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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103527/distinct-cortico-striatal-connections-with-subthalamic-nucleus-underlie-facets-of-compulsivity
#1
Laurel S Morris, Kwangyeol Baek, Valerie Voon
The capacity to flexibly respond to contextual changes is crucial to adapting to a dynamic environment. Compulsivity, or behavioural inflexibility, consists of heterogeneous subtypes with overlapping yet discrete neural substrates. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) mediates the switch from automatic to controlled processing to slow, break or stop behaviour when necessary. Rodent STN lesions or inactivation are linked with perseveration or repetitive, compulsive responding. However, there are few studies examining the role of latent STN-centric neural networks and compulsive behaviour in healthy individuals...
December 29, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103180/fluoroquinolone-macrolide-and-ketolide-resistance-in-haemophilus-parainfluenzae-from-south-africa
#2
Regina Esinam Abotsi, Usha Govinden, Krishnee Moodley, Sabiha Essack
Fluoroquinolones and ketolides are among the drugs of choice for the treatment of Haemophilus parainfluenzae infections. There has been a report of an emerging fluoroquinolone and telithromycin resistance in H. parainfluenzae isolates from the private sector of KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa that necessitates molecular investigation. The aim of this study is to characterize these resistance delineating mutations in genes commonly associated with reduced susceptibility. Ten H. parainfluenzae isolates retrieved from the sputum of 10 patients with H...
January 19, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097046/molecular-classification-of-tissue-from-a-transformed-non-hogkin-s-lymphoma-case-with-unexpected-long-time-remission
#3
Julie Støve Bødker, Marianne Tang Severinsen, Tarec Christoffer El-Galaly, Rasmus Froberg Brøndum, Maria Bach Laursen, Steffen Falgreen, Mette Nyegaard, Alexander Schmitz, Lasse Hjort Jakobsen, Anna Amanda Schönherz, Hanne Due, Linn Reinholdt, Martin Bøgsted, Karen Dybkær, Hans Erik Johnsen
BACKGROUND: The concept of precision medicine in cancer includes individual molecular studies to predict clinical outcomes. In the present N = 1 case we retrospectively have analysed lymphoma tissue by exome sequencing and global gene expression in a patient with unexpected long-term remission following relaps. The goals were to phenotype the diagnostic and relapsed lymphoma tissue and evaluate its pattern. Furthermore, to identify mutations available for targeted therapy and expression of genes to predict specific drug effects by resistance gene signatures (REGS) for R-CHOP as described at http://www...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096087/diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-genotyping-on-the-liquid-biopsy
#4
Davide Rossi, Fary Diop, Elisa Spaccarotella, Sara Monti, Manuela Zanni, Silvia Rasi, Clara Deambrogi, Valeria Spina, Alessio Bruscaggin, Chiara Favini, Roberto Serra, Antonio Ramponi, Renzo Boldorini, Robin Foa', Gianluca Gaidano
Accessible and real-time genotyping for diagnostic, prognostic or treatment purposes is increasingly impelling in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is shed into the blood by tumor cells undergoing apoptosis and can be used as source of tumor DNA for the identification of DLBCL mutations, clonal evolution, and genetic mechanisms of resistance. Here we aimed at tracking the basal DLBCL genetic profile and its modification upon treatment using plasma cfDNA. Ultra-deep targeted next generation sequencing of pre-treatment plasma cfDNA from DLBCL patients correctly discovered DLBCL-associated mutations that were represented in >20% of the alleles of the tumor biopsy with a >90% sensitivity and a ~100% specificity...
January 17, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095683/colorimetric-detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus-contaminated-solutions-without-purification
#5
Pamela Tiet, Karen C Clark, James O McNamara, Jacob M Berlin
Current water quality monitoring methods rely on growth-based measurements to detect fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and enterococci, and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). These growth-based measurements, however, can take days to complete. This is a significant limitation in the evaluation of contaminated food and water sources. Various methods for selective in vitro detection of S. aureus have also been reported; however, these strategies, such as ELISA, agar-diffusion, PCR, or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, all require overnight culturing or sophisticated instrumentation...
