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Afrina Mustari, Naoki Nakamura, Satoko Kawauchi, Shunichi Sato, Manabu Sato, Izumi Nishidate
To evaluate cerebral hemodynamics and spontaneous low-frequency oscillations (SLFOs) of cerebral blood flow in rat brain, we investigated an imaging method using a digital RGB camera. In this method, the RGB values were converted into tristimulus values in the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) XYZ color space, which is compatible with the common RGB working spaces. Monte Carlo simulation for light transport in tissue was then used to specify the relationship among the tristimulus XYZ values and the concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin ( C HbO ), deoxygenated hemoglobin ( C HbR ), and total hemoglobin ( C HbT ) and cerebral tissue oxygen saturation ( StO 2 )...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Maria M Buckley, Dervla O'Malley
Background and Objectives: Bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is vital for maintaining whole-body homeostasis. Moreover, emerging evidence implicates vagal afferent signaling in the modulation of host physiology by microbes, which are most abundant in the colon. This study aims to optimize and advance dissection and recording techniques to facilitate real-time recordings of afferent neural signals originating in the distal colon. New Protocol: This paper describes a dissection technique, which facilitates extracellular electrophysiological recordings from visceral pelvic, spinal and vagal afferent neurons in response to stimulation of the distal colon...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Bo Ling, Xiaoli Liu, Lihui Zhang, Shaojin Wang
Dielectric heating including microwave (MW) and radio frequency (RF) energy has been regarded as alternative thermal treatments for food processing. To develop effective rice bran (RB) stabilization treatments based on RF and MW heating, dielectric properties (DPs) with dielectric constant (ε') and loss factor (ε″) of RB samples at frequencies (10-3000 MHz), temperatures (25-100 °C), moisture content (MC, 10.36-24.69% w.b.) and three metal salt levels (0.05-2.00%) were determined by an open-ended coaxial probe and impedance analyzer...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Ana Plemenitaš, Aharon Oren
Hypersaline environments with salt concentrations up to NaCl saturation are inhabited by a great diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life. They all must cope with the low water activity of their environment, but different strategies exist to provide osmotic balance of the cells' cytoplasm with the salinity of the medium. One option used by many halophilic Archaea and a few representatives of the Bacteria is to accumulate salts, mainly KCl and to adapt the entire intracellular machinery to function in the presence of molar concentrations of salts...
February 26, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Lucía Isidoro, Mercedes Ferrer, Mercedes Perusquía
BACKGROUND: Testosterone, 5α- and 5β-dihydrotestosterone (-DHT) induce an acute in vitro vasorelaxation and in vivo vasodepressor, hypotensive and antihypertensive responses. Our aim was to study whether androgen-induced blood pressure (BP) reduction is involved with a blockade of Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-operated calcium channels (L-VOCCs) and/or the signaling pathways of α1 -adrenoceptors to induce vasoconstriction, which are one of the major mechanisms of BP maintenance...
March 12, 2018: Endocrine Research
Qiang Li, Yuan Ren, Chunlei Liang, Guo Qiao, Yinan Wang, Shigen Ye, Ruijun Li
Sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is one of the most important holothurian species cultured in China. Severe evisceration induced by various natural and artificial factors commonly occurs during transport and culture of A. japonicus. Evisceration causes higher mortality and lower yield. Along with the visceral regeneration process, sea cucumbers also regenerate coelomocytes in order to recover immune function. In this study, evisceration of A. japonicus was induced by intracoelomic injection of 0.35 M KCl...
March 8, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Lucas M B Yoshihara, Elizabeth P G Arêas
The coacervation of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was investigated. The work focused on the effects of pH, ionic strength, I, temperature, T, and mass fraction of the macromolecular components on the coacervation process by spectrophotometry, and on characteristics of the resulting coacervate phase by rheology in the linear and non-linear regimes. Coacervation was found to be highest at HEWL mass fraction ≈0.25 with very slight dependence on pH in the range from 5 to 9. The process was favored at I < 0...
