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rhythmic entrainment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313982/layer-specific-e-i-balances-during-neuronal-synchronization-in-the-visual-cortex
#1
Hillel Adesnik
Rhythmic activity can synchronize neural ensembles within and across cortical layers. While gamma band rhythmicity has been observed in all layers, the laminar sources and functional impacts of neuronal synchronization in the cortex remain incompletely understood. Here, layer-specific optogenetic stimulation demonstrates that populations of excitatory neurons in any cortical layer of the mouse's primary visual cortex are sufficient to powerfully entrain neuronal oscillations in the gamma band. Within each layer, inhibition balances excitation and keeps activity in check...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284554/representation-of-time-interval-entrained-by-periodic-stimuli-in-the-visual-thalamus-of-pigeons
#2
Yan Yang, Qian Wang, Shu-Rong Wang, Yi Wang, Qian Xiao
Animals use the temporal information from previously experienced periodic events to instruct their future behaviors. The retina and cortex are involved in such behavior, but it remains largely unknown how the thalamus, transferring visual information from the retina to the cortex, processes the periodic temporal patterns. Here we report that the luminance cells in the nucleus dorsolateralis anterior thalami (DLA) of pigeons exhibited oscillatory activities in a temporal pattern identical to the rhythmic luminance changes of repetitive light/dark (LD) stimuli with durations in the seconds-to-minutes range...
December 29, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283465/delta-but-not-theta-band-cortical-entrainment-involves-speech-specific-processing
#3
Nicola Molinaro, Mikel Lizarazu
Cortical oscillations phase-align to the quasi-rhythmic structure of the speech envelope. This speech-brain entrainment has been reported in two frequency bands, i.e., both in the theta band (4 - 8 Hz) and in the delta band (< 4 Hz). However, it is not clear if these two phenomena reflect passive synchronization of the auditory cortex to the acoustics of the speech input, or if they reflect higher processes involved in actively parsing speech information. Here we report two magnetoencephalography experiments in which we contrasted cortical entrainment to natural speech compared to qualitative different control conditions (Experiment 1: amplitude modulated white-noise; Experiment 2: spectrally rotated speech)...
December 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250896/changes-in-neuronal-activity-of-cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamic-networks-induced-by-acute-dopaminergic-manipulations-in-rats
#4
Nedjeljka Ivica, Ulrike Richter, Joel Sjöbom, Ivani Brys, Martin Tamtè, Per Petersson
The basal ganglia are thought to be particularly sensitive to changes in dopaminergic tone, and the realization that reduced dopaminergic signaling causes pronounced motor dysfunction is the rationale behind dopamine replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease. It has however proven difficult to identify which neurophysiological changes that ultimately lead to motor dysfunctions. To clarify this, we have here recorded neuronal activity throughout the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits in freely behaving rats during periods of immobility following acute dopaminergic manipulations, involving both vesicular depletion and antagonism of D1 and D2 type dopamine receptors...
December 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247880/entrainment-for-attentional-selection-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Erik S Te Woerd, Robert Oostenveld, Floris P de Lange, Peter Praamstra
Neural entrainment plays a crucial role in perception and action, especially when stimuli possess a certain temporal regularity, and is also suggested to serve as a neural process to select and attend the relevant stream in situations where there are competing stimulus streams. Beneficial effects of entrainment have led to the suggestion that rhythmic stimuli can improve motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Behavioural studies support this suggestion, but neurophysiological studies have shown reduced entrainment of motor areas in PD...
November 26, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227248/salt-inducible-kinase-3-regulates-the-mammalian-circadian-clock-by-destabilizing-per2-protein
#6
Naoto Hayasaka, Arisa Hirano, Yuka Miyoshi, Isao T Tokuda, Hikari Yoshitane, Junichiro Matsuda, Yoshitaka Fukada
Salt-inducible kinase 3 (SIK3) plays a crucial role in various aspects of metabolism. In the course of investigating metabolic defects in Sik3-deficient mice (Sik3-/-), we observed that circadian rhythmicity of the metabolisms was phase-delayed. Sik3-/- mice also exhibited other circadian abnormalities, including lengthening of the period, impaired entrainment to the light-dark cycle, phase variation in locomotor activities, and aberrant physiological rhythms. Ex vivosuprachiasmatic nucleus slices from Sik3-/- mice exhibited destabilized and desynchronized molecular rhythms among individual neurons...
December 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223770/rhythmic-facilitation-of-sensory-processing-a-critical-review
#7
REVIEW
Saskia Haegens, Elana Zion Golumbic
Here we review the role of brain oscillations in sensory processing. We examine the idea that neural entrainment of intrinsic oscillations underlies the processing of rhythmic stimuli in the context of simple isochronous rhythms as well as in music and speech. This has been a topic of growing interest over recent years; however, many issues remain highly controversial: how do fluctuations of intrinsic neural oscillations-both spontaneous and entrained to external stimuli-affect perception, and does this occur automatically or can it be actively controlled by top-down factors? Some of the controversy in the literature stems from confounding use of terminology...
