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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227900/exposures-to-fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-and-birthweight-in-a-rural-urban-mother-child-cohort-in-tamil-nadu-india
#1
Kalpana Balakrishnan, Santu Ghosh, Gurusamy Thangavel, Sankar Sambandam, Krishnendu Mukhopadhyay, Naveen Puttaswamy, Arulselvan Sadasivam, Padmavathi Ramaswamy, Priscilla Johnson, Rajarajeswari Kuppuswamy, Durairaj Natesan, Uma Maheshwari, Amudha Natarajan, Gayathri Rajendran, Rengaraj Ramasami, Sathish Madhav, Saraswathy Manivannan, Srinivasan Nargunanadan, Srinivasan Natarajan, Sudhakar Saidam, Moumita Chakraborty, Lingeswari Balakrishnan, Vijayalakshmi Thanasekaraan
BACKGROUND: Exposure to PM2.5 (fine particulate matter <less than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter) related to ambient and household air pollution has been associated with low birthweight. Few of these studies, however, have been conducted in high exposure settings that are commonly encountered in low and middle income countries (LMICs). OBJECTIVES: We examined whether PM2.5 exposures during pregnancy were associated with birthweight in an integrated rural-urban, mother-child cohort in the state of Tamil Nadu, India...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223078/impact-on-mortality-of-biomass-combustion-from-wildfires-in-spain-a-regional-analysis
#2
C Linares, R Carmona, P Salvador, J Díaz
Studies that analyse the impact on mortality of particulate matter (PM) produced by biomass combustion from wildfires mostly focus on a single city or on cities in different countries, with very few concentrating on one country as a whole. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to analyse the impact that PM has on daily mortality in Spain on days with biomass combustion from wildfires. To analyse natural PM advections the Ministry of Agriculture and Fishing, Food & Environment divides Spain into 9 geographical regions...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221643/respiratory-and-cardiovascular-responses-to-walking-down-a-traffic-polluted-road-compared-with-walking-in-a-traffic-free-area-in-participants-aged-60-years-and-older-with-chronic-lung-or-heart-disease-and-age-matched-healthy-controls-a-randomised-crossover
#3
Rudy Sinharay, Jicheng Gong, Benjamin Barratt, Pamela Ohman-Strickland, Sabine Ernst, Frank Kelly, Junfeng Jim Zhang, Peter Collins, Paul Cullinan, Kian Fan Chung
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to pollution can lead to an increase in the rate of decline of lung function, especially in older individuals and in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas shorter-term exposure at higher pollution levels has been implicated in causing excess deaths from ischaemic heart disease and exacerbations of COPD. We aimed to assess the effects on respiratory and cardiovascular responses of walking down a busy street with high levels of pollution compared with walking in a traffic-free area with lower pollution levels in older adults...
December 5, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220054/experimental-and-theoretical-studies-on-the-nlo-properties-of-two-quaternary-non-centrosymmetric-chalcogenides-baag2ges4-and-baag2sns4
#4
Hong Chen, Pei-Fei Liu, Bing-Xuan Li, Hua Lin, Li-Ming Wu, Xin-Tao Wu
New middle and far-infrared (MFIR) nonlinear optical (NLO) chalcogenides have been receiving increasing attention for their great importance in military and civil fields. In addition, the current challenge in the efforts for identifying a promising MFIR NLO material lies in achieving simultaneously large second-harmonic generation (SHG) intensity and high laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) in the same material. In this study, two quaternary non-centrosymmetric (NCS) sulfides, BaAg2GeS4 (1) and BaAg2SnS4 (2), were synthesized from a high-temperature solid-state reaction using BaCl2 flux in evacuated closed silica tubes...
