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Cartilaginous morphology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424075/computational-modeling-of-airway-instability-and-collapse-in-tracheomalacia
#1
Scott J Hollister, Maximilian P Hollister, Sebastian K Hollister
BACKGROUND: Tracheomalacia (TM) is a condition of excessive tracheal collapse during exhalation. Both acquired and congenital forms of TM are believed to result from morphological changes in cartilaginous, fibrous and/or smooth muscle tissues reducing airway mechanical properties to a degree that precipitates collapse. However, neither the specific amount of mechanical property reduction nor the malacic segment lengths leading to life threatening airway collapse in TM are known. Furthermore, the specific mechanism of collapse is still debated...
April 19, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414273/oriented-clonal-cell-dynamics-enables-accurate-growth-and-shaping-of-vertebrate-cartilage
#2
Marketa Kaucka, Tomas Zikmund, Marketa Tesarova, Daniel Gyllborg, Andreas Hellander, Josef Jaros, Jozef Kaiser, Julian Petersen, Bara Szarowska, Phillip T Newton, Vyacheslav Dyachuk, Lei Li, Hong Qian, Anne-Sofie Johansson, Yuji Mishina, Josh Currie, Elly M Tanaka, Alek Erickson, Andrew Dudley, Hjalmar Brismar, Paul Southam, Enrico Coen, Min Chen, Lee S Weinstein, Ales Hampl, Ernest Arenas, Andrei S Chagin, Kaj Fried, Igor Adameyko
Cartilaginous structures are at the core of embryo growth and shaping before the bone forms. Here we report a novel principle of vertebrate cartilage growth that is based on introducing transversally-oriented clones into pre-existing cartilage. This mechanism of growth uncouples the lateral expansion of curved cartilaginous sheets from the control of cartilage thickness, a process which might be the evolutionary mechanism underlying adaptations of facial shape. In rod-shaped cartilage structures (Meckel, ribs and skeletal elements in developing limbs), the transverse integration of clonal columns determines the well-defined diameter and resulting rod-like morphology...
April 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411397/chondrosarcoma-like-metastasis-from-a-poorly-differentiated-uterine-cervical-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-unique-morphology-and-diagnostic-pitfall-in-cytology
#3
Shohei Ikoma, Marlo Nicolas, Jaishree Jagirdar, Maria Luisa Policarpio-Nicolas
Rare cases of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma with chondroid differentiation from esophageal primary have been reported but none from the uterine cervix. Given the rarity of this phenomenon and potential diagnostic pitfall, we present this unusual case. The patient is a 25-year-old woman who presented with shortness of breath. Computerized tomography (CT) showed several lung and pleural-based nodules. CT-guided core biopsy with touch preparations were performed on the pleural-based nodule. The touch preparations showed large, spindle-to-oval shaped cells with pleomorphic nuclei embedded in metachromatic chondroid stroma...
April 14, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391818/a-computational-measurement-of-cartilaginous-endplate-structure-using-ultrashort-time-to-echo-mri-scanning
#4
Ri-Chu Jin, Yong-Can Huang, Keith D K Luk, Yong Hu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Ultrashort time-to-echo (UTE) MRI scanning has been applied to observe the cartilaginous endplate (CEP) in intervertebral disc. CEP plays a critical role in IVD health and disease. Nevertheless, current measurements of CEP based on UTE MRI technique are still by manual segmentation, and observation of signal abnormality was usually time-consuming and often disturbed by subjective bias. This study hence proposed an efficient way to harvest the global parameters of CEP after UTE MRI scanning...
