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Cartilaginous morphology

Urška Potočar, Samo Hudoklin, Mateja Erdani Kreft, Janja Završnik, Krešimir Božikov, Mirjam Fröhlich
Cell therapies present a feasible option for the treatment of degenerated cartilaginous and intervertebral disc (IVD) tissues. Microenvironments of these tissues are specific and often differ from the microenvironment of cells that, could be potentially used for therapy, e.g. human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC). To ensure safe and efficient implantation of hASC, it is important to evaluate how microenvironmental conditions at the site of implantation affect the implanted cells. This study has demonstrated that cartilaginous tissue-specific osmolarities ranging from 400-600 mOsm/L affected hASC in a dose- and time-dependent fashion in comparison to 300 mOsm/L...
2016: PloS One
Georgina K Cox, Richard W Brill, Kaitlin A Bonaro, Anthony P Farrell
The coronary circulation first appeared in the chordate lineage in cartilaginous fishes where, as in birds and mammals but unlike most teleost fishes, it supplies arterial blood to the entire myocardium. Despite the pivotal position of elasmobranch fishes in the evolution of the coronary circulation, the determinants of coronary blood flow have never been investigated in this group. Elasmobranch fishes are of special interest because of the morphological arrangement of their cardiomyocytes. Unlike teleosts, the majority of the ventricular myocardium in elasmobranch fishes is distant to the venous blood returning to the heart (i...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Zhe Wu Jin, Shunichi Shibata, Hiroshi Abe, Yu Jin, Xiang Wu Li, Gen Murakami
Using longitudinal semiserial sections of 12 lower extremities from 8 human fetuses at 15-18 weeks, we compared fetal morphologies of the knee in specimens with and without fabellae. We also compared the fabella, if present, with the hallucal sesamoid in the same fetus. Cartilaginous fabella, positive for versican and tenascin by immunohistochemistry, was found in 5 of the 8 fetuses. This structure was embedded in a thick and tight lateral fibrous band, providing a common origin of the plantaris muscle and the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle...
September 26, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Sandra R Breyer, Nicole Muschol, Mona Schmidt, Martin Rupprecht, Kornelia Babin, Jochen Herrmann, Ralf Stücker
BACKGROUND: Hip dysplasia is common in mucopolysaccharidosis type-1H (MPS-1H) patients, but its morphology is not completely understood. No magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based studies have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to improve knowledge of hip dysplasia pathology by describing the hip morphology of these patients in MRI scans, plain radiographs, and arthrograms. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 18 MPS-1H patients...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Zhiye Li, Ruikai Ba, Zhifa Wang, Jianhua Wei, Yimin Zhao, Wei Wu
: : Craniofacial deformities caused by congenital defects or trauma remain challenges for clinicians, whereas current surgical interventions present limited therapeutic outcomes. Injection of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into the defect is highly desirable because such a procedure is microinvasive and grafts are more flexible to fill the lesions. However, preventing hypertrophic transition and morphological contraction remain significant challenges. We have developed an "all host derived" cell transplantation system composed of chondrocyte brick (CB)-enriched platelet-rich plasma (P) gel and BMSCs (B)...
September 14, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Irfan Zia Qureshi, Asia Bibi, Sana Shahid, Madiha Ghazanfar
Use of pesticides or insecticides can be highly toxic to aquatic life forms due to leaching and agricultural runoff, rains or flood. Fipronil (FP) is a GABA receptor inhibitor, while buprofezin (BPFN) is an insect growth regulator. Presently, we exposed groups of aquaria acclimated carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) for 96h to sub-lethal concentrations of fipronil (400μgL(-1); 9.15×10(-7)molL(-1)) and buprofezin (BPFN, 100mgL(-1); 1.072×10(-6)molL(-1)) singly or in combination. The extent of damage was assessed at biochemical, hematological, molecular biological and histopathological level...
October 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Ruchi Srivastava, Neelam Wadhwa, Shikha Gupta, Urvashi Razdan
The nose is an uncommon site for head and neck paraganglioma. The diagnosis is seldom established pre-operatively; its rarity, infrequent functionality and often benign biologic outcome underlie this fact. We present one such case in a 60-year-old man who presented with right nasal obstruction and episodic epistaxis. Rhinoscopy revealed a fleshy polypoid mass arising from the anterior cartilaginous nasal septum. Imaging studies excluded extra-nasal extension. The tumor was highly vascular showing numerous variable sized, mostly thin walled branching blood vessels akin to stag-horn shape simulating a vascular neoplasm...