January 18, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095379/diffusion-tensor-imaging-detects-occult-cerebellar-injury-in-severe-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#6
Monica E Lemmon, Matthias W Wagner, Thangamadhan Bosemani, Kathryn A Carson, Frances J Northington, Thierry A G M Huisman, Andrea Poretti
BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of whole-body hypothermia therapy, many infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) die or have significant long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. Prospectively identifying neonates at risk of poor outcome is essential but not straightforward. The cerebellum is not classically considered to be a brain region vulnerable to hypoxic-ischemic insults; recent literature suggests, however, that the cerebellum may be involved in neonatal HIE. In this study, we aimed to assess the microstructural integrity of cerebellar and linked supratentorial structures in neonates with HIE compared to neurologically healthy neonatal controls...
January 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095036/differentiation-of-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-from-other-renal-cortical-tumors-by-use-of-a-quantitative-multiparametric-mri-approach
#7
Andreas M Hötker, Yousef Mazaheri, Andreas Wibmer, Christoph A Karlo, Junting Zheng, Chaya S Moskowitz, Satish K Tickoo, Paul Russo, Hedvig Hricak, Oguz Akin
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative multiparametric MRI approach to differentiating clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from other renal cortical tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 119 patients with 124 histopathologically confirmed renal cortical tumors who underwent preoperative MRI including DWI, contrast-enhanced, and chemical-shift sequences before nephrectomy. Two radiologists independently assessed each tumor volumetrically, and apparent diffusion coefficient values, parameters from multiphasic contrast-enhanced MRI (peak enhancement, upslope, downslope, AUC), and chemical-shift indexes were calculated...
January 17, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093680/the-international-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma-registry-an-infrastructure-to-accelerate-collaborative-research-for-an-orphan-disease
#8
Joshua Baugh, Ute Bartels, James Leach, Blaise Jones, Brooklyn Chaney, Katherine E Warren, Jenavieve Kirkendall, Renee Doughman, Cynthia Hawkins, Lili Miles, Christine Fuller, Tim Hassall, Eric Bouffet, Adam Lane, Darren Hargrave, Jacques Grill, Lindsey M Hoffman, Chris Jones, Alex Towbin, Sharon A Savage, Michelle Monje, Xiao-Nan Li, David S Ziegler, Sophie Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Christof M Kramm, Dannis G van Vuurden, Maryam Fouladi
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), a rare, often fatal childhood brain tumor, remains a major therapeutic challenge. In 2012, investigators, funded by the DIPG Collaborative (a philanthropic partnership among 29 private foundations), launched the International DIPG Registry (IDIPGR) to advance understanding of DIPG. Comprised of comprehensive deidentified but linked clinical, imaging, histopathological, and genomic repositories, the IDIPGR uses standardized case report forms for uniform data collection; serial imaging and histopathology are centrally reviewed by IDIPGR neuro-radiologists and neuro-pathologists, respectively...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092603/gut-microbiota-isolated-from-the-european-pond-turtle-emys-orbicularis-and-its-antimicrobial-resistance
#9
M Ruzauskas, S Misyte, L Vaskeviciute, Z Mikniene, R Siugzdiniene, I Klimiene, A Pikuniene, J Kucinskiene
The aim of the study was to isolate cultivable gut microbiota from European pond turtles kept at the Lithuanian Zoo and to determine antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. The study subjects included 8 elderly turtles living at the Lithuanian Zoo for about 50 years as well as their offspring - 24 young individuals (1-2 years old) that were hatched at the same zoo. Animals were not exposed by treatment with antimicrobials during the last 3 years. Gut samples were taken from the cloaca and inoculated onto universal media...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089690/mri-evaluation-of-rectal-cancer-staging-and-restaging
#10
REVIEW
Courtney C Moreno, Patrick S Sullivan, Pardeep K Mittal
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the staging and restaging of rectal cancer. Multiplanar high-resolution (≤3-mm section thickness) T2-weighted images are the primary sequences used for rectal cancer staging. No preprocedural bowel cleansing regimen, intravenous contrast material, nor endorectal coil is necessary. MRI is highly accurate for differentiating T1-T2 disease from T3 and T4 disease, an important distinction as patients with T3 and T4 tumors typically undergo preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiation before resection...
