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rhythmic entrainment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098350/endogenous-circadian-rhythms-in-pigment-composition-induce-changes-in-photochemical-efficiency-in-plant-canopies
#1
José Ignacio García-Plazaola, Beatriz Fernández-Marín, Juan Pedro Ferrio, Josu G Alday, Günter Hoch, Damien Landais, Alexandru Milcu, David T Tissue, Jordi Voltas, Arthur Gessler, Jacques Roy, Víctor Resco de Dios
There is increasing evidence that the circadian clock is a significant driver of photosynthesis that becomes apparent when environmental cues are experimentally held constant. We studied whether the composition of photosynthetic pigments is under circadian regulation, and whether pigment oscillations lead to rhythmic changes in photochemical efficiency. To address these questions, canopies of bean and cotton were maintained, after an entrainment phase, under constant (light or darkness) conditions for 30-48 h...
January 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069444/rhythmic-entrainment-as-a-musical-affect-induction-mechanism
#2
REVIEW
W Trost, C Labbé, D Grandjean
One especially important feature of metrical music is that it contains periodicities that listeners' bodily rhythms can adapt to. Recent psychological frameworks have introduced the notion of rhythmic entrainment, among other mechanisms, as an emotion induction principle. In this review paper, we discuss rhythmic entrainment as an affect induction mechanism by differentiating four levels of entrainment in humans-perceptual, autonomic physiological, motor, and social-all of which could contribute to a subjective feeling component...
January 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054814/entrainment-to-an-auditory-signal-is-attention-involved
#3
Richard Kunert, Suzanne R Jongman
Many natural auditory signals, including music and language, change periodically. The effect of such auditory rhythms on the brain is unclear however. One widely held view, dynamic attending theory, proposes that the attentional system entrains to the rhythm and increases attention at moments of rhythmic salience. In support, 2 experiments reported here show reduced response times to visual letter strings shown at auditory rhythm peaks, compared with rhythm troughs. However, we argue that an account invoking the entrainment of general attention should further predict rhythm entrainment to also influence memory for visual stimuli...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031289/attenuated-pupillary-light-responses-and-downregulation-of-opsin-expression-parallel-decline-in-circadian-disruption-in-two-different-mouse-models-of-huntington-s-disease
#4
Koliane Ouk, Steven Hughes, Carina A Pothecary, Stuart N Peirson, A Jennifer Morton
Circadian deficits in Huntington's disease (HD) are recapitulated in both fragment (R6/2) and full-length (Q175) mouse models of HD. Circadian rhythms are regulated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the hypothalamus, which are primarily entrained by light detected by the retina. The SCN receives input from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) that express the photopigment melanopsin, but also receive input from rods and cones. In turn, ipRGCs mediate a range of non-image forming responses to light including circadian entrainment and the pupillary light response (PLR)...
December 27, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998755/circadian-rhythms-accelerate-wound-healing-in-female-siberian-hamsters
#5
Erin J Cable, Kenneth G Onishi, Brian J Prendergast
Circadian rhythms (CRs) provide temporal regulation and coordination of numerous physiological traits, including immune function. CRs in multiple aspects of immune function are absent in rodents that have been rendered circadian-arrhythmic through various methods. In Siberian hamsters, circadian arrhythmia can be induced by disruptive light treatments (DPS). Here we examined CRs in wound healing, and the effects of circadian disruption on wound healing in DPS-arrhythmic hamsters. Circadian entrained/rhythmic (RHYTH) and behaviorally-arrhythmic (ARR) female hamsters were administered a cutaneous wound either 3h after light onset (ZT03) or 2h after dark onset (ZT18); wound size was quantified daily using image analyses...
