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pm 2.5

Yayong Liu, Jia Xing, Shuxiao Wang, Xiao Fu, Haotian Zheng
Heavy metals are concerned for its adverse effect on human health and long term burden on biogeochemical cycling in the ecosystem. In this study, a provincial-level emission inventory of 13 kinds of heavy metals including V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba and Pb from 10 anthropogenic sources was developed for China, based on the 2015 national emission inventory of primary particulate matters and source category-specific speciation profiles collected from 50 previous studies measured in China. Uncertainties associated with the speciation profiles were also evaluated...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Arul Prakash Francis, Sneha Gurudevan, A Jayakrishnan
Polymannose (PM) having a weight-average molar mass (Mw ) of 30-53 kDa was synthesized by the polycondensation of mannose using phosphorous acid as the catalyst and characterized by various techniques such as NMR, IR, GPC and polarimetry. 2D NMR results confirmed the presence of (1→ 6)-linked α-D-mannose residues as backbone with O-3 and O-2 substituted linear or branched chains in PM. Amphotericin B (AmB) was conjugated to periodate-oxidized PM through Schiff's linkages at 20 wt% concentration. The AmB-PM conjugates were highly soluble in phosphate buffered saline (180-250 mg/mL), exhibited negligible hemolytic potential to human erythrocytes even at a concentration of 200 μg /mL (equivalent to ~ 40 μg/mL AmB) and were non-toxic to human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells even at a concentration of 250 μg/mL (equivalent to ~ 50 μg/mL AmB)...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
Rika Eguchi, Daisuke Onozuka, Kouji Ikeda, Kenji Kuroda, Ichiro Ieiri, Akihito Hagihara
PURPOSE: Although particulate matter (PM) is reported to affect the rate of emergency admissions for schizophrenia, no study has examined the relationship between particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5 ) and the severity of schizophrenia. METHODS: We obtained data on patients with schizophrenia at a psychiatric hospital, and on air pollution in Sakai, Japan between Feb 1, 2013 and April 30, 2016. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the relationship between PM2...
April 23, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Rohit Chand, Saipriya Ramalingam, Suresh Neethirajan
Nanoscale MoS2 has attracted extensive attention for sensing due to its superior properties. This study outlines a microfluidic and electrochemical biosensing methodology for the multiplex detection of paratuberculosis-specific miRNAs. Herein, we report the synthesis of MoS2 nanosheets decorated with a copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) nanoparticle composite and molecular probe immobilized MoS2 nanosheets as nanocarriers for the electrochemical detection of miRNAs. Paratuberculosis is a bacterial infection of the intestinal tract of dairy cattle, and is a cause of substantial economic and animal losses all over the world...
April 23, 2018: Nanoscale
Binxu Zhai, Jianguo Chen
A stacked ensemble model is developed for forecasting and analyzing the daily average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) in Beijing, China. Special feature extraction procedures, including those of simplification, polynomial, transformation and combination, are conducted before modeling to identify potentially significant features based on an exploratory data analysis. Stability feature selection and tree-based feature selection methods are applied to select important variables and evaluate the degrees of feature importance...
April 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Wha Me Park, Dong Uk Park, Sung Ho Hwang
Levels of airborne endotoxins and particulate matter less than 10 μm and 2.5 μm in diameter (PM) were measured in the air vents of subway stations in Seoul, South Korea, and factors affecting both pollutants were analyzed. The measurements were completed from March 2016 to February 2017 for eight air vents situated at the ground level around the subway stations. A total of 166 air samples were collected and analyzed using the kinetic limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Endotoxin levels ranged from not detected to 1...
April 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Chan-Hee Jung, Sang Hee Jung, Bora Lee, Dukhyun Choi, Bo-Yeon Kim, Chul-Hee Kim, Sung-Koo Kang, Ji-Oh Mok
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To quantify the differential contribution of sleep duration on fasting plasma glucose level by traditional regular daytime work and shift work in subjects without diabetes. METHODS: Self-reported sleep duration and work type and timing were determined in a cross-sectional sample of 9123 participants aged 20-65 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2015. Those who responded that they worked between 6 am and 6 pm were classified as "traditional regular daytime workers; "those who worked in the afternoon, at night, or in several types of shift work were classified as "shift workers...
