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pm 2.5

Qingqing He, Bo Huang
Ground fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations at high spatial resolution are substantially required for determining the population exposure to PM2.5 over densely populated urban areas. However, most studies for China have generated PM2.5 estimations at a coarse resolution (≥10 km) due to the limitation of satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) product in spatial resolution. In this study, the 3 km AOD data fused using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 6 AOD products were employed to estimate the ground PM2...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Sina Taghvaee, Mohammad H Sowlat, Amirhosein Mousavi, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, Masud Yunesian, Kazem Naddafi, Constantinos Sioutas
In this study, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was used for source apportionment of ambient PM2.5 in two locations in the central Tehran from May 2012 through June 2013. The average PM2.5 mass concentrations were 30.9 and 33.2μg/m3 in Tohid retirement home and the school dormitory, respectively. Metals and trace elements, water-soluble ions, and PM2.5 mass concentrations were used as inputs to the model. Concentrations of elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC), and meteorological data were also used as auxiliary variables to help with the factor identification and interpretation...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jinglan Feng, Hao Yu, Kai Mi, Xianfa Su, Yi Li, Qilu Li, Jianhui Sun
This study was conducted in order to explore the seasonal characteristics, climate impact and source of PM2.5 in Xinxiang, China. Daily PM2.5 samples were collected at urban site from January to December in 2015. Average PM2.5 concentration was 100.6 ± 65.8 μg m-3 in Xinxiang, which was several times higher than China Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB3095-2012). Secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) constituted 70% of the total ionic concentrations. The average concentration of SO4 2- was 6.4 ± 12.0 μg m-3 , which ranked the highest among the water-soluble ions analyzed...
February 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Cecilia Beatrice Chighizola, Francesca Pregnolato, Laura Andreoli, Caterina Bodio, Laura Cesana, Chiara Comerio, Maria Gerosa, Claudia Grossi, Rajesh Kumar, Maria Grazia Lazzaroni, Michael Mahler, Elena Mattia, Cecilia Nalli, Gary L Norman, Maria Gabriella Raimondo, Amelia Ruffatti, Marta Tonello, Laura Trespidi, Angela Tincani, Maria Orietta Borghi, Pier Luigi Meroni
Antibodies against β2 glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI) have been identified as the main pathogenic autoantibody subset in anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS); the most relevant epitope is a cryptic and conformation-dependent structure on β2GPI domain (D) 1. Anti-β2GPI domain profiling has been investigated in thrombotic APS, leading to the identification of antibodies targeting D1 as the main subpopulation. In contrast, scarce attention has been paid to obstetric APS, hence this study aimed at characterizing the domain reactivity with regards to pregnancy morbidity (PM)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Jin-Young Min, Hye-Jin Kim, Kyoung-Bok Min
Suicide is a major public health problem. Previous studies have reported a significant association between acute exposure to air pollution and suicide; little attention has been paid to the long-term effects of air pollution on risk of suicide. We investigated whether long-term exposure to particulate matter of ≤10μm in diameter (PM 10 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) would be associated with a greater risk of death by suicide. The study sample comprised 265,749 adults enrolled in the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (2002-2013) in South Korea...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ofelia Morton-Bermea, Rodrigo Garza-Galindo, Elizabeth Hernández-Álvarez, Sara L Ordoñez-Godínez, Omar Amador-Muñoz, Laura Beramendi-Orosco, Javier Miranda, Irma Rosas-Pérez
In this study, atmospheric mercury concentration in airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ) was analyzed by ICP-MS. Samples were collected in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), during 2013, in five locations, Northwest, Northeast (NE), Central, Southwest and Southeast, along three seasons: dry warm, rainy, and dry cold (DC). It can be observed that NE shows the highest mercury concentration (p < 0.05), where pollution events were identified. The seasonal distribution shows that samples collected during DC present the highest concentration (p < 0...