December 17, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997999/behavior-dependent-activity-patterns-of-gabaergic-long-range-projecting-neurons-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#6
Linda Katona, Ben Micklem, Zsolt Borhegyi, Daniel A Swiejkowski, Ornella Valenti, Tim J Viney, Dimitrios Kotzadimitriou, Thomas Klausberger, Peter Somogyi
Long-range glutamatergic and GABAergic projections participate in temporal coordination of neuronal activity in distributed cortical areas. In the hippocampus, GABAergic neurons project to the medial septum and retrohippocampal areas. Many GABAergic projection cells express somatostatin (SOM+) and, together with locally terminating SOM+ bistratified and O-LM cells, contribute to dendritic inhibition of pyramidal cells. We tested the hypothesis that diversity in SOM+ cells reflects temporal specialization during behavior using extracellular single cell recording and juxtacellular neurobiotin-labeling in freely moving rats...
December 20, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997028/differential-sensitivity-to-ethanol-induced-circadian-rhythm-disruption-in-adolescent-and-adult-mice
#7
Christina L Ruby, Kaitlyn N Palmer, Jiawen Zhang, Megan O Risinger, Melissa A Butkowski, H Scott Swartzwelder
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence supports a central role for the circadian system in alcohol use disorders, but few studies have examined this relationship during adolescence. In mammals, circadian rhythms are regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a biological clock whose timing is synchronized (reset) to the environment primarily by light (photic) input. Alcohol (ethanol [EtOH]) disrupts circadian timing in part by attenuating photic phase-resetting responses in adult rodents. However, circadian rhythms change throughout life and it is not yet known whether EtOH has similar effects on circadian regulation during adolescence...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990557/intracerebral-evidence-of-rhythm-transform-in-the-human-auditory-cortex
#8
Sylvie Nozaradan, André Mouraux, Jacques Jonas, Sophie Colnat-Coulbois, Bruno Rossion, Louis Maillard
Musical entrainment is shared by all human cultures and the perception of a periodic beat is a cornerstone of this entrainment behavior. Here, we investigated whether beat perception might have its roots in the earliest stages of auditory cortical processing. Local field potentials were recorded from 8 patients implanted with depth-electrodes in Heschl's gyrus and the planum temporale (55 recording sites in total), usually considered as human primary and secondary auditory cortices. Using a frequency-tagging approach, we show that both low-frequency (<30 Hz) and high-frequency (>30 Hz) neural activities in these structures faithfully track auditory rhythms through frequency-locking to the rhythm envelope...
December 18, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981912/probing-the-human-spinal-locomotor-circuits-by-phasic-step-induced-feedback-and-by-tonic-electrical-and-pharmacological-neuromodulation
#9
Ursula S Hofstoetter, Maria Knikou, Pierre A Guertin, Karen Minassian
The mammalian lumbar spinal cord experimentally isolated from supraspinal and afferent feedback input remains capable of expressing some basic locomotor function when appropriately stimulated. This ability has been attributed to spinal neural circuits referred to as central pattern generators (CPGs). In individuals with a severe spinal cord injury, rhythmic activity in paralyzed leg muscles can be generated by phasic proprioceptive feedback during therapist- or robotic-assisted stepping on a motorized treadmill...
December 14, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916666/rhythmic-entrainment-source-separation-optimizing-analyses-of-neural-responses-to-rhythmic-sensory-stimulation
#10
Michael X Cohen, Rasa Gulbinaite
Steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs) are rhythmic brain responses to rhythmic sensory stimulation, and are often used to study perceptual and attentional processes. We present a data analysis method for maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the narrow-band steady-state response in the frequency and time-frequency domains. The method, termed rhythmic entrainment source separation (RESS), is based on denoising source separation approaches that take advantage of the simultaneous but differential projection of neural activity to multiple electrodes or sensors...
December 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903440/auditory-cortical-delta-entrainment-interacts-with-oscillatory-power-in-multiple-fronto-parietal-networks
#11
Anne Keitel, Robin A A Ince, Joachim Gross, Christoph Kayser
The timing of slow auditory cortical activity aligns to the rhythmic fluctuations in speech. This entrainment is considered to be a marker of the prosodic and syllabic encoding of speech, and has been shown to correlate with intelligibility. Yet, whether and how auditory cortical entrainment is influenced by the activity in other speech-relevant areas remains unknown. Using source-localized MEG data, we quantified the dependency of auditory entrainment on the state of oscillatory activity in fronto-parietal regions...
