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Cartilaginous morphology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447475/the-divergent-genomes-of-teleosts
#1
Vydianathan Ravi, Byrappa Venkatesh
Boasting nearly 30,000 species, teleosts account for half of all extant vertebrates and approximately 98% of all ray-finned fish species (Actinopterygii). Teleosts are also the largest and most diverse group of vertebrates, exhibiting an astonishing level of morphological, physiological, and behavioral diversity. Previous studies had indicated that the teleost lineage has experienced an additional whole-genome duplication event. Recent comparative genomic analyses of teleosts and other bony vertebrates using spotted gar (a nonteleost ray-finned fish) and elephant shark (a cartilaginous fish) as outgroups have revealed several divergent features of teleost genomes...
February 15, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434299/quantitative-morphometry-for-osteochondral-tissues-using-second-harmonic-generation-microscopy-and-image-texture-information
#2
Takashi Saitou, Hiroshi Kiyomatsu, Takeshi Imamura
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disorder involving degeneration of articular cartilage and subchondral bone in joints. We previously established a second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging technique for evaluating degenerative changes to articular cartilage in an OA mouse model. SHG imaging, an optical label-free technique, enabled observation of collagen fibrils, and characterized critical changes in the collagenous patterns of the joints. However, it still remains to be determined how morphological changes in the organization of tissue collagen fibrils should be quantified...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432864/intestinal-granular-cells-of-a-cartilaginous-fish-thornback-ray-raja-clavata-morphological-characterization-and-expression-of-different-molecules
#3
B Sayyaf Dezfuli, M Manera, G Bosi, P Merella, J A DePasquale, L Giari
This investigation aims to fill gaps in our understanding of the intestinal immune cells of elasmobranchs. Whole digestive tracts of fifteen thornback ray Raja clavata were provided by a trawl fleet from the Gulf of Asinara (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea). Histochemical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural observations were conducted on the spiral intestine. Three types of granular cells were identified; type I in epithelium, types II and III in lamina propria-submucosa, with each of them containing cytoplasmic granules with different ultrastructural characteristics...
February 9, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426958/epiphyseal-hyperplasia-caused-by-an-ectopic-ossification-center-of-the-distal-tibia-presentation-of-a-pediatric-case-with-13-years-of-radiological-surveillance
#4
Susanne Scheipl, Stefan Tauber, Marko Bergovec, Andreas Leithner, Gerhard Ranner
Herein, we report the case of a 4-year-old boy, who presented with a cortical lytic lesion of his distal tibia. It was located eccentrically, measured 2 cm in its craniocaudal diameter, and was associated with a lamella-like soft-tissue mineralization that resembled a periosteal reaction. Thus, the lesion's radiographic features were initially suggestive of an aggressive disease. However, further imaging revealed the lesion to be of cartilaginous origin and to extend into the metaphysis, thus creating the aspect of hyperplastic epiphyseal cartilage...
February 9, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338790/morphometric-characterisation-of-human-tracheas-focus-on-cartilaginous-ring-variation
#5
Y Premakumar, M F Griffin, M Szarko
PURPOSE: Details regarding tracheal anatomy are currently lacking, with existing literature focussing mainly on the cricoid-tracheal region or the carina. External gross anatomy and internal morphology throughout the entire trachea is important for normal physiological functioning and various clinical applications such as designs for tracheal implants or endotracheal devices. OBJECTIVE: To determine quantitative and qualitative characteristics of gross tracheal and individual tracheal ring anatomy...
January 16, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322335/mechanobiological-modeling-of-endochondral-ossification-an-experimental-and-computational-analysis
#6
J J Vaca-González, M Moncayo-Donoso, J M Guevara, Y Hata, S J Shefelbine, D A Garzón-Alvarado
Long bone formation starts early during embryonic development through a process known as endochondral ossification. This is a highly regulated mechanism that involves several mechanical and biochemical factors. Because long bone development is an extremely complex process, it is unclear how biochemical regulation is affected when dynamic loads are applied, and also how the combination of mechanical and biochemical factors affect the shape acquired by the bone during early development. In this study, we develop a mechanobiological model combining: (1) a reaction-diffusion system to describe the biochemical process and (2) a poroelastic model to determine the stresses and fluid flow due to loading...
