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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429448/white-matter-microstructure-variations-contribute-to-neurological-soft-signs-in-healthy-adults
#1
Dusan Hirjak, Philipp A Thomann, Robert C Wolf, Katharina M Kubera, Caspar Goch, Jan Hering, Klaus H Maier-Hein
OBJECTIVE: Neurological soft signs (NSS) are core features of psychiatric disorders with significant neurodevelopmental origin. However, it is unclear whether NSS correlates are associated with neuropathological processes underlying the disease or if they are confounded by medication. Given that NSS are also present in healthy persons (HP), investigating HP could reveal NSS correlates, which are not biased by disease-specific processes or drug treatment. Therefore, we used a combination of diffusion MRI analysis tools to provide a framework of specific white matter (WM) microstructure variations underlying NSS in HP...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428655/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-cirrhotic-liver-diagnosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-evaluation-of-response-to-treatment-part-2
#2
REVIEW
Miguel Ramalho, António P Matos, Mamdoh AlObaidy, Fernanda Velloni, Ersan Altun, Richard C Semelka
In the second part of this review, we will describe the ancillary imaging features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that can be seen on standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, and on novel and emerging protocols such as diffusion weighted imaging and utilization of hepatocyte-specific/hepatobiliary contrast agent. We will also describe the morphologic sub-types of HCC, and give a simplified non-invasive diagnostic algorithm for HCC, followed by a brief description of the liver imaging reporting and data system (LI-RADS), and MRI assessment of tumor response following locoregional therapy...
March 2017: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428047/diffusion-mri-of-the-human-brain-at-ultra-high-field-uhf-a-review
#3
Daniel Gallichan
The continued drive towards MRI scanners operating at increasingly higher main magnetic fields is primarily motivated by the maxim that more teslas mean more signal and lead to better images. This promise of increased signal, which cannot easily be achieved in other ways, encourages efforts to overcome the inextricable technical challenges which accompany this endeavor. Unlike for many applications, however, diffusion imaging is not currently able to directly reap these potential signal gains - at the time of writing it seems fair to say that, for matched gradient and RF hardware, the majority of diffusion images acquired at 7T, while comparable in quality to those achievable at 3T, do not demonstrate a clear advantage over what can be obtained at lower field...
April 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428014/concussion-induces-focal-and-widespread-neuromorphological-changes
#4
Dafna Sussman, Leodante da Costa, Mallar M Chakravarty, Elizabeth W Pang, Margot J Taylor, Benjamin T Dunkley
Concussion induces transient, and oftentimes chronic, lingering impairment to mental functioning, which must be driven by some underlying neurobiological perturbation - however, the physical changes related to sequelae are difficult to detect. Previous imaging studies on concussion have focused on alterations to cortical anatomy, but few have examined the cerebrum, subcortex, and cerebellum. Here, we present an analysis of these structures in a single cohort (all males, 21 patients, 22 controls) using MRI and diagnosed with a single-concussive episode in the acute and sub-acute stages of injury...
April 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427704/comparison-of-brain-and-spinal-cord-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-patients-with-or-without-aquaporin-4-antibody
#5
Moli Fan, Ying Fu, Lei Su, Yi Shen, Kristofer Wood, Li Yang, Yaou Liu, Fu-Dong Shi
BACKGROUND: The spinal cord and brain measurements are rarely investigated in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients with and without antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4), directly compared to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. OBJECTIVES: To investigate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of both brain and spinal cord in NMO patients with and without antibodies to AQP4, compared with MS patients and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: We recruited 55 NMO including 30 AQP4 (+) and 25 AQP4 (-), 25 MS and 25 HC...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427472/optimising-conservative-management-of-chronic-low-back-pain-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Katherine J Simson, Clint T Miller, Jon Ford, Andrew Hahne, Luana Main, Timo Rantalainen, Wei-Peng Teo, Megan Teychenne, David Connell, Guy Trudel, Guoyan Zheng, Gary Thickbroom, Daniel L Belavy
BACKGROUND: Lower back pain is a global health issue affecting approximately 80% of people at some stage in their life. The current literature suggests that any exercise is beneficial for reducing back pain. However, as pain is a subjective evaluation and physical deficits are evident in low back pain, using it as the sole outcome measure to evaluate superiority of an exercise protocol for low back pain treatment is insufficient. The overarching goal of the current clinical trial is to implement two common, conservative intervention approaches and examine their impact on deficits in chronic low back pain...
