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Cartilaginous morphology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107413/improving-the-conservation-of-mediterranean-chondrichthyans-the-elasmomed-dna-barcode-reference-library
#1
Alessia Cariani, Silvia Messinetti, Alice Ferrari, Marco Arculeo, Juan J Bonello, Leanne Bonnici, Rita Cannas, Pierluigi Carbonara, Alessandro Cau, Charis Charilaou, Najib El Ouamari, Fabio Fiorentino, Maria Cristina Follesa, Germana Garofalo, Daniel Golani, Ilaria Guarniero, Robert Hanner, Farid Hemida, Omar Kada, Sabrina Lo Brutto, Cecilia Mancusi, Gabriel Morey, Patrick J Schembri, Fabrizio Serena, Letizia Sion, Marco Stagioni, Angelo Tursi, Nedo Vrgoc, Dirk Steinke, Fausto Tinti
Cartilaginous fish are particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic stressors and environmental change because of their K-selected reproductive strategy. Accurate data from scientific surveys and landings are essential to assess conservation status and to develop robust protection and management plans. Currently available data are often incomplete or incorrect as a result of inaccurate species identifications, due to a high level of morphological stasis, especially among closely related taxa. Moreover, several diagnostic characters clearly visible in adult specimens are less evident in juveniles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090449/ultrashort-time-to-echo-magnetic-resonance-techniques-for-the-musculoskeletal-system
#2
REVIEW
Palanan Siriwanarangsun, Sheronda Statum, Reni Biswas, Won C Bae, Christine B Chung
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been widely implemented as a non-invasive modality to investigate musculoskeletal (MSK) tissue disease, injury, and pathology. Advancements in MR sequences provide not only enhanced morphologic contrast for soft tissues, but also quantitative biochemical evaluation. Ultrashort time to echo (UTE) sequence, in particular, enables novel morphologic and quantitative evaluation of previously unseen MSK tissues. By using short minimum echo times (TE) below 1 msec, the UTE sequence can unveil short T2 properties of tissues including the deepest layers of the articular cartilage, cartilaginous endplate at the discovertebral junction, the meniscus, and the cortical bone...
December 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070593/-morphological-investigations-of-deep-sole-ulcers-in-cattle-part-1-the-complicated-rusterholz-ulcer
#3
Susanne Gehringer, Matthias Müller, Johann Maierl
OBJECTIVE: In the context of a larger study on morphological changes of deep sole ulcers, claws with Rusterholz ulcer (RU) were investigated to describe the varied pathological changes of the RU. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hind limbs of 55 cows displaying external signs of complicated sole ulcers were examined externally and internally. To examine the samples internally, a sagittal section was performed. Furthermore, the material was examined histologically and after bone maceration...
January 10, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069513/structure-and-mechanical-implications-of-the-pectoral-fin-skeleton-in-the-longnose-skate-chondrichthyes-batoidea
#4
Wei Huang, Watcharapong Hongjamrassilp, Jae-Young Jung, Philip A Hastings, Vlado A Lubarda, Joanna McKittrick
Animal propulsion systems are believed to show high energy and mechanical efficiency in assisting movement compared to artificial designs. As an example, batoid fishes have very light cartilaginous skeletons that facilitate their elegant swimming via enlarged wing-like pectoral fins. The aim of this work is to illustrate the hierarchical structure of the pectoral fin of a representative batoid, the Longnose Skate (Raja rhina), and explain the mechanical implications of its structural design. At the macro level, the pectoral fins are comprised of radially oriented fin rays, formed by staggered mineralized skeletal elements stacked end-to-end...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062966/the-existence-of-a-natural-plica-at-the-anatomical-base-of-the-antihelix-and-its-surgical-importance-to-address-protruding-ears-an-anatomicosurgical-study
#5
Miguel Marques Oliveira, Daniel Sousa Marques Oliveira, Gustavo Sousa Marques Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Protruding ears represent the main abnormality of the external ear, which has required numerous anatomic and surgical studies. Most studies give attention to the absence of the antihelix as the anatomic defect responsible for the clinical deformity of the lateral aspect of the ear that leads to its anteversion. The reason for this study is the controversial origin of the fold of the antihelix within the auricle framework, a field of interest for aesthetic otoplasty. The current study examined the medial surface of the cartilaginous ear frame from cadaver specimens with right morphology to investigate the starting point of the fold of the antihelix...
January 7, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920949/development-of-olfactory-epithelium-and-associated-structures-in-the-green-iguana-iguana-iguana-light-and-scanning-electron-microscopic-study
#6
Olga Sapoznikov, Petr Cizek, Frantisek Tichy
The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed that significant morphological changes in the nasal cavity began approximately at day 91 of ontogenesis...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916560/thinning-of-articular-cartilage-after-joint-unloading-or-immobilization-an-experimental-investigation-of-the-pathogenesis-in-mice
#7
M Nomura, N Sakitani, H Iwasawa, Y Kohara, S Takano, Y Wakimoto, H Kuroki, H Moriyama
OBJECTIVE: Moderate mechanical stress generated by normal joint loading and movement is essential for the maintenance of healthy articular cartilage. However, the effects of reduced loading caused by the absence of weight bearing or joint motion on articular cartilage and subchondral bone is still poorly understood. We aimed to characterize morphological and metabolic responses of articular cartilage and subchondral bone to decreased mechanical stress in vivo. METHODS: Mice were subjected to periods of hindlimb unloading by tail suspension or external fixation of the knee joints...
