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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144014/translocation-of-precision-polymers-through-biological-nanopores
#1
Mordjane Boukhet, Niklas Felix König, Abdelaziz Al Ouahabi, Gerhard Baaken, Jean-François Lutz, Jan C Behrends
Nanopore analysis, which is, currently, chiefly used for DNA sequencing, is also an appealing technique for characterizing abiotic polymers. As a first step toward this goal, nanopore detection of non-natural monodispersed poly(phosphodiester)s as candidate backbone structures is reported herein. Two model homopolymers containing phosphopropyl repeat units (i.e., 56 or 104 r.u.) and a short thymidine nucleotide sequence are analyzed in the present work. They are tested in two different biological nanopores, α-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus, and aerolysin from Aeromonas hydrophila...
November 16, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139211/protostane-type-triterpenoids-from-alisma-orientale
#2
Hong-Mei Li, Xue-Jiao Chen, Dan Luo, Min Fan, Zhi-Jun Zhang, Li-Yan Peng, Xing-De Wu, Rong-Tao Li, Xu Ji, Qin-Shi Zhao
Twenty-eight protostane triterpenoids, including a new degraded one (1), nine new ones (2-10) and two new natural ones (11 and 12), have been isolated from the dried rhizomes of Alisma orientale. Alisol R (1) was the first 20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27-octanorprotostane triterpenoid. The absolute configurations of 25-methoxyalisol F (2) and 16β-hydroperoxyalisol B 23-acetate (3) were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. In addition, alismaketone-B 23-acetate (28) showed potent vasorelaxant activity on endothelium-intact thoracic aorta rings precontracted with KCl...
November 15, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134160/optimized-production-and-isolation-of-antibacterial-agent-from-marine-aspergillus-flavipes-against-vibrio-harveyi
#3
Lei Guo, Cong Wang
Statistical methodologies, including Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken design, were employed to optimize the fermentation conditions for the production of active substances against aquatic pathogen Vibrio harveyi by marine-derived Aspergillus flavipes strain HN4-13. The optimal crucial fermentation values for maximum production of active substances against V. harveyi were obtained as follows: X1 (peptone) = 0.3%, X2 (KCl) = 0.25%, and X3 (inoculum size) = 4.5%. The predicted diameter of inhibitory zone against V...
December 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132207/ultra-flat-pristine-and-robust-carbon-electrode-for-fast-electron-transfer-kinetics
#4
Amin Morteza Najarian, Ran Chen, Ryan James Balla, Shigeru Amemiya, Richard L McCreery
Electron-beam (E-beam) deposition of carbon on a gold substrate yields a very flat (0.43 nm of root-mean-square roughness), amorphous carbon film consisting of a mixture of sp2 and sp3 hybridized carbon with sufficient conductivity to avoid ohmic potential error. E-beam carbon (eC) has attractive properties for conventional electrochemistry, including low background current and sufficient transparency for optical spectroscopy. A layer of KCl deposited by E-beam to the eC surface without breaking vacuum protects the surface from the environment after fabrication until dissolved by an ultrapure electrolyte solution...
November 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132011/effect-of-anode-polarization-on-biofilm-formation-and-electron-transfer-in-shewanella-oneidensis-graphite-felt-microbial-fuel-cells
#5
David Pinto, Thibaud Coradin, Christel Laberty-Robert
In microbial fuel cells, electricity generation is assumed by bacterial degradation of low-grade organics generating electrons that are transferred to an electrode. The nature and efficiency of the electron transfer from the bacteria to the electrodes are determined by several chemical, physical and biological parameters. Specifically, the application of a specific potential at the bioanode has been shown to stimulate the formation of an electro-active biofilm, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood...
