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Cartilage development

Niloofar Eslahi, Marjan Abdorahim, Abdolreza Arash Simchi
Stimuli responsive hydrogels (SRHs) are attractive bio-scaffolds for tissue engineering. The structural similarity of SRHs to the extracellular matrix (ECM) of many tissues offers great advantages for a minimally invasive tissue repair. Among various potential applications of SRHs, cartilage regeneration has attracted significant attention. The repair of cartilage damage is challenging in orthopedics owing to its low repair capacity. Recent advances include development of injectable hydrogels to minimize invasive surgery with nanostructured features and rapid stimuli-responsive characteristics...
October 24, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Jung-Won Cho, Jung-Hyun Park, Jin-Woo Kim, Sun-Jong Kim
BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis in children often leads to facial deformity, functional deficit, and negative influence of the psychosocial development, which worsens with growth. The treatment of TMJ ankylosis in the pediatric patient is much more challenging than in adults because of a high incidence of recurrence and unfavorable growth of the mandible. CASE REPORT: This is a case report describing sequential management of the left TMJ ankylosis resulted from trauma in early childhood...
December 2016: Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Wei Liu, Daming Wang, Jianghong Huang, You Wei, Jianyi Xiong, Weimin Zhu, Li Duan, Jielin Chen, Rong Sun, Daping Wang
Developed in recent years, low-temperature deposition manufacturing (LDM) represents one of the most promising rapid prototyping technologies. It is not only based on rapid deposition manufacturing process but also combined with phase separation process. Besides the controlled macropore size, tissue-engineered scaffold fabricated by LDM has inter-connected micropores in the deposited lines. More importantly, it is a green manufacturing process that involves non-heating liquefying of materials. It has been employed to fabricate tissue-engineered scaffolds for bone, cartilage, blood vessel and nerve tissue regenerations...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
J M Shiguetomi-Medina, J L Ramirez-Gl, H Stødkilde-Jørgensen, B Møller-Madsen
BACKGROUND: Up to 80 % of cartilage is water; the rest is collagen fibers and proteoglycans. Magnetic resonance (MR) T1-weighted measurements can be employed to calculate the water content of a tissue using T1 mapping. In this study, a method that translates T1 values into water content data was tested statistically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To develop a predictive equation, T1 values were obtained for tissue-mimicking gelatin samples. 1.5 T MRI was performed using inverse angle phase and an inverse sequence at 37 (±0...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Official Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Sandra Camarero-Espinosa, Justin Cooper-White
Articular cartilage is a mechanically and structurally complex, lubricious tissue that permits load-bearing and frictionless movement of our joints upon articulation. Unfortunately, cartilage is unable to properly self-heal as a result of acute trauma or damage, resulting in many cases in significant pain, reduction in physical activity and quality of life for the patient. Due to the inability of resident cells to repair damaged osteochondral tissue, researchers have focused on utilizing endogenously or exogenously sourced cells (chondrocytes or tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells), with or without scaffolds, to encourage the secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM) that replicates this highly anisotropic osteochondral tissue, in which the phenotype of the cells and the composition and orientation of the ECM varies along its depth...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Rebekah S Decker
Within each synovial joint, the articular cartilage is uniquely adapted to bear dynamic compressive loads and shear forces throughout the joint's range of motion. Injury and age-related degeneration of the articular cartilage often lead to significant pain and disability, as the intrinsic repair capability of the tissue is extremely limited. Current surgical and biological treatment options have been unable to restore cartilage de novo. Before successful clinical cartilage restoration strategies can be developed, a better understanding of how the cartilage forms during normal development is essential...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Yahui Fu, Jinlai Lei, Yan Zhuang, Kun Zhang, Daigang Lu
The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) by stimulating several mediators that contribute to cartilage degradation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) inhibitors HMGB1 A-box on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and the production of inflammatory mediators in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes after activation by IL-1β. We found that the overexpression of HMGB1 A-box significantly decreased the IL-1β-stimulated the production of MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9, and also reduced the elevated levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) associated with the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production in IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes...