April 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427220/multiparametric-imaging-using-18f-fdg-pet-ct-heterogeneity-parameters-and-functional-mri-techniques-prognostic-significance-in-patients-with-primary-advanced-oropharyngeal-or-hypopharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-treated-with-chemoradiotherapy
#7
Sheng-Chieh Chan, Nai-Ming Cheng, Chia-Hsun Hsieh, Shu-Hang Ng, Chien-Yu Lin, Tzu-Chen Yen, Cheng-Lung Hsu, Hung-Ming Wan, Chun-Ta Liao, Kai-Ping Chang, Jiun-Jie Wang
BACKGROUND: In this study, PET heterogeneity was combined with functional MRI techniques to refine the prediction of prognosis in patients with oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OHSCC). METHODS: A total of 124 patients with primary advanced OHSCC who underwent pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI), and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) were enrolled. Conventional and heterogeneity parameters from 18F-FDG PET as well as perfusion parameters from DCE-MRI and diffusion parameter from DWI of primary tumors were analyzed in relation to recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS)...
March 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426929/exerting-enhanced-permeability-and-retention-effect-driven-delivery-by-ultrafine-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-with-t1-t2-switchable-magnetic-resonance-imaging-contrast
#8
Liya Wang, Jing Huang, Hongbo Chen, Hui Wu, Yaolin Xu, Yuancheng Li, Hong Yi, Yongqiang Andrew Wang, Lily Yang, Hui Mao
The poor delivery efficiency remains a major challenge in nanomaterial based tumor targeted imaging and drug delivery. This work demonstrated a strategy to improve nanoparticle delivery and intratumoral distribution using a sub-5 nm (3.5 nm core size) ultrafine iron oxide nanoparticles (uIONPs) that can easily extravasate from the tumor vasculature and readily diffuse into the tumor tissue compared to iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) with larger sizes, followed by self-assembling in the acidic tumor interstitial space to limit their re-entering the circulation...
April 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425349/clinical-characteristics-of-unknown-symptom-onset-stroke-patients-with-and-without-diffusion-weighted-imaging-and-fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-mismatch
#9
Götz Thomalla, Florent Boutitie, Jochen B Fiebach, Claus Z Simonsen, Salvador Pedraza, Robin Lemmens, Norbert Nighoghossian, Pascal Roy, Keith W Muir, Martin Ebinger, Ian Ford, Bastian Cheng, Ivana Galinovic, Tae-Hee Cho, Josep Puig, Vincent Thijs, Matthias Endres, Jens Fiehler, Christian Gerloff
Background Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) mismatch was suggested to identify stroke patients with unknown time of symptom onset likely to be within the time window for thrombolysis. Aims We aimed to study clinical characteristics associated with DWI-FLAIR mismatch in patients with unknown onset stroke. Methods We analyzed baseline MRI and clinical data from patients with acute ischemic stroke proven by DWI from WAKE-UP, an investigator-initiated, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of MRI-based thrombolysis in stroke patients with unknown time of symptom onset...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425348/integration-of-functional-mri-and-white-matter-tractography-in-cyberknife-radiosurgery
#10
Lu Sun, Baolin Qu, Jinyuan Wang, Zhongjian Ju, Zizhong Zhang, Zhiqiang Cui, Yang Jack, Zhipei Ling, Xinguang Yu, Longsheng Pan
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of the integration of functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-tensor imaging tractography data into CyberKnife radiosurgery for intracranial tumor management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Functional neuroimaging, anatomical magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography images of patients with brain lesions in critical areas were acquired before radiosurgery. The acquired data sets were coregistered using the MIM image fusion software module and then were imported into the CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System (Multiplan 4...