October 31, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131641/qcm-d-investigation-of-swelling-behavior-of-layer-by-layer-thin-films-upon-exposure-to-monovalent-ions
#6
Joshua T O'Neal, Ethan Y Dai, Yanpu Zhang, Kyle B Clark, Kathryn G Wilcox, Ian M George, Nandha E Ramasamy, Daisy Enriquez, Piotr Batys, Maria Sammalkorpi, Jodie L Lutkenhaus
Polyelectrolyte multilayers and layer-by-layer assemblies are susceptible to structural changes in response to ionic environment. By altering the salt type and ionic strength, structural changes can be induced by disruption of intrinsically bound ion pairs within the multilayer network via electrostatic screening. Notably, high salt concentrations have been used for the purposes of salt-annealing and self-healing of LbL assemblies with KBr, in particular, yielding a remarkably rapid response. However, to date, the structural and swelling effects of various monovalent ion species on the behavior of LbL assemblies remain unclear, including a quantitative view of ion content in the LbL assembly and thickness changes over a wide concentration window...
November 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123273/in-vivo-imaging-of-the-microvasculature-of-the-soft-tissue-margins-of-osteonecrotic-jaw-lesions
#7
P Bastos, V Patel, F Festy, N Hosny, R J Cook
Introduction Given the increasing incidence of medication-related jaw osteonecrosis, and recognition of the mucosal blood supply's importance, we have developed a non-invasive Real Time Optical Vascular Imaging (RTOVI) instrument. Imaging the red blood cells within the sub-mucosal capillary networks demonstrates the microcirculatory anatomy. We report a small trial, demonstrating the technique's viability, examining mucosal microcirculatory changes adjacent to osteonecrotic lesions.Aims Imaging the microvasculature of soft tissue margins of patients' exposed necrotic bone lesions in situ was intended to provide unique observational as well as quantitative data, using an image analysis routine, based on ImageJ software...
November 10, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117097/preparation-and-bioactivity-assessment-of-chitosan-1-acetic-acid-5-flurouracil-conjugates-as-cancer-prodrugs
#8
Mohsin O Mohammed, Kameran S Hussain, Nadia Q Haj
5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a specific anti-cancer agent that is generally used to treat gastrointestinal, colorectal, and breast cancer. In this work, chitosan (CS) was extracted from local fish scales using an established method. 5-FU was then converted to 1-acetic acid-5-fluorouracil (FUAC) and reacted with this CS to prepare chitosan-1-acetic acid-5-fluorouracil (CS-FUAC) conjugates as a colon-specific prodrug. All compounds were characterized by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), and UV-visible spectroscopy...
November 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113921/antihypertensive-responses-of-vasoactive-androgens-in-an-in-vivo-experimental-model-of-preeclampsia
#9
Mercedes Perusquía, Andrea E Hanson, Claudia M Meza, Cris Kubli, Nieves Herrera, John N Stallone
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (TES) and its 5-reduced metabolites induce a nongenomic vasorelaxation in several vascular beds of mammals; similarly these hormones produce systemic hypotensive and antihypertensive responses in normotensive and hypertensive male rats. Thus, it was hypothesized that the antihypertensive response of androgens, whose levels are elevated during gestation, protect against gestational hypertension. An animal model of preeclampsia was induced in female Wistar rats using DOCA-salt-treated pregnant (PT) and normal pregnant (NP) rats...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112841/extraction-and-quantification-of-chlorophenolate-molecules-in-soils-spiked-with-2-4-dichlorophenol-and-2-4-5-trichlorophenol
#10
Diana Bello, Carmen Trasar-Cepeda
The compounds 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) are classified as priority pollutants, with potentially hazardous impacts on the environment. In soil, dissociation of the phenol group occurs, resulting in the simultaneous presence of neutral phenol and anionic phenolate. Although the toxicity of 2,4-DCP and 2,4,5-TCP to soil microbiota has been suggested to be mainly due to the phenolate anion, this hypothesis cannot be tested due to the lack of appropriate methods of extracting and quantifying the anionic form of these compounds (unlike the neutral form, which can be easily quantified)...