May 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390808/morphological-characteristics-of-external-auditory-canal-in-congenital-aural-stenosis-patients
#5
Dongming Yin, Chenlong Li, Keguang Chen, Juan Hong, Jieying Li, Lin Yang, Tianyu Zhang, Peidong Dai
Objective To investigate characteristics of congenital aural stenosis (CAS) patients' external auditory canal (EAC) (position, length, orientation, etc.) and compare them with normal EAC. METHODS: CT images of normal people and CAS patient were utilized. We obtained coordinates of EAC landmarks. Then the Matlab program could calculate some anatomic parameters about EAC, including distances from central point of tympanic annulus (CA), central point of osseous EAC opening (CO), central point of cartilaginous EAC inside opening (CCi), central point of cartilaginous EAC outside opening (CCo) to the Frankfurt horizontal plane (Pfrkt), the median sagittal plane (Psag), the coronal plane (Pcor); orientations of EAC bendings; straight and arc lengths of EAC...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384153/cartilage-formation-in-the-pelvic-skeleton-during-the-embryonic-and-early-fetal-period
#6
Misaki Okumura, Aoi Ishikawa, Tomoki Aoyama, Shigehito Yamada, Chigako Uwabe, Hirohiko Imai, Tetsuya Matsuda, Akio Yoneyama, Tohoru Takeda, Tetsuya Takakuwa
The pelvic skeleton is formed via endochondral ossification. However, it is not known how the normal cartilage is formed before ossification occurs. Furthermore, the overall timeline of cartilage formation and the morphology of the cartilage in the pelvis are unclear. In this study, cartilage formation in the pelvic skeletons of 25 human fetuses (crown-rump length [CRL] = 11.9-75.0 mm) was observed using phase-contrast computed tomography and 7T magnetic resonance imaging. The chondrification center of the ilium, ischium, and pubis first appeared simultaneously at Carnegie stage (CS) 18, was located around the acetabulum, and grew radially in the later stage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377644/finite-element-analysis-of-sagittal-balance-in-different-morphotype-forces-and-resulting-strain-in-pelvis-and-spine
#7
REVIEW
Vincenzo Filardi, Portaro Simona, Giorgio Cacciola, Salvatore Bertino, Luigi Soliera, Andrea Barbanera, Alessandro Pisani, Demetrio Milardi, Bramanti Alessia
In humans, vertical posture acquisition caused several changes in bones and muscles which can be assumed as verticalization. Pelvis, femur, and vertebral column gain an extension position which decreases muscular work by paravertebral muscles in the latter. It's widely known that six different morphological categories exist; each category differs from the others by pelvic parameters and vertebral column curvatures. Both values depend on the Pelvic Incidence, calculated as the angle between the axes passing through the rotation centre of the two femur heads and the vertical axis passing through the superior plate of the sacrum...
June 2017: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363521/effectiveness-of-tissue-engineered-chitosan-gelatin-composite-scaffold-loaded-with-human-platelet-gel-in-regeneration-of-critical-sized-radial-bone-defect-in-rat
#8
Ahmad Oryan, Soodeh Alidadi, Amin Bigham-Sadegh, Ali Moshiri, Amir Kamali
Although many strategies have been utilized to accelerate bone regeneration, an appropriate treatment strategy to regenerate a new bone with optimum morphology and mechanical properties has not been invented as yet. This study investigated the healing potential of a composite scaffold consisting of chitosan (CS), gelatin (Gel) and platelet gel (PG), named CS-Gel-PG, on a bilateral critical sized radial bone defect in rat. Eighty radial bone defects were bilaterally created in 40 Sprague-Dawley rats and were randomly divided into eight groups including untreated, autograft, CS, Gel, CS-PG, Gel-PG, CS-Gel, and CS-Gel-PG treated defects...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360113/directional-preference-of-airway-smooth-muscle-mass-increase-in-human-asthmatic-airways
#9
Gijs Ijpma, Alice Panariti, Anne-Marie Lauzon, James G Martin
Airway smooth muscle (ASM) orientation and morphology determine the ability of the muscle to constrict the airway. In asthma, ASM mass is increased, but it is unknown whether ASM orientation and morphology are altered as well, or whether the remodelling at the source of the mass increase is ongoing. We dissected human airway trees from asthmatic and control lungs. Stained, intact airway sections were imaged in axial projection to show ASM bundle orientation, while cross-sectional histological slides were used to assess ASM area, bundle thickness and ASM bundle to basement membrane distance...
March 30, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357686/evaluation-of-cell-interaction-with-polymeric-biomaterials-based-on-hyaluronic-acid-and-chitosan
#10
Mônica Helena Monteiro do Nascimento, Mariselma Ferreira, Sônia Maria Malmonge, Christiane Bertachini Lombello
Tissue engineering involves the development of new materials or devices capable of specific interactions with biological tissues, searching the use of biocompatible materials as scaffolds for in vitro cell growth, and functional tissue development, that is subsequently implanted into patient. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the initial aspects of cell interaction with the polymeric biomaterials blends based on hyaluronic acid with chitosan. The hypothesis approach involves synthesis and analysis of swelling and thermal degradation (thermal gravimetric analysis) of the polymer blend; and Vero cell interaction with the biomaterial, through analysis of cytotoxicity, adhesion and cell morphology...