January 1, 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425325/macro-and-microstructural-alterations-of-the-subcortical-structures-in-episodic-cluster-headache
#11
András Király, Nikoletta Szabó, Árpád Párdutz, Eszter Tóth, János Tajti, Gergő Csete, Péter Faragó, Péter Bodnár, Délia Szok, Bernadett Tuka, Éva Pálinkás, Csaba Ertsey, László Vécsei, Zsigmond Tamás Kincses
Background Previous functional and structural imaging studies have revealed that subcortical structures play a key a role in pain processing. The recurring painful episodes might trigger maladaptive plasticity or alternatively degenerative processes that might be detected by MRI as changes in size or microstructure. In the current investigation, we aimed to identify the macro- and microstructural alterations of the subcortical structures in episodic cluster headache. Methods High-resolution T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI images with 60 gradient directions were acquired from 22 patients with cluster headache and 94 healthy controls...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425065/changes-in-perfusion-and-diffusion-in-the-endplate-regions-of-degenerating-intervertebral-discs-a-dce-mri-study
#12
Volkan Emre Arpinar, Scott D Rand, Andrew P Klein, Dennis J Maiman, L Tugan Muftuler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425061/gray-matter-and-white-matter-changes-in-non-demented-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-with-or-without-cognitive-impairment-a-combined-voxel-based-morphometry-and-tract-based-spatial-statistics-whole-brain-analysis
#13
Foteini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Franz Riederer, Ioannis Zalonis, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Georgios Velonakis, Sophia Xirou, Michalis Rentzos, Georgios Argiropoulos, Vasiliki Zouvelou, Thomas Zambelis, Athanasios Athanasakos, Panagiotis Toulas, Konstantinos Vadikolias, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Spyros Kollias, Nikolaos Karandreas, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis
The phenotypic heterogeneity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) implies that patients show structural changes within but also beyond the motor cortex and corticospinal tract and furthermore outside the frontal lobes, even if frank dementia is not detected. The aim of the present study was to investigate both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes in non-demented amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with or without cognitive impairment (ALS-motor and ALS-plus, respectively). Nineteen ALS-motor, 31 ALS-plus and 25 healthy controls (HC) underwent 3D-T1-weighted and 30-directional diffusion-weighted imaging on a 3 T MRI scanner...
April 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425047/can-anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-antibody-reverse-radiation-necrosis-a-preclinical-investigation
#14
Chong Duan, Carlos J Perez-Torres, Liya Yuan, John A Engelbach, Scott C Beeman, Christina I Tsien, Keith M Rich, Robert E Schmidt, Joseph J H Ackerman, Joel R Garbow
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) antibodies are a promising new treatment for late time-to-onset radiation-induced necrosis (RN). We sought to evaluate and validate the response to anti-VEGF antibody in a mouse model of RN. Mice were irradiated with the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion™ and then treated with anti-VEGF antibody, beginning at post-irradiation (PIR) week 8. RN progression was monitored via anatomic and diffusion MRI from weeks 4-12 PIR. Standard histology, using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E), and immunohistochemistry staining were used to validate the response to treatment...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424895/risk-and-protective-factors-for-structural-brain-ageing-in-the-eighth-decade-of-life
#15
Stuart J Ritchie, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Simon R Cox, David Alexander Dickie, Maria Del C Valdés Hernández, Janie Corley, Natalie A Royle, Paul Redmond, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Alison Pattie, Benjamin S Aribisala, Adele M Taylor, Toni-Kim Clarke, Alan J Gow, John M Starr, Mark E Bastin, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
Individuals differ markedly in brain structure, and in how this structure degenerates during ageing. In a large sample of human participants (baseline n = 731 at age 73 years; follow-up n = 488 at age 76 years), we estimated the magnitude of mean change and variability in changes in MRI measures of brain macrostructure (grey matter, white matter, and white matter hyperintensity volumes) and microstructure (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity from diffusion tensor MRI). All indices showed significant average change with age, with considerable heterogeneity in those changes...
April 19, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424822/rapid-non-contrast-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-post-appendectomy-intra-abdominal-abscess-in-children
#16
Megan H Lee, Eric P Eutsler, Elizabeth F Sheybani, Geetika Khanna
BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis, especially if perforated at presentation, is often complicated by postoperative abscess formation. The detection of a postoperative abscess relies primarily on imaging. This has traditionally been done with contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to accurately detect intra-abdominal abscesses, especially with the use of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate our single-center experience with a rapid non-contrast MRI protocol evaluating post-appendectomy abscesses in children with persistent postsurgical symptoms...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424764/diffusion-tensor-imaging-colour-mapping-threshold-for-identification-of-ventilation-induced-brain-injury-after-intrauterine-inflammation-in-preterm-lambs
#17
Dhafer M Alahmari, Beatrice Skiöld, Samantha K Barton, Ilias Nitsos, Courtney McDonald, Suzanne L Miller, Valerie Zahra, Robert Galinsky, Qizhu Wu, Michael John Farrell, Timothy J Moss, Stuart B Hooper, James T Pearson, Graeme R Polglase
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine whether advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques can detect early brain injury caused by intrauterine inflammation and inappropriate initial respiratory support in preterm lambs. HYPOTHESIS: Neuropathology caused by intrauterine inflammation is exacerbated by mechanical ventilation at birth and is detectable with advanced MRI techniques. METHODS: Pregnant ewes received intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 7 days prior to delivery at ~125 days of gestation (85% of gestation), whereupon lambs were delivered and randomised to receive an injurious (LPS + INJ, n = 6) or protective (LPS + PROT, n = 6) ventilation strategy...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424595/gray-matter-atrophy-is-primarily-related-to-demyelination-of-lesions-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-mri-study
#18
Eszter Tóth, Nikoletta Szabó, Gergõ Csete, András Király, Péter Faragó, Tamás Spisák, Krisztina Bencsik, László Vécsei, Zsigmond T Kincses
Objective: Cortical pathology, periventricular demyelination, and lesion formation in multiple sclerosis (MS) are related (Hypothesis 1). Factors in the cerebrospinal fluid close to these compartments could possibly drive the parallel processes. Alternatively, the cortical atrophy could be caused by remote axonal transection (Hypothesis 2). Since MRI can differentiate between demyelination and axon loss, we used this imaging modality to investigate the correlation between the pattern of diffusion parameter changes in the periventricular- and deep white matter and the gray matter atrophy...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423698/parameters-of-simultaneous-18f-fdg-pet-mri-predict-tumor-stage-and-several-histopathological-features-in-uterine-cervical-cancer
#19
Alexey Surov, Hans Jonas Meyer, Stefan Schob, Anne-Kathrin Höhn, Kristina Bremicker, Marc Exner, Patrick Stumpp, Sandra Purz
The purpose of this study was to analyze associations between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and standardized uptake values (SUV) values and different histopathological parameters in uterine cervical cancer. 21 patients with primary uterine cervical cancer were involved into the study. All patients underwent a whole body simultaneous18F-FDG PET/MRI. Mean and maximum SUV were noted (SUVmean and SUVmax). In all tumors minimal, mean, and maximal ADC values (ADCmin, ADCmean, and ADCmax) were estimated. Combined parameters were calculated: SUVmax/SUVmean, ADCmin/ ADCmean, SUVmax/ADCmin and SUVmax/ADCmean...
March 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422895/diffusion-tensor-tractography-for-detection-of-concomitant-traumatic-brain-injury-in-patients-with-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Sung Ho Jang, Sang Ho Ahn, Yun Woo Cho, Ji Woon Lim, Ik Tae Cho
OBJECTIVES: We investigated concomitant traumatic brain injury in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) who had head trauma history, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). DESIGN: Retrospective survey. PARTICIPANTS: We recruited 14 consecutive patients with TSCI and coexisting head trauma history at the time of TSCI and 30 control subjects. METHODS: The corticospinal tract (CST), corticoreticulospinal tract (CRT), cingulum, and fornix were reconstructed using DTT, and DTT parameters (fractional anisotropy and fiber volume) and configuration were estimated...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
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