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Bone development

Yun Bai, Chuan Liu, Lei Fu, Xiaoshan Gong, Ce Dou, Zhen Cao, Hongyu Quan, Jianmei Li, Fei Kang, Jingjin Dai, Chunrong Zhao, Shiwu Dong
Endochondral ossification is crucial for bone formation in both adult bone repair process and embryo long-bone development. In endochondral ossification, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) first differentiate to chondrocyte, BMSC-derived chondrocyte then endure a hypertrophic process to generate new bone. Endochondral ossification-based bone repair is a promising strategy to cure massive bone defect, which is a major clinical issue in orthopedics. However, challenges still remain for this novel strategy...
March 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Francesca Salamanna, Simona Cepollaro, Deyanira Contartese, Gianluca Giavaresi, Giovanni Barbanti Brodano, Cristiana Griffoni, Alessandro Gasbarrini, Milena Fini
STUDY DESIGN: Laboratory study. OBJECTIVE: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from whole bone marrow aspirate (BMA) and MSCs derived from density-gradient centrifugation were isolated from vertebral bodies and cultured under either hypoxic or normoxic conditions to evaluate their biological characteristics and HOX and TALE signature able to improve spinal surgery procedures. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The use of spinal fusion procedures has increased over the last decades; however, failed fusion still remains an important problem...
March 15, 2018: Spine
Kelsey Connelly, David Collister, Navdeep Tangri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with the development of mineral bone disorder (MBD), osteoporosis, and fragility fractures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent findings in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with CKD. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple observational studies have shown that bone mineral density measurement using DEXA is equally predictive in CKD stages 1-3, as in the general population...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Joseph P Herbert, Sidish S Venkataraman, Ali H Turkmani, Liang Zhu, Marcia L Kerr, Rajan P Patel, Irma T Ugalde, Stephen A Fletcher, David I Sandberg, Charles S Cox, Ryan S Kitagawa, Arthur L Day, Manish N Shah
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to assess the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) at a busy Level 1 trauma center and to develop a tool for accurately predicting pediatric BCVI and the need for diagnostic testing. METHODS This is a retrospective cohort study of a prospectively collected database of pediatric patients who had sustained blunt trauma (patient age range 0-15 years) and were treated at a Level 1 trauma center between 2005 and 2015. Digital subtraction angiography, MR angiography, or CT angiography was used to confirm BCVI...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Haseeb Khaliq, Zhong Juming, Peng Ke-Mei
Boron is an essential mineral that plays an important role in several biological processes. Boron is required for growth of plants, animals, and humans. There are increasing evidences of this nutrient showing a variety of pleiotropic effects, ranging from anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects to the modulation of different body systems. In the past few years, the trials showed disease-related polymorphisms of boron in different species, which has drawn attention of scientists to the significance of boron to health...
March 15, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Mikhail A Sevost'yanov, Elena O Nasakina, Alexander S Baikin, Konstantin V Sergienko, Sergey V Konushkin, Mikhail A Kaplan, Alexey V Seregin, Alexander V Leonov, Valery A Kozlov, Alexey V Shkirin, Nikolai F Bunkin, Alexey G Kolmakov, Sergey V Simakov, Sergey V Gudkov
A technology for obtaining materials from nanostructured nitinol with titanium- or tantalum-enriched surface layers was developed. Surface layers enriched with titanium or tantalum were shown to provide a decrease in the formation of reactive oxygen species and long-lived protein radicals in comparison to untreated nitinol. It was determined that human peripheral vessel myofibroblasts and human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells grown on nitinol bases coated with titanium or tantalum-enriched surface layers exhibit a nearly two times higher mitotic index...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Caterina Musolino, Giacomo Oteri, Alessandro Allegra, Manuela Mania, Angela D'Ascola, Angela Avenoso, Vanessa Innao, Andrea Gaetano Allegra, Salvatore Campo
Bisphosphonates are formidable inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption employed for therapy of multiple myeloma (MM) subjects with osteolytic lesions. Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is an uncommon drug-induced adverse event of these agents. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small, noncoding RNAs nucleotides, which are essential post-transcriptional controllers of gene expression. They have a central role in the normal bone development. The goal of our study was to investigate 18 miRNAs, whose targets were previously validated and described in MM subjects without ONJ, in peripheral lymphocytes of MM subjects with bisphosphonate-induced ONJ...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Hematology
Kaimin Lu, Xin Wang, Yuyu Chen, Danfeng Liang, Hao Luo, Li Long, Zongyue Hu, Jinku Bao
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor among adolescents worldwide with high mortality rate. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is a serine/threonine kinase and is considered as a validated target in osteosarcoma therapy. Therefore, the study of GSK3β inhibitors is one of the most popular fields in anti-osteosarcoma drug development. Here, the tools of bioinformatics were used to screen novel effective inhibitors of GSK3β from ZINC Drug Database. The molecular docking, molecular dynamic simulations, MM/GBSA, and energy decomposition analysis were performed to identify the inhibitors...