February 16, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Lulu Cui, Bu Duo, Fei Zhang, Chunlin Li, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen
This paper presents a detailed study on the indoor air pollution in the Jokahng Temple at Tibet Plateau, and its implication to human health. The mean concentrations of PM 1.0 and PM 2.5 were 435.0 ± 309.5 and 483.0 ± 284.9 μg/m 3 , respectively. The PM 2.5 concentration exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (75 μg/m 3 ) by 6.4 times. The size-segregated aerosols displayed a bimodal distribution. One peak was observed in the fine mode (0.4-2.1 μm) and the other peak appeared in the coarse mode (2...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Dongsheng Ji, Yang Cui, Liang Li, Jun He, Lili Wang, Hongliang Zhang, Wan Wang, Luxi Zhou, Willy Maenhaut, Tianxue Wen, Yuesi Wang
The Spring Festival (SF) is the most important holiday in China for family reunion and tourism. During the 2015 SF an intensive observation campaign of air quality was conducted to study the impact of the anthropogenic activities and the dynamic characteristics of the sources. During the study period, pollution episodes frequently occurred with 12days exceeding the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards for 24-h average PM 2.5 (75μg/m 3 ), even 8days with exceeding 150μg/m 3 . The daily maximum PM 2.5 concentration reached 350μg/m 3 while the hourly minimum visibility was <0...
February 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Matthew Shane Loop, Leslie A McClure, Emily B Levitan, Mohammad Z Al-Hamdan, William L Crosson, Monika M Safford
Chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is accepted as a causal risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, most of the evidence for this hypothesis is based upon cohort studies in whites, comprised of either only males or females who live in urban areas. It is possible that many estimates of the effect of chronic exposure to PM 2.5 on risk for CHD do not generalize to more diverse samples. METHODS: Therefore, we estimated the relationship between chronic exposure to PM 2...
March 2018: American Heart Journal
Jiacheng Yang, Patrick Roth, Thomas D Durbin, Kent C Johnson, David R Cocker, Akua Asa-Awuku, Rasto Brezny, Michael Geller, Georgios Karavalakis
We assessed the gaseous, particulate, and genotoxic pollutants from two current technology gasoline direct injection vehicles when tested in their original configuration and with a catalyzed gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Testing was conducted over the LA92 and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) driving cycles on typical California E10 fuel. The use of a GPF did not show any fuel economy and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission penalties, while the emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were generally reduced...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Haiyan Chu, Junyi Xin, Qi Yuan, Xu Zhang, Wang Pan, Xinying Zeng, Yaoyao Chen, Gaoxiang Ma, Yuqiu Ge, Mulong Du, Na Tong, Xiaobo Li, Zhengdong Zhang, Meilin Wang
Numerous studies have shown that elderly people are susceptible to high-level particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) exposure. However, not all elderly people exposed to PM 2.5 suffer from diseases. In this study, we aim to establish a method to predict the vulnerable PM 2.5 -exposure individuals among elderly population. Fourteen elderly people were recruited from May 8 to July 4, 2016, in Nanjing, China. Ten physiological indicators were repeatedly measured for 15 times. Liner mixed-effects model, principal component analysis (PCA), and PM 2...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
A Dubrowski, K Kliś, M Żurawiecka, K Dereń, M Barszcz, D Nowakowski, I Wronka
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of air pollution in the dwelling place during childhood-adolescence on respiratory function in early adulthood. The study was conducted in 220 female and 160 male university undergraduates in the cities of Cracow and Wroclaw in Poland and consisted of spirometry to assess lung function. The subjects' exposure to pollution during childhood-adolescence was assessed from the data acquired by the Polish Chief Inspectorate for Environmental Protection. We found differences in all spirometry variables depending on benz[a]piren exposure, in FVC% and FEV 1 /%FVC depending on PM 2...