December 1, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896803/the-effect-of-craniokinesis-on-the-middle-ear-of-domestic-chickens-gallus-gallus-domesticus
#8
Raf Claes, Pieter G G Muyshondt, Luc Van Hoorebeke, Jelle Dhaene, Joris J J Dirckx, Peter Aerts
The avian middle ear differs from that of mammalians and contains a tympanic membrane, one ossicle (bony columella and cartilaginous extra-columella), some ligaments and one muscle. The rim of the eardrum (closing the middle ear cavity) is connected to the neurocranium and, by means of a broad ligament, to the otic process of the quadrate. Due to the limited number of components in the avian middle ear, the possibilities of attenuating the conduction of sound seem to be limited to activity of the stapedius muscle...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859991/signaling-networks-in-joint-development
#9
REVIEW
Joanna E Salva, Amy E Merrill
Here we review studies identifying regulatory networks responsible for synovial, cartilaginous, and fibrous joint development. Synovial joints, characterized by the fluid-filled synovial space between the bones, are found in high-mobility regions and are the most common type of joint. Cartilaginous joints such as the intervertebral disc unite adjacent bones through either a hyaline cartilage or a fibrocartilage intermediate. Fibrous joints, which include the cranial sutures, form a direct union between bones through fibrous connective tissue...
November 18, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826462/reconstruction-of-alar-nasal-cartilage-defects-using-a-tissue-engineering-technique-based-on-a-combined-use-of-autologous-chondrocyte-micrografts-and-platelet-rich-plasma-preliminary-clinical-and-instrumental-evaluation
#10
Pietro Gentile, Maria G Scioli, Alessandra Bielli, Augusto Orlandi, Valerio Cervelli
BACKGROUND: Developing cartilage constructs with injectability, appropriate matrix composition, and persistent cartilaginous phenotype remains an enduring challenge in cartilage repair. The combined use of autologous chondrocyte micrografts and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an alternative that opens a new era in this field. METHODS: At the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy, 11 patients underwent nasal alar reconstruction with chondrocyte micrografts gently poured onto PRP in solid form...
October 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789021/nasal-chondrocyte-based-engineered-autologous-cartilage-tissue-for-repair-of-articular-cartilage-defects-an-observational-first-in-human-trial
#11
Marcus Mumme, Andrea Barbero, Sylvie Miot, Anke Wixmerten, Sandra Feliciano, Francine Wolf, Adelaide M Asnaghi, Daniel Baumhoer, Oliver Bieri, Martin Kretzschmar, Geert Pagenstert, Martin Haug, Dirk J Schaefer, Ivan Martin, Marcel Jakob
BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage injuries have poor repair capacity, leading to progressive joint damage, and cannot be restored predictably by either conventional treatments or advanced therapies based on implantation of articular chondrocytes. Compared with articular chondrocytes, chondrocytes derived from the nasal septum have superior and more reproducible capacity to generate hyaline-like cartilage tissues, with the plasticity to adapt to a joint environment. We aimed to assess whether engineered autologous nasal chondrocyte-based cartilage grafts allow safe and functional restoration of knee cartilage defects...
October 22, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706209/adipose-derived-stem-cells-respond-to-increased-osmolarities
#12
Urška Potočar, Samo Hudoklin, Mateja Erdani Kreft, Janja Završnik, Krešimir Božikov, Mirjam Fröhlich
Cell therapies present a feasible option for the treatment of degenerated cartilaginous and intervertebral disc (IVD) tissues. Microenvironments of these tissues are specific and often differ from the microenvironment of cells that, could be potentially used for therapy, e.g. human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC). To ensure safe and efficient implantation of hASC, it is important to evaluate how microenvironmental conditions at the site of implantation affect the implanted cells. This study has demonstrated that cartilaginous tissue-specific osmolarities ranging from 400-600 mOsm/L affected hASC in a dose- and time-dependent fashion in comparison to 300 mOsm/L...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678513/determinants-of-coronary-blood-flow-in-sandbar-sharks-carcharhinus-plumbeus
#13
Georgina K Cox, Richard W Brill, Kaitlin A Bonaro, Anthony P Farrell
The coronary circulation first appeared in the chordate lineage in cartilaginous fishes where, as in birds and mammals but unlike most teleost fishes, it supplies arterial blood to the entire myocardium. Despite the pivotal position of elasmobranch fishes in the evolution of the coronary circulation, the determinants of coronary blood flow have never been investigated in this group. Elasmobranch fishes are of special interest because of the morphological arrangement of their cardiomyocytes. Unlike teleosts, the majority of the ventricular myocardium in elasmobranch fishes is distant to the venous blood returning to the heart (i...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665955/a-new-insight-into-the-fabella-at-knee-the-fetal-development-and-evolution
#14
Zhe Wu Jin, Shunichi Shibata, Hiroshi Abe, Yu Jin, Xiang Wu Li, Gen Murakami
Using longitudinal semiserial sections of 12 lower extremities from 8 human fetuses at 15-18 weeks, we compared fetal morphologies of the knee in specimens with and without fabellae. We also compared the fabella, if present, with the hallucal sesamoid in the same fetus. Cartilaginous fabella, positive for versican and tenascin by immunohistochemistry, was found in 5 of the 8 fetuses. This structure was embedded in a thick and tight lateral fibrous band, providing a common origin of the plantaris muscle and the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle...