May 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286227/ultrastructural-material-and-crystallographic-description-of-endophytic-masses-a-possible-damage-response-in-shark-and-ray-tessellated-calcified-cartilage
#11
Ronald Seidel, Michael Blumer, Paul Zaslansky, David Knötel, Daniel R Huber, James C Weaver, Peter Fratzl, Sidney Omelon, Luca Bertinetti, Mason N Dean
The cartilaginous endoskeletons of elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) are reinforced superficially by minute, mineralized tiles, called tesserae. Unlike the bony skeletons of other vertebrates, elasmobranch skeletons have limited healing capability and their tissues' mechanisms for avoiding damage or managing it when it does occur are largely unknown. Here we describe an aberrant type of mineralized elasmobranch skeletal tissue called endophytic masses (EPMs), which grow into the uncalcified cartilage of the skeleton, but exhibit a strikingly different morphology compared to tesserae and other elasmobranch calcified tissues...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244593/growth-factor-signaling-alters-the-morphology-of-the-zebrafish-ethmoid-plate
#12
Brian J Cusack, Trish E Parsons, Seth M Weinberg, Alexandre R Vieira, Heather L Szabo-Rogers
Craniofacial development relies on coordinated tissue interactions that allow for patterning and growth of the face. We know a priori that the Wingless, fibroblast growth factor, Hedgehog and transforming growth factor-beta growth factor signaling pathways are required for the development of the face, but how they contribute to the shape of the face is largely untested. Here, we test how each signaling pathway contributes to the overall morphology of the zebrafish anterior neurocranium. We tested the contribution of each signaling pathway to the development of the ethmoid plate during three distinct time periods: the time of neural crest migration [10 hour post fertilization (hpf)]; once the neural crest is resident in the face (20 hpf); and finally at the time at which the cartilaginous condensations are being initiated (48 hpf)...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241131/ontogenetic-shifts-in-brain-organization-in-the-bluespotted-stingray-neotrygon-kuhlii-chondrichthyes-dasyatidae
#13
Thomas J Lisney, Kara E Yopak, Victoria Camilieri-Asch, Shaun P Collin
Fishes exhibit lifelong neurogenesis and continual brain growth. One consequence of this continual growth is that the nervous system has the potential to respond with enhanced plasticity to changes in ecological conditions that occur during ontogeny. The life histories of many teleost fishes are composed of a series of distinct stages that are characterized by shifts in diet, habitat, and behavior. In many cases, these shifts correlate with changes in overall brain growth and brain organization, possibly reflecting the relative importance of different senses and locomotor performance imposed by the new ecological niches they encounter throughout life...
February 28, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155855/evolution-of-shh-endoderm-enhancers-during-morphological-transition-from-ventral-lungs-to-dorsal-gas-bladder
#14
Tomoko Sagai, Takanori Amano, Akiteru Maeno, Tetsuaki Kimura, Masatoshi Nakamoto, Yusuke Takehana, Kiyoshi Naruse, Norihiro Okada, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Toshihiko Shiroishi
Shh signalling plays a crucial role for endoderm development. A Shh endoderm enhancer, MACS1, is well conserved across terrestrial animals with lungs. Here, we first show that eliminating mouse MACS1 causes severe defects in laryngeal development, indicating that MACS1-directed Shh signalling is indispensable for respiratory organogenesis. Extensive phylogenetic analyses revealed that MACS1 emerged prior to the divergence of cartilaginous and bony fishes, and even euteleost fishes have a MACS1 orthologue. Meanwhile, ray-finned fishes evolved a novel conserved non-coding sequence in the neighbouring region...
February 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124205/development-of-short-snouted-seahorse-hippocampus-hippocampus-l-1758-osteological-and-morphological-aspects
#15
B Novelli, F Otero-Ferrer, J A Socorro, M J Caballero, A Segade-Botella, L Molina Domínguez
Information about early development after male release lags behind studies of juveniles and adult seahorses, and newborn seahorses, similar in shape to adults, are considered juveniles or fry. During early life, Hippocampus hippocampus present behavioural (shift in habitat, from planktonic to benthic) and morphological changes; for this reasons, the aims of this study are to define the stage of development of H. hippocampus after they are expelled from the male brood pouch and to establish direct or indirect development through an osteological analysis...