December 8, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219348/transition-to-turbulent-dynamo-saturation
#5
Kannabiran Seshasayanan, Basile Gallet, Alexandros Alexakis
While the saturated magnetic energy is independent of viscosity in dynamo experiments, it remains viscosity dependent in state-of-the-art 3D direct numerical simulations (DNS). Extrapolating such viscous scaling laws to realistic parameter values leads to an underestimation of the magnetic energy by several orders of magnitude. The origin of this discrepancy is that fully 3D DNS cannot reach low enough values of the magnetic Prandtl number Pm. To bypass this limitation and investigate dynamo saturation at very low Pm, we focus on the vicinity of the dynamo threshold in a rapidly rotating flow: the velocity field then depends on two spatial coordinates only, while the magnetic field consists of a single Fourier mode in the third direction...
November 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215962/personal-exposure-to-fine-particulate-matter-concentrations-in-central-business-district-of-a-tropical-coastal-city
#6
Jyothi S Menon, S M Shiva Nagendra
In the present study, personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in an urban hotspot (CBD: central business district) was investigated. The PM monitoring campaigns were carried out at an urban hotspot from June to October 2015. The personal exposure monitoring was performed during three different time periods, i.e. morning (8AM -9AM), afternoon (12.30PM-1.30PM) and evening (4PM-5PM), to cover both the peak and lean hour activities of the CBD. The median PM2.5 concentrations were 38...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215269/lanthanum-based-metal-organic-frameworks-for-specific-detection-of-sudan-virus-rna-conservative-sequences-down-to-single-base-mismatch
#7
Shui-Ping Yang, Wei Zhao, Pei-Pei Hu, Ke-Yang Wu, Zhi-Hong Jiang, Li-Ping Bai, Min-Min Li, Jin-Xiang Chen
Reactions of La(NO3)3·6H2O with the polar, tritopic quaternized carboxylate ligands N-carboxymethyl-3,5-dicarboxylpyridinium bromide (H3CmdcpBr) and N-(4-carboxybenzyl)-3,5-dicarboxylpyridinium bromide (H3CbdcpBr) afford two water-stable metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) of {[La4(Cmdcp)6(H2O)9]}n (1, 3D) and {[La2(Cbdcp)3(H2O)10]}n (2, 2D). MOFs 1 and 2 absorb the carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-tagged probe DNA (P-DNA) and quench the fluorescence of FAM via a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process. The nonemissive P-DNA@MOF hybrids thus formed in turn function as sensing platforms to distinguish conservative linear, single-stranded RNA sequences of Sudan virus with high selectivity and low detection limits of 112 and 67 pM, respectively (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3)...
December 7, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214042/maternal-weight-in-the-postpartum-results-from-the-delta-healthy-sprouts-trial
#8
Lisa M Tussing-Humphreys, Jessica L Thomson, Nefertiti OjiNjideka Hemphill, Melissa H Goodman, Alicia S Landry
Background: Excessive postnatal weight retention may pose a threat to a woman's health and future pregnancies. Women in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of Mississippi suffer from among the highest rates of obesity in the U.S. and are more likely to gain an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine if LMD women who received a lifestyle enhanced maternal, infant, and early childhood home visiting (MIECHV) curriculum had more favorable weight outcomes through 12-months postpartum compared to women who received a standard MIECHV curriculum...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205296/impact-of-latency-time-on-survival-for-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-a-second-primary-malignancy
#9
Melanie Goldfarb, Aaron S Rosenberg, Qian Li, Theresa H M Keegan
BACKGROUND: The adverse impact of second primary malignancies (SPMs) on survival is substantial for adolescents and young adults (AYAs; ie, those 15-39 years old). No studies have evaluated whether the latency time between the first malignancy (the primary malignancy [PM]) and the SPM affects cancer-specific survival (CSS). METHODS: A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression with Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data for 13 regions from 1992 to 2008 was used to ascertain whether the latency time (1-5 vs ≥ 6 years) to the development of an SPM affected the CSS and overall survival with respect to either the PM or SPM for AYAs with common SPMs...
