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rhythmic entrainment

Anastasia Greenberg, Javad Karimi Abadchi, Clayton T Dickson, Majid H Mohajerani
The signature rhythm of slow-wave forebrain activity is the large amplitude, slow oscillation (SO: ∼1 Hz) made up of alternating synchronous periods of activity and silence at the single cell and network levels. On each wave, the SO originates at a unique location and propagates across the neocortex. Attempts to manipulate SO activity using electrical fields have been shown to entrain cortical networks and enhance memory performance. However, neural activity during this manipulation has remained elusive due to methodological issues in typical electrical recordings...
March 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Philip R Holland, Mads Barloese, Jan Fahrenkrug
The interaction between sleep and primary headaches has gained considerable interest due to their strong, bidirectional, clinical relationship. Several primary headaches demonstrate either a circadian/circannual rhythmicity in attack onset or are directly associated with sleep itself. Migraine and cluster headache both show distinct attack patterns and while the underlying mechanisms of this circadian variation in attack onset remain to be fully explored, recent evidence points to clear physiological, anatomical and genetic points of convergence...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Kimberley F Prior, Daan R van der Veen, Aidan J O'Donnell, Katherine Cumnock, David Schneider, Arnab Pain, Amit Subudhi, Abhinay Ramaprasad, Samuel S C Rund, Nicholas J Savill, Sarah E Reece
Circadian rhythms enable organisms to synchronise the processes underpinning survival and reproduction to anticipate daily changes in the external environment. Recent work shows that daily (circadian) rhythms also enable parasites to maximise fitness in the context of ecological interactions with their hosts. Because parasite rhythms matter for their fitness, understanding how they are regulated could lead to innovative ways to reduce the severity and spread of diseases. Here, we examine how host circadian rhythms influence rhythms in the asexual replication of malaria parasites...
February 26, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Gabriela L Carrillo, Jianmin Su, Aboozar Monavarfeshani, Michael A Fox
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the master pacemaker that drives circadian behaviors. SCN neurons have intrinsic, self-sustained rhythmicity that is governed by transcription-translation feedback loops. Intrinsic rhythms within the SCN do not match the day-night cycle and are therefore entrained by light-derived cues. Such cues are transmitted to the SCN by a class of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). In the present study, we sought to identify how axons from ipRGCs target the SCN...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Kamau Pierre, Rohit T Rao, Clara Hartmanshenn, Ioannis P Androulakis
Synchronization of biological functions to environmental signals enables organisms to anticipate and appropriately respond to daily external fluctuations and is critical to the maintenance of homeostasis. Misalignment of circadian rhythms with environmental cues is associated with adverse health outcomes. Cortisol, the downstream effector of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, facilitates synchronization of peripheral biological processes to the environment. Cortisol levels exhibit substantial seasonal rhythmicity, with peak levels occurring during the short-photoperiod winter months and reduced levels occurring in the long-photoperiod summer season...
February 12, 2018: Endocrinology
Yu Tahara, Mayu Yamazaki, Haruna Sukigara, Hiroaki Motohashi, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Hiroki Miyakawa, Atsushi Haraguchi, Yuko Ikeda, Shinji Fukuda, Shigenobu Shibata
Microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and organic acids produced by the fermentation of non-digestible fibre can communicate from the microbiome to host tissues and modulate homeostasis in mammals. The microbiome has circadian rhythmicity and helps the host circadian clock function. We investigated the effect of SCFA or fibre-containing diets on circadian clock phase adjustment in mouse peripheral tissues (liver, kidney, and submandibular gland). Initially, caecal SCFA concentrations, particularly acetate and butyrate, induced significant day-night differences at high concentrations during the active period, which were correlated with lower caecal pH...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anthony D Fouad, Shelly Teng, Julian R Mark, Alice Liu, Pilar Alvarez-Illera, Hongfei Ji, Angelica Du, Priya D Bhirgoo, Eli Cornblath, Sihui Asuka Guan, Christopher Fang-Yen
Coordinated rhythmic movements are ubiquitous in animal behavior. In many organisms, chains of neural oscillators underlie the generation of these rhythms. In C. elegans, locomotor wave generation has been poorly understood; in particular, it is unclear where in the circuit rhythms are generated, and whether there exists more than one such generator. We used optogenetic and ablation experiments to probe the nature of rhythm generation in the locomotor circuit. We found that multiple sections of forward locomotor circuitry are capable of independently generating rhythms...
January 23, 2018: ELife
Benedikt Zoefel, Alan Archer-Boyd, Matthew H Davis
Due to their periodic nature, neural oscillations might represent an optimal "tool" for the processing of rhythmic stimulus input [1-3]. Indeed, the alignment of neural oscillations to a rhythmic stimulus, often termed phase entrainment, has been repeatedly demonstrated [4-7]. Phase entrainment is central to current theories of speech processing [8-10] and has been associated with successful speech comprehension [11-17]. However, typical manipulations that reduce speech intelligibility (e.g., addition of noise and time reversal [11, 12, 14, 16, 17]) could destroy critical acoustic cues for entrainment (such as "acoustic edges" [7])...
January 11, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Sylvie Nozaradan, Marc Schönwiesner, Peter E Keller, Tomas Lenc, Alexandre Lehmann
The spontaneous ability to entrain to meter periodicities is central to music perception and production across cultures. There is increasing evidence that this ability involves selective neural responses to meter-related frequencies. This phenomenon has been observed in the human auditory cortex, yet it could be the product of evolutionarily older lower-level properties of brainstem auditory neurons, as suggested by recent recordings from rodent midbrain. We addressed this question by taking advantage of a new method to simultaneously record human EEG activity originating from cortical and lower-level sources, in the form of slow (<20Hz) and fast (>150Hz) responses to auditory rhythms...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Sabrina Trapp, Ondrej Havlicek, Annett Schirmer, Peter E Keller
Research has demonstrated that the human cognitive system allocates attention most efficiently to a stimulus that occurs in synchrony with an established rhythmic background. However, our environment is dynamic and constantly changing. What happens when rhythms to which our cognitive system adapted disappear? We addressed this question using a visual categorization task comprising emotional and neutral faces. The task was split into three blocks of which the first and the last were completed in silence. The second block was accompanied by an acoustic background rhythm that, for one group of participants, was synchronous with face presentations, and for another group was asynchronous...
January 17, 2018: Psychological Research
Shashank Ghai, Ishan Ghai, Alfred O Effenberg
Auditory entrainment can influence gait performance in movement disorders. The entrainment can incite neurophysiological and musculoskeletal changes to enhance motor execution. However, a consensus as to its effects based on gait in people with cerebral palsy is still warranted. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to analyze the effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters of gait in people with cerebral palsy. Systematic identification of published literature was performed adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine guidelines, from inception until July 2017, on online databases: Web of Science, PEDro, EBSCO, Medline, Cochrane, Embase and ProQuest...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Vassiliki Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Volodymyr I Pidoplichko, Taiza H Figueiredo, Maria F M Braga
Synchronous, rhythmic firing of GABAergic interneurons is a fundamental mechanism underlying the generation of brain oscillations, and evidence suggests that NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play a key role in oscillatory activity by regulating the activity of interneurons. Consistent with this, derangement of brain rhythms in certain neuropsychiatric disorders, notably schizophrenia and autism, is associated with NMDAR hypofunction and loss of inhibitory interneurons. In the basolateral amygdala (BLA)-dysfunction of which is involved in a host of neuropsychiatric diseases-, principal neurons display spontaneous, rhythmic "bursts" of inhibitory activity, which could potentially be involved in the orchestration of oscillations in the BLA network; here, we investigated the role of NMDARs in these inhibitory oscillations...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience
Hillel Adesnik
Rhythmic activity can synchronize neural ensembles within and across cortical layers. While gamma band rhythmicity has been observed in all layers, the laminar sources and functional impacts of neuronal synchronization in the cortex remain incompletely understood. Here, layer-specific optogenetic stimulation demonstrates that populations of excitatory neurons in any cortical layer of the mouse's primary visual cortex are sufficient to powerfully entrain neuronal oscillations in the gamma band. Within each layer, inhibition balances excitation and keeps activity in check...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Yan Yang, Qian Wang, Shu-Rong Wang, Yi Wang, Qian Xiao
Animals use the temporal information from previously experienced periodic events to instruct their future behaviors. The retina and cortex are involved in such behavior, but it remains largely unknown how the thalamus, transferring visual information from the retina to the cortex, processes the periodic temporal patterns. Here we report that the luminance cells in the nucleus dorsolateralis anterior thalami (DLA) of pigeons exhibited oscillatory activities in a temporal pattern identical to the rhythmic luminance changes of repetitive light/dark (LD) stimuli with durations in the seconds-to-minutes range...
December 29, 2017: ELife
Nicola Molinaro, Mikel Lizarazu
Cortical oscillations phase-align to the quasi-rhythmic structure of the speech envelope. This speech-brain entrainment has been reported in two frequency bands, i.e., both in the theta band (4 - 8 Hz) and in the delta band (< 4 Hz). However, it is not clear if these two phenomena reflect passive synchronization of the auditory cortex to the acoustics of the speech input, or if they reflect higher processes involved in actively parsing speech information. Here we report two magnetoencephalography experiments in which we contrasted cortical entrainment to natural speech compared to qualitative different control conditions (Experiment 1: amplitude modulated white-noise; Experiment 2: spectrally rotated speech)...
December 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Nedjeljka Ivica, Ulrike Richter, Joel Sjöbom, Ivani Brys, Martin Tamtè, Per Petersson
The basal ganglia are thought to be particularly sensitive to changes in dopaminergic tone, and the realization that reduced dopaminergic signaling causes pronounced motor dysfunction is the rationale behind dopamine replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease. It has however proven difficult to identify which neurophysiological changes that ultimately lead to motor dysfunctions. To clarify this, we have here recorded neuronal activity throughout the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits in freely behaving rats during periods of immobility following acute dopaminergic manipulations, involving both vesicular depletion and antagonism of D1 and D2 type dopamine receptors...
December 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Erik S Te Woerd, Robert Oostenveld, Floris P de Lange, Peter Praamstra
Neural entrainment plays a crucial role in perception and action, especially when stimuli possess a certain temporal regularity, and is also suggested to serve as a neural process to select and attend the relevant stream in situations where there are competing stimulus streams. Beneficial effects of entrainment have led to the suggestion that rhythmic stimuli can improve motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Behavioural studies support this suggestion, but neurophysiological studies have shown reduced entrainment of motor areas in PD...
November 26, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Naoto Hayasaka, Arisa Hirano, Yuka Miyoshi, Isao T Tokuda, Hikari Yoshitane, Junichiro Matsuda, Yoshitaka Fukada
Salt-inducible kinase 3 (SIK3) plays a crucial role in various aspects of metabolism. In the course of investigating metabolic defects in Sik3 -deficient mice ( Sik3-/- ), we observed that circadian rhythmicity of the metabolisms was phase-delayed. Sik3-/- mice also exhibited other circadian abnormalities, including lengthening of the period, impaired entrainment to the light-dark cycle, phase variation in locomotor activities, and aberrant physiological rhythms. Ex vivo suprachiasmatic nucleus slices from Sik3-/- mice exhibited destabilized and desynchronized molecular rhythms among individual neurons...
December 11, 2017: ELife
Saskia Haegens, Elana Zion Golumbic
Here we review the role of brain oscillations in sensory processing. We examine the idea that neural entrainment of intrinsic oscillations underlies the processing of rhythmic stimuli in the context of simple isochronous rhythms as well as in music and speech. This has been a topic of growing interest over recent years; however, many issues remain highly controversial: how do fluctuations of intrinsic neural oscillations-both spontaneous and entrained to external stimuli-affect perception, and does this occur automatically or can it be actively controlled by top-down factors? Some of the controversy in the literature stems from confounding use of terminology...
March 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Eve H Rogers, Sandra A Fawcett, Vanja Pekovic-Vaughan, John A Hunt
Optimising cell/tissue constructs so that they can be successfully accepted and integrated within a host body is essential in modern tissue engineering. To do this, adult stem cells are frequently utilised, but there are many aspects of their environment in vivo that are not completely understood. There is evidence to suggest that circadian rhythms and daily circadian temporal cues have substantial effects on stem cell activation, cell cycle, and differentiation. It was hypothesised that the circadian rhythm in human adult stem cells differs depending on the source of tissue and that different entraining signals exert differential effects depending on the anatomical source...
2017: Stem Cells International
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