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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903500/primary-resistance-to-pd-1-blockade-mediated-by-jak%C3%A2-mutations
#1
Daniel Sanghoon Shin, Jesse M Zaretsky, Helena Escuin-Ordinas, Angel Garcia-Diaz, Siwen Hu-Lieskovan, Anusha Kalbasi, Catherine S Grasso, Willy Hugo, Salemiz Sandoval, Davis Y Torrejon, Nicolaos Palaskas, Gabriel Abril Rodriguez, Giulia Parisi, Ariel Azhdam, Bartosz Chmielowski, Grace Cherry, Elizabeth Seja, Beata Berent-Maoz, I Peter Shintaku, Dung Thi Le, Drew M Pardoll, Luis A Diaz, Paul C Tumeh, Thomas G Graeber, Roger S Lo, Begoña Comin-Anduix, Antoni Ribas
Loss of function mutations in JAK½ can lead to acquired resistance to anti-programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) therapy. We reasoned they may also be involved in primary resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy. JAK½ inactivating mutations were noted in tumor biopsies of 1 of 23 patients with melanoma and in 1 of 16 patients with mismatch repair deficient colon cancer treated with PD-1 blockade. Both cases had a high mutational load but did not respond to anti-PD-1 therapy. Two out of 48 human melanoma cell lines had JAK½ mutations, which led to lack of PD-L1 expression upon interferon gamma exposure mediated by inability to signal through the interferon gamma receptor pathway...
November 30, 2016: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899717/optimization-of-waste-combinations-during-in-vessel-composting-of-agricultural-waste
#2
V Sudharsan Varma, Ajay S Kalamdhad, Bimlesh Kumar
In-vessel composting of agricultural waste is a well-described approach for stabilization of compost within a short time period. Although composting studies have shown the different combinations of waste materials for producing good quality compost, studies of the particular ratio of the waste materials in the mix are still limited. In the present study, composting was conducted with a combination of vegetable waste, cow dung, sawdust and dry leaves using a 550 L rotary drum composter. Application of a radial basis functional neural network was used to simulate the composting process...
November 28, 2016: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899157/disorders-of-sex-development-insights-from-targeted-gene-sequencing-of-a-large-international-patient-cohort
#3
Stefanie Eggers, Simon Sadedin, Jocelyn A van den Bergen, Gorjana Robevska, Thomas Ohnesorg, Jacqueline Hewitt, Luke Lambeth, Aurore Bouty, Ingrid M Knarston, Tiong Yang Tan, Fergus Cameron, George Werther, John Hutson, Michele O'Connell, Sonia R Grover, Yves Heloury, Margaret Zacharin, Philip Bergman, Chris Kimber, Justin Brown, Nathalie Webb, Matthew F Hunter, Shubha Srinivasan, Angela Titmuss, Charles F Verge, David Mowat, Grahame Smith, Janine Smith, Lisa Ewans, Carolyn Shalhoub, Patricia Crock, Chris Cowell, Gary M Leong, Makato Ono, Antony R Lafferty, Tony Huynh, Uma Visser, Catherine S Choong, Fiona McKenzie, Nicholas Pachter, Elizabeth M Thompson, Jennifer Couper, Anne Baxendale, Jozef Gecz, Benjamin J Wheeler, Craig Jefferies, Karen MacKenzie, Paul Hofman, Philippa Carter, Richard I King, Csilla Krausz, Conny M A van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Leendert Looijenga, Sten Drop, Stefan Riedl, Martine Cools, Angelika Dawson, Achmad Zulfa Juniarto, Vaman Khadilkar, Anuradha Khadilkar, Vijayalakshmi Bhatia, Vũ Chí Dũng, Irum Atta, Jamal Raza, Nguyen Thi Diem Chi, Tran Kiem Hao, Vincent Harley, Peter Koopman, Garry Warne, Sultana Faradz, Alicia Oshlack, Katie L Ayers, Andrew H Sinclair
BACKGROUND: Disorders of sex development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, or phenotypic sex is atypical. Clinical management of DSD is often difficult and currently only 13% of patients receive an accurate clinical genetic diagnosis. To address this we have developed a massively parallel sequencing targeted DSD gene panel which allows us to sequence all 64 known diagnostic DSD genes and candidate genes simultaneously. RESULTS: We analyzed DNA from the largest reported international cohort of patients with DSD (278 patients with 46,XY DSD and 48 with 46,XX DSD)...