October 19, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Clelia Dispenza, Simona Todaro, Donatella Bulone, Maria Antonietta Sabatino, Giulio Ghersi, Pier Luigi San Biagio, Caterina Lo Presti
The development of growth factors is very promising in the field of tissue regeneration but specifically designed formulations have to be developed in order to enable such new biological entities (NBEs). In particular, the range of therapeutic concentrations is usually very low compared to other active proteins and the confinement in the target site can be of crucial importance. In-situ forming scaffolds are very promising solutions for minimally invasive intervention in cartilage reconstruction and targeting of NBEs...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Katie Bardsley, Agnieska Kwarciak, Christine Freeman, Ian Brook, Paul Hatton, Aileen Crawford
The regeneration of large bone defects remains clinically challenging. The aim of our study was to use a rat model to use nasal chondrocytes to engineer a hypertrophic cartilage tissue which could be remodelled into bone in vivo by endochondral ossification. Primary adult rat nasal chondrocytes were isolated from the nasal septum, the cell numbers expanded in monolayer culture and the cells cultured in vitro on polyglycolic acid scaffolds in chondrogenic medium for culture periods of 5-10 weeks. Hypertrophic differentiation was assessed by determining the temporal expression of key marker genes and proteins involved in hypertrophic cartilage formation...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Jie Gao, John L Williams, Esra Roan
Growth plate chondrocytes are responsible for bone growth through proliferation and differentiation. However, the way they experience physiological loads and regulate bone formation, especially during the later developmental phase in the mature growth plate, is still under active investigation. In this study, a previously developed multiscale finite element model of the growth plate is utilized to study the stress and strain distributions within the cartilage at the cellular level when rapidly compressed to 20 %...
October 21, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Zhigang Sui, Yejing Weng, Qun Zhao, Nan Deng, Fei Fang, Xudong Zhu, Yichu Shan, Lihua Zhang, Yukui Zhang
The cartilage zone of the velvet antler is richly vascularized, this being a major difference to the classical cartilage, in which there are no blood vessels. Angiogenesis and rapid growth of vasculature in velvet antler cartilage (VAC) make it an ideal model for discovering the novel angiogenic regulatory factors. However, the proteomic analysis of VAC is challenging due to the serious interference of proteoglycans (PGs) and collagens. To achieve a comprehensive proteome characterization of VAC, herein, we developed an ionic liquid-based method using 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C12-mim]Cl) for selective extraction of cellular proteins from VAC...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Xiaodan Yu, Hiroko Kawakami, Naoyuki Tahara, Merissa Olmer, Shinichi Hayashi, Ryutaro Akiyama, Anindya Bagchi, Martin Lotz, Yasuhiko Kawakami
Increasing evidence supports the idea that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate cartilage maintenance in the adult skeleton. The aim of this study is to obtain insight into the regulation of BMP activities in the adult skeletal system. We analyzed expression of Noggin and Gremlin1, BMP antagonists that are known to regulate embryonic skeletal development, in the adult skeletal system by Noggin-LacZ and Gremlin1-LacZ knockin reporter mouse lines. Both reporters are expressed in the adult skeleton in a largely overlapping manner with some distinct patterns...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
M Aurich, D Albrecht, P Angele, C Becher, S Fickert, J Fritz, P E Müller, P Niemeyer, M Pietschmann, G Spahn, M Walther
Background: Osteochondral lesions (OCL) of the ankle are a common cause of ankle pain. Although the precise pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated, it can be assumed that a variety of factors are responsible, mainly including traumatic events such as ankle sprains. Advances in arthroscopy and imaging techniques, in particular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have improved the possibilities for the diagnosis of OCLs of the ankle. Moreover, these technologies aim at developing new classification systems and modern treatment strategies...