November 27, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885004/circadian-time-signatures-of-fitness-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Joseph Bass, Mitchell A Lazar
Biological clocks are autonomous anticipatory oscillators that play a critical role in the organization and information processing from genome to whole organisms. Transformative advances into the clock system have opened insight into fundamental mechanisms through which clocks program energy transfer from sunlight into organic matter and potential energy, in addition to cell development and genotoxic stress response. The identification of clocks in nearly every single cell of the body raises questions as to how this gives rise to rhythmic physiology in multicellular organisms and how environmental signals entrain clocks to geophysical time...
November 25, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883065/cycles-of-circadian-illuminance-are-sufficient-to-entrain-and-maintain-circadian-locomotor-rhythms-in-drosophila
#13
Eunjoo Cho, Ji Hye Oh, Euna Lee, Young Rag Do, Eun Young Kim
Light at night disrupts the circadian clock and causes serious health problems in the modern world. Here, we show that newly developed four-package light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can provide harmless lighting at night. To quantify the effects of light on the circadian clock, we employed the concept of circadian illuminance (CIL). CIL represents the amount of light weighted toward the wavelengths to which the circadian clock is most sensitive, whereas visual illuminance (VIL) represents the total amount of visible light...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880762/unexpected-diversity-in-socially-synchronized-rhythms-of-shorebirds
#14
Martin Bulla, Mihai Valcu, Adriaan M Dokter, Alexei G Dondua, András Kosztolányi, Anne L Rutten, Barbara Helm, Brett K Sandercock, Bruce Casler, Bruno J Ens, Caleb S Spiegel, Chris J Hassell, Clemens Küpper, Clive Minton, Daniel Burgas, David B Lank, David C Payer, Egor Y Loktionov, Erica Nol, Eunbi Kwon, Fletcher Smith, H River Gates, Hana Vitnerová, Hanna Prüter, James A Johnson, James J H St Clair, Jean-François Lamarre, Jennie Rausch, Jeroen Reneerkens, Jesse R Conklin, Joanna Burger, Joe Liebezeit, Joël Bêty, Jonathan T Coleman, Jordi Figuerola, Jos C E W Hooijmeijer, José A Alves, Joseph A M Smith, Karel Weidinger, Kari Koivula, Ken Gosbell, Klaus-Michael Exo, Larry Niles, Laura Koloski, Laura McKinnon, Libor Praus, Marcel Klaassen, Marie-Andrée Giroux, Martin Sládeček, Megan L Boldenow, Michael I Goldstein, Miroslav Šálek, Nathan Senner, Nelli Rönkä, Nicolas Lecomte, Olivier Gilg, Orsolya Vincze, Oscar W Johnson, Paul A Smith, Paul F Woodard, Pavel S Tomkovich, Phil F Battley, Rebecca Bentzen, Richard B Lanctot, Ron Porter, Sarah T Saalfeld, Scott Freeman, Stephen C Brown, Stephen Yezerinac, Tamás Székely, Tomás Montalvo, Theunis Piersma, Vanessa Loverti, Veli-Matti Pakanen, Wim Tijsen, Bart Kempenaers
The behavioural rhythms of organisms are thought to be under strong selection, influenced by the rhythmicity of the environment. Such behavioural rhythms are well studied in isolated individuals under laboratory conditions, but free-living individuals have to temporally synchronize their activities with those of others, including potential mates, competitors, prey and predators. Individuals can temporally segregate their daily activities (for example, prey avoiding predators, subordinates avoiding dominants) or synchronize their activities (for example, group foraging, communal defence, pairs reproducing or caring for offspring)...
December 1, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867090/visual-cortex-responses-reflect-temporal-structure-of-continuous-quasi-rhythmic-sensory-stimulation
#15
Christian Keitel, Gregor Thut, Joachim Gross
Neural processing of dynamic continuous visual input, and cognitive influences thereon, are frequently studied in paradigms employing strictly rhythmic stimulation. However, the temporal structure of natural stimuli is hardly ever fully rhythmic but possesses certain spectral bandwidths (e.g. lip movements in speech, gestures). Examining periodic brain responses elicited by strictly rhythmic stimulation might thus represent ideal, yet isolated cases. Here, we tested how the visual system reflects quasi-rhythmic stimulation with frequencies continuously varying within ranges of classical theta (4-7Hz), alpha (8-13Hz) and beta bands (14-20Hz) using EEG...