November 29, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899070/multigene-phylogenetic-analysis-redefines-dung-beetles-relationships-and-classification-coleoptera-scarabaeidae-scarabaeinae
#4
Sergei Tarasov, Dimitar Dimitrov
BACKGROUND: Dung beetles (subfamily Scarabaeinae) are popular model organisms in ecology and developmental biology, and for the last two decades they have experienced a systematics renaissance with the adoption of modern phylogenetic approaches. Within this period 16 key phylogenies and numerous additional studies with limited scope have been published, but higher-level relationships of this pivotal group of beetles remain contentious and current classifications contain many unnatural groupings...
November 29, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892536/investigation-of-cell-substrate-adhesion-properties-of-living-chondrocyte-by-measuring-adhesive-shear-force-and-detachment-using-afm-and-inverse-fea
#5
Trung Dung Nguyen, YuanTong Gu
It is well-known that cell adhesion is important in many biological processes such as cell migration and proliferation. A better understanding of the cell adhesion process will shed insight into these cellular biological responses as well as cell adhesion-related diseases treatment. However, there is little research which has attempted to investigate the process of cell adhesion and its mechanism. Thus, this paper aims to study the time-dependent adhesion properties of single living chondrocytes using an advanced coupled experimental-numerical approach...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872105/multiethnic-exome-wide-association-study-of-subclinical-atherosclerosis
#6
Pradeep Natarajan, Joshua C Bis, Lawrence F Bielak, Amanda J Cox, Marcus Dörr, Mary F Feitosa, Nora Franceschini, Xiuqing Guo, Shih-Jen Hwang, Aaron Isaacs, Min A Jhun, Maryam Kavousi, Ruifang Li-Gao, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Riccardo E Marioni, Ulf Schminke, Nathan O Stitziel, Hayato Tada, Jessica van Setten, Albert V Smith, Dina Vojinovic, Lisa R Yanek, Jie Yao, Laura M Yerges-Armstrong, Najaf Amin, Usman Baber, Ingrid B Borecki, J Jeffrey Carr, Yii-Der Ida Chen, L Adrienne Cupples, Pim A de Jong, Harry de Koning, Bob D de Vos, Ayse Demirkan, Valentin Fuster, Oscar H Franco, Mark O Goodarzi, Tamara B Harris, Susan R Heckbert, Gerardo Heiss, Udo Hoffmann, Albert Hofman, Ivana Išgum, J Wouter Jukema, Mika Kähönen, Sharon L R Kardia, Brian G Kral, Lenore J Launer, Joseph Massaro, Roxana Mehran, Braxton D Mitchell, Thomas H Mosley, Renée de Mutsert, Anne B Newman, Khanh-Dung Nguyen, Kari E North, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Matthijs Oudkerk, James S Pankow, Gina M Peloso, Wendy Post, Michael A Province, Laura M Raffield, Olli T Raitakari, Dermot F Reilly, Fernando Rivadeneira, Frits Rosendaal, Samantha Sartori, Kent D Taylor, Alexander Teumer, Stella Trompet, Stephen T Turner, André G Uitterlinden, Dhananjay Vaidya, Aad van der Lugt, Uwe Völker, Joanna M Wardlaw, Christina L Wassel, Stefan Weiss, Mary K Wojczynski, Diane M Becker, Lewis C Becker, Eric Boerwinkle, Donald W Bowden, Ian J Deary, Abbas Dehghan, Stephan B Felix, Vilmundur Gudnason, Terho Lehtimäki, Rasika Mathias, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Bruce M Psaty, Daniel J Rader, Jerome I Rotter, James G Wilson, Cornelia M van Duijn, Henry Völzke, Sekar Kathiresan, Patricia A Peyser, Christopher J O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: -The burden of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals is heritable and associated with elevated risk of developing clinical coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to identify genetic variants in protein-coding regions associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and the risk of subsequent CHD. METHODS AND RESULTS: -We studied a total of 25,109 European ancestry and African-American participants with coronary artery calcification (CAC) measured by cardiac computed tomography and 52,869 with common carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) measured by ultrasonography within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium...