November 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108933/isolation-and-identification-of-a-tribenzylisoquinoline-alkaloid-from-nelumbo-nucifera-gaertn-a-novel-potential-smooth-muscle-relaxant
#11
Guang-Ming Yang, Jie Sun, Yang Pan, Jun-Li Zhang, Min Xiao, Min-Sheng Zhu
A new skeleton benzylisoquinoline (BI) named neoliensinine (1) was isolated from embryos of lotus seed (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.), a traditional Chinese herb. The tribenzylisoquinoline (TBI) structure of 1 was confirmed by interpreting spectroscopic data of UV, IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR. The stereo-configurations of the new compound, together with two known bisbenzylisoquinolines (BBI), neferine and isoliensinine were established by analyzing (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra. The relaxation of 1, neferine, isoliensinine and liensinine in isolated mesenteric vascular smooth muscle (VSM) was evaluated...
November 3, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108864/neuro-glial-cannabinoid-receptors-modulate-signaling-in-the-embryonic-avian-retina
#12
Regina C C Kubrusly, Alexander Günter, Luzia Sampaio, Roberta Silva Martins, Clarissa S Schitine, Priscila Trindade, Arlete Fernandes, Rosa Borelli-Torres, Vivian Sayuri Miya-Coreixas, Anna Carolina Rego Costa, Hércules Rezende Freitas, Patrícia F Gardino, Fernando G de Mello, Karin Costa Calaza, Ricardo A M Reis
Endocannabinoids are endogenous lipids that activate selective G protein coupled receptors (CB1 and CB2), mostly found at neuronal presynaptic sites in the nervous system. One of the main consequences of the activation of CB receptors is a decrease in GABA or glutamate release, controlling cell excitability. Here we studied the expression of CB1 and CB2 receptors in E8C8 cultured retina cells (embryonic day 8 and 8 days in vitro) using immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis. We also evaluated their functions in terms of cyclic AMP (cAMP) production, single cell calcium imaging (SCCI) and GABA release induced in basal conditions or activated by l-Aspartate (L-ASP) in cell cultures or under ischemia in young chick retina...
November 3, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108049/body-fat-of-stock-type-horses-predicted-by-rump-fat-thickness-and-deuterium-oxide-dilution-and-validated-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy-of-dissected-tissues
#13
E N Ferjak, C A Cavinder, D D Burnett, C Mc Argo, T T N Dinh
Body condition score and percent body fat (BF; %) of horses are positively correlated with reproductive efficiency and are indicative of metabolic issues. However, BF in horses may be poorly predicted because current procedures are either subjective or dependent on one anatomical location. Therefore, the objectives of the current study were to compare 2 methods of predicting BF using rump fat thickness (RFT) and deuterium oxide (DO) dilution with actual tissue fat analysis by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in stock-type horses and to identify the relationship between BF and BCS...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100189/effects-of-potassium-salts-loading-on-calcium-oxide-on-the-hydrogen-production-from-pyrolysis-gasification-of-biomass
#14
Haiping Yang, Daqian Wang, Bin Li, Zhiwei Zeng, Lei Qu, Wennan Zhang, Hanping Chen
The effects of potassium (K) salts loading on CaO on the H2 production from pyrolysis-gasification of wheat straw were investigated. The loading of 0.25 wt% KCl could significantly enhance the CO2 absorption capability of CaO. The CO2 concentration in the product gas decreased sharply from 20.83 to 11.70 vol%, and the H2 concentration increased from 48.2 to 55.5 vol%. While the loading of 0.25 wt% K2CO3/K2SO4 inhibited the enhancing effect of CaO. Further increasing the loading of KCl on CaO, the CO2 absorption of CaO declined, but the catalytic effect of KCl on the gasification process was promoted...
October 24, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096440/thermosensitive-phase-behavior-of-benzo-21-crown-7-and-its-derivatives
#15
Shengyi Dong, Li Wang, Jianfeng Wu, Lin Jin, Yan Ge, Zhenhui Qi, Changzhu Wu
For designing water-soluble responsive materials, utilizing crown ethers as main building blocks has been rarely explored in contrast to their linear poly(ethylene glycol) counterparts. In the current study, we report the robust thermoresponsive properties of the benzo-21-crown-7 (B21C7) family with lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and upper critical solution temperature (UCST) behavior. Different substituent groups on the benzene ring exhibit significant effects on water solubility and thermoresponsiveness...