September 26, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636911/hip-morphology-in-mps-1h-patients-an-mri-based-study
#15
Sandra R Breyer, Nicole Muschol, Mona Schmidt, Martin Rupprecht, Kornelia Babin, Jochen Herrmann, Ralf Stücker
BACKGROUND: Hip dysplasia is common in mucopolysaccharidosis type-1H (MPS-1H) patients, but its morphology is not completely understood. No magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based studies have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to improve knowledge of hip dysplasia pathology by describing the hip morphology of these patients in MRI scans, plain radiographs, and arthrograms. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 18 MPS-1H patients...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629763/angiogenic-potential-of-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-chondrocyte-brick-enriched-constructs-promoted-stable-regeneration-of-craniofacial-cartilage
#16
Zhiye Li, Ruikai Ba, Zhifa Wang, Jianhua Wei, Yimin Zhao, Wei Wu
: : Craniofacial deformities caused by congenital defects or trauma remain challenges for clinicians, whereas current surgical interventions present limited therapeutic outcomes. Injection of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into the defect is highly desirable because such a procedure is microinvasive and grafts are more flexible to fill the lesions. However, preventing hypertrophic transition and morphological contraction remain significant challenges. We have developed an "all host derived" cell transplantation system composed of chondrocyte brick (CB)-enriched platelet-rich plasma (P) gel and BMSCs (B)...
September 14, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595653/exposure-to-sub-acute-doses-of-fipronil-and-buprofezin-in-combination-or-alone-induces-biochemical-hematological-histopathological-and-genotoxic-damage-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-l
#17
Irfan Zia Qureshi, Asia Bibi, Sana Shahid, Madiha Ghazanfar
Use of pesticides or insecticides can be highly toxic to aquatic life forms due to leaching and agricultural runoff, rains or flood. Fipronil (FP) is a GABA receptor inhibitor, while buprofezin (BPFN) is an insect growth regulator. Presently, we exposed groups of aquaria acclimated carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) for 96h to sub-lethal concentrations of fipronil (400μgL(-1); 9.15×10(-7)molL(-1)) and buprofezin (BPFN, 100mgL(-1); 1.072×10(-6)molL(-1)) singly or in combination. The extent of damage was assessed at biochemical, hematological, molecular biological and histopathological level...
October 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562394/nasal-polyp-an-incidental-paraganglioma
#18
Ruchi Srivastava, Neelam Wadhwa, Shikha Gupta, Urvashi Razdan
The nose is an uncommon site for head and neck paraganglioma. The diagnosis is seldom established pre-operatively; its rarity, infrequent functionality and often benign biologic outcome underlie this fact. We present one such case in a 60-year-old man who presented with right nasal obstruction and episodic epistaxis. Rhinoscopy revealed a fleshy polypoid mass arising from the anterior cartilaginous nasal septum. Imaging studies excluded extra-nasal extension. The tumor was highly vascular showing numerous variable sized, mostly thin walled branching blood vessels akin to stag-horn shape simulating a vascular neoplasm...
2016: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535364/how-maturity-influences-annulus-endplate-integration-in-the-ovine-intervertebral-disc-a-micro-and-ultra-structural-study
#19
Samantha A Rodrigues, Ashvin Thambyah, Neil D Broom
The annulus-endplate anchorage system plays a vital role in structurally linking the compliant disc to its adjacent much more rigid vertebrae. Past literature has identified the endplate as a region of weakness, not just in the mature spine but also in the immature spine. The aim of this structural study was to investigate in detail the morphological changes associated with annulus-endplate integration through different stages of maturity. Ovine lumbar motion segments were collected from two immature age groups: (i) newborn and (ii) spring lamb (roughly 3 months old); these were compared with a third group of previously analysed mature ewe samples (3-5 years)...
January 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525846/evaluation-of-bone-matrix-gelatin-fibrin-glue-and-chitosan-gelatin-composite-scaffolds-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#20
Z H Wang, J Zhang, Q Zhang, Y Gao, J Yan, X Y Zhao, Y Y Yang, D M Kong, J Zhao, Y X Shi, X L Li
This study was designed to evaluate bone matrix gelatin (BMG)/fibrin glue and chitosan/gelatin composite scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. Chondrocytes were isolated from costal cartilage of Sprague-Dawley rats and seeded on BMG/fibrin glue or chitosan/gelatin composite scaffolds. After different in vitro culture durations, the scaffolds were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and toluidine blue staining, anti-collagen II and anti-aggrecan immunohistochemistry, and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis...
July 15, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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