January 10, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322251/rhinoplasty-lessons-from-errors-from-anatomy-and-experience-to-the-concept-of-sequential-primary-rhinoplasty
#7
REVIEW
Y Saban
BACKGROUND: Reshaping the nose can be achieved following 3 main concepts: preservation and reshaping of normal anatomy, resection of nasal deformities, reconstruction of nasal framework. Time, experience and nasal anatomic knowledge are keys to understand nasal biomechanics. OBJECTIVES: To describe how experience and morphodynamic anatomy lead to a new concept of sequential primary rhinoplasty, resulting in reducing revision rhinoplasties. METHODS: Through 36 years' experience in different rhinoplasty procedures, 25 years in personal anatomic studies of the nose and reviewing the last 15 years including 600 patients who underwent new concepts in primary rhinoplasty out of 1200 patients operated during this period, the author analyzes how nasal anatomic layers, surgical approaches, and morphological effect of the time interact to modify the aesthetic results according to current rhinoplasty concepts...
January 2018: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301464/intervertebral-disc-degeneration-in-warmblood-horses-morphology-grading-and-distribution-of-lesions
#8
Wilhelmina Bergmann, Niklas Bergknut, Stefanie Veraa, Andrea Gröne, Hans Vernooij, Inge D Wijnberg, Willem Back, Guy C M Grinwis
Equine intervertebral disc degeneration is thought to be rare and of limited clinical relevance, although research is lacking. To objectively assess pathological changes of the equine intervertebral disc and their clinical relevance, description of the normal morphology and a practical, biologically credible grading scheme are needed. The objectives of this study are to describe the gross and histological appearance of the equine intervertebral discs and to propose a grading scheme for macroscopic degeneration...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238978/use-of-autologous-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-creation-of-laryngeal-cartilage
#9
Hongji Zhang, Sherry Voytik-Harbin, Sarah Brookes, Lujuan Zhang, Joseph Wallace, Noah Parker, Stacey Halum
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are an exciting potential cell source for tissue engineering because cells can be derived from the simple excision of autologous fat. This study introduces a novel approach for tissue-engineering cartilage from ASCs and a customized collagen oligomer solution, and demonstrates that the resultant cartilage can be used for laryngeal cartilage reconstruction in an animal model. STUDY DESIGN: Basic science experimental design...
December 14, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205898/effects-of-oral-glucosamine-hydrochloride-and-mucopolysaccharide-protein-in-a-rabbit-model-of-osteoarthritis
#10
Da-Hee Jeong, H M Arif Ullah, Moon-Jung Goo, Soong-Gu Ghim, Il-Hwa Hong, Ah-Young Kim, Sun-Min Jeon, Myung-Sook Choi, Ahmed K Elfadl, Myung-Jin Chung, Eun-Joo Lee, Yong D Kim, Jun-Hyung Kim, Shin-Yoon Kim, Kyu-Shik Jeong
AIM: The aim was to study whether oral glucosamine hydrochloride (GlcN.HCl) or mucopolysaccharide protein (MucoP) has a structure-modifying effect on an anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) rabbit model of osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: OA was surgically induced in the right knees of rabbits by transection of the ACLT. The left knees served as a sham-operated control. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 6 each): negative control (phosphate buffered saline, orally), positive control (oral celecoxib 10 mg/kg body weight/day), GlcN...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167068/three-dimensional-morphology-of-lunate-surface-in-hip-dysplasia-theoretical-implications-for-periacetabular-osteotomy
#11
Meng Xu, Yanbing Wang, Lei Zhong, Yang Song, Jianlin Xiao, Yu Sun, Wei Li, Zhe Zhu, Xin Zhao, Jincheng Wang
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate three-dimensional morphology of acetabular lunate surface in patients with dysplastic hip using three-dimensional computed tomography (CT), and to compare the lunate surface morphology between the normal and dysplastic hips. METHODS: Sixty seven dysplastic hips in symptomatic patients and 61 normal hips in healthy volunteers who underwent three-dimensional CT scanning were included in this study. The size and shape of the lunate surface was measured with a fully automated imaging technique using Mimics16...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160181/chick-embryo-model-homing-and-host-interactions-of-tissue-engineering-aimed-human-dental-stem-cells
