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M C Ortiz-Tafoya, Agnès Rolland-Sabaté, Catherine Garnier, Josefina Valadez-García, Alberto Tecante
Polysaccharide-surfactant blends are widely used in foods. However, their possible mutual interactions have not been extensively studied. The purpose of this work was to examine how the anionic surfactant sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) affects different properties of κ-carrageenan solutions and gels. Rheometry, differential scanning calorimetry, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multiangle laser light scattering, among others, were used to determine the flow and viscoelastic behavior, thermal transitions, and conformation changes, respectively...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ming-Guang Sun, Li-Chun Ma
Lop Nor potash deposit is the largest sulfate-type liquid potassium salt deposit in China, consisting of three areas: Xinqing platform, Luobei depression, and Tenglong platform. In this study, the geological background, basin structure, and fracture system of the deposit, along with the brine storage size of the three ore bodies are introduced in detail, using underground brine elevation models of the mining areas. We collected 91 samples of brine from long-term observation boreholes in the Lop Nor ore district, and analyzed their ion contents...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Katarzyna Dziewulska, Malwina Pilarska
BACKGROUND: In fish with external fertilization, two main start-up mechanisms of the path that blocks or activates the spermatozoan motility apparatus are known. The main factor managing the path is osmolality or potassium ion. In burbot from the European and North American population, contradictory findings regarding the factors influencing the onset of spermatozoa motility were reported. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of potassium and osmolality on the spermatozoa activation of European burbot, Lota lota (Actinopterygii, Gadiformes, Lotidae)...
2018: PloS One
Hui-Suan Ng, Grace Yin Tze Tan, Ka-Heng Lee, Wolfgang Zimmermann, Hip Seng Yim, John Chi-Wei Lan
The α- and γ-mangostins from Garcinia mangostana pericarps (GMP) exhibit antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties. The extraction yields α- and γ-mangostins are often limited by the presence of the GMP cell walls. Therefore, the extraction and recovery of mangostins from GMP with an Aspergillus niger cellulase-assisted aqueous micellar biphasic system (CA-AMBS) was developed for enhanced yield of mangostins. Effects of the concentration of cellulase, the incubation time and the temperature of the system on the recovery of mangostins were investigated...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yu Du, Yi Mou, Jin Liu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effectiveness and safety of the individual-specific rapid potassium supplementation strategy, and to provide experimental basis for treating fatal severe hypokalemia. METHODS: An acute fatal severe hypokalemia model was reproduced in 20 healthy adult Japanese big ear white rabbits with half lethal dose (LD50) of barium chloride (BaCl2 ) solution 168 mg×5 mL-1 ×kg-1 . The rabbits were divided into conventional potassium supplementation group and individual-specific rapid potassium supplementation group according to random number table method with 10 rabbits in each group...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Xiujuan Qiao, Kunxia Li, Jinqiong Xu, Ni Cheng, Qinglin Sheng, Wei Cao, Tianli Yue, Jianbin Zheng
Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a specific and sensitive biomarker for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction and for the subsequent clinical treatments. In this work, novel electrochemical sensing platform for sensing of cTnI based on aptamer-MoS2 nanoconjugates was proposed. For comparison, core-shell Au@SiO2 @Au nanoparticles were also used for sensing of cTnI. The sensing schemes and electrochemical responses of the proposed sensors were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 5...
May 4, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Ciao-Wei Siao, Hung-Lin Chen, Li-Wen Chen, Jia-Lin Chang, Tsung-Wen Yeh, Chiing-Chang Chen
This paper presents an unprecedented systematic synthetic study of a controlled hydrothermal method for the preparation of bismuth oxychloride/bismuth oxybromide/bismuth oxyiodide ternary composites (BiOx Cly /BiOm Brn /BiOp Iq ). The pH, temperature, and KCl:KBr:KI molar ratio for the reactions were adjusted to control the compositions and morphologies of BiOx Cly /BiOm Brn /BiOp Iq composites. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface areas, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy were applied to the products...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Narges Abdali, Farhan Younas, Samaneh Mafakheri, Karunakar R Pothula, Ulrich Kleinekathöfer, Andreas Tauch, Roland Benz
BACKGROUND: Corynebacterium urealyticum, a pathogenic, multidrug resistant member of the mycolata, is known as causative agent of urinary tract infections although it is a bacterium of the skin flora. This pathogenic bacterium shares with the mycolata the property of having an unusual cell envelope composition and architecture, typical for the genus Corynebacterium. The cell wall of members of the mycolata contains channel-forming proteins for the uptake of solutes. RESULTS: In this study, we provide novel information on the identification and characterization of a pore-forming protein in the cell wall of C...
