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Ayako Ujike, Tomoki Kuraishi, Soichiro Yamaguchi, Ryota Eguchi, Taisuke Kitano, Jumpei Kamise, Shigeo Ito, Ken-Ichi Otsuguro
H2S has excitatory and inhibitory effects on Ca2+ signals via transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and ATP-sensitive K+ channels, respectively. H2S converts intracellularly to polysulfides, which are more potent agonists for TRPA1 than H2S. Under inflammatory conditions, changes in the expression and activity of these H2S target channels and/or the conversion of H2S to polysulfides may modulate H2S effects. Effects of proinflammatory cytokines on H2S-induced Ca2+ signals and polysulfide production in RIN14B cells were examined using fluorescence imaging with fura-2 and SSP4, respectively...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Haotian Shi, Nirakar Poudel, Bingya Hou, Lang Shen, Jihan Chen, Alexander V Benderskii, Stephen B Cronin
We report a novel approach to probe the local ion concentration at graphene/water interfaces using in situ Raman spectroscopy. Here, the upshifts observed in the G band Raman mode under applied electrochemical potentials are used to determine the charge density in the graphene sheet. For voltages up to ±0.8 V vs. NHE, we observe substantial upshifts in the G band Raman mode by as much as 19 cm-1, which corresponds to electron and hole carrier densities of 1.4 × 1013 cm-2 and Fermi energy shifts of ±430 meV...
January 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Hugo L A Silva, Celso F Balthazar, Erick A Esmerino, Roberto P C Neto, Ramon S Rocha, Jeremias Moraes, Rodrigo N Cavalcanti, Robson M Franco, Maria Inês B Tavares, Jânio S Santos, Daniel Granato, Renata G B Costa, Mônica Q Freitas, Márcia C Silva, Renata S L Raices, C Senaka Ranadheera, Filomena Nazzaro, Amir M Mortazavian, Adriano G Cruz
Cheese is a suitable matrix to deliver probiotic strains but it contains a high amount of sodium. The effect of partial substitution of NaCl by KCl and the addition of flavor enhancers (l-arginine, yeast and oregano extract) on probiotic Prato cheese was investigated after 1, 30, and 60 d of refrigerated storage (immediately after manufacturing, and during ripening and storage). Microbiological (lactic acid bacteria and probiotic Lactobacillus casei 01 counts and survival under gastrointestinal conditions), physicochemical (pH, proteolysis, fatty acids), bioactivity (antioxidant effect and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity), rheological, and water mobility by means of time domain low-field nuclear magnetic resonance were investigated...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
D Céolin, N V Kryzhevoi, Ch Nicolas, W Pokapanich, S Choksakulporn, P Songsiriritthigul, T Saisopa, Y Rattanachai, Y Utsumi, J Palaudoux, G Öhrwall, J-P Rueff
X-ray photoelectron and KLL Auger spectra were measured for the K^{+} and Cl^{-} ions in aqueous KCl solution. While the XPS spectra of these ions have similar structures, both exhibiting only weak satellites near the main line, the Auger spectra differ dramatically. Contrary to the chloride case, a very strong extra peak was found in the Auger spectrum of K^{+} at the low kinetic energy side of the ^{1}D state. Using the equivalent core model and ab initio calculations this spectral feature was assigned to electron transfer processes from solvent water molecules to the solvated cation...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Sing Chuong Chuo, Norfahana Abd-Talib, Siti Hamidah Mohd-Setapar, Hashim Hassan, Hasmida Mohd Nasir, Akil Ahmad, David Lokhat, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Reverse micelles extraction of erythromycin and amoxicillin were carried out using the novel Sophorolipids biosurfactant. By replacing commonly used chemical surfactants with biosurfactant, reverse micelle extraction can be further improved in terms of environmental friendliness and sustainability. A central composite experimental design was used to investigate the effects of solution pH, KCl concentration, and sophorolipids concentration on the reverse micelle extraction of antibiotics. The most significant factor identified during the reverse micelle extraction of both antibiotics is the pH of aqueous solutions...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kouhei Takenaka, Takuma Tanabe, Makoto Kawamukai, Yasuhiro Matsuo
In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the transcription factor Rst2 regulates ste11 in meiosis and fbp1 in glucogenesis downstream of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) pathway. Here, we demonstrate that Rst2 regulates additional cellular events. Overexpressed Rst2 elevated the frequency of oval, bent, branched, septated, and multi-septated cells. Cells showed normal nuclear divisions but exhibited abnormal nuclear organization at low frequency. In oval cells, microtubules were curved but they were rescued by the deletion of mal3...