March 2, 2018: Biophysical Chemistry
Ning Xu, Yingying Zheng, Xiaochen Wang, Terry A Krulwich, Yanhe Ma, Jun Liu
Corynebacterium glutamicum is generally regarded as a moderately salt-alkali-tolerant industrial organism. However, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these specific adaptations. Here, we found that the Mrp1 antiporter played crucial roles in conferring both environmental Na+ -resistance and alkali-tolerance, whereas the Mrp2 antiporter was necessary in coping with high KCl stress at alkaline pH. Furthermore, the Δ mrp1mrp2 double mutant showed most severe growth retardation, and failed to grow under high salt or alkaline conditions...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Michael P Schmidt, Carmen Enid Martinez
Formation of biomolecule-rich supramolecular complexes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) and subsequent adsorption onto minerals is important for the development of mineral-stabilized organic matter, yet the impact of supramolecular association on interfacial behavior is seldom studied. A series of supramolecular complexes of model biomolecules (deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)) are synthesized, characterized and adsorbed onto goethite. Complexes represent 0.1 mg/mL DNA mixed with BSA concentrations from 0...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Lisa Repsold, Anna Margaretha Joubert
Erythrocytes play an important role in oxygen and carbon dioxide transport. Although erythrocytes possess no nucleus or mitochondria, they fulfil several metabolic activities namely, the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, as well as the hexose monophosphate shunt. Metabolic processes within the erythrocyte contribute to the morphology/shape of the cell and important constituents are being kept in an active, reduced form. Erythrocytes undergo a form of suicidal cell death called eryptosis. Eryptosis results from a wide variety of contributors including hyperosmolarity, oxidative stress, and exposure to xenobiotics...
2018: BioMed Research International
Xiaodong Liu, Yantao Luo, Zhefei Li, Gehong Wei
Mesorhizobium alhagi CCNWXJ12-2T , isolated from root nodules of the desert plant Alhagi sparsifolia , contains two type III secretion systems (T3SSs). T3SSs are specialized machinery with wide distribution in bacteria that inject effector proteins into target cells. Our previous study showed that the expression of M. alhagi T3SS1 is upregulated in high-salt conditions. Here, phylogenetic analysis of T3SS1 using the core protein RhcU suggested that T3SS1 belongs to the α-Rhc II subgroup of the Rhc T3SS family...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jan Janda, Milos Veleminsky, Terezie Sulakova, Bohuslav Prochazka, Jan Eliasek, Pravoslav Stransky, Richard Rokyta
BACKGROUND: In a cooperative multi-center interventional study of 60 probands with prehypertension and normal BMIs were followed for 3 months. DESIGN: The intervention included the DASH diet for 3 months in 30 probands plus sodium limited intake using the low sodium salt Kardisal® (60% NaCl, 40% KCl) (group A) and the DASH diet for 3 months in 30 probands without Kardisal® (group B). RESULTS: In group A (n=26 probands evaluated) the systolic blood pressure (median) decreased significantly from 138 to 129 mmHg (p<0...
February 6, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Halima W M Al Balushi, David C Rees, John N Brewin, Anke Hannemann, John S Gibson
Red cells from patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are under greater oxidative challenge than those from normal individuals. We postulated that oxidants generated by xanthine oxidase (XO) and hypoxanthine (HO) contribute to the pathogenesis of SCA through altering solute permeability. Sickling, activities of the main red cell dehydration pathways (Psickle , Gardos channel, and KCl cotransporter [KCC]), and cell volume were measured at 100, 30, and 0 mmHg O2 , together with deoxygenation-induced nonelectrolyte hemolysis...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Christian Sögaard, Johan Funehag, Zareen Abbas
At present there is a pressing need to find an environmentally friendly grouting material for the construction of tunnels. Silica nanoparticles hold great potential of replacing the organic molecule based grouting materials currently used for this purpose. Chemically, silica nanoparticles are similar to natural silicates which are essential components of rocks and soil. Moreover, suspensions of silica nanoparticles of different sizes and desired reactivity are commercially available. However, the use of silica nanoparticles as grouting material is at an early stage of its technological development...
2018: Nano Convergence
Koki Yamaguchi, Tatsuya Hirase, Tetsuji Koizumi, Sigeru Inoguchi
AIM: Efforts to improve the treatment of frail elderly patients in acute care hospitals are urgently needed because a low physical activity level due to hospitalization is reported to be associated with a risk of disability. The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of frail elderly patients in acute care hospitals. METHODS: We assessed 198 elderly patients who were admitted to acute care hospitals. The factors that were evaluated included the presence of frailty, the age, gender, and nutritional status of the patients, and complications that developed during hospitalization...