January 25, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120342/morphological-study-of-the-persian-leopard-panthera-pardus-saxicolor-tongue
#16
J Sadeghinezhad, M T Sheibani, I Memarian, R Chiocchetti
This study described the morphological features of the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) tongue using light and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The keratinized filiform papillae were distributed all over the entire dorsal surface of the tongue and contained small processes. They were changed into a cylindrical shape in the body and conical shape in the root. The fungiform papillae were found on the apex and margin of the tongue. Few taste pores were observed on the dorsal surface of each papilla...
January 24, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107413/improving-the-conservation-of-mediterranean-chondrichthyans-the-elasmomed-dna-barcode-reference-library
#17
Alessia Cariani, Silvia Messinetti, Alice Ferrari, Marco Arculeo, Juan J Bonello, Leanne Bonnici, Rita Cannas, Pierluigi Carbonara, Alessandro Cau, Charis Charilaou, Najib El Ouamari, Fabio Fiorentino, Maria Cristina Follesa, Germana Garofalo, Daniel Golani, Ilaria Guarniero, Robert Hanner, Farid Hemida, Omar Kada, Sabrina Lo Brutto, Cecilia Mancusi, Gabriel Morey, Patrick J Schembri, Fabrizio Serena, Letizia Sion, Marco Stagioni, Angelo Tursi, Nedo Vrgoc, Dirk Steinke, Fausto Tinti
Cartilaginous fish are particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic stressors and environmental change because of their K-selected reproductive strategy. Accurate data from scientific surveys and landings are essential to assess conservation status and to develop robust protection and management plans. Currently available data are often incomplete or incorrect as a result of inaccurate species identifications, due to a high level of morphological stasis, especially among closely related taxa. Moreover, several diagnostic characters clearly visible in adult specimens are less evident in juveniles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090449/ultrashort-time-to-echo-magnetic-resonance-techniques-for-the-musculoskeletal-system
#18
REVIEW
Palanan Siriwanarangsun, Sheronda Statum, Reni Biswas, Won C Bae, Christine B Chung
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been widely implemented as a non-invasive modality to investigate musculoskeletal (MSK) tissue disease, injury, and pathology. Advancements in MR sequences provide not only enhanced morphologic contrast for soft tissues, but also quantitative biochemical evaluation. Ultrashort time to echo (UTE) sequence, in particular, enables novel morphologic and quantitative evaluation of previously unseen MSK tissues. By using short minimum echo times (TE) below 1 msec, the UTE sequence can unveil short T2 properties of tissues including the deepest layers of the articular cartilage, cartilaginous endplate at the discovertebral junction, the meniscus, and the cortical bone...
December 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070593/-morphological-investigations-of-deep-sole-ulcers-in-cattle-part-1-the-complicated-rusterholz-ulcer
#19
Susanne Gehringer, Matthias Müller, Johann Maierl
OBJECTIVE: In the context of a larger study on morphological changes of deep sole ulcers, claws with Rusterholz ulcer (RU) were investigated to describe the varied pathological changes of the RU. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hind limbs of 55 cows displaying external signs of complicated sole ulcers were examined externally and internally. To examine the samples internally, a sagittal section was performed. Furthermore, the material was examined histologically and after bone maceration...
February 9, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069513/structure-and-mechanical-implications-of-the-pectoral-fin-skeleton-in-the-longnose-skate-chondrichthyes-batoidea
#20
Wei Huang, Watcharapong Hongjamrassilp, Jae-Young Jung, Philip A Hastings, Vlado A Lubarda, Joanna McKittrick
Animal propulsion systems are believed to show high energy and mechanical efficiency in assisting movement compared to artificial designs. As an example, batoid fishes have very light cartilaginous skeletons that facilitate their elegant swimming via enlarged wing-like pectoral fins. The aim of this work is to illustrate the hierarchical structure of the pectoral fin of a representative batoid, the Longnose Skate (Raja rhina), and explain the mechanical implications of its structural design. At the macro level, the pectoral fins are comprised of radially oriented fin rays, formed by staggered mineralized skeletal elements stacked end-to-end...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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