November 21, 2016: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088362/molecular-characterization-of-a-novel-orthomyxovirus-from-rainbow-and-steelhead-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#11
William N Batts, Scott E LaPatra, Ryan Katona, Eric Leis, Terry Fei Fan Ng, Marine S O Brieuc, Rachel B Breyta, Maureen K Purcell, Carla M Conway, Thomas B Waltzek, Eric Delwart, James R Winton
A novel virus, rainbow trout orthomyxovirus (RbtOV), was isolated in 1997 and again in 2000 from commercially-reared rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Idaho, USA. The virus grew optimally in the CHSE-214 cell line at 15°C producing a diffuse cytopathic effect; however, juvenile rainbow trout exposed to cell culture-grown virus showed no mortality or gross pathology. Electron microscopy of preparations from infected cell cultures revealed the presence of typical orthomyxovirus particles. The complete genome of RbtOV is comprised of eight linear segments of single-stranded, negative-sense RNA having highly conserved 5' and 3'-terminal nucleotide sequences...
January 11, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088017/co-delivery-of-ibuprofen-and-gentamicin-from-nanoporous-anodic-titanium-dioxide-layers
#12
Anna Pawlik, Magdalena Jarosz, Karolina Syrek, Grzegorz D Sulka
Although single-drug therapy may prove insufficient in treating bacterial infections or inflammation after orthopaedic surgeries, complex therapy (using both an antibiotic and an anti-inflammatory drug) is thought to address the problem. Among drug delivery systems (DDSs) with prolonged drug release profiles, nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide (ATO) layers on Ti foil are very promising. In the discussed research, ATO samples were synthesized via a three-step anodization process in an ethylene glycol-based electrolyte with fluoride ions...
January 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086751/quantifying-predictors-for-the-spatial-diffusion-of-avian-influenza-virus-in-china
#13
Lu Lu, Andrew J Leigh Brown, Samantha J Lycett
BACKGROUND: Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes both severe outbreaks and endemic disease among poultry and has caused sporadic human infections in Asia, furthermore the routes of transmission in avian species between geographic regions can be numerous and complex. Using nucleotide sequences from the internal protein coding segments of AIV, we performed a Bayesian phylogeographic study to uncover regional routes of transmission and factors predictive of the rate of viral diffusion within China...
January 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080212/heterogeneity-of-carbapenem-resistance-mechanisms-among-gram-negative-pathogens-in-lebanon-results-of-the-first-cross-sectional-countrywide-study
#14
Dalal Hammoudi Halat, Carole Ayoub Moubareck, Dolla Karam Sarkis
Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens have progressively disseminated to different countries worldwide, presenting a serious public health concern. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria in Lebanon, to elucidate molecular mechanisms, and to identify genetic relatedness of incriminated strains. Carbapenem nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas were collected from 11 Lebanese hospitals in 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed with phenotypic tests, genes encoding carbapenemases were screened via PCR-sequencing, and genetic relatedness was examined by PGFE and ERIC-PCR...
January 12, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079398/feasibility-evaluation-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging-using-an-integrated-mri-radiotherapy-system-for-response-assessment-to-neoadjuvant-therapy-in-rectal-cancer
#15
Narek Shaverdian, Yingli Yang, Peng Hu, Steven Hart, Ke Sheng, James Lamb, Minsong Cao, Nzhde Agazaryan, David Thomas, Michael Steinberg, Daniel A Low, Percy Lee
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of on-board DWI with an integrated low-field MRI-radiotherapy system to assess responses to neoadjuvant chemoradiation (NAC) in rectal cancer. METHODS: A spin echo-based planar imaging diffusion sequence on a 0.35 T MRI-radiotherapy system was acquired over the course of NAC. The apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) from the tumor region of interest (ROIs) were calculated. A functional diffusion map (fDM) was created showing a pixel-wise ADC analysis of the ROI over the course of treatment...