November 16, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095496/development-of-a-novel-smoke-flavoured-salmon-product-by-sodium-replacement-using-water-vapour-permeable-bags
#16
Arantxa Rizo, Ana Fuentes, José M Barat, Isabel Fernández-Segovia
BACKGROUND: Food manufacturers need to reduce sodium contents to meet consumer and public health demands. In this study the use of sodium-free (SF) salt and KCl to develop a novel smoke-flavoured salmon product with reduced sodium content was evaluated. Fifty percent of NaCl was replaced with 50% of SF salt or 50% KCl in the salmon smoke-flavouring process carried out using water vapour permeable bags. RESULTS: Triangle tests showed that samples with either SF salt or KCl were statistically similar to the control samples (100% NaCl)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093722/osmotic-and-salt-stresses-modulate-spontaneous-and-glutamate-induced-action-potentials-and-distinguish-between-growth-and-circumnutation-in-helianthus-annuus-seedlings
#17
Maria Stolarz, Halina Dziubinska
Action potentials (APs), i.e., long-distance electrical signals, and circumnutations (CN), i.e., endogenous plant organ movements, are shaped by ion fluxes and content in excitable and motor tissues. The appearance of APs and CN as well as growth parameters in seedlings and 3-week old plants of Helianthus annuus treated with osmotic and salt stress (0-500 mOsm) were studied. Time-lapse photography and extracellular measurements of electrical potential changes were performed. The hypocotyl length was strongly reduced by the osmotic and salt stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092881/effects-of-potassium-supplements-on-glucose-metabolism-in-african-americans-with-prediabetes-a-pilot-trial
#18
Ranee Chatterjee, Cris Slentz, Clemontina A Davenport, Johanna Johnson, Pao-Hwa Lin, Michael Muehlbauer, David D'Alessio, Laura P Svetkey, David Edelman
Background: Low potassium has been identified both as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and as a mediator of the racial disparity in diabetes risk. Low potassium could be a potentially modifiable risk factor, particularly for African Americans.Objective: We sought to determine the effects of potassium chloride (KCl) supplements, at a commonly prescribed dose, on measures of potassium and glucose metabolism.Design: Among African-American adults with prediabetes, we conducted a double-blinded pilot randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of 40 mEq K/d as KCl supplements with a matching placebo, taken for 3 mo, on measures of potassium and glucose metabolism, with measures collected from frequently sampled oral-glucose-tolerance tests (OGTTs)...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091971/the-effect-of-respiration-buffer-composition-on-mitochondrial-metabolism-and-function
#19
Lucas C Wollenman, Matthew R Vander Ploeg, Mackinzie L Miller, Yizhu Zhang, Jason N Bazil
Functional studies on isolated mitochondria critically rely on the right choice of respiration buffer. Differences in buffer composition can lead to dramatically different respiration rates leading to difficulties in comparing prior studies. The ideal buffer facilities high ADP-stimulated respiratory rates and minimizes substrate transport effects so that the ability to distinguish between various treatments and conditions is maximal. In this study, we analyzed a variety of respiration buffers and substrate combinations to determine the optimal conditions to support mitochondrial function through ADP-stimulated respiration and uncoupled respiration using FCCP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089854/the-effect-of-high-pressure-and-subzero-temperature-on-gelation-of-washed-cod-and-salmon-meat
#20
Edyta Malinowska-Pańczyk, Ilona Kołodziejska
The objective of the present work is to examine the influence of pressure up to 193 MPa at subzero temperature (without freezing of water) on myofibrillar proteins of salmon and cod meat and on the properties of gels obtained from washed mince of these fish. The solubility of proteins from myofibrils of cod and salmon meat suspended in 100 mM KCl solution increased after treating the samples with pressure above 60 MPa. The results of SDS- -PAGE analysis showed that under these conditions two myosin light chains, tropomyosin and troponin T were released from myofibrils...
September 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
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