December 4, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204097/air-pollution-oxidative-stress-and-exacerbation-of-autoimmune-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Anna Gawda, Grzegorz Majka, Bernadeta Nowak, Janusz Marcinkiewicz
A number of epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5, PM < 1.0) and lung or cardiovascular diseases characterised by high mortality and morbidity. However, much less is known about the role of air pollution in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, which constitutes a significant problem in modern society. This paper summarises the state of current research regarding the influence of PM on the development and/or progression of autoimmune diseases...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203510/mechanisms-to-elevate-endogenous-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-beyond-injectable-glp-1-analogues-and-metabolic-surgery
#11
Daniel A Briere, Ana B Bueno, Ellen J Gunn, M Dodson Michael, Kyle W Sloop
Therapeutic engineering of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has enabled development of new medicines to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. These injectable analogues achieve robust glycemic control by increasing concentrations of 'GLP-1 equivalents' (∼50 pM). Similar levels of endogenous GLP-1 occur following gastric bypass surgery, and mechanistic studies indicate glucose lowering by these procedures is driven by GLP-1. Therefore, due to the remarkable signaling and secretory capacity of the GLP-1 system, we sought to discover mechanisms that raise GLP-1 pharmacologically...
December 4, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202419/ultrafine-particulate-matter-impairs-mitochondrial-redox-homeostasis-and-activates-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-mediated-dna-damage-responses-in-lymphocytes
#12
Arpit Bhargava, Shivani Tamrakar, Aniket Aglawe, Harsha Lad, Rupesh Kumar Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar Mishra, Rajnarayan Tiwari, Koel Chaudhury, Irina Yu Goryacheva, Pradyumna Kumar Mishra
Particulate matter (PM), broadly defined as coarse (2.5-10 μm), fine (0.1-2.5 μm) and ultrafine particles (≤0.1 μm), is a major constituent of ambient air pollution. Recent studies have linked PM exposure (coarse and fine particles) with several human diseases including cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ultrafine PM exposure induced cellular and sub-cellular repercussions are ill-defined. Since mitochondria are one of the major targets of different environmental pollutants, we herein aimed to understand the molecular repercussion of ultrafine PM exposure on mitochondrial machinery in peripheral blood lymphocytes...
December 1, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201861/active-phytochemicals-of-pueraria-tuberosa-for-dpp-iv-inhibition-in-silico-and-experimental-approach
#13
Shivani Srivastava, Priya Shree, Yamini Bhusan Tripathi
Background: We had earlier reported that the extract of Pueraria tuberosa significantly inhibits DPP-IV enzyme, resulting in glucose tolerance response in rats. In this study, we have explored the active phytochemicals responsible for this potential. The results have been validated in both fasting and postprandial states in the plasma of normal rats and also in fasting blood and intestinal homogenates of diabetic models. Methods: Pueraria tuberosa water extract (PTWE) was administered to normal Charles Foster rats for 35 days and to diabetic model (65 mg/kg bw) for 10 days...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197266/importance-of-mineral-dust-and-anthropogenic-pollutants-mixing-during-a-long-lasting-high-pm-event-over-east-asia
#14
Zhe Wang, Xiaole Pan, Itsushi Uno, Xueshun Chen, Shigekazu Yamamoto, Haitao Zheng, Jie Li, Zifa Wang
A long-lasting high particulate matter (PM) concentration episode persisted over East Asia from May 24 to June 3, 2014. The Nested Air Quality Prediction Model System (NAQPMS) was used to investigate the mixing of dust and anthropogenic pollutants during this episode. Comparison of observations revealed that the NAQPMS successfully reproduced the time series PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations, as well as the nitrate and sulfate concentrations in fine (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) and coarse mode (2.5 μm < aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm)...
November 29, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194015/phytase-from-citrobacter-koseri-pm-7-enhanced-production-using-statistical-method-and-application-in-ameliorating-mineral-bioaccessibility-and-protein-digestibility-of-high-phytate-food
#15
Preeti Tripathi, Jyothi Lakshmi A, Mukesh Kapoor
The present study was aimed at enhancing phytase (Phy-Ck) production from Citrobacter koseri PM-7 using response surface methodology (RSM) and improving the bioaccessibility of minerals (Fe and Zn) and protein digestibility in high-phytate food using Phy-Ck. A five-variable and three-level central composite design of RSM using wheat bran (6.681% w/v), inoculum level (2.5% v/v), and triton-x-100 (0.2% v/v) resulted in up to 5.57-fold (1.047 U/ml) improvement in Phy-Ck yield from C. koseri PM-7 when compared with fermentation media I & II...