2018: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
Guendalina Olivero, Massimo Grilli, Matteo Vergassola, Tommaso Bonfiglio, Cristina Padolecchia, Beatrice Garrone, Francesco Paolo Di Giorgio, Stefania Tongiani, Cesare Usai, Mario Marchi, Anna Pittaluga
Presynaptic mGlu2/3 autoreceptors exist in rat spinal cord nerve terminals as suggested by the finding that LY379268 inhibited the 15 mM KCl-evoked release of [3 H]D-aspartate ([3 H]D-Asp) in a LY341495-sensitive manner. Spinal cord glutamatergic nerve terminals also possess presynaptic release-regulating 5-HT2A heteroreceptors. Actually, the 15 mM KCl-evoked [3 H]D-Asp exocytosis from spinal cord synaptosomes was reduced by the 5-HT2A agonist (±)DOI, an effect reversed by the 5-HT2A antagonists MDL11,939, MDL100907, ketanserin and trazodone (TZD)...
February 27, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Jian-Liang Zhang, Hui Yu, Ying-Wei Hou, Ke Wang, Wen-Shan Bi, Liang Zhang, Qian Wang, Pan Li, Man-Li Yu, Xian-Xian Zhao
Treatment of hypertension with thiazide diuretics may trigger hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, and hyperuricemia. Some studies suggest simultaneous potassium supplementation in hypertensive patients using thiazide diuretics. However, few clinical studies have reported the impact of long-term potassium supplementation on thiazide diuretic-induced abnormalities in blood glucose and uric acid (UA) metabolisms. One hundred hypertensive patients meeting the inclusion criteria were equally randomized to two groups: IND group receiving indapamide (1...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Human Hypertension
Yuxiang Chen, Jie Li, Yanqing Lai, Ming Xu, Junming Li, Peng Wang, Zhian Zhang
As low cost substitute of graphene and graphene-derivative, 2D carbon nanosheets are considered as attractive materials for high-performance electrochemical energy storage devices. Nevertheless, the lack of cost-effective and green preparation method still greatly impeded the application of 2D carbon nanosheets in sodium ion battery. Herein, an environmental friendly and versatile strategy is proposed to engineer anisotropically curved N-doped carbon nanosheets (CNCNs) derived from bio-source with hydrosoluble and recyclable flux...
February 28, 2018: ChemSusChem
Xin Ni, Liang Zhang, Min Peng, Tu-Wang Shen, Xiu-Shi Yu, Li-Ya Shan, Li Li, Jun-Qiang Si, Xin-Zhi Li, Ke-Tao Ma
BACKGROUND Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive effects, and connexins (Cxs) are involved in regulation of immune homeostasis. In this study, we explored whether exogenous H2S prevents hypertensive inflammation by regulating Cxs expression of T lymphocytes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). MATERIAL AND METHODS We treated SHR with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) for 9 weeks. Vehicle-treated Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) were used as a control. The arterial pressure was monitored by the tail-cuff method, and vascular function in basilar arteries was examined by pressure myography...
February 27, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Torben Stermann, Franziska Menzel, Carmen Weidlich, Kay Jeruschke, Jürgen Weiß, Delsi Altenhofen, Tim Benninghoff, Anna Pujol, Fatima Bosch, Ingo Rustenbeck, D Margriet Ouwens, G Hege Thoresen, Christian de Wendt, Sandra Lebek, Tanja Schallschmidt, Martin Kragl, Eckhard Lammert, Alexandra Chadt, Hadi Al-Hasani
The RabGTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 has been shown to be a key regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. Its function in pancreatic islets, however, is not yet fully understood. Here, we aimed to clarify the specific impact of TBC1D1 on insulin secretion and substrate utilization in pancreatic islets. We analyzed the dynamics of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and lipid metabolism in isolated islets from Tbc1d1-deficient mice (D1KO). To further investigate the underlying cellular mechanisms, we conducted pharmacological studies in these islets...
February 22, 2018: Endocrinology
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