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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746995/desorption-of-radioactive-cesium-by-seawater-from-the-suspended-particles-in-river-water
#1
Masaki Onodera, Akira Kirishima, Seiya Nagao, Kouichi Takamiya, Tsutomu Ohtsuki, Daisuke Akiyama, Nobuaki Sato
In 2011, the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant dispersed radioactive cesium throughout the environment, contaminating the land, rivers, and sea. Suspended particles containing clay minerals are the transportation medium for radioactive cesium from rivers to the ocean because cesium is strongly adsorbed between the layers of clay minerals, forming inner sphere complexes. In this study, the adsorption and desorption behaviors of radioactive cesium from suspended clay particles in river water have been investigated...
July 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746853/ions-modulate-stress-induced-nanotexture-in-supported-fluid-lipid-bilayers
#2
Luca Piantanida, Hannah L Bolt, Neshat Rozatian, Steven L Cobb, Kislon Voïtchovsky
Most plasma membranes comprise a large number of different molecules including lipids and proteins. In the standard fluid mosaic model, the membrane function is effected by proteins whereas lipids are largely passive and serve solely in the membrane cohesion. Here we show, using supported 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipid bilayers in different saline solutions, that ions can locally induce ordering of the lipid molecules within the otherwise fluid bilayer when the latter is supported. This nanoordering exhibits a characteristic length scale of ∼20 nm, and manifests itself clearly when mechanical stress is applied to the membrane...
July 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745774/the-role-of-kcl-in-fecl3-kcl-al2o3-catalysts-with-enhanced-catalytic-performance-for-ethane-oxychlorination
#3
Qihua Zhou, Ruisheng Hu, Yun Jia, Hongye Wang
Among the vinyl chloride production processes, ethane oxychlorination is the most economical and environment-friendly process but constrained by the lack of high performance catalysts for industrial applications. In this work, FeCl3-KCl/Al2O3 catalysts with different molar ratios of K/Fe were prepared by a co-impregnation method and applied to ethane oxychlorination. The FeCl3-KCl/Al2O3 catalyst with K/Fe = 2 exhibited enhanced catalytic performance with the highest conversion of C2H6 (99.1%) and the best selectivity to C2H3Cl (74%) under the optimal conditions of 400 °C, C2H6 : HCl : air = 1 : 3 : 5...
July 26, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739218/phase-behavior-of-a-fc-fusion-protein-reveals-generic-patterns-of-ion-specific-perturbation-on-protein-protein-interactions
#4
Le Zhang, Lei Yu, Jian Zhang-Van Enk, Gang Huang, Jifeng Zhang
Modulation of liquid-liquid phase separation temperature (Tph) for liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of a Fc-fusion protein was studied at pH values below, near and above its pI where the net charge of the protein was positive, neutral and negative, respectively, in KF, KCl, KSCN and MgCl2 solutions. At the pH value near the pI, the monotonic drop in Tph for all the salt solutions suggests that both the anion and cation can disrupt attractive protein-protein interactions, effectively salting-in the protein...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737810/ionic-diffusion-and-proton-transfer-in-aqueous-solutions-of-alkali-metal-salts
#5
Giuseppe Cassone, Fabrizio Creazzo, Paolo V Giaquinta, Jiri Sponer, Franz Saija
We report on a series of ab initio molecular dynamics investigations on LiCl, NaCl, and KCl aqueous solutions under the effect of static electric fields. We have found that although in low-to-moderate field intensity regimes the well-known sequence of cationic mobilities μ(K(+)) > μ(Na(+)) > μ(Li(+)) (i.e., the bigger the cation the higher the mobility) is recovered, from intense field strengths this intuitive rule is no longer verified. In fact, field-induced water molecular dissociations lead to more complex phenomena regulating the standard migration properties of the simplest monovalent cations...