December 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201058/comparing-circadian-dynamics-in-primary-derived-stem-cells-from-different-sources-of-human-adult-tissue
#8
Eve H Rogers, Sandra A Fawcett, Vanja Pekovic-Vaughan, John A Hunt
Optimising cell/tissue constructs so that they can be successfully accepted and integrated within a host body is essential in modern tissue engineering. To do this, adult stem cells are frequently utilised, but there are many aspects of their environment in vivo that are not completely understood. There is evidence to suggest that circadian rhythms and daily circadian temporal cues have substantial effects on stem cell activation, cell cycle, and differentiation. It was hypothesised that the circadian rhythm in human adult stem cells differs depending on the source of tissue and that different entraining signals exert differential effects depending on the anatomical source...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191770/auditory-motor-coupling-affects-phonetic-encoding
#9
Maren Schmidt-Kassow, Katharina Thöne, Jochen Kaiser
Recent studies have shown that moving in synchrony with auditory stimuli boosts attention allocation and verbal learning. Furthermore rhythmic tones are processed more efficiently than temporally random tones ('timing effect'), and this effect is increased when participants actively synchronize their motor performance with the rhythm of the tones, resulting in auditory-motor synchronization. Here, we investigated whether this applies also to sequences of linguistic stimuli (syllables). We compared temporally irregular syllable sequences with two temporally regular conditions where either the interval between syllable onsets (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA) or the interval between the syllables' vowel onsets was kept constant...
November 27, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176669/modulation-of-individual-auditory-motor-coordination-dynamics-through-interpersonal-visual-coupling
#10
Kohei Miyata, Manuel Varlet, Akito Miura, Kazutoshi Kudo, Peter E Keller
The current study investigated whether visual coupling between two people producing dance-related movements (requiring whole-body auditory-motor coordination) results in interpersonal entrainment and modulates individual auditory-motor coordination dynamics. Paired participants performed two kinds of coordination tasks - either knee flexion or extension repeatedly with metronome beats (Flexion-on-the-beat and Extension-on-the-beat conditions) while standing face-to-face or back-to-back to manipulate visual interaction...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170070/dynamic-phase-alignment-of-ongoing-auditory-cortex-oscillations
#11
Anna-Katharina R Bauer, Martin G Bleichner, Manuela Jaeger, Jeremy D Thorne, Stefan Debener
Neural oscillations can synchronize to external rhythmic stimuli, as for example in speech and music. While previous studies have mainly focused on elucidating the fundamental concept of neural entrainment, less is known about the time course of entrainment. In this human electroencephalography (EEG) study, we unravel the temporal evolution of neural entrainment by contrasting short and long periods of rhythmic stimulation. Listeners had to detect short silent gaps that were systematically distributed with respect to the phase of a 3 Hz frequency-modulated tone...
November 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167122/burst-patterning-of-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-driven-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-angiotensin-ii-salt-hypertension
#12
Walter W Holbein, Megan Bardgett Blackburn, Mary Ann Andrade, Glenn M Toney
Angiotensin II-salt hypertension (AngII-salt HTN) selectively increases splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (sSNA), but the extent to which this reflects increased respiratory versus cardiac rhythmic bursting is unknown. Here, integrated sSNA was elevated in AngII infused rats fed a high salt (2% NaCl) diet (AngII-HSD) compared to vehicle infused rats fed a normal salt (0.4% NaCl) diet (Veh-NSD) (P<0.01). Increased sSNA was not accompanied by increased inspiratory or expiratory bursting, consistent with no group difference in central inspiratory drive...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165002/adrenal-dependent-and-independent-stress-induced-per1-mrna-in-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-and-prefrontal-cortex-of-male-and-female-rats
#13
Lauren E Chun, Jenny Christensen, Elizabeth R Woodruff, Sarah J Morton, Laura R Hinds, Robert L Spencer
Oscillating clock gene expression gives rise to a molecular clock that is present not only in the body's master circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but also in extra-SCN brain regions. These extra-SCN molecular clocks depend on the SCN for entrainment to a light:dark cycle. The SCN has limited neural efferents, so it may entrain extra-SCN molecular clocks through its well-established circadian control of glucocorticoid hormone secretion. Glucocorticoids can regulate the normal rhythmic expression of clock genes in some extra-SCN tissues...