#12
Jennifer Adriane Dos Santos, Monica Talarico Duailibi, Durvanei Augusto Maria, Sonia Elisabete Alves de Lima Will, Paulo Cesar Simoes Silva, Ligia Ferreira Gomes, Silvio Eduardo Duailibi
Human dental stem cells (hDSC) have a potential for regenerative therapies and could differentiate in vitro into many tissues such as dentin, nerve and vascular endothelium. Gallus gallus domesticus developing fertilized egg, or chick embryo is an experimental model absent of xenografts rejection, largely employed in replacement of mammal species in scientific research and pre-clinical studies to evaluate angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, tissue differentiation, and embryonic development. This multiscale research deals with the homing and cell signaling effects of a standardized hDSC towards the receptor tissues of Gallus gallus domesticus in ovo...
November 21, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150983/ontogeny-of-the-post-cranial-axial-skeleton-of-melanosuchus-niger-crocodylia-alligatoridae
#13
Lucélia Gonçalves Vieira, Fabiano Campos Lima, Sônia Helena Santesso Teixeira de Mendonça, Lorena Tannús Menezes Dos Reis, Líria Queiroz Luz Hirano, André Luiz Quagliatto Santos
This study proposes the description of the development of the post-cranial axial skeleton, including vertebrae, gastralium, ribs, sternum and interclavicle, in Melanosuchus niger. Six nests were marked and two eggs removed from each nest at 24-hour intervals until hatching. For post-hatching evaluation, 30 hatchlings were kept in captivity and one exemplar was euthanized at three-day intervals. Samples were diaphanized using potassium hydroxide (KOH), alizarin red S and Alcian blue. A routinely generally used method was applied for histological evaluation...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094000/unravelling-the-ontogeny-of-a-devonian-early-gnathostome-the-acanthodian-triazeugacanthus-affinis-eastern-canada
#14
Marion Chevrinais, Jean-Yves Sire, Richard Cloutier
The study of vertebrate ontogenies has the potential to inform us of shared developmental patterns and processes among organisms. However, fossilised ontogenies of early vertebrates are extremely rare during the Palaeozoic Era. A growth series of the Late Devonian "acanthodian" Triazeugacanthus affinis, from the Miguasha Fossil-Fish Lagerstätte, is identified as one of the best known early vertebrate fossilised ontogenies given the exceptional preservation, the large size range, and the abundance of specimens...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093187/functional-morphology-of-terrestrial-prey-capture-in-salamandrid-salamanders
#15
Charlotte M Stinson, Stephen M Deban
Salamanders use the hyobranchial apparatus and its associated musculature for tongue projection on land and for suction feeding in water. Hyobranchial apparatus composition and morphology vary across species, and different morphologies are better suited for feeding in aquatic versus terrestrial environments. We hypothesize that differences in hyobranchial morphology result in functional trade-offs in feeding performance. We predict that semi-aquatic and aquatic salamandrids with hyobranchial morphology suited for aquatic feeding will have lower performance, in terms of tongue-projection distance, velocity, acceleration and power, compared with terrestrial salamandrids when feeding in a terrestrial environment...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090639/platelet-rich-concentrate-in-serum-free-medium-enhances-cartilage-specific-extracellular-matrix-synthesis-and-reduces-chondrocyte-hypertrophy-of-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-encapsulated-in-alginate
#16
Shani Samuel, Raja Elina Ahmad, Thamil Selvee Ramasamy, Puvanan Karunanithi, Sangeetha Vasudevaraj Naveen, Tunku Kamarul
Platelet-rich concentrate (PRC), used in conjunction with other chondroinductive growth factors, have been shown to induce chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC) in pellet culture. However, pellet culture systems promote cell hypertrophy and the presence of other chondroinductive growth factors in the culture media used in previous studies obscures accurate determination of the effect of platelet itself in inducing chondrogenic differentiation. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of PRC alone in enhancing the chondrogenic differentiation potential of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC) encapsulated in three-dimensional alginate constructs...