July 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734017/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-strain-correction-on-the-orientation-of-cardiac-diffusion-tensors-with-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-porcine-hearts
#6
Pedro F Ferreira, Sonia Nielles-Vallespin, Andrew D Scott, Ranil de Silva, Philip J Kilner, Daniel B Ennis, Daniel A Auger, Jonathan D Suever, Xiaodong Zhong, Bruce S Spottiswoode, Dudley J Pennell, Andrew E Arai, David N Firmin
PURPOSE: To evaluate the importance of strain-correcting stimulated echo acquisition mode echo-planar imaging cardiac diffusion tensor imaging. METHODS: Healthy pigs (n = 11) were successfully scanned with a 3D cine displacement-encoded imaging with stimulated echoes and a monopolar-stimulated echo-planar imaging diffusion tensor imaging sequence at 3 T during diastasis, peak systole, and strain sweet spots in a midventricular short-axis slice. The same diffusion tensor imaging sequence was repeated ex vivo after arresting the hearts in either a relaxed (KCl-induced) or contracted (BaCl2 -induced) state...
July 21, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733599/nanoscale-investigation-of-generation-1-pamam-dendrimers-interaction-with-a-protein-nanopore
#7
Alina Asandei, Andrei Ciuca, Aurelia Apetrei, Irina Schiopu, Loredana Mereuta, Chang Ho Seo, Yoonkyung Park, Tudor Luchian
Herein, we describe at uni-molecular level the interactions between poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers of generation 1 and the α-hemolysin protein nanopore, at acidic and neutral pH, and ionic strengths of 0.5 M and 1 M KCl, via single-molecule electrical recordings. The results indicate that kinetics of dendrimer-α-hemolysin reversible interactions is faster at neutral as compared to acidic pH, and we propose as a putative explanation the fine interplay among conformational and rigidity changes on the dendrimer structure, and the ionization state of the dendrimer and the α-hemolysin...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733205/-dehydrofukinone-modulates-membrane-potential-and-delays-seizure-onset-by-gabaa-receptor-mediated-mechanism-in-mice
#8
Quelen Iane Garlet, Luana da Costa Pires, Laura Hautrive Milanesi, Joseane Righes Marafiga, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Carlos Fernando de Mello, Berta Maria Heinzmann
(+)-Dehydrofukinone (DHF), isolated from Nectandra grandiflora (Lauraceae) essential oil, induces sedation and anesthesia by modulation of GABAa receptors. However, no study has addressed whether DHF modulates other cellular events involved in the control of cellular excitability, such as seizure behavior. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of DHF on cellular excitability and seizure behavior in mice. For this purpose, we used isolated nerve terminals (synaptosomes) to examine the effect of DHF on the plasma membrane potential, the involvement of GABAa receptors and the downstream activation of Ca(2+) mobilization...
July 18, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733110/a-role-of-alpha-tocopherol-and-phylloquinone-in-the-modulation-of-uterine-contractility-and-reproductive-function-in-mouse-models
#9
Enitome E Bafor, Victory O Ebidame, Uloma B Elvis-Offiah, Osemelomen Omoruyi, Gerald I Eze, Osamwonyi Igbinuwen, Kadiri P Braimoh
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Alpha-tocopherol has been implicated in reproduction processes, and deficiency of phylloquinone has been associated with serious complications in pregnancy. This study was therefore aimed at investigating the effects of phylloquinone and alpha-tocopherol on uterine contractility and female reproductive function using mouse models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Both in vivo and ex vivo animal models were employed and designed to assess changes on uterine contractility and reproductive functions in the non-pregnant uterus...
May 30, 2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732394/surface-charge-effects-on-the-electro-orientation-of-insulating-boron-nitride-nanotubes-in-aqueous-suspension
#10
Semih Cetindag, Bishnu Tiwari, Dongyan Zhang, Yoke Khin Yap, Sangil Kim, Jerry W Shan
The alignment of hexagonal boron-nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) in aqueous KCl solutions under spatially uniform electric fields was examined experimentally, using direct optical visualization to probe the orientation dynamics of individual BNNTs for different electric-field frequencies. Different from most previously studied nanowires and nanotubes, BNNTs are wide-bandgap materials which are essentially insulating at room temperature. We analyze the electro-orientation of BNNTs in the general context of polarizable cylindrical particles in liquid suspensions, whose behavior can fall into different regimes, including alignment due to Maxwell-Wagner induced dipoles at high frequencies, and alignment due to fluid motion of the electrical double layer around the particles at lower frequencies...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720433/single-channel-planar-lipid-bilayer-recordings-of-the-melittin-variant-melp5
#11
Aziz Fennouri, Simon Finn Mayer, Thomas B H Schroeder, Michael Mayer
MelP5 is a 26 amino acid peptide derived from melittin, the main active constituent of bee venom, with five amino acid replacements. The pore-forming activity of MelP5 in lipid membranes is attracting attention because MelP5 forms larger pores and induces dye leakage through liposome membranes at a lower concentration than melittin. Studies of MelP5 have so far focused on ensemble measurements of membrane leakage and impedance; here we extend this characterization with an electrophysiological comparison between MelP5 and melittin using planar lipid bilayer recordings...