January 12, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079135/predicting-drug-target-interactions-by-dual-network-integrated-logistic-matrix-factorization
#16
Ming Hao, Stephen H Bryant, Yanli Wang
In this work, we propose a dual-network integrated logistic matrix factorization (DNILMF) algorithm to predict potential drug-target interactions (DTI). The prediction procedure consists of four steps: (1) inferring new drug/target profiles and constructing profile kernel matrix; (2) diffusing drug profile kernel matrix with drug structure kernel matrix; (3) diffusing target profile kernel matrix with target sequence kernel matrix; and (4) building DNILMF model and smoothing new drug/target predictions based on their neighbors...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077908/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-a-case-of-central-neurocytoma
#17
Kreshnike Dedushi, Serbeze Kabashi, Mehmet Sahin Ugurel, Naser Ramadani, Sefedin Mucaj, Kamber Zeqiraj
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to investigate the MRI features of central neurocytoma. CASE REPORT: A 45 year old man with 3 months of worsening daily headaches. These headaches were diffuse, lasted for several hours, and mostly occurred in the morning. She was initially diagnosed and treated for migraines but later he had epileptic attack and diplopia and neurolog recomaded MRI. METHODS: precontrast MRI; TSE/T2Wsequence in axial/coronal planes; 3D-Hi-resolution T1W sagittal; FLAIR/T2W axial; FLAIR/T2W and Flash/T2W oblique coronal plane (perpendicular to temporal lobes) GRE/T2W axial plane for detection of heme products...
December 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077133/t1-and-t2-mapping-for-evaluation-of-myocardial-involvement-in-patients-with-anca-associated-vasculitides
#18
Simon Greulich, Agnes Mayr, Daniel Kitterer, Joerg Latus, Joerg Henes, Hannah Steubing, Philipp Kaesemann, Alexandru Patrascu, Andreas Greiser, Stefan Groeninger, Niko Braun, M Dominik Alscher, Udo Sechtem, Heiko Mahrholdt
BACKGROUND: Myocardial involvement in AAV patients might be silent, presenting with no or nonspecific symptoms, normal ECG, and preserved left-ventricular ejection fraction (LV-EF). Since up to 50% of deaths in these patients may be due to myocardial involvement, a reliable diagnostic tool is warranted. In contrast to LGE-CMR, which has its strengths in detecting focal inflammatory or fibrotic processes, recent mapping techniques are able to detect even subtle, diffuse inflammatory or fibrotic processes...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075560/multilayer-grown-ultrathin-nanostructured-gaas-solar-cells-as-a-cost-competitive-materials-platform-for-iii-v-photovoltaics
#19
Boju Gai, Yukun Sun, Haneol Lim, Huandong Chen, Joseph Faucher, Minjoo L Lee, Jongseung Yoon
Large-scale deployment of GaAs solar cells in terrestrial photovoltaics demands significant cost reduction for preparing device-quality epitaxial materials. Although multilayer epitaxial growth in conjunction with printing-based materials assemblies has been proposed as a promising route to achieve this goal, their practical implementation remains challenging owing to the degradation of materials properties and resulting nonuniform device performance between solar cells grown in different sequences. Here we report an alternative approach to circumvent these limitations and enable multilayer-grown GaAs solar cells with uniform photovoltaic performance...
January 11, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073968/variants-of-abgri3-carrying-the-arma-gene-in-extensively-antibiotic-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-from-singapore
#20
Grace A Blackwell, Kathryn E Holt, Stephen D Bentley, Li Yang Hsu, Ruth M Hall
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the context of the ribosomal RNA methyltransferase gene armA in carbapenem-resistant global clone 2 (GC2) Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Singapore. METHODS: Antibiotic resistance was determined using disc diffusion; PCR was used to identify resistance genes. Whole genome sequences were determined and contigs were assembled and ordered using PCR. Resistance regions in unsequenced isolates were mapped. RESULTS: Fifteen GC2 A...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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