March 13, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Christopher J Rendina
Purpose: To present a case that benefited from utilizing hyperbaric oxygen therapy in conjunction with antibiotics for a non-healing mandibular fracture that was highly suspicious of osteomyelitis. Also, to discuss research set forth by Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society that supports the use hyperbaric oxygen in such cases. Case: A 25-year-old male status post fist to face resulting in bilateral mandibular fracture. He underwent two surgeries in an attempt to plate the fracture with the assistance of a bone graft...
March 13, 2018: Military Medicine
Valeria Messina, Mauro Valtieri, Mercedes Rubio, Mario Falchi, Francesca Mancini, Alfredo Mayor, Pietro Alano, Francesco Silvestrini
The gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum , responsible for the transmission of this malaria parasite from humans to mosquitoes, accumulate and mature preferentially in the human bone marrow. In the 10 day long sexual development of P. falciparum , the immature gametocytes reach and localize in the extravascular compartment of this organ, in contact with several bone marrow stroma cell types, prior to traversing the endothelial lining and re-entering in circulation at maturity. To investigate the host parasite interplay underlying this still obscure process, we developed an in vitro tridimensional co-culture system in a Matrigel scaffold with P...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Long Chen, Yifeng Jiang, Zhen Du
Although previous studies have demonstrated that dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) from mature and immature teeth exhibit potential for multi-directional differentiation, the molecular and biological difference between the DPSCs from mature and immature permanent teeth has not been fully investigated. In the present study, 500 differentially expressed genes from dental pulp cells (DPCs) in mature and immature permanent teeth were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus online database. Based on bioinformatics analysis using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, these genes were divided into a number of subgroups associated with immunity, inflammation and cell signaling...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yuan-Jun Xia, Hong Xia, Ling Chen, Qing-Shui Ying, Xiang Yu, Li-Hua Li, Jian-Hua Wang, Ying Zhang
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) serves an important role in the development of bone and cartilage. However, administration of BMP-2 protein alone by intravenous delivery is not very effective. Sustained delivery of stabilized BMP-2 by carriers has been proven necessary to improve the osteogenesis effect of BMP-2. The present study constructed a novel drug delivery system using dextran sulfate (DS)-chitosan (CS) microspheres and investigated the efficiency of the delivery system on recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Brooke McClarren, Ronke Olabisi
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into any mesenchymal tissue, including bone, cartilage, muscle, and fat. MSC differentiation can be influenced by a variety of stimuli, including environmental and mechanical stimulation, scaffold physical properties, or applied loads. Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of vibration or cyclic tensile strain on MSCs towards developing a mechanically based method of differentiation, but there is no consensus between studies and each investigation uses different culture conditions, which also influence MSC fate...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Ana Cardoso, Antonio Gil Castro, Ana Catarina Martins, Guilhermina M Carriche, Valentine Murigneux, Isabel Castro, Ana Cumano, Paulo Vieira, Margarida Saraiva
Inflammatory bowel disease encompasses a group of chronic-inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine. These conditions are characterized by exacerbated inflammation of the organ that greatly affects the quality of life of patients. Molecular mechanisms counteracting this hyperinflammatory status of the gut offer strategies for therapeutic intervention. Among these regulatory molecules is the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, as shown in mice and humans. Indeed, IL-10 signaling, particularly in macrophages, is essential for intestinal homeostasis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Virginia Piombo, Katja Jochmann, Daniel Hoffmann, Manuela Wuelling, Andrea Vortkamp
Multiple osteochondromas (MO) syndrome is a dominant autosomal bone disorder characterized by the formation of cartilage-capped bony outgrowths that develop at the juxtaposition of the growth plate of endochondral bones. MO has been linked to mutations in either EXT1 or EXT2, two glycosyltransferases required for the synthesis of heparan sulfate (HS). The establishment of mouse mutants demonstrated that a clonal, homozygous loss of Ext1 in a wild type background leads to the development of osteochondromas. Here we investigate mechanisms that might contribute to the variation in the severity of the disease observed in human patients...
March 12, 2018: Bone
Alessandra Balduini, Hana Raslova, Christian A Di Buduo, Alessandro Donada, Matthias Ballmaier, Manuela Germeshausen, Carlo L Balduini
Inherited thrombocytopenias (ITs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by low platelet count resulting in impaired hemostasis. Patients can have spontaneous hemorrhages and/or excessive bleedings provoked by hemostatic challenges as trauma or surgery. To date, ITs encompass 32 different rare monogenic disorders caused by mutations of 30 genes. This review will focus on the major discoveries that have been made in the last years on the diagnosis, treatment and molecular mechanisms of ANKRD26-Related Thrombocytopenia and MYH9-Related Diseases...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Aubrey L Galusha, Pamela C Kruger, Lyn J Howard, Patrick J Parsons
Patients receiving long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) are exposed to potentially toxic elements, which may accumulate in bone. Bone samples collected from seven PN patients (average = 14 years) and eighteen hip/knee samples were analyzed for Al as part of a previous investigation. Yttrium was serendipitously detected in the PN bone samples, leading to the present investigation of rare earth elements (REEs). A method for quantitating fifteen REEs in digested bone was developed based on tandem ICP-MS (ICP-MS/MS) to resolve spectral interferences...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Sheena L P Regan, Phil G Knight, John L Yovich, Yee Leung, Frank Arfuso, Arun Dharmarajan
Primordial germ cells migrate to the fetal gonads and proliferate during gestation to generate a fixed complement of primordial follicles, the so-called ovarian reserve. Primordial follicles comprise an oocyte arrested at the diplotene stage of meiosis, surrounded by a layer of pregranulosa cells. Activation of primordial follicles to grow beyond this arrested stage is of particular interest because, once activated, they are subjected to regulatory mechanisms involved in growth, selection, maturation, and ultimately, ovulation or atresia...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Meixiang Zhang, Justine Ngo, Filomena Pirozzi, Ying-Pu Sun, Anthony Wynshaw-Boris
BACKGROUND: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been widely used to generate cellular models harboring specific disease-related genotypes. Of particular importance are ESC and iPSC applications capable of producing dorsal telencephalic neural progenitor cells (NPCs) that are representative of the cerebral cortex and overcome the challenges of maintaining a homogeneous population of cortical progenitors over several passages in vitro. While previous studies were able to derive NPCs from pluripotent cell types, the fraction of dorsal NPCs in this population is small and decreases over several passages...
March 15, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Quan-Bo Zhang, Yu-Feng Qing, Cong-Cong Yin, Li Zhou, Xian-Shuang Liu, Qing-Sheng Mi, Jing-Guo Zhou
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) serve as important regulators of inflammatory and immune responses and are implicated in several immune disorders including gouty arthritis. The expression of miR-146a is upregulated in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with inter-critical gout when compared to normouricemic and hyperuricemic controls and those patients with acute gout flares. However, the role of miR-146a in the development of gout remains unknown. Here, we used miR-146a knockout (KO) mice to test miR-146a function in a monosodium urate (MSU)-induced gouty arthritis model...
March 15, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
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