April 17, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
Abigail L Whitehouse, Lisa Miyashita, Norrice M Liu, Maia Lesosky, Graham Flitz, Chifundo Ndamala, John R Balmes, Stephen B Gordon, Kevin Mortimer, Jonathan Grigg
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) from burning of biomass for cooking is associated with adverse health effects. It is unknown whether or not cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstoves reduce the amount of PM inhaled by women compared with traditional open fires. We sought to assess whether airway macrophage black carbon (AMBC) - a marker of inhaled dose of carbonaceous PM from biomass and fossil fuel combustion - is lower in Malawian women using a cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstove compared with those using open fires for cooking...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Dan Mei, Meng Wen, Yuzheng Zhu, Xuemei Xu, Futang Xing
In atmospheric environment, the layout difference of urban buildings has a powerful influence on accelerating or inhibiting the dispersion of particle matters (PM). In industrial cities, buildings of variable heights can obstruct the diffusion of PM from industrial stacks. In this study, PM dispersed within building groups was simulated by Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled Lagrangian approach. Four typical street building arrangements were used: (a) a low-rise building block with Height/base H/b = 1 (b = 20 m); (b) step-up building layout (H/b = 1, 2, 3, 4); (c) step-down building layout (H/b = 4, 3, 2, 1); (d) high-rise building block (H/b = 5)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Carolina P Vieira, Daniel V Neves, Eduardo B Coelho, Vera Lucia Lanchote
BACKGROUND: Nebivolol is a drug available as a racemate of d-nebivolol (SRRR) and l-nebivolol (RSSS). In human liver microsomes CYP2D6 mainly catalyses the metabolism of l-nebivolol, while CYP2C19 catalyses the metabolism of d-nebivolol. Nebivolol stereoselective pharmacokinetics has been described only for extensive metabolizers (EM). OBJECTIVE: To describe the stereoseletive nebivolol pharmacokinetics in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PM) and to assess whether the phenotype has an impact on nebivolol pharmacokinetics ...
April 19, 2018: Drug Metabolism Letters
Gaspare Drago, Cinzia Perrino, Silvia Canepari, Silvia Ruggieri, Luca L'Abbate, Valeria Longo, Paolo Colombo, Daniele Frasca, Martin Balzan, Giuseppina Cuttitta, Gianluca Scaccianoce, Giuseppe Piva, Salvatore Bucchieri, Mario Melis, Giovanni Viegi, Fabio Cibella, Martin Balzan, David Bilocca, Charles Borg, Stephen Montefort, Christopher Zammit, Salvatore Bucchieri, Fabio Cibella, Paolo Colombo, Giuseppina Cuttitta, Gaspare Drago, Giuliana Ferrante, Luca L'Abbate, Stefania La Grutta, Valeria Longo, Mario R Melis, Silvia Ruggieri, Giovanni Viegi, Remo Minardi, Giuseppe Piva, Rosaria Ristagno, Gianfranco Rizzo, Gianluca Scaccianoce
Cigarette smoke is the main source of indoor chemical and toxic elements. Cadmium (Cd), Thallium (Tl), Lead (Pb) and Antimony (Sb) are important contributors to smoke-related health risks. Data on the association between Rare Earth Elements (REE) Cerium (Ce) and Lanthanum (La) and domestic smoking are scanty. To evaluate the relationship between cigarette smoke, indoor levels of PM2.5 and heavy metals, 73 children were investigated by parental questionnaire and skin prick tests. The houses of residence of 41 "cases" and 32 "controls" (children with and without respiratory symptoms, respectively) were evaluated by 48-h PM2...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Research
F W T Cheng, S W K So, B W T Fung, W H Hung, V W Y Lee
INTRODUCTION: In view of the popularity of Internet usage in Hong Kong, an interactive web-based drug information platform entitled "Ask My Pharmacist - Online University Led drug Enquiry Platform" (AMPOULE) was launched in 2009 to better serve the needs of drug information in Hong Kong. This paper aimed to evaluate the utility of AMPOULE in improving drug-related knowledge among the public and to reassess the needs of the general public in Hong Kong. METHODS: All enquiries sent via AMPOULE were reviewed...
June 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Jianhui Liu, Lihua Ren, Jialiu Wei, Jin Zhang, Yupeng Zhu, Xiangyang Li, Li Jing, Junchao Duan, Xianqing Zhou, Zhiwei Sun
Fine particle matter (PM) is correlated with male reproductive dysfunction in animals and humans, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To investigate the toxic mechanism of PM, 32 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to saline or PM2.5 with the doses of 1.8, 5.4, and 16.2 mg/kg.b.w. via intratracheal instillation, respectively, one time every 3 days, in total times for 30 days. Sperm concentration, hormone level, the expressions of BTB-associated protein and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, tumor necrosis factor α and transforming growth factor β3 levels were detected...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Seung-Ryoung Jung, Rui Han, Wei Sun, Yifei Jiang, Bryant S Fujimoto, Jiangbo Yu, Chun-Ting Kuo, Yu Rong, Xing-Hua Zhou, Daniel T Chiu
We describe here a flow platform for quantifying the number of biomolecules on individual fluorescent nanoparticles. The platform combines line-confocal fluorescence detection with near nanoscale channels (1-2 µm in width and height) to achieve high single-molecule detection sensitivity and throughput. The number of biomolecules present on each nanoparticle was determined by de-convolving the fluores-cence intensity distribution of single-nanoparticle-biomolecule complexes with the intensity distribution of single biomolecules...