July 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717838/the-triterpenoid-alpha-beta-amyrin-prevents-the-impaired-aortic-vascular-reactivity-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#12
Flávia Almeida Santos, Karine Maria Martins Bezerra Carvalho, Francisco José Batista-Lima, Paulo Iury Gomes Nunes, Ana Flávia Seraine Custódio Viana, Armenio André de Carvalho Almeida da Silva, Said Gonçalves da Cruz Fonseca, Mariana Helena Chaves, Vietla Satyanarayana Rao, Pedro Jorge Caldas Magalhães, Teresinha Silva de Brito
To characterize the protective effects of the triterpenoid mixture alpha, beta-amyrin (AMY, 20 mg/kg, during 15 days) on the reactivity of isolated aorta of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Male Swiss mice were fed with HFD or normal diet (ND) for 15 weeks. Contractions of thoracic aorta in response to KCl or phenylephrine (PHE) and relaxation by acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were analyzed. HFD-fed mice developed hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and significant body weight gain, parameters prevented by AMY treatment...
July 17, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716960/bacterial-tubulin-a-b-exhibit-polarized-growth-mixed-polarity-bundling-and-destabilization-by-gtp-hydrolysis
#13
César Díaz-Celis, Viviana I Risca, Felipe Hurtado, Jessica K Polka, Scott D Hansen, Daniel Maturana, Rosalba Lagos, R Dyche Mullins, Octavio Monasterio
Bacteria of the genus Prosthecobacter express homologs of eukaryotic α- and β-tubulin, called BtubA and BtubB, that have been observed to assemble into filaments in presence of GTP. BtubA/B polymers are proposed to be composed in vitro by two to six protofilaments, in contrast to in vivo where they have been reported to form 5-protofilaments tubes named bacterial microtubules (bMTs). The btubAB genes likely entered the Prosthecobacter lineage via horizontal gene transfer and may derive from an early ancestor of the modern eukaryotic microtubule (MT)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715706/free-sodium-salts-mixture-and-algysalt%C3%A2-use-as-nacl-substitutes-in-fresh-and-cooked-meat-products-intended-for-the-hypertensive-population
#14
M Triki, I Khemakhem, I Trigui, R Ben Salah, S Jaballi, C Ruiz-Capillas, M A Ayadi, H Attia, S Besbes
This work aims at reducing the use of added NaCl in processed meat products because of its negative effects on hypertensive population by replacing it by sodium-free salts mixture (SM: KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2) in fresh and cooked sausages. The technological, sensory, and microbiological effects of SM were compared with a commercial replacer based on seaweed extracts (AlgySalt®). A total substitution of NaCl with the latter and a partial one with SM (80% and 50%) were studied in cooked sausages and a total NaCl substitution with both substitutes was performed in fresh sausages...
