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rhythmic entrainment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623226/entraining-to-the-polar-day-circadian-rhythms-in-arctic-ground-squirrels
#1
Cory T Williams, Brian M Barnes, Lily Yan, C Loren Buck
Circadian systems are principally entrained to 24h light/dark cycles, but this cue is seasonally absent in polar environments. Although some resident polar vertebrates have weak circadian clocks and are seasonally arrhythmic, the arctic ground squirrel (AGS) maintains daily rhythms of physiology and behavior throughout the summer, which includes six weeks of constant daylight. Here, we show that persistent daily rhythms in AGS are maintained through a circadian system that readily entrains to the polar day yet remains insensitive to entrainment by rapid light-dark transitions, which AGS generate naturally due to their semi-fossorial behavior...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603483/oscillatory-mechanisms-of-stimulus-processing-and-selection-in-the-visual-and-auditory-systems-state-of-the-art-speculations-and-suggestions
#2
REVIEW
Benedikt Zoefel, Rufin VanRullen
All sensory systems need to continuously prioritize and select incoming stimuli in order to avoid overflow or interference, and provide a structure to the brain's input. However, the characteristics of this input differ across sensory systems; therefore, and as a direct consequence, each sensory system might have developed specialized strategies to cope with the continuous stream of incoming information. Neural oscillations are intimately connected with this selection process, as they can be used by the brain to rhythmically amplify or attenuate input and therefore represent an optimal tool for stimulus selection...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585194/circadian-rhythms-in-diet-induced-obesity
#3
Atilla Engin
The biological clocks of the circadian timing system coordinate cellular and physiological processes and synchronizes these with daily cycles, feeding patterns also regulates circadian clocks. The clