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Astha Garg, Charles A Cartier, Kyle J M Bishop, Darrell Velegol
The zeta potential of a particle characterizes its motion in an electric field and is often thought to be negligible at high ionic strength (several moles per liter) due to thinning of the electrical double layer (EDL). Here, we describe zeta potential measurements on polystyrene latex (PSL) particles at monovalent salt concentrations up to saturation (~ 5 M NaCl) using electrophoresis in sinusoidal electric fields and high-speed video microscopy. Our measurements reveal that the zeta potential remains finite at even the highest concentrations...
October 21, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Seung Kyum Kim, Joshua J Avila, Michael P Massett
Understanding the genetic influence on vascular reactivity is important for identifying genes underlying impaired vascular function. The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic contribution to intrinsic vascular function and to identify loci associated with phenotypic variation in vascular reactivity in mice. Concentration response curves to phenylephrine (PE), potassium chloride (KCl), acetylcholine (ACh), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were generated in aortic rings from male mice (12-wk old) from 27 inbred mouse strains...
October 7, 2016: Physiological Genomics
Mordjane Boukhet, Fabien Piguet, Hadjer Ouldali, Manuela Pastoriza-Gallego, Juan Pelta, Abdelghani Oukhaled
The transport of macromolecules through nanopores is involved in many biological functions and is today at the basis of promising technological applications. Nevertheless the interpretation of the dynamics of the macromolecule/nanopore interaction is still misunderstood and under debate. At the nanoscale, inside biomimetic channels under an external applied voltage, electrophoresis, which is the electric force acting on electrically charged molecules, and electroosmotic flow (EOF), which is the fluid transport associated with ions, contribute to the direction and magnitude of the molecular transport...
October 20, 2016: Nanoscale
Steven J Kleene, Nancy K Kleene
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common life-threatening monogenic renal disease. ADPKD results from mutations in either of two proteins: polycystin-1 (also known as PC1 or PKD1) or transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily P, member 2 (TRPP2, also known as polycystin-2, PC2, or PKD2). Each of these proteins is expressed in the primary cilium that extends from many renal epithelial cells. Existing evidence suggests that the cilium can promote renal cystogenesis, while PC1 and TRPP2 counter this cystogenic effect...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Punam Dalai, Hannes Lukas Pleyer, Henry Strasdeit, Stefan Fox
On the Hadean-Early Archean Earth, the first islands must have provided hot and dry environments for abiotically formed organic molecules. The heat sources, mainly volcanism and meteorite impacts, were also available on Mars during the Noachian period. In recent work simulating this scenario, we have shown that neat glycine forms a black, sparingly water-soluble polymer ("thermomelanoid") when dry-heated at 200 °C under pure nitrogen. The present study explores whether relevant minerals and mineral mixtures can change this thermal behavior...
October 18, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
Tijen Kaya Temiz, Omer Demir, Fatma Simsek, Yusuf Cem Kaplan, Selen Bahceci, Barıs Karadas, Aslı Celik, Gokhan Koyluoglu
AIM: The aim of this study is to investigate whether nitric oxide (NO)-mediated colonic motility was altered in rat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) model, using different isoforms of NO-synthase (NOS) inhibitors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The animal model of IBS-like visceral hypersensitivity was induced by intra-colonic infusion of 0.5% acetic acid (AA) in saline once daily from postnatal days 8 to 21. Control animals received saline instead of AA. Experiments were performed at the end of 8 weeks...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Peter S Hasenhuetl, Michael Freissmuth, Walter Sandtner
The plasmalemmal monoamine transporters clear the extracellular space from their cognate substrates and sustain cellular monoamine stores even during neuronal activity. In some instances, however, the transporters enter a substrate-exchange mode, which results in release of intracellular substrate. Understanding what determines the switch between these two transport modes demands time-resolved measurements of intracellular (co-)substrate-binding and -release. Here, we report an electrophysiological investigation of intracellular solute-binding to the human serotonin transporter (SERT) expressed in HEK-293 cells...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Daniel A Nidzgorski, Sarah E Hobbie
Many urban waterways suffer from excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), feeding algal blooms, which cause lower water clarity and oxygen levels, bad odor and taste, and the loss of desirable species. Nutrient movement from land to water is likely to be influenced by urban vegetation, but there are few empirical studies addressing this. In this study, we examined whether or not urban trees can reduce nutrient leaching to groundwater, an important nutrient export pathway that has received less attention than stormwater...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Ge Su, Min Zhang, Wen Si, Zhan-Ting Li, Jun-Li Hou
Three unimolecular peptide channels have been designed and prepared by using the β-helical conformation of gramicidin A (gA). The new peptides bear one to three NH3(+) groups at the N-end and one to three CO2(-) groups at the C-end. These zwitterionic peptides were inserted into lipid bilayers in an orientation-selective manner. Conductance experiments on planar lipid bilayers showed that this orientation bias could lead to observable directional K(+) transport under multi-channel conditions. This directional transport behavior can further cause the generation of a current across a planar bilayer without applying a voltage...
October 18, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Hongye Zhang, Qing Wang, Yu Guo, Dongfeng Li, Buqiang Zhang, Yuehong Dong, Xiuxian Huang, Yongjuan Liu, JInguo Zhao, Weiwei Li, Hans R Brunner, Lisheng Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the long-term (3 years) consumption of enriched potassium salt (KCL/NaCL = 1:1 by weight) on all causes mortality and target organ damage in Chinese living in nursing houses. DESIGN AND METHOD: The study was designed as a single blind prospective intervention. Participants were living in 22 nursing houses in northern China. The nursing houses were randomized into 2 groups: normal salt (control group) and enriched potassium salt (intervention group)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Teresa F Mastropietro, Nadia Marino, Giovanni De Munno, Francesc Lloret, Miguel Julve, Emilio Pardo, Donatella Armentano
The preparation and structural characterization of four novel oxalate-based iron(III) compounds of formulas {(MeNH3)2[Fe2(ox)2Cl4]·2.5H2O}n (1), K(MeNH3)[Fe(ox)Cl3(H2O)] (2), {MeNH3[Fe2(OH)(ox)2Cl2]·2H2O}n (3), and {(H3O)(MeNH3)[Fe2O(ox)2Cl2]·3H2O}n (4) (MeNH3(+) = methylammonium cation and H2ox = oxalic acid) are reported here. 1 is an anionic waving chain of oxalato-bridged iron(III) ions with peripheral chloro ligands, the charge balance being ensured by methylammonium cations. 2 is a mononuclear complex with a bidentate oxalate, three terminal chloro ligands, and a coordinated water molecule achieving the six-coordination around each iron(III) ion...
October 17, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Nayeli Rivera-Ramírez, Wilber Montejo-López, María-Cristina López-Méndez, Agustín Guerrero-Hernández, Anayansi Molina-Hernández, Ubaldo García-Hernández, José-Antonio Arias-Montaño
The histamine H3 receptor (H3R) is abundantly expressed in the Central Nervous System where it regulates several functions pre and postsynaptically. H3Rs couple to Gαi/o proteins and trigger or modulate several intracellular signaling pathways, including the cAMP/PKA pathway and the opening of N- and P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. In transfected cells, activation of the human H3R of 445 amino acids (hH3R445) results in phospholipase C (PLC) stimulation and release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores...
October 12, 2016: Neurochemistry International
Yu Yang, Wendy Ballent, Brooke K Mayer
Phosphorus (P) is a critical, nonrenewable nutrient; yet excess discharges can lead to eutrophication and deterioration of water quality. Thus, P removal from water must be coupled with P recovery to achieve sustainable P management. P-specific proteins provide a novel, promising approach to recover P from water. Bacterial phosphate binding proteins (PBP) are able to effectively remove phosphate, achieving extremely low levels in water (i.e., 0.015 mg-P L(-1)). A prerequisite of using PBP for P recovery, however, is not only removal, but also controlled P release, which has not yet been reported...
October 14, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Francisco Eduardo Martin-Cano, Mercedes Caso-Agundez, Cristina Camello-Almaraz, Francisco Juan Santos, María Teresa Espin, Juan Antonio Madrid, Adolfo Diez-Perez, Pedro Javier Camello, Maria Jose Pozo
Urinary bladder function consists in the storage and controlled voiding of urine. Translational studies require animal models that match human characteristics, such as Octodon degus, a diurnal rodent. This study aims to characterize the contractility of the detrusor muscle and the morphology and code of the vesical plexus from O. degus. Body temperature was measured by an intra-abdominal sensor, the contractility of detrusor strips was evaluated by isometric tension recording, and the vesical plexus was studied by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and immunofluorescence...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Serena Marcelli, Elena Ficulle, Filomena Iannuzzi, Enikö Kövari, Robert Nisticò, Marco Feligioni
Synaptic dysfunction has been recognized as an early feature occurring at the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Compromised neurotransmission leads over time to synaptic loss and these events correlate with the cognitive decline that progressively affects AD patients.Protein SUMOylation (Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier) is a post-translational modification (PTM) involved in several cellular processes including synaptic transmission.We here demonstrate that cortical synaptosomes prepared from Tg2576 mice of 6 months of age show an increased SUMO-1ylation, which returns back to normal levels at 20 months although synaptic SUMOylation, at this age, resulted more sensible to KCl stimulus...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Zoltan Patai, Andras Guttman, Endre G Mikus
Drotaverine is considered to evoke a spasmolytic effect through the inhibition of cyclic-3',5'-nucleotide-phophodiesterase (PDE) enzymes. However, published receptor binding data supports the potential L-type Voltage Operated Calcium Channel (L-VOCC) blocking effect of drotaverine as well. Hence, in this work we are focusing on the potential L-VOCC blocking effect of drotaverine using L-VOCC associated functional in vitro models. Accordingly, drotaverine and reference agents were tested on KCl-induced guinea pig tracheal contraction...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Ahmed Abd Elrazak, Alan C Ward, Jarka Glassey
The increase demand of Omega-3 in the market and the challenges facing its conventional supplies led to an increase interest to microbial Omega-3 sources. This research concentrates on the statistical role of some metal ions on the biosynthesis and productivity of eicosapentanoic acid (essential omega-3 element) in bacterial isolate, Shewanella 717. A Plackett-Burman design was applied to screen the main effect of all metal salts entrenched in the Artifical Sea Water medium components. Four salts in particular in addition to the interaction among them were highlighted as having a statistically significant effect upon the growth and/or EPA production...
October 13, 2016: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Kan Zhan, Rui Su, Sihang Bai, Zhenhua Yu, Nian Cheng, Changlei Wang, Sheng Xu, Wei Liu, Shishang Guo, Xing-Zhong Zhao
The properties of nanomaterials are highly dependent on their size, shape and composition. Compared with zero-dimensional nanoparticles, the increased dimension of a one-dimensional silver nanowire (AgNW/Ag NW) leads to extra challenges on synthesizing it with controllable sizes. Here, a convenient way for the synthesis of AgNWs with tunable sizes has been developed simply by adjusting the amount of salt additives, i.e., ferric chloride (FeCl3), or Fe(NO3)3 & KCl. The average diameter and length of nanowires are readily tailored within 45-220 nm and 10-230 μm, respectively...
October 13, 2016: Nanoscale
Seiji Takeuchi, Shintaro Iwama, Hiroshi Takagi, Atsushi Kiyota, Kohtaro Nakashima, Hisakazu Izumida, Haruki Fujisawa, Naoko Iwata, Hidetaka Suga, Takashi Watanabe, Kozo Kaibuchi, Yutaka Oiso, Hiroshi Arima, Yoshihisa Sugimura
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is secreted via exocytosis; however, the precise molecular mechanism underlying the exocytosis of AVP remains to be elucidated. To better understand the mechanisms of AVP secretion, in our study we have identified proteins that bind with a 25 kDa synaptosomal-associated protein (SNAP25). SNAP25 plays a crucial role in exocytosis, in the posterior pituitary. Embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived AVP neurons were established to investigate the functions of the identified proteins. Using glutathione S-transferase (GST)-pulldown assays and proteomic analyses, we identified tomosyn-1 (syntaxin-binding protein 5) as a SNAP25-binding protein in the posterior pituitary...
2016: PloS One
Gregory D Tredwell, Jacob G Bundy, Maria De Iorio, Timothy M D Ebbels
INTRODUCTION: Despite the use of buffering agents the (1)H NMR spectra of biofluid samples in metabolic profiling investigations typically suffer from extensive peak frequency shifting between spectra. These chemical shift changes are mainly due to differences in pH and divalent metal ion concentrations between the samples. This frequency shifting results in a correspondence problem: it can be hard to register the same peak as belonging to the same molecule across multiple samples. The problem is especially acute for urine, which can have a wide range of ionic concentrations between different samples...
2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
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