May 9, 2018: BMC Biochemistry
Evan C Rosenberg, Jocelyn J Lippman-Bell, Marcus Handy, Samantha S Soldan, Sanjay Rakhade, Cristina Hilario-Gomez, Kaitlyn Folweiler, Leah Jacobs, Frances E Jensen
Neonatal seizures disrupt normal synaptic maturation and often lead to later-life epilepsy and cognitive deficits. During early life, the brain exhibits heightened synaptic plasticity, in part due to a developmental overabundance of CaV 1.2 L-type voltage gated calcium (Ca2+ ) channels (LT-VGCCs) and Ca2+ -permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs) lacking GluA2 subunits. We hypothesized that early-life seizures overactivate these channels, in turn dysregulating Ca2+ -dependent signaling pathways including that of methyl-CPG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), a transcription factor implicated in the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) Rett Syndrome...
May 5, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Miklós Kellermayer, Dominik Sziklai, Zsombor Papp, Brennan Decker, Eszter Lakatos, Zsolt Mártonfalvi
Titin is a giant protein spanning between the Z- and M-lines of the sarcomere. In the A-band titin is associated with the myosin thick filament. It has been speculated that titin may serve as a blueprint for thick-filament formation due to the super-repeat structure of its A-band domains. Accordingly, titin might provide a template that determines the length and structural periodicity of the thick filament. Here we tested the titin ruler hypothesis by mixing titin and myosin at in situ stoichiometric ratios (300 myosins per 12 titins) in buffers of different ionic strength (KCl concentration range 100-300 mM)...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
Roberto De Col, Karl Messlinger, Tali Hoffmann
Cutaneous afferent nerves convey sensory information from the external, visceral nerves from the internal environment. The saphenous nerve arising from lumbar dorsal root ganglia and the vagus nerve originating in the nodosum ganglia are prototypic examples of such cutaneous and visceral nerves. Despite a common sensory role, these two nerves have distinct embryonic origin and vary in neuropeptide expression. Because of their distinct physiological roles, it is plausible that they differ also in conductive properties...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Shi-Yuan Liu, Shu-Jin Li, Shun Wu, Li-Jun Wang, Kuo-Chih Chou
Vanadium slag is a by-product from steelmaking process of vanadium-titanium magnetite, which mainly contains FeO, MnO, V2 O3 , and Cr2 O3 , The elements Fe and Mn are major components of Mn-Zn ferrite. The elements V and Cr are major components of V-Cr alloy. In view of the potential application in these study, a Mn0.8 Zn0.2 Fe2 O4 of high saturation magnetization (Ms = 68.6 emu/g) and low coercivity (Hc = 3.3 Oe) was successfully synthesized from the leaching solutions of vanadium slag by adding appropriate chemical reagents, ZnCl2 and MnCl2 ·4H2 O, via roasting at 1300 °C for 1 h...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Jan Jehlička, Adam Culka, Lilly Mana, Aharon Oren
Cell suspensions of the haloarchaea Halorubrum sodomense and Halobacterium salinarum and the extremely halophilic bacterium Salinibacter ruber (Bacteroidetes) in saturated solutions of chlorides and sulfates (NaCl, KCl, MgSO4 ·7H2 O, K2 SO4 , and (NH4 )Al(SO4 )2 ·12H2 O) were left to evaporate to produce micrometric inclusions in laboratory-grown crystals. Raman spectra of these pinkish inclusions were obtained using a handheld Raman spectrometer with green excitation (532 nm). This portable instrument does not include any microscopic tool...