2016: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
Samantha A Rodrigues, Ashvin Thambyah, Neil D Broom
The annulus-endplate anchorage system plays a vital role in structurally linking the compliant disc to its adjacent much more rigid vertebrae. Past literature has identified the endplate as a region of weakness, not just in the mature spine but also in the immature spine. The aim of this structural study was to investigate in detail the morphological changes associated with annulus-endplate integration through different stages of maturity. Ovine lumbar motion segments were collected from two immature age groups: (i) newborn and (ii) spring lamb (roughly 3 months old); these were compared with a third group of previously analysed mature ewe samples (3-5 years)...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Z H Wang, J Zhang, Q Zhang, Y Gao, J Yan, X Y Zhao, Y Y Yang, D M Kong, J Zhao, Y X Shi, X L Li
This study was designed to evaluate bone matrix gelatin (BMG)/fibrin glue and chitosan/gelatin composite scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. Chondrocytes were isolated from costal cartilage of Sprague-Dawley rats and seeded on BMG/fibrin glue or chitosan/gelatin composite scaffolds. After different in vitro culture durations, the scaffolds were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and toluidine blue staining, anti-collagen II and anti-aggrecan immunohistochemistry, and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Héctor Alfonso Castro-Abril, María Lucía Gutiérrez, Diego Alexander Garzón-Alvarado
In long bones the growth plate is a cartilaginous structure located between the epiphysis and the diaphysis. This structure regulates longitudinal growth and helps determine the structure of mature bone through the process of endochondral ossification. During human growth the femur's proximal growth plate experiences changes in its morphology that may be related to its mechanical environment. Thus, in order to test this hypothesis from a computational perspective, a finite element analysis on a proximal femur was performed on which we modeled different physeal geometries corresponding to the shapes acquired for this structure in a child between the ages of five to eleven...
September 1, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Nuria Sánchez-Farías, Eva Candal
Neural stem cells give rise to transient progenitors termed neuroepithelial cells (NECs) and radial glial cells (RGCs). RGCs represent the major source of neurons, glia and adult stem cells in several regions of the central nervous system (CNS). RGCs are mostly transient in mammals, but they are widely maintained in the adult CNS of fishes, where they continue to be morphologically similar to RGCs in the mammalian brain and fulfill similar roles as progenitors and guide for migrating neurons. The retina of fishes offers an exceptional model to approach the study of adult neurogenesis because of the presence of constitutive proliferation from the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ), containing NECs, and from adult glial cells with radial morphology (the Müller glia)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Mamoru Niitsu
To evaluate the articular cartilage by MRI, there are two categories; delineating the cartilaginous morphology and estimating the cartilaginous internal content. The morphology delineation requires high spatial resolution with high contrast resolution between the cartilage surface and the surrounding synovial fluid. Precise section settings are mandatory. The quality assessment of the cartilage includes T2 mapping, T1 mapping (dGEMRIC), T2* mapping, T1ρ mapping, and the chemical exchange saturation transfer(CEST)...
June 2016: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
Lu Gao, Xiafei Hong, Xiaopeng Guo, Dengfeng Cao, Xiaohuan Gao, Thomas F DeLaney, Xinqi Gong, Rongrong Chen, Jianjiao Ni, Yong Yao, Renzhi Wang, Xi Chen, Pangzehuan Tian, Bing Xing
Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (DDCS) is a rare disease with a dismal prognosis. DDCS consists of two morphologically distinct components: the cartilaginous and noncartilaginous components. Whether the two components originate from the same progenitor cells has been controversial. Recurrent DDCS commonly displays increased proliferation compared with the primary tumor. However, there is no conclusive explanation for this mechanism. In this paper, we present two DDCSs in the sellar region. Patient 1 exclusively exhibited a noncartilaginous component with a TP53 frameshift mutation in the pathological specimens from the first surgery...
May 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Karen C Chen, Betty Tran, Reni Biswas, Sheronda Statum, Koichi Masuda, Christine B Chung, Won C Bae
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate ultrashort time to echo (UTE) magnetic resonance (MR) morphology of the cartilaginous endplates (CEP) in cadaveric lumbar spines with bony vertebral endplate (VEP) lesions, to determine inter-reader agreement as well as associations between the CEP morphology and VEP lesions as well as other abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR imaging of cadaveric lumbar spines from 10 donors was performed at 3T using a UTE MR sequence. Two musculoskeletal radiologists identified the location of vertebral endplate lesions in consensus...