October 21, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Kedong Song, Wenfang Li, Hai Wang, Yu Zhang, Liying Li, Yiwei Wang, Hong Wang, Ling Wang, Tianqing Liu
Biological treatment using engineered osteochondral composites has received growing attention for the repair of cartilage defects. Osteochondral composites combined with a dynamic culture provide great potential for improving the quality of constructs and cartilage regeneration as dynamic conditions mimic the in vivo condition where cells were constantly subjected to mechanical and chemical stimulation. In the present study, biophasic composites were produced in vitro consisting of cell-hydrogel (CH) and cell-cancellous bone (CB) constructs, followed by culturing in a dynamic system in a spinner flask...
October 21, 2016: Biomedical Materials
Qi Zhang, Shuxian Lin, Ying Liu, Baozhi Yuan, Steph E Harris, Jian Q Feng
Patients with hypophosphatemia rickets (including DMP1 mutations) develop severe osteoarthritis (OA), although the mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we first identified the expression of DMP1 in hypertrophic chondrocytes using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and X-gal analysis of Dmp1-knockout-lacZ-knockin heterozygous mice. Next, we characterized the OA-like phenotype in Dmp1 null mice from 7-week-old to one-year-old using multiple techniques, including X-ray, micro-CT, H&E staining, Goldner staining, scanning electronic microscopy, IHC assays, etc...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Z Riedelová-Reicheltová, E Brynda, T Riedel
Fibrin is a versatile biopolymer that has been extensively used in tissue engineering. In this paper fibrin nanostructures prepared using a technique based on the catalytic effect of fibrin-bound thrombin are presented. This technique enables surface-attached thin fibrin networks to form with precisely regulated morphology without the development of fibrin gel in bulk solution. Moreover, the influence of changing the polymerization time, along with the antithrombin III and heparin concentrations on the morphology of fibrin nanostructures was explored...
October 20, 2016: Physiological Research
Corinne R Henak, Lena R Bartell, Itai Cohen, Lawrence J Bonassar
Mechanical damage is central to both initiation and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). However, specific causal links between mechanics and cartilage damage are incompletely understood, which results in an inability to predict failure. The lack of understanding is primarily due to the difficulty in simultaneously resolving the high rates and small length scales relevant to the problem and in correlating such measurements to the resulting fissures. This study leveraged microscopy and high-speed imaging to resolve mechanics on the previously unexamined time and length scales of interest in cartilage damage, and used those mechanics to develop predictive models...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Fiona E Freeman, Laoise McNamara
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have significant potential to treat bone pathologies by exploiting the capacity for bone progenitors to grow and produce tissue constituents under specific biochemical and physical conditions. However, conventional tissue engineering approaches, which combine stem cells with biomaterial scaffolds, are limited as the constructs often degrade, due to a lack of vascularisation, and lack the mechanical integrity to fulfil loading bearing functions, and as such are not yet widely used for clinical treatment of large bone defects...
October 19, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Kristine M Fischenich, Hannah M Pauly, Keith D Button, Ryan S Fajardo, Charles E DeCamp, Roger C Haut, Tammy L Haut Donahue
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to monitor the progression of joint damage in two animal models of knee joint trauma using two non-invasive, clinically available imaging modalities. METHODS: A 3-T clinical magnet and micro-computed tomography was used to document changes immediately following injury (acute) and post injury (chronic) at time points of 4, 8, or 12 weeks. Joint damage was recorded at dissection and compared to the chronic MRI record. Fifteen Flemish Giant rabbits were subjected to a single tibiofemoral compressive impact (ACLF), and 18 underwent a combination of ACL and meniscal transection (mACLT)...
October 15, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Xiaona Lu, Fei Fan, Huan Wang, Jianjun You
BACKGROUND: Secondary nasal deformities and retardation of development due to treatment of nasal hemangioma during infancy are a challenge when it comes to nasal reconstruction. In order to evaluate nasal repair and reconstruction in these patients, the authors compared the ease and outcomes of using expanded forehead, nasolabial sulcus, and medial upper arm tube flaps. METHODS: According to the deformities and patients' wishes, flaps were selected; using autogeneic rib cartilage, auricle cartilage, or silica gel as a scaffold or without framework; the inner lining were made by the residual scar tissue or the distal end of transferred flap...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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