May 3, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Meng Dan Xi, Ping Li, Hao Du, Xin Mei Qiao, Zhi Gang Liu, Wei Qi Wei
Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) is a fertility-associated protein, the expression of which positively correlates with sperm quality in many species. Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) is reported to induce expression of HSP90. The present study aimed to investigate whether GGA induced expression of HSP90 in Acipenser sinensis sperm to exert a cryoprotective effect. Sperm from five male A. sinensis was combined with extender containing 20 mmol/L tris pH = 8.1, 10% v/v methanol, 2-5 mmol/L KCl, 15 mmol/L lactose, and 15 mmol/L trehalose, with GGA at 0, 14, 67, 135, 673, 1346, or 6731 μmol/L...
April 16, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Janée D Terwoord, Christopher M Hearon, Gary J Luckasen, Jennifer C Richards, Michael J Joyner, Frank A Dinenno
The increase in interstitial potassium (K+ ) during muscle contractions is thought to be a vasodilatory signal that contributes to exercise hyperemia. To determine the role of extracellular K+ in exercise hyperemia, we perfused skeletal muscle with K+ prior to contractions such that the effect of any endogenously-released K+ would be minimized. We tested the hypothesis that local, intra-arterial infusion of potassium chloride (KCl) at rest would impair vasodilation in response to subsequent rhythmic handgrip exercise in humans...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Dessislava Mladenova, Guy Barry, Lyndsey M Konen, Sandy S Pineda, Boris Guennewig, Lotta Avesson, Raphael Zinn, Nicole Schonrock, Maina Bitar, Nicky Jonkhout, Lauren Crumlish, Dominik C Kaczorowski, Andrew Gong, Mark Pinese, Gloria R Franco, Carl R Walkley, Bryce Vissel, John S Mattick
The amount of regulatory RNA encoded in the genome and the extent of RNA editing by the post-transcriptional deamination of adenosine to inosine (A-I) have increased with developmental complexity and may be an important factor in the cognitive evolution of animals. The newest member of the A-I editing family of ADAR proteins, the vertebrate-specific ADAR3, is highly expressed in the brain, but its functional significance is unknown. In vitro studies have suggested that ADAR3 acts as a negative regulator of A-I RNA editing but the scope and underlying mechanisms are also unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Aurore Guédin, Linda Yingqi Lin, Samir Armane, Laurent Lacroix, Jean-Louis Mergny, Stéphane Thore, Liliya A Yatsunyk
Guanine-rich DNA has the potential to fold into non-canonical G-quadruplex (G4) structures. Analysis of the genome of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum indicates a low number of sequences with G4-forming potential (249-1055). Therefore, D. discoideum is a perfect model organism to investigate the relationship between the presence of G4s and their biological functions. As a first step in this investigation, we crystallized the dGGGGGAGGGGTACAGGGGTACAGGGG sequence from the putative promoter region of two divergent genes in D...
April 30, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Congxin Xie, Huamin Zhang, Wenbin Xu, Wei Wang, Xianfeng Li
A Zinc-iodine flow battery (ZIFB) with super long cycle life, high energy, power density and self-healing behaviour was presented. The long cycle life was achieved by employing a low-cost porous polyolefin membrane and stable electrolytes. The pores in membrane can be filled with a solution containing I3- that can react with zinc dendrite. Therefore, by consuming zinc dendrite, the battery can self-recover from micro-short circuiting resulting from overcharging. By using KI, ZnBr2 and KCl as electrolytes and a high ion conductivity porous membrane and a very high power density can be achieved...
May 1, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Juan He, Junfen Wan, Ting Yang, Xuejun Cao, Lin Yang
Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) has great potential in industrial applications of bio-separations and bio-reactions. However, its large-scale application is limited by recovery difficulty of phase systems. In this paper, a recyclable ATPS was prepared by two pH-responsive copolymers (PADB4.99 and PMDM7.08 ) and applied for purification of porcine circovirus type 2 Cap protein fermentation broth (PCV2 Cap protein). Phase separation mechanism was studied by using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR)...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Haebum Lee, Hyunok Maeng, Kyoungtae Kim, Gibaek Kim, Kihong Park
A stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system was developed to determine the elemental composition of contamination particles during semiconductor manufacturing. It successfully detected laboratory-generated monodisperse (size=200  nm and 300 nm) CaCl2 particles and internally mixed particles of CaCl2 , MgCl2 , NaCl, and KCl. Temperature and pressure effects on the LIBS emission signals were investigated. The peak area and signal-to-noise ratio of the emission lines increased with the temperature (25°C-250°C)...
April 20, 2018: Applied Optics
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