November 22, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157002/effects-of-circadian-clock-protein-per1b-on-zebrafish-visual-functions
#14
Ke Nie, Kun Wang, Deng-Feng Huang, Yu-Bin Huang, Wu Yin, Da-Long Ren, Han Wang, Bing Hu
The circadian clock is an endogenous and entrainable time-keeping mechanism with a period of approximately 24 h, operated by transcription/translation feedback loops composed of circadian clock genes and their proteins. The visual system displays robust circadian changes. Relatively little, however, is known about the mechanisms underlying visual circadian rhythmicity. Zebrafish period1b (per1b), as a canonical circadian clock gene, is involved in circadian regulation. Here, we observed that zebrafish per1b mutants exhibit visual defects including reduced behavioral contrast sensitivity and significant retinal dopaminergic deficiency...
November 20, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153327/auditory-sensitivity-and-decision-criteria-oscillate-at-different-frequencies-separately-for-the-two-ears
#15
Hao Tam Ho, Johahn Leung, David C Burr, David Alais, Maria Concetta Morrone
Many behavioral measures of visual perception fluctuate continually in a rhythmic manner, reflecting the influence of endogenous brain oscillations, particularly theta (∼4-7 Hz) and alpha (∼8-12 Hz) rhythms [1-3]. However, it is unclear whether these oscillations are unique to vision or whether auditory performance also oscillates [4, 5]. Several studies report no oscillatory modulation in audition [6, 7], while those with positive findings suffer from confounds relating to neural entrainment [8-10]. Here, we used a bilateral pitch-identification task to investigate rhythmic fluctuations in auditory performance separately for the two ears and applied signal detection theory (SDT) to test for oscillations of both sensitivity and criterion (changes in decision boundary) [11, 12]...
November 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146445/interplay-between-daily-rhythmic-serum-mediated-bacterial-killing-activity-and-immune-defence-factors-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#16
Carlo C Lazado, Manuel Gesto, Lone Madsen, Alfred Jokumsen
Circadian rhythm is emerging as an important regulator of immune functions. However, there is a paucity of information on the influence of this biological phenomenon in the antimicrobial factors in teleost fish. This study investigated the dynamics and interplay of serum-mediated bacterial killing activity and immune defence factors throughout the light:dark (LD) cycle in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The juvenile fish came from two different emergence time fractions (i.e., late and early) that were believed to exhibit behavioural and physiological differences...
November 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142322/bilateral-5%C3%A2-hz-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-on-fronto-temporal-areas-modulates-resting-state-eeg
#17
Aurora D'Atri, Claudia Romano, Maurizio Gorgoni, Serena Scarpelli, Valentina Alfonsi, Michele Ferrara, Fabio Ferlazzo, Paolo Maria Rossini, Luigi De Gennaro
Rhythmic non-invasive brain stimulations are promising tools to modulate brain activity by entraining neural oscillations in specific cortical networks. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility to influence the neural circuits of the wake-sleep transition in awake subjects via a bilateral transcranial alternating current stimulation at 5 Hz (θ-tACS) on fronto-temporal areas. 25 healthy volunteers participated in two within-subject sessions (θ-tACS and sham), one week apart and in counterbalanced order...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099875/daily-rhythms-and-enrichment-patterns-in-the-transcriptome-of-the-behavior-manipulating-parasite-ophiocordyceps-kimflemingiae
#18
Charissa de Bekker, Ian Will, David P Hughes, Andreas Brachmann, Martha Merrow
Various parasite-host interactions that involve adaptive manipulation of host behavior display time-of-day synchronization of certain events. One example is the manipulated biting behavior observed in Carpenter ants infected with Ophiocordyceps unilateralis sensu lato. We hypothesized that biological clocks play an important role in this and other parasite-host interactions. In order to identify candidate molecular clock components, we used two general strategies: bioinformatics and transcriptional profiling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093545/entrainment-of-voluntary-movement-to-undetected-auditory-regularities
#19
Aaron Schurger, Nathan Faivre, Leila Cammoun, Bianca Trovó, Olaf Blanke
In physics "entrainment" refers to the synchronization of two coupled oscillators with similar fundamental frequencies. In behavioral science, entrainment refers to the tendency of humans to synchronize their movements with rhythmic stimuli. Here, we asked whether human subjects performing a tapping task would entrain their tapping to an undetected auditory rhythm surreptitiously introduced in the guise of ambient background noise in the room. Subjects performed two different tasks, one in which they tapped their finger at a steady rate of their own choosing and one in which they performed a single abrupt finger tap on each trial after a delay of their own choosing...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049001/effects-of-melatonin-on-mechanisms-involved-in-hypertension-using-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#20
Guangfang Shao, Suping Zhang, Jihua Nie, Jianxiang Li, Jian Tong
Changes in diurnal rhythmicity in blood pressure (BP) are associated with hypertension and consequent cardiovascular damage. The involvement of diurnal rhythmicity as a pathogenic factor in hypertension is not fully understood. Since the hormone melatonin (MLT) regulates circadian rhythm, it was also of interest to determine whether this hormone played a role in hypertension-related alterations in circadian rhythm. Thus the aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms underlying MLT-mediated antihypertension...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
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