November 21, 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869653/semiparametric-multinomial-ordinal-model-to-analyze-spatial-patterns-of-child-birth-weight-in-nigeria
#7
Rasheed A Adeyemi, Temesgen Zewotir, Shaun Ramroop
Background: Birth weight is an important health parameter for obstetricians and gynaecologists. It is a good health indicator of a child-bearing mother and a strong predictor of infant morbidity and mortality. Methods: This paper utilizes data on 28,647 children born between 2003-2008 obtained from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). For a simple epidemiological convenience, the occurrence of a newborn weight can intuitively be considered to be categorical in nature and the thresholds can be put on a continuous scale...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864507/multicentre-dose-audit-for-clinical-trials-of-radiation-therapy-in-asia
#8
Hideyuki Mizuno, Shigekazu Fukuda, Akifumi Fukumura, Yuzuru-Kutsutani Nakamura, Cao Jianping, Chul-Koo Cho, Nana Supriana, To Anh Dung, Miriam Joy Calaguas, C R Beena Devi, Yaowalak Chansilpa, Parvin Akhter Banu, Masooma Riaz, Surya Esentayeva, Shingo Kato, Kumiko Karasawa, Hirohiko Tsujii
A dose audit of 16 facilities in 11 countries has been performed within the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) quality assurance program. The quality of radiation dosimetry varies because of the large variation in radiation therapy among the participating countries. One of the most important aspects of international multicentre clinical trials is uniformity of absolute dose between centres. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan has conducted a dose audit of participating countries since 2006 by using radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters (RGDs)...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863199/mesothelin-immunotherapy-for-cancer-ready-for-prime-time
#9
Raffit Hassan, Anish Thomas, Christine Alewine, Dung T Le, Elizabeth M Jaffee, Ira Pastan
Mesothelin is a tumor antigen that is highly expressed in many human cancers, including malignant mesothelioma and pancreatic, ovarian, and lung adenocarcinomas. It is an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy because its normal expression is limited to mesothelial cells, which are dispensable. Several antibody-based therapeutic agents as well as vaccine and T-cell therapies directed at mesothelin are undergoing clinical evaluation. These include antimesothelin immunotoxins (SS1P, RG7787/LMB-100), chimeric antimesothelin antibody (amatuximab), mesothelin-directed antibody drug conjugates (anetumab ravtansine, DMOT4039A, BMS-986148), live attenuated Listeria monocytogenes-expressing mesothelin (CRS-207, JNJ-64041757), and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapies...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861768/community-disassembly-in-ephemeral-ecosystems
#10
Brian J O'Neill
Community disassembly is the non-random process of progressive species declines and losses. This process is usually studied to determine how various forces extirpate species, such as catastrophic disturbance, species invasions, habitat fragmentation, or unnatural/anthropogenic stressors. However, in ephemeral ecosystems, community disassembly is a natural and repeatable process. While many ephemeral ecosystems are aquatic (vernal pools, playa lakes, rock pools, saline lakes, phytotelmata, etc.), some disassembly patterns are applicable to other ecosystem types, including terrestrial ecosystems...
October 2, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860508/developmental-and-ecological-benefits-of-the-maternally-transmitted-microbiota-in-a-dung-beetle
#11
Daniel B Schwab, Hailey E Riggs, Irene L G Newton, Armin P Moczek
To complete their development, diverse animal species rely on the presence of communities of symbiotic microbiota that are vertically transmitted from mother to offspring. In the dung beetle genus Onthophagus, newly hatched larvae acquire maternal gut symbionts by the consumption of a maternal fecal secretion known as the pedestal. Here, we investigate the role of pedestal symbionts in mediating the normal development of Onthophagus gazella. Through the stepwise removal of environmental and maternal sources of microbial inoculation, we find that pedestal microbiota can enhance both overall growth and developmental rate in O...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859121/the-functional-extinction-of-andean-megafauna
#12
Angela Rozas-Davila, Bryan G Valencia, Mark B Bush
Controversy exists over the cause and timing of the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna. In the tropical Andes, deglaciation and associated rapid climate change began ~8,000 years before human arrival, providing an opportunity to separate the effects of climate change from human hunting on megafaunal extinction. We present a paleoecological record spanning the last 25,000 years from Lake Pacucha, Peru (3,100 m elevation). Fossil pollen, charcoal, diatoms, and the dung fungus Sporormiella, chronicle a two-stage megaherbivore population collapse...