November 1, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079177/sinonasal-nut-carcinoma-clinicopathological-and-cytogenetic-analysis-with-autopsy-findings
#17
Hiroshi Minato, Eriko Kobayashi, Satoko Nakada, Nozomu Kurose, Mio Tanaka, Yukichi Tanaka, Shioto Suzuki, Fumihiko Tanioka, Yutaka Saikawa, Takaki Miwa, Takayuki Nojima
Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) carcinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm with an undifferentiated morphology. Its diagnosis is often difficult, especially as the sinonasal tract gives rise to many tumors with undifferentiated morphologies. Not many cases of sinonasal NUT carcinomas have been reported, and its clinicopathological features have not been sufficiently clarified. In this study, we performed a clinicopathological study of 4 patients with sinonasal NUT carcinoma, including wide-ranging immunohistochemical tests and cytogenetic analyses using fluorescence in situ hybridization and DNA sequencing...
October 24, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075508/effect-of-alginate-concentration-on-chondrogenesis-of-co-cultured-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-nasal-chondrocytes-a-biological-study
#18
Y W Ewa-Choy, B Pingguan-Murphy, N A Abdul-Ghani, J Jahendran, K H Chua
BACKGROUND: The three-dimensional (3D) system is one of the important factors to engineer a biocompatible and functional scaffold for the applications of cell-based therapies for cartilage repair. The 3D alginate hydrogels system has previously been shown to potentially promote chondrogenesis. The chondrocytic differentiation of co-cultured adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and nasal chondrocytes (NCs) within alginate constructs are hypothesized to be influenced by concentration of alginate hydrogel...
2017: Biomaterials Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072657/-the-influence-of-biological-compatibility-of-the-cyanoacrylate-glue-on-regeneration-of-the-cartilaginous-tissue
#19
F V Semenov, N F Skibitskaya
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of the application of the cyanoacrylate-based glue for the strengthening of the reconstructed elements of the middle ear and its influence on the regeneration of the cartilaginous tissue. We used the cartilaginous tissue from the auricles of the male California rabbits as a model. The cartilage was destroyed in a standard press. Half of the cartilage thus fragmented was implanted into the left auricle. The remaining part was mixed up with the cyanoacrylate glue and implanted into the right auricle of the same animal...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032864/dietary-variation-and-mechanical-properties-of-articular-cartilage-in-the-temporomandibular-joint-implications-for-the-role-of-plasticity-in-mechanobiology-and-pathobiology
#20
Matthew J Ravosa, Robert J Kane
Due to their nature as tissue composites, skeletal joints pose an additional challenge in terms of evaluating the functional significance of morphological variation in their bony and cartilaginous components in response to altered loading conditions. Arguably, this complexity requires more direct means of investigating joint plasticity and performance than typically employed to analyze macro- and micro-anatomical phenomena. To address a significant gap in our understanding of the plasticity of the mammalian temporomandibular joint (TMJ), we investigated the histology and mechanical properties of condylar articular cartilage in rabbits subjected to long-term variation in diet-induced masticatory stresses, specifically cyclical loading...
October 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
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