July 11, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714272/fluorescence-spectroscopy-coupled-with-independent-components-analysis-to-monitor-molecular-changes-during-heating-and-cooling-of-cantal-type-cheeses-with-different-nacl-and-kcl-contents
#15
Mohammed Loudiyi, Romdhane Karoui, Douglas N Rutledge, Marie-Christine Montel, Etienne Rifa, Abderrahmane Aït-Kaddour
BACKGROUND: Reduction of NaCl content of cheeses has received considerable attention by researches during the past decades due to its health effects. Nonetheless, NaCl reduction is a challenge since it plays an important role in cheese quality, such as structure, texture and functional properties. Serval methods were used to evaluate the effect of NaCl on these attributes. In this study, Cantal-type cheeses with different salts (NaCl and KCl) were analyzed for their structure at a molecular level and rheological properties during heating (20 to 60 °C) and cooling (60 to 20 °C)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709976/glutathione-peroxidase-4-catalyzed-reduction-of-lipid-hydroperoxides-in-membranes-the-polar-head-of-membrane-phospholipids-binds-the-enzyme-and-addresses-the-fatty-acid-hydroperoxide-group-toward-the-redox-center
#16
Giorgio Cozza, Monica Rossetto, Valentina Bosello-Travain, Matilde Maiorino, Antonella Roveri, Stefano Toppo, Mattia Zaccarin, Lucio Zennaro, Fulvio Ursini
GPx4 is a monomeric glutathione peroxidase, unique in reducing the hydroperoxide group (-OOH) of fatty acids esterified in membrane phospholipids. This reaction inhibits lipid peroxidation and accounts for enzyme's vital role. Here we investigated the interaction of GPx4 with membrane phospholipids. A cationic surface near the GPx4 catalytic center interacts with phospholipid polar heads. Accordingly, SPR analysis indicates cardiolipin as the phospholipid with maximal affinity to GPx4. Consistent with the electrostatic nature of the interaction, KCl increases the KD...
July 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701919/amyloid-%C3%AE-impairs-vesicular-secretion-in-neuronal-and-astrocyte-peptidergic-transmission
#17
Virginia Plá, Neus Barranco, Esther Pozas, Fernando Aguado
Regulated secretion of neuropeptides and neurotrophic factors critically modulates function and plasticity of synapses and circuitries. It is believed that rising amyloid-β (Aβ) concentrations, synaptic dysfunction and network disorganization underlie early phases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we analyze the impact of soluble Aβ1-42 assemblies on peptidergic secretion in cortical neurons and astrocytes. We show that neurons and astrocytes differentially produce and release carboxypeptidase E (CPE) and secretogranin III (SgIII), two dense-core vesicle (DCV) markers belonging to the regulated secretory pathway...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699687/the-super-sickling-haemoglobin-hbs-oman-a-study-of-red-cell-sickling-k-permeability-and-associations-with-disease-severity-in-patients-heterozygous-for-hba-and-hbs-oman-hba-s-oman-genotype
#18
Halima W M Al Balushi, Yasser Wali, Maha Al Awadi, Taimoora Al-Subhi, David C Rees, John N Brewin, Anke Hannemann, John S Gibson
Studying different sickle cell genotypes may throw light on the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease (SCD). Here, the clinical profile, red cell sickling and K(+) permeability in 29 SCD patients (15 patients with severe disease and 14 with a milder form) of HbA/S-Oman genotype were analysed. The super sickling nature of this Hb variant was confirmed. The red cell membrane permeability to K(+) was markedly abnormal with elevated activities of Psickle , Gardos channel and KCl cotransporter (KCC). Results were consistent with Ca(2+) entry and Mg(2+) loss via Psickle stimulating Gardos channel and KCC activities...
July 12, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698496/synthesis-and-structure-of-the-inclusion-complex-ndq-5-k-q-10-h%C3%A2-o-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-4no%C3%A2-%C3%A2-20h%C3%A2-o
#19
Li Xia Chen, Jing Lan Kan, Hang Cong, Timothy J Prior, Zhu Tao, Xin Xiao, Carl Redshaw
Heating a mixture of Nd(NO₃)₃·6H₂O, KCl, Q[10] and Q[5] in HCl for 10 min affords the inclusion complex {NdQ[5]K@Q[10](H₂O)₄}·4NO₃·20H₂O. The structure of the inclusion complex has been investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction and by X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).
July 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696682/homogeneous-assays-of-second-messenger-signaling-and-hormone-secretion-using-thermofluorimetric-methods-that-minimize-calibration-burden
#20
Juan Hu, Christopher J Easley
Homogeneous assays are characterized by rapidity, low cost, and simple workflows. However, relatively few specialized homogeneous platforms have garnered significant use in biological studies. Inconsistencies in matrix interferences, limited multiplexability, and the requirement for specialized instrumentation are among the various reasons for delayed acceptance. Recently, we have shown that DNA-driven protein assays using thermofluorimetric analysis (TFA) can limit matrix interference and promote multiplexing, all while requiring only a standard qPCR instrument for readout...
July 11, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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