February 15, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Adam S Abbott, Henry F Schaefer
The chlorine peroxy radical (ClOO) has historically been a highly problematic system for theoretical studies. In particular, the erratic \textit{ab initio} predictions of the Cl--O bond length reported in the literature thus far exhibit unacceptable errors with respect to the experimental structure. In light of the widespread disagreement observed, we present a careful and systematic investigation of the ClOO geometry towards the basis set and correlation limits of single reference \textit{ab initio} theory, employing the cc-pVXZ (X = D, T, Q, 5, 6) basis sets extrapolated to the complete basis set limit and coupled cluster theory up through single, double, triple, and perturbative quadruple excitations [CCSDT(Q)]...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Russell J Brooke, Cindy Im, Carmen L Wilson, Matthew J Krasin, Qi Liu, Zhenghong Li, Yadav Sapkota, WonJong Moon, Lindsay M Morton, Gang Wu, Zhaoming Wang, Wenan Chen, Rebecca M Howell, Gregory T Armstrong, Smita Bhatia, Sogol Mostoufi-Moab, Kristy Seidel, Stephen J Chanock, Jinghui Zhang, Daniel M Green, Charles A Sklar, Melissa M Hudson, Leslie L Robison, Wassim Chemaitilly, Yutaka Yasui
Background: Childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk of therapy-related premature menopause (PM), with a cumulative incidence of 8.0%, but the contribution of genetic factors is unknown. Methods: Genome-wide association analyses were conducted to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with clinically diagnosed PM (menopause < 40 years) among 799 female survivors of childhood cancer participating in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
M Brand, P Gaylard, J Ramos
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cancer in South Africa (SA), and the sixth most lethal. Approximately 25% of patients will have synchronous metastatic disease at the time of their primary CRC diagnosis. Although chemotherapy is used in most stages of the disease, surgical resection of the primary tumour and metastases remains the most successful treatment modality to achieve cure or prolong survival. To date, no data on CRC presentation and management have been published in SA...
February 1, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Cesar Diaz-Garcia, Javier Domingo, Juan Antonio Garcia-Velasco, Sonia Herraiz, Vicente Mirabet, Ignacio Iniesta, Ana Cobo, José Remohí, Antonio Pellicer
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of oocyte vitrification (OV) with that of ovarian cortex cryopreservation and transplantation (OCT) in women undergoing gonadotoxic treatments. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Candidates for chemo-/radiotherapy who joined our fertility preservation (FP) program were included in this study between 2005 and 2015. One cohort included 1,024 patients undergoing OV; the other cohort included 800 patients undergoing OCT...
February 7, 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Ivan R B Godoy, Edgar L Martinez-Salazar, F Joseph Simeone, Miriam A Bredella, William E Palmer, Martin Torriani
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the significance of biceps tendon (BT) displacement and peri-bicipital hematoma on MRI in subjects with pectoralis major (PM) tears. We hypothesized that these features might be associated with tear severity at surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified MRI cases with PM injury and reviewed clinical, imaging, and surgical records. MR images were reviewed independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists to determine anterior displacement of BT (BT-disp, in mm) and the presence of triangular-shaped peri-bicipital hematoma...
February 9, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
Greta Carioli, Martina Bonifazi, Marta Rossi, Alberto Zambelli, Matteo Franchi, Carlo Zocchetti, Stefano Gasparini, Giovanni Corrao, Carlo La Vecchia, Eva Negri
BACKGROUND: Pleural mesothelioma (PM) is a rare, highly lethal tumor. A definite consensus on its management has yet to be established. OBJECTIVES: To assess management, overall survival (OS), and their predictors in a cohort of patients from Lombardy, the largest Italian region (about 10 million inhabitants). METHODS: Through a record linkage between Lombardy health care administrative databases, we identified patients diagnosed with PM in 2006-2011 without history of cancer, evaluating their management...
February 8, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Xue Liu, Hua-Yuan Feng, Jing-Wei Fu, Yanshan Chen, Yungen Liu, Lena Q Ma
It is known that arsenic (As) promotes growth of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV), however, the associated mechanisms are unclear. Here we examined As-induced nutrient uptake in P. vittata and their potential role to enhance plant growth in sterile agar by excluding microbial effects. As-hyperaccumulator P. multifida (PM) and non-hyperaccumulator P. ensiformis (PE) belonging to the Pteris genus were used as comparisons. The results showed that, after 40 d of growth, As induced biomass increase in hyperaccumulators PV and PM by 5...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Julian Krauskopf, Florian Caiment, Karin van Veldhoven, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Rudy Sinharay, Kian Fan Chung, Paul Cullinan, Peter Collins, Benjamin Barratt, Frank J Kelly, Roel Vermeulen, Paolo Vineis, Theo M de Kok, Jos C Kleinjans
Traffic-related air pollution is a complex mixture of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). PM exposure contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases including several types of cancer, as well as pulmonary, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Also exposure to NO2 has been related to increased cardiovascular mortality. In search of an early diagnostic biomarker for improved air pollution-associated health risk assessment, recent human studies have shown that certain circulating miRNAs are altered upon exposure to traffic-related air pollutants...
January 27, 2018: Environment International
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