor and non-motor behaviors. However, the connectivity map remains largely incomplete owing to the challenge of driving both reliable and selective output from the cerebellar cortex, as well as the need for methods to detect region specific activation across the entire forebrain...
February 26, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494655/minimizing-activation-of-overlying-axons-with-epiretinal-stimulation-the-role-of-fiber-orientation-and-electrode-configuration
#11
Timothy B Esler, Robert R Kerr, Bahman Tahayori, David B Grayden, Hamish Meffin, Anthony N Burkitt
Currently, a challenge in electrical stimulation of the retina with a visual prosthesis (bionic eye) is to excite only the cells lying directly under the electrode in the ganglion cell layer, while avoiding excitation of axon bundles that pass over the surface of the retina in the nerve fiber layer. Stimulation of overlying axons results in irregular visual percepts, limiting perceptual efficacy. This research explores how differences in fiber orientation between the nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell layer leads to differences in the electrical activation of the axon initial segment and axons of passage...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491453/new-thin-film-surface-electrode-array-enables-brain-mapping-with-high-spatial-acuity-in-rodents
#12
W S Konerding, U P Froriep, A Kral, P Baumhoff
In neuroscience, single-shank penetrating multi-electrode arrays are standard for sequentially sampling several cortical sites with high spatial and temporal resolution, with the disadvantage of neuronal damage. Non-penetrating surface grids used in electrocorticography (ECoG) permit simultaneous recording of multiple cortical sites, with limited spatial resolution, due to distance to neuronal tissue, large contact size and high impedances. Here we compared new thin-film parylene C ECoG grids, covering the guinea pig primary auditory cortex, with simultaneous recordings from penetrating electrode array (PEAs), inserted through openings in the grid material...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474358/technical-feasibility-study-for-production-of-tailored-multielectrode-arrays-and-patterning-of-arranged-neuronal-networks
#13
Matthias Schürmann, Norman Shepheard, Natalie Frese, Kevin Geishendorf, Holger Sudhoff, Armin Gölzhäuser, Ulrich Rückert, Christian Kaltschmidt, Barbara Kaltschmidt, Andy Thomas
In this manuscript, we first reveal a simple ultra violet laser lithographic method to design and produce plain tailored multielectrode arrays. Secondly, we use the same lithographic setup for surface patterning to enable controlled attachment of primary neuronal cells and help neurite guidance. For multielectrode array production, we used flat borosilicate glass directly structured with the laser lithography system. The multi layered electrode system consists of a layer of titanium coated with a layer of di-titanium nitride...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473543/creating-virtual-electrodes-with-2d-current-steering
#14
Thomas C Spencer, James B Fallon, Mohit N Shivdasani
OBJECTIVE: Current steering techniques have shown promise in retinal prostheses as a way to increase the number of distinct percepts elicitable without increasing the number of implanted electrodes. Previously, it has been shown that 'virtual' electrodes can be created between simultaneously stimulated electrode pairs, producing unique cortical response patterns. This study investigated whether virtual electrodes could be created using 2D current steering, and whether these virtual electrodes can produce cortical responses with predictable spatial characteristics...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464573/intrinsic-inflammation-is-a-potential-anti-epileptogenic-target-in-the-organotypic-hippocampal-slice-model
#15
Seon-Ah Chong, Silvia Balosso, Catherine Vandenplas, Gregory Szczesny, Etienne Hanon, Kasper Claes, Xavier Van Damme, Bénédicte Danis, Jonathan Van Eyll, Christian Wolff, Annamaria Vezzani, Rafal M Kaminski, Isabelle Niespodziany
Understanding the mechanisms of epileptogenesis is essential to develop novel drugs that could prevent or modify the disease. Neuroinflammation has been proposed as a promising target for therapeutic interventions to inhibit the epileptogenic process that evolves from traumatic brain injury. However, it remains unclear whether cytokine-related pathways, particularly TNFα signaling, have a critical role in the development of epilepsy. In this study, we investigated the role of innate inflammation in an in vitro model of post-traumatic epileptogenesis...
February 20, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454965/detection-of-synchronized-burst-firing-in-cultured-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurons-using-a-4-step-method
#16
N Matsuda, A Odawara, H Kato, N Okuyama, R Yokoi, I Suzuki
Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons are promising for use in toxicity evaluations in nonclinical studies. The multi-electrode array (MEA) assay is used in such evaluation systems because it can measure the electrophysiological function of a neural network noninvasively and with high throughput. Synchronized burst firing (SBF) is the main analytic parameter of pharmacological effects in MEA data, but an accurate method for detecting SBFs has not been established. In this study, we present a 4-step method that accurately detects a target SBF confirmed by the researcher's interpretation of a raster plot...
February 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438866/a-comparison-of-graphene-hydrogels-modified-with-single-walled-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-as-electrode-materials-for-capacitive-deionization
#17
Jianglin Cao, Ying Wang, Chunyang Chen, Fei Yu, Jie Ma
Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a technology used to remove salt from brackish water, and it is an energy-saving, low-cost method compared with other methods, such as reverse osmosis, multi-stage ash distillation and electrodialysis. In this paper, three-dimensional (3D) graphene hydrogels modified with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized by a one-step water bath method to increase the conductivity of materials and reduce the aggregation of the graphene sheets...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426924/a-biopotential-optrode-array-operation-principles-and-simulations
#18
Amr Al Abed, Hrishikesh Srinivas, Josiah Firth, François Ladouceur, Nigel H Lovell, Leonardo Silvestri
We propose an optical electrode 'optrode' sensor array for biopotential measurements. The transduction mechanism is based on deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystals which realign, altering the optrode's light reflectance properties, relative to applied potential fields of biological cells and tissue. A computational model of extracellular potential recording by the optrode including the electro-optical transduction mechanism is presented, using a combination of time-domain and frequency-domain finite element analysis...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425223/mea-viewer-a-high-performance-interactive-application-for-visualizing-electrophysiological-data
#19
Daniel C Bridges, Kenneth R Tovar, Bian Wu, Paul K Hansma, Kenneth S Kosik
Action potentials can be recorded extracellularly from hundreds of neurons simultaneously with multi-electrode arrays. These can typically have as many as 120 or more electrodes. The brief duration of action potentials requires a high sampling frequency to reliably capture each waveform. The resulting raw data files are therefore large and difficult to visualize with traditional plotting tools. Common approaches to deal with the difficulties of data display, such as extracting spike times and performing spike train analysis, are useful in many contexts but they also significantly reduce data dimensionality...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421549/unique-electrophysiological-and-impedance-signatures-between-encapsulation-types-an-analysis-of-biological-utah-array-failure-and-benefit-of-a-biomimetic-coating-in-a-rat-model
#20
Patrick A Cody, James R Eles, Carl F Lagenaur, Takashi D Y Kozai, X Tracy Cui
Intracortical microelectrode arrays, especially the Utah array, remain the most common choice for obtaining high dimensional recordings of spiking neural activity for brain computer interface and basic neuroscience research. Despite the widespread use and established design, mechanical, material and biological challenges persist that contribute to a steady decline in recording performance (as evidenced by both diminished signal amplitude and recorded cell population over time) or outright array failure. Device implantation injury causes acute cell death and activation of inflammatory microglia and astrocytes that leads to a chronic neurodegeneration and inflammatory glial aggregation around the electrode shanks and often times fibrous tissue growth above the pia along the bed of the array within the meninges...
January 31, 2018: Biomaterials
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