April 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Yusef Omidi Khaniabadi, Mohammad Daryanoosh, Pierre Sicard, Afshin Takdastan, Philip K Hopke, Shirin Esmaeili, Alessandra De Marco, Rajab Rashidi
This study was conducted to quantify, by an approach proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the daily hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) related to exposure to particulate matter (PM10 ) and oxidants such as ozone (O3 ), sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) in a heavily polluted city in Iran. For the health impact assessment, in terms of COPD, the current published relative risk (RR) and baseline incidence (BI) values, suggested by the WHO, and the 1-h O3 concentrations and daily PM10 , NO2 , and SO2 concentrations were compiled...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jianping Zhang, Xingjuan Chen, Yucong Xue, Nikita Gamper, Xuan Zhang
Voltage-gated ion channels were believed to be the only voltage-sensitive proteins in excitable (and some non-excitable) cells for a long time. Emerging evidence indicates that the voltage-operated model is shared by some other transmembrane proteins expressed in both excitable and non-excitable cells. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about voltage-operated proteins, which are not classic voltage-gated ion channels as well as the voltage-dependent processes in cells for which single voltage-sensitive proteins have yet to be identified...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Hyunsoo Kim, Makariy A Tanatar, Catalin Martin, Erick C Blomberg, Ni Ni, Sergey L Bud'ko, Paul C Canfield, Ruslan Prozorov
Doping evolution of the superconducting gap anisotropy was studied in single crystals of 4$d$-electron doped Ba(Fe$_{1-x}$Rh$_x$)$_2$As$_2$ using tunnel diode resonator measurements of the temperature variation of London penetration depth $\Delta\lambda(T)$. Single crystals with doping level representative of underdoped regime $x$ = 0.039 ($T_c=$ 15.5 K), close to optimal doping $x=$ 0.057 ($T_c=$ 24.4 K) and overdoped $x=$ 0.079 ($T_c=$ 21.5 K) and $x=$ 0.131($T_c=$ 4.9 K) were studied. Superconducting energy gap anisotropy was characterized by the exponent, $n$, by fitting the data to the power-law, $\Delta\lambda=AT^n$...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Limin Liu, Chong Wan, Wei Zhang, Longfei Guan, Guoxiong Tian, Fang Zhang, Wenjun Ding
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) leads to kinds of cardiopulmonary diseases, such as asthma, COPD, arrhythmias, lung cancer, etc., which are related to PM-induced inflammation. We have found that PM2.5 (aerodynamics diameter <2.5 µm) exposure induces inflammatory response both in vivo and in vitro. Since the toxicity of PM is tightly associated with its size and components, PM1 (aerodynamics diameter <1.0 µm) is supposed to be more toxic than PM2.5 . However, the mechanism of PM1 -induced inflammation is not clear...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Mary Courtney Moore, Marta S Smith, Ben Farmer, Katie C Coate, Guillaume Kraft, Masakazu Shiota, Phillip E Williams, Alan D Cherrington
We observed that a 4h morning (AM) duodenal infusion of glucose vs saline doubled hepatic glucose uptake (HGU) and storage during a hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemic (HIHG) clamp that afternoon (PM). To separate the effects of AM hyperglycemia vs AM hyperinsulinemia on the PM response, we used hepatic balance and tracer (3 H-glucose) techniques in conscious dogs. From 0-240 min, dogs underwent a euinsulinemic hyperglycemic (GLC; n =7) or hyperinsulinemic euglycemic (INS; n =8) clamp. Tracer equilibration and basal sampling occurred from 240-360 min, followed by a HIHG clamp (360-600 min; 4xbasal insulin, 2xbasal glycemia) with portal glucose infusion (4 mg...
April 17, 2018: Diabetes
Wanjun Wang, Ji Zhou, Minjie Chen, Xingke Huang, Xiaoyun Xie, Weihua Li, Qi Cao, Haidong Kan, Yanyi Xu, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) correlates with abnormal glucose homeostasis, but the underlying biological mechanism has not been fully understood. The gut microbiota is an emerging crucial player in the homeostatic regulation of glucose metabolism. Few studies have investigated its role in the PM2.5 exposure-induced abnormalities in glucose homeostasis. METHODS: C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to filtered air (FA) or concentrated ambient PM2...
April 17, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
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