October 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859034/ecological-functions-provided-by-dung-beetles-are-interlinked-across-space-and-time-evidence-from-15-n-isotope-tracing
#13
Beatrice Nervo, Enrico Caprio, Luisella Celi, Michele Lonati, Giampiero Lombardi, Gloria Falsone, Gabriele Iussig, Claudia Palestrini, Daniel Said-Pullicino, Antonio Rolando
Maintaining multiple ecological functions ('multifunctionality') is crucial to sustain viable ecosystems. To date most studies on biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) have focused on single or few ecological functions and services. However, there is a critical need to evaluate how species and species assemblages affect multiple processes at the same time, and how these functions are interconnected. Dung beetles represent excellent model organisms because they are key contributors to several ecosystem functions...
November 14, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853283/declines-in-benthic-macroinvertebrate-community-metrics-and-microphytobenthic-biomass-in-an-estuarine-lake-following-enrichment-by-hippo-dung
#14
Jessica Dawson, Deena Pillay, Peter Jean Roberts, Renzo Perissinotto
Hippos transfer massive quantities of trophic resources from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems through defecation. The ramifications of the latter for the functioning of benthic ecosystems are unknown, but are dependent ultimately on rates of utilisation relative to inputs. Low input and high utilisation can strengthen bottom-up pathways and enhance consumer biomass and abundance. However, if inputs exceed utilisation rates, dung can accumulate, leading to a decline in water quality, with important repercussions for resident assemblages...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846249/the-anthelmintic-ingredient-moxidectin-negatively-affects-seed-germination-of-three-temperate-grassland-species
#15
Carsten Eichberg, Manuel Wohde, Kerstin Müller, Anja Rausch, Christina Scherrmann, Theresa Scheuren, Rolf-Alexander Düring, Tobias W Donath
In animal farming, anthelmintics are regularly applied to control gastrointestinal nematodes. There is plenty of evidence that also non-target organisms, such as dung beetles, are negatively affected by residues of anthelmintics in faeces of domestic ungulates. By contrast, knowledge about possible effects on wild plants is scarce. To bridge this gap of knowledge, we tested for effects of the common anthelmintic formulation Cydectin and its active ingredient moxidectin on seed germination. We conducted a feeding experiment with sheep and germination experiments in a climate chamber...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844422/intracoronary-eptifibatide-during-primary-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-early-versus-late-presenters-with-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-a-randomized-trial
#16
Ayman Elbadawi, Gerald Gasioch, Islam Y Elgendy, Ahmed N Mahmoud, Le Dung Ha, Haitham Al Ashry, Hend Shahin, Mohamed A Hamza, Ahmed S Abuzaid, Marwan Saad
INTRODUCTION: The role of intracoronary (IC) eptifibatide in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and whether time of patient presentation affects this role are unclear. We sought to evaluate the benefit of IC eptifibatide use during primary PCI in early STEMI presenters compared to late STEMI presenters. METHODS: We included 70 patients who presented with STEMI and were eligible for PPCI. On the basis of symptom-to-door time, patients were classified into two arms: early (<3 h, n = 34) vs late (≥3 h, n = 36) presenters...
November 14, 2016: Cardiology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836898/dung-biomass-smoke-activates-inflammatory-signaling-pathways-in-human-small-airway-epithelial-cells
#17
Claire E McCarthy, Parker F Duffney, Robert Gelein, Thomas H Thatcher, Alison C P Elder, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime
Animal dung is a biomass fuel burned by vulnerable populations who cannot afford cleaner sources of energy, such as wood and gas, for cooking and heating their homes. Exposure to biomass smoke is the leading environmental risk for mortality, with over 4 million deaths each year worldwide attributed to indoor air pollution from biomass smoke. Biomass smoke inhalation is epidemiologically associated with pulmonary diseases, including Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), lung cancer, and respiratory infections, especially in low and middle-income countries...
November 11, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833427/effects-of-an-increase-in-population-of-sika-deer-on-beetle-communities-in-deciduous-forests
#18
Taichi Iida, Masashi Soga, Shinsuke Koike
The overabundance of large herbivores is now recognized as a serious ecological problem. However, the resulting ecological consequences remain poorly understood. The ecological effects of an increase in sika deer, Cervus nippon Temminck (Cervidae), on three insect groups of beetles was investigated: ground beetles (Carabidae), carrion beetles (Silphidae), and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae) on Nakanoshima Island, Hokkaido, northern Japan. We collected beetles on Nakanoshima Island (experimental site) and lakeshore areas (control site) and compared the species richness, abundance, diversity index, and community composition of beetles between the sites...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832824/genome-of-the-asian-longhorned-beetle-anoplophora-glabripennis-a-globally-significant-invasive-species-reveals-key-functional-and-evolutionary-innovations-at-the-beetle-plant-interface
#19
Duane D McKenna, Erin D Scully, Yannick Pauchet, Kelli Hoover, Roy Kirsch, Scott M Geib, Robert F Mitchell, Robert M Waterhouse, Seung-Joon Ahn, Deanna Arsala, Joshua B Benoit, Heath Blackmon, Tiffany Bledsoe, Julia H Bowsher, André Busch, Bernarda Calla, Hsu Chao, Anna K Childers, Christopher Childers, Dave J Clarke, Lorna Cohen, Jeffery P Demuth, Huyen Dinh, HarshaVardhan Doddapaneni, Amanda Dolan, Jian J Duan, Shannon Dugan, Markus Friedrich, Karl M Glastad, Michael A D Goodisman, Stephanie Haddad, Yi Han, Daniel S T Hughes, Panagiotis Ioannidis, J Spencer Johnston, Jeffery W Jones, Leslie A Kuhn, David R Lance, Chien-Yueh Lee, Sandra L Lee, Han Lin, Jeremy A Lynch, Armin P Moczek, Shwetha C Murali, Donna M Muzny, David R Nelson, Subba R Palli, Kristen A Panfilio, Dan Pers, Monica F Poelchau, Honghu Quan, Jiaxin Qu, Ann M Ray, Joseph P Rinehart, Hugh M Robertson, Richard Roehrdanz, Andrew J Rosendale, Seunggwan Shin, Christian Silva, Alex S Torson, Iris M Vargas Jentzsch, John H Werren, Kim C Worley, George Yocum, Evgeny M Zdobnov, Richard A Gibbs, Stephen Richards
BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about the genomic basis and evolution of wood-feeding in beetles. We undertook genome sequencing and annotation, gene expression assays, studies of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, and other functional and comparative studies of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, a globally significant invasive species capable of inflicting severe feeding damage on many important tree species. Complementary studies of genes encoding enzymes involved in digestion of woody plant tissues or detoxification of plant allelochemicals were undertaken with the genomes of 14 additional insects, including the newly sequenced emerald ash borer and bull-headed dung beetle...
November 11, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811957/a-compact-time-reversal-emitter-receiver-based-on-a-leaky-random-cavity
#20
Trung-Dung Luong, Thomas Hies, Claus-Dieter Ohl
Time reversal acoustics (TRA) has gained widespread applications for communication and measurements. In general, a scattering medium in combination with multiple transducers is needed to achieve a sufficiently large acoustical aperture. In this paper, we report an implementation for a cost-effective and compact time reversal emitter-receiver driven by a single piezoelectric element. It is based on a leaky cavity with random 3-dimensional printed surfaces. The random surfaces greatly increase the spatio-temporal focusing quality as compared to flat surfaces and allow the focus of an acoustic beam to be steered over an angle of 41°...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
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