January 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Junya Kirima, Kazuhiro Oiwa
Genomics and proteomics studies in Chlamydomonas have revealed that an axoneme is composed of 200-600 types of proteins, including uncharacterized proteins collectively named flagellar-associated proteins (FAPs). Nine FAPs contain the EF-hand motif; however, they have not yet been well characterized. To find components responsible for Chlamydomonas-specific waveform changes coupled with intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, we focused on FAP85, an EF-hand motif-containing FAP specific to Chlamydomonas and its relatives...
December 28, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
Riyadh Al-Attabi, Ludovic F Dumée, Jürg A Schütz, Yosry Morsi
Electrospun nanofibrous membranes were engineered for aerosol particle removal by controlling the fiber density and alignment across electrospun mats. Electrospun nanofiber membranes were deposited on both, rotatory drum and stationary collectors, to investigate the effect of fiber alignment on filtration performance. Poly(acrylonitrile)/dimethyl formamide (PAN/DMF) solutions were used to produce membranes for applications in air purification. The air filtration performance of as-produced and hot-compacted membranes were systematically evaluated with regard to penetration, pressure drop, and quality factor when subjected to potassium chloride (KCl) aerosol particles in the size-range of 300nm to 12μm...
January 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Maria G Zizzo, Monica Frinchi, Domenico Nuzzo, Hyder A Jinnah, Giuseppa Mudò, Daniele F Condorelli, Francesco Caciagli, Renata Ciccarelli, Patrizia Di Iorio, Flavia Mulè, Natale Belluardo, Rosa Serio
Mutations in the HGPRT1 gene, which encodes hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt), housekeeping enzyme responsible for recycling purines, lead to Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND). Clinical expression of LND indicates that HGprt deficiency has adverse effects on gastrointestinal motility. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate intestinal motility in HGprt knockout mice (HGprt¯). Spontaneous and neurally evoked mechanical activity was recorded in vitro as changes in isometric tension in circular muscle strips of distal colon...
December 20, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Li Ji, Hsien-Yi Hsu, Jack Lee, Allen J Bard, Edward T Yu
Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites (HOIPs) have recently attracted tremendous attention because of their excellent semiconducting and optoelectronic properties, which exist despite their morphology and crystallinity being far inferior to those of more mature semiconductors, such as silicon and III-V compound semiconductors. Heteroepitaxy can provide a route to achieving high performance HOIP devices when high crystalline quality and smooth morphology are required, but work on heteroepitaxial HOIPs has not previously been reported...
January 5, 2018: Nano Letters
Zoltán Patai, András Guttman, Endre G Mikus
BACKGROUND: Drotaverine, a type 4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE4) inhibitor, blocks the degradation of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate. However, published receptor binding data showed that drotaverin also binds to the L-type voltage-operated calcium channel (L-VOCC). Based on these molecular mechanisms of action, a direct and indirect (by blocking the constrictor response) relaxant effect on airway smooth muscle can be predicted, which has not yet been assessed. SUMMARY: Accordingly, drotaverine and reference agents were tested both on the histamine-, methacholine-, or KCl-induced contraction response and on precontracted guinea pig tracheal preparations...
January 4, 2018: Pharmacology
David J Soucek, David R Mount, Amy Dickinson, J Russell Hockett
Field and laboratory studies have shown that mayflies (Ephemeroptera) tend to be relatively sensitive to elevated major ion concentrations, but little is known about how ionic composition influences these responses. This study evaluated the acute toxicity of major ion salts to the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer over a range of background water quality conditions. The mayfly was particularly sensitive to Na2 SO4 , with the median lethal concentration (LC50) of 1,338 mg SO4 /L being lower than LC50s reported for seven other species at that hardness...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Mourad Bouhedja, Basile Peres, Wassim Fhayli, Zeinab Ghandour, Ahcène Boumendjel, Gilles Faury, Smail Khelili
Two new series of ring-opened analogues of cromakalim bearing sulfonylurea moieties (series A: with N-unmethylated sulfonylureas, series B: with N-methylated sulfonylureas) were synthesized and tested as relaxants of vascular and respiratory smooth muscles (rat aorta and trachea, respectively). Ex vivo biological evaluations indicated that the most active compounds, belonging to series B, displayed a marked vasorelaxant activity on endothelium-intact aortic rings and the trachea. A majority of series B compounds exhibited a higher vasorelaxant activity (EC50 < 22 μM) than that of the reference compound diazoxide (EC50 = 24 μM)...