November 17, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849618/circadian-rhythms-identified-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-by-in-vivo-long-term-monitoring-of-a-bioluminescent-reporter
#16
María Eugenia Goya, Andrés Romanowski, Carlos S Caldart, Claire Y Bénard, Diego A Golombek
Circadian rhythms are based on endogenous clocks that allow organisms to adjust their physiology and behavior by entrainment to the solar day and, in turn, to select the optimal times for most biological variables. Diverse model systems-including mice, flies, fungi, plants, and bacteria-have provided important insights into the mechanisms of circadian rhythmicity. However, the general principles that govern the circadian clock of Caenorhabditis elegans have remained largely elusive. Here we report robust molecular circadian rhythms in C elegans recorded with a bioluminescence assay in vivo and demonstrate the main features of the circadian system of the nematode...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849154/activity-of-the-c-elegans-egg-laying-behavior-circuit-is-controlled-by-competing-activation-and-feedback-inhibition
#17
Kevin M Collins, Addys Bode, Robert W Fernandez, Jessica E Tanis, Jacob C Brewer, Matthew S Creamer, Michael R Koelle
Like many behaviors, Caenorhabditis elegans egg laying alternates between inactive and active states. To understand how the underlying neural circuit turns the behavior on and off, we optically recorded circuit activity in behaving animals while manipulating circuit function using mutations, optogenetics, and drugs. In the active state, the circuit shows rhythmic activity phased with the body bends of locomotion. The serotonergic HSN command neurons initiate the active state, but accumulation of unlaid eggs also promotes the active state independent of the HSNs...
November 16, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824104/degeneration-and-energy-shortage-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-underlies-the-circadian-rhythm-disturbance-in-apoe-mice-implications-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Lan Zhou, Qian Gao, Meng Nie, Jing-Li Gu, Wei Hao, Lin Wang, Ji-Min Cao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients suffer sleep disorders and circadian rhythm disturbances (CRDs). The underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood, and treatments are lacking. In this study, we characterized the locomotor activity, clock gene expression, morphological degeneration and energy metabolism of suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), together with retinal light sensing, in ApoE(-/-) mice, a model for AD. Compared with the control C57BL/6J mice, ApoE(-/-) mice exhibited disordered circadian locomotor activity under dim light and constant darkness, with impaired re-entrainment to phase change schedules...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799079/what-is-orgasm-a-model-of-sexual-trance-and-climax-via-rhythmic-entrainment
#19
Adam Safron
Orgasm is one of the most intense pleasures attainable to an organism, yet its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. On the basis of existing literatures, this article introduces a novel mechanistic model of sexual stimulation and orgasm. In doing so, it characterizes the neurophenomenology of sexual trance and climax, describes parallels in dynamics between orgasms and seizures, speculates on possible evolutionary origins of sex differences in orgasmic responding, and proposes avenues for future experimentation...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791392/impact-of-ataxin-2-knock-out-on-circadian-locomotor-behavior-and-per-immunoreaction-in-the-scn-of-mice
#20
Martina Pfeffer, Suzana Gispert, Georg Auburger, Helmut Wicht, Horst-Werner Korf
In Drosophila melanogaster, Ataxin-2 is a crucial activator of Period and is involved in the control of circadian rhythms. However, in mammals the function of Ataxin-2 is unknown despite its involvement in the inherited neurogenerative disease Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 2 in humans. Therefore, we analyzed locomotor behavior of Atxn2-deficient mice and their WT littermates under entrained- and free-running conditions as well as after experimental jet lag. Furthermore, we compared the PER1 and PER2 immunoreaction (IR) in the SCN...
October 28, 2016: Chronobiology International
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