September 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Nimantana He, Zhenguo Dong, Li Tao, Sirguleng Zhao, Shorgan Bou, Dongjun Liu
In this study, highly purified hair follicle stem cells from Arbas Cashmere goat (gHFSCs) were isolated using enzyme digestion and adhesion to type IV collagen. The biological characteristics of the gHFSCs were identified by morphological observation, growth curve, markers assay and differentiation in vitro. The gHFSCs were in small cell size with typical cobblestone morphology, good adhesion and high refractive index. Immunocytochemistry staining showed the cells were expressing Krt15, Krt19, CD34, Itgβ1 and Krt14...
May 18, 2016: Cytotechnology
M-A Weber, C Merle, C Rehnitz, T Gotterbarm
UNLABELLED: Osteoarthritis is the most common disease of the hip joint in adults and has a high socioeconomic impact. This review article discusses the value of three imaging modalities in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the hip joint: projection radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Besides established imaging diagnostics of osteoarthritis, this review also outlines new MRI techniques that enable the biochemical analysis of hip joint cartilage and discusses predisposing deformities of the hip joint including femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) with labral pathologies, hip joint dysplasia, malrotation, and, finally, femoral head necrosis, for which early detection and an exact description of the extent and localization of the necrotic area are extremely important...
July 2016: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Makiri Kawasaki, Yayoi Izu, Tadayoshi Hayata, Hisashi Ideno, Akira Nifuji, Val C Sheffield, Yoichi Ezura, Masaki Noda
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) is an autosomal recessive disorder and is classified as one of the ciliopathy. The patients manifest a characteristic craniofacial dysmorphology but the effects of Bbs3 deficiency in the developmental process during the craniofacial pathogenesis are still incompletely understood. Here, we analyzed a cranial development of a BBS model Bbs3(-/-) mouse. It was previously reported that these mutant mice exhibit a dome-shape cranium. We show that Bbs3(-/-) mouse embryos present mid-facial hypoplasia and solitary central upper incisor...
May 8, 2016: Bone
V P Novoselov, S V Savchenko, E V Pyatkova, A P Nadeev, T A Ageeva, Yu V Chikinev, A S Polyakevich
A complex morphological study of the auricle to determine the human age was performed by evaluating the metric sizes between fixed points in each auricle with axial guidelines. The auricular elastic cartilage in different age periods was characterized by thickening of the cartilaginous plate, different mature and immature cartilage zone ratio, variations in the volume density of the intercellular substance and elastic fibers, and change in the numerical density of individual chondrocytes and isogroups. Aggrecan content in the cartilage was shown to increase in different age periods...
April 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Noppadol Larbcharoensub, Suda Sanpaphant, Patamintita Witoonpanich, Lojana Tuntiyatorn, Jumroon Tungkeeratichai, Wichit Cheewaruangroj
Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma is an uncommon malignant tumor derived from the terminal duct cells of the salivary glands. The present study described a rare case of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, T2N0M0 stage 2, in a 65-year-old man, who presented with a sore throat and painful dysphagia. Computed tomography revealed an infiltrative heterogenous enhancing mass involving the left aryepiglottic fold. He underwent a tumor removal with frozen section for evaluating the surgical margin. Subsequent supraglottic laryngectomy was performed...
May 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Kumi Hasegawa, Akira Kato, Taro Watanabe, Wataru Takagi, Michael F Romero, Justin D Bell, Tes Toop, John A Donald, Susumu Hyodo
Most vertebrates, including cartilaginous fishes, maintain their plasma SO4 (2-) concentration ([SO4 (2-)]) within a narrow range of 0.2-1 mM. As seawater has a [SO4 (2-)] about 40 times higher than that of the plasma, SO4 (2-) excretion is the major role of kidneys in marine teleost fishes. It has been suggested that cartilaginous fishes also excrete excess SO4 (2-) via the kidney. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms for SO4 (2-) transport in cartilaginous fish, largely due to the extraordinarily elaborate four-loop configuration of the nephron, which consists of at least 10 morphologically distinguishable segments...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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