December 21, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Muriel C F van Teeseling, Roland Benz, Naomi M de Almeida, Mike S M Jetten, Rob J Mesman, Laura van Niftrik
Planctomycetes are a bacterial phylum known for their complex intracellular compartmentalization. While most Planctomycetes have two compartments, the anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria contain three membrane-enclosed compartments. In contrast to a long-standing consensus, recent insights suggested the outermost Planctomycete membrane to be similar to a Gram-negative outer membrane (OM). One characteristic component that differentiates OMs from cytoplasmic membranes (CMs) is the presence of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) featuring a ß-barrel structure that facilitates passage of molecules through the OM...
December 27, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
I I Ryzhkov, D V Lebedev, V S Solodovnichenko, A V Shiverskiy, M M Simunin
When a charged membrane separates two salt solutions of different concentrations, a potential difference appears due to interfacial Donnan equilibrium and the diffusion junction. Here, we report a new mechanism for the generation of a membrane potential in polarizable conductive membranes via an induced surface charge. It results from an electric field generated by the diffusion of ions with different mobilities. For uncharged membranes, this effect strongly enhances the diffusion potential and makes it highly sensitive to the ion mobilities ratio, electrolyte concentration, and pore size...
December 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Hisae Tateishi-Karimata, Keiko Kawauchi, Naoki Sugimoto
DNA G-quadruplex formation is highly responsive to surrounding conditions, particularly K+ concentration. Malignant cancer cells have a much lower K+ concentration than normal cells because of overexpression of a K+ channel; thus, G-quadruplexes may be unstable in cancer cells. Here, we physicochemically investigated how changes in intracellular chemical environments in vitro and in cells influence G-quadruplex formation and transcription during tumor progression. In vitro, the stable G-quadruplex formation inhibits transcription in a solution containing 150 mM KCl (normal condition)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Gajendra Kumar Azad, Kenji Ito, Badi Sri Sailaja, Alva Biran, Malka Nissim-Rafinia, Yasuhiro Yamada, David T Brown, Takumi Takizawa, Eran Meshorer
Neuronal stimulation leads to immediate early gene (IEG) expression through calcium-dependent mechanisms. In recent years, considerable attention has been devoted to the transcriptional responses after neuronal stimulation, but relatively little is known about the changes in chromatin dynamics that follow neuronal activation. Here, we use fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, biochemical fractionations, and chromatin immunoprecipitation to show that KCl-induced depolarization in primary cultured cortical neurons causes a rapid release of the linker histone H1 from chromatin, concomitant with IEG expression...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
Hui Guo, Mickaël De Magalhaes Goncalves, Guylaine Ducouret, Dominique Hourdet
Recently, alginates (ALG) characterized by high mannuronic content (M blocks) have been shown to undergo a reversible sol/gel transition during cooling in the presence of potassium salts. Cold gelling takes place at low temperatures, just below 0 °C for a KCl concentration of 0.3 mol/kg, but the aggregation process can be easily shifted to higher temperatures by increasing the salt concentration. In the present paper, we take advantage of this peculiar behavior to design a copolymer with schizophrenic gelling properties...
December 29, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Ecem Kaya Sezginer, Didem Yilmaz-Oral, Utku Lokman, Serpil Nebioglu, Fugen Aktan, Serap Gur
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different degrees of obstruction, and the roles of inflammation, oxidative stress, and hypoxia parameters on bladder function. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 10 in each group): (i) sham-operated control; (ii) severe partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO); and (iii) moderate PBOO. Severe and moderate PBOO were induced by urethral ligation using 3-Fr and 4-Fr catheters, respectively, for 6 weeks...
December 28, 2017: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
Yuki Nishizawa, Kenji Takahashi, Naoko Oguma, Makoto Tominaga, Toshio Ohta
T-type Ca2+ channels and TRPA1 are expressed in sensory neurons and both are associated with pain transmission, but their functional interaction is unclear. Here we demonstrate that pharmacological evidence of the functional relation between T-type Ca2+ channels and TRPA1 in mouse sensory neurons. Low concentration of KCl at 15 mM (15K) evoked increases of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ), which were suppressed by selective T-type Ca2+ channel blockers. RT-PCR showed that mouse sensory neurons expressed all subtypes of T-type Ca2+ channel...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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