December 1, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193259/lipopolysaccharide-levels-adherent-to-pm2-5-play-an-important-role-in-particulate-matter-induced-immunosuppressive-effects-in-mouse-splenocytes
#16
Cuiying He, Yuan Song, Takamichi Ichinose, Miao He, Kentaro Morita, Duo Wang, Tamotsu Kanazawa, Yasuhiro Yoshida
Epidemiological studies show that exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with serious adverse health effects, including, but not limited to, those on the respiratory system. In the present study, we investigated the splenic response in mice administered PM of ≤ 2.5 μ m diameter (PM2.5). Male BALB/c mice (7 or 8 weeks old) were intratracheally administered PM2.5 (0.1 mg) four times, at 2 week intervals, and dissected 24 h after the final administration. The effect of six types of PM2...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190950/therapeutic-response-and-long-term-outcome-of-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-with-pulmonary-metastases-treated-by-radioiodine-therapy
#17
Jing Yang, Meng Liang, Yingying Jia, Li Wang, Lin Lin, Jianhua Geng, Shengzu Chen, Ye-Xiong Li, Rong Zheng
Objective: To explore the therapeutic response (TR) and long-term outcomes of iodine-131 (I-131) treatment for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and pulmonary metastases (DTC+PM), as well as the association between the assessment of TR and long-term outcomes. Methods: This retrospective study comprised 151 DTC+PM patients. TR was evaluated by changes in serum levels of thyroglobulin, anatomic imaging and iodine uptake in pulmonary nodules; logistic regression was applied to identify predictors...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188551/molecular-characterization-of-fmr1-gene-by-tp-pcr-in-women-of-reproductive-age-and-women-with-premature-ovarian-insufficiency
#18
Deepika Delsa Dean, Sarita Agarwal, Deepa Kapoor, Kuldeep Singh, Chandra Vati
BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome is caused by CGG repeat expansion mutation in the FMR1 gene. Normal alleles have 5-44 CGG repeats with AGG interruptions. The expanded gray zone (GZ) (45-54 repeats) and premutation (PM) (55-200 repeats) alleles are often uninterrupted and are unstably inherited in subsequent generations. The prevalence of PM and GZ carriers is high in the female population, at 1/66 and 1/113, respectively, and PM is associated with fertility problems in 20% of cases. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to molecularly characterize CGG repeats and AGG interruption sequences in the FMR1 gene in women of reproductive age and in women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI)...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187492/folfox-as-first-line-therapy-for-gastric-cancer-with-severe-peritoneal-metastasis
#19
Toshiki Masuishi, Shigenori Kadowaki, Mayumi Kondo, Azusa Komori, Keiji Sugiyama, Seiichiro Mitani, Kazunori Honda, Yukiya Narita, Hiroya Taniguchi, Takashi Ura, Masashi Ando, Hideyuki Mishima, Kei Muro
BACKGROUND/AIM: Severe peritoneal metastasis (PM) from advanced gastric cancer (AGC) causes massive ascites and inadequate oral intake. Because patients with severe PM are often not included in clinical trials, little is known regarding the efficacy and safety of oxaliplatin with l-leucovorin and bolus/continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (FOLFOX) for them. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied AGC patients with massive ascites and/or inadequate oral intake due to severe PM treated with FOLFOX as the first-line treatment...
December 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186837/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-human-skin-diseases-due-to-particulate-matter
#20
Le Thi Nhu Ngoc, Duckshin Park, Yongil Lee, Young-Chul Lee
This study investigated the effects of particulate matter (PM) on human skin diseases by conducting a systematic review of existing literature and performing a meta-analysis. It considered articles reporting an original effect of PM on human skin. From among 918 articles identified, 13 articles were included for further consideration after manual screening of the articles resulted in the exclusion of articles that did not contain data, review articles, editorials, and also articles in languages other than English...
November 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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