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S Burger, S van Straten, S Rayne
This paper looks at research done in South Africa from 2010 to 2016. We reviewed a total of 679 abstracts, posters and oral presentations submitted to the SAJS and the ASSA congresses during this time. During this time 21945 patients were investigated with an average of 577,5 patients per study. Each paper had on average 3,5 authors. The most popular topics are trauma (23%), gastrointestinal surgery (18%) and breast (11%). Upcoming topics include: reducing sepsis, global surgery, procedural discussion, infectious diseases (HIV/ TB), post-operative healing, ENT, neuro, plastic surgery, cardiothoracic and paediatric surgery...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
Xiaojin Liu, Liu Tu, Junjing Wang, Bo Jiang, Wei Gao, Ximin Pan, Meng Li, Miao Zhong, Zhenzhen Zhu, Meiqi Niu, Yanyan Li, Ling Zhao, Xiaoxi Chen, Chang Liu, Zhi Lu, Ruiwang Huang
Early second language (L2) experience influences the neural organization of L2 in neuro-plastic terms. Previous studies tried to reveal these plastic effects of age of second language acquisition (AoA-L2) and proficiency-level in L2 (PL-L2) on the neural basis of language processing in bilinguals. Although different activation patterns have been observed during language processing in early and late bilinguals by task-fMRI, few studies reported the effect of AoA-L2 and high PL-L2 on language network at resting state...
November 2017: Brain and Language
Monica Baciu, Audrey Acher, Louise Kauffmann, Emilie Cousin, Claire Boilley, Thomas Hueber, Pierre Badin, Pascal Perrier, Diandra Fabre, Assia Jaillard, Olivier Detante, Dominique Perennou
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficiency of Visual Feedback (VF) on language recovery and plasticity in three chronic non-fluent aphasic patients. VF is based on language-action interaction, thus, language skills are improved by rehabilitation strategies based on execution and observation of motor actions. VF is an ultrasound system coupled with video images, allowing patients to 'see their own lips and tongue at work' during speech and improve their awareness of their lingual and labial movements and their ability to coordinate and combine phonemes and syllables...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Daniel Stam, Jennifer Fernandez
INTRODUCTION: Diffuse axonal injury is a prominent cause of disablement post-traumatic brain injury. Utilization of the rapid expansion of our current scientific knowledge base combined with greater access to neurological and assistive technology as adjuncts to providing sensorimotor experience may yield innovative new approaches to rehabilitation based upon a dynamic model of brain response following injury. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 24-year-old female who sustained a traumatic brain injury, bilateral subdural hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage and severe diffuse axonal injury secondary to a motor vehicle collision...
July 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Rachel Zhorne, Shauna Dudley-Javoroski, Richard K Shields
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Gerald M Aronoff
We discuss the complex features of the pathophysiology of chronic pain and the implications for treatment and provide an overview of nociceptive processes, neuropathic pain, cold hyperalgesia, peripheral nerve injury, wind-up pain, central sensitization, and common clinical presentation and diagnostic criteria. Advanced medicine has proven that chronic pain need not involve any structural pathology as pain is a complex biopsychosocial experience. Treatment of the specific mechanisms responsible for pain should be aimed at preventing and or reducing dysfunctional neuro-plasticity resulting from poorly controlled chronic pain...
January 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
Z Kokaia
Ischemic stroke is a major cause of adult disability. Stroke-induced brain damage is accompanied by inflammation - activation of resident microglia and infiltration of blood-circulating monocytes. The effect of these cells on neuro-plasticity and recovery after stroke could be detrimental as well as beneficial. The future challenge is to understand the mechanisms of action of immune cells on cellular plasticity occurring in post-stroke brain and divert them towards support of functional recovery.
June 2015: Georgian Medical News
Jo Perry, Ann Green, Sally Singh, Paul Watson
Manual therapy (MT) and exercise therapy techniques are commonly utilised, guideline recommended treatment strategies in the management of non-specific low back pain (LBP). Preliminary evidence on asymptomatic participants indicates that two manual therapy techniques; repeated lumbar extension in lying exercise (EIL); and segmental rotational grade V manipulation (manipulation), have significant effects on the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) as detectable with skin conductance (SC) responses. However, it is not known if these responses occur in patients with LBP...
December 2015: Manual Therapy
Noman Naseer, Keum-Shik Hong
A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a communication system that allows the use of brain activity to control computers or other external devices. It can, by bypassing the peripheral nervous system, provide a means of communication for people suffering from severe motor disabilities or in a persistent vegetative state. In this paper, brain-signal generation tasks, noise removal methods, feature extraction/selection schemes, and classification techniques for fNIRS-based BCI are reviewed. The most common brain areas for fNIRS BCI are the primary motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Filip Bouckaert, Pascal Sienaert, Jasmien Obbels, Annemieke Dols, Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Max Stek, Tom Bolwig
BACKGROUND: Since the past 2 decades, new evidence for brain plasticity has caused a shift in both preclinical and clinical ECT research from falsifying the "brain damage hypothesis" toward exploring ECT's enabling brain (neuro)plasticity effects. METHODS: By reviewing the available animal and human literature, we examined the theory that seizure-induced structural changes are crucial for the therapeutic efficacy of ECT. RESULTS: Both animal and human studies suggest electroconvulsive stimulation/electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)-related neuroplasticity (neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, angiogenesis, or gliogenesis)...
June 2014: Journal of ECT
Jason L Neva, Michael Vesia, Amaya M Singh, W Richard Staines
Bimanual visuomotor movement training (BMT) enhances the excitability of human preparatory premotor and primary motor (M1) cortices compared to unimanual movement. This occurs when BMT involves mirror symmetrical movements of both upper-limbs (in-phase) but not with non-symmetrical movements (anti-phase). The neural mechanisms mediating the effect of BMT is unclear, but may involve interhemispheric connections between homologous M1 representations as well as the dorsal premotor cortices (PMd). The purpose of this study is to assess how intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of the left PMd affects left M1 excitability, and the possible combined effects of iTBS to left PMd applied before a single session of BMT...
March 15, 2014: Behavioural Brain Research
Benjamin Rich Zendel, Claude Alain
Musical training improves auditory processing abilities, which correlates with neuro-plastic changes in exogenous (input-driven) and endogenous (attention-dependent) components of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs). Evidence suggests that musicians, compared to non-musicians, experience less age-related decline in auditory processing abilities. Here, we investigated whether lifelong musicianship mitigates exogenous or endogenous processing by measuring auditory ERPs in younger and older musicians and non-musicians while they either attended to auditory stimuli or watched a muted subtitled movie of their choice...
January 2014: Neurobiology of Aging
Julia Jaekel, Nicole Baumann, Dieter Wolke
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits have been inconsistently described for late or moderately preterm children but are consistently found in very preterm children. This study investigates the association between cognitive workload demands of tasks and cognitive performance in relation to gestational age at birth. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a prospective geographically defined whole-population study of neonatal at-risk children in Southern Bavaria. At 8;5 years, n = 1326 children (gestation range: 23-41 weeks) were assessed with the K-ABC and a Mathematics Test...
2013: PloS One
Yoshikazu Ugawa
In this paper, I briefly summarize what have been shown by physiological studies in human epileptic patients. My main message is that "epilepsy is simple and clear" based on our knowledge of cell physiology. The pathophysiological mechanisms, genetic abnormalities and mechanisms of action of used antiepileptic drugs are all consistent with our basic medical knowledge. I summarize three points as follows. UNDERLYING PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF EPILEPSY: Epilepsy is produced by synchronous, abnormal excessive discharges of some human brain structure...
May 2013: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Philippe Pellerin, Clotilde Calibre, Matthieu Vinchon, Patrick Dhellemmes, Alexis Wolber, Pierre Guerreschi
INTRODUCTION: For 35 years, we have a tight neuro-plastic surgical cooperation for the surgical correction and long-term systematic follow-up of 125 cases of unicoronal synostotic plagiocephaly. METHODS: We have tried to understand why some patients had kept an asymmetrical facial growth pattern in spite of a good fronto orbital correction. Analysis in vestibular orientation which was available from 1993 has demonstrated a discrepancy between the ocular and the vestibular verticality referential system...
September 2012: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Yukihiro Hara
Our understanding of motor learning, neuro-plasticity and functional recovery after the occurrence of brain lesion has grown significantly. New findings in basic neuroscience provided stimuli for research in motor rehabilitation. Electrical stimulation can be applied in a variety of ways to the neurological impairment. Especially, electromyography (EMG) initiated electrical muscle stimulation improves motor dysfunction of the hemiparetic arm and hand. Triggered electrical stimulation is reported to be more effective than non-triggered electrical stimulation in facilitating upper extremity motor recovery...
November 2011: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Tadashi Kitahara, Arata Horii, Atsuhiko Uno, Takao Imai, Suzuyo Okazaki, Takefumi Kamakura, Yasumitsu Takimoto, Hidenori Inohara
In the present study, to elucidate the role of vestibular ganglion (VG) after the unilateral labyrinthine damage, we examined quantitative changes in mRNA expression of beta-adrenergic receptors (bARs) and AMP-activated protein kinase alpha catalytic subunits (aAMPKs) in VG after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL) in rats. Using the real-time PCR method, beta2 AR mRNA expression in bilateral VG and AMPK alpha2 mRNA expression in the ipsilateral VG were significantly up-regulated with the maximum increase at the postoperative 7 day and 1 day, respectively...
March 2012: Neuroscience Research
Philip J Flores
This article selectively highlights relevant areas of neuroscience research which have direct application for attachment theory and group psychotherapy. Emerging evidence from the neurosciences is revealing that the developing brain of the infant, sculpted by the earliest attachment relationships, continues to be malleable in adulthood and can be profoundly influenced by ongoing relationships throughout one's lifespan. Advances in the neurosciences are also supporting the idea that strong attachment bonds and external interpersonal interactions that arise within the context of these attachments are registered as a person's neurophysiology and neurobiology...
October 2010: International Journal of Group Psychotherapy
Izabela Guimarães Barbosa, Rodrigo Barreto Huguet, Fernando Silva Neves, Helton José Reis, Moisés Evandro Bauer, Zoltán Janka, András Palotás, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira
OBJECTIVE: Neuro-trophins are critically involved in neuro-plasticity, the impairment of which is a major role-player in bipolar disorder (BD), and their altered levels have been recently advocated in the patho-physiology of this affective malady. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the plasma levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) in BD patients in comparison with control subjects. METHODS: Forty-nine BD type-I individuals (30 in mania and 19 in euthymia) and 36 healthy controls were assessed by Mini-plus, Young mania and Hamilton depression rating scales...
April 2011: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Qi Zhao, Takako Yokozawa, Noriko Yamabe, Koichi Tsuneyama, Xiaohan Li, Kinzo Matsumoto
AIM OF THE STUDY: Kangen-karyu (KK) is a traditional Chinese prescription consisting of six different herbs. This study was conducted to investigate the anti-dementia effect of KK on aging-induced cognitive deficits and the underlying mechanism using senescence-accelerated mice prone (SAMP8). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-week old SAMP8 (older SAMP8) were used as an animal model of aging and age-matched senescence-resistant inbred strain (SAMR1) and 8-week-old SAMP8 (young SAMP8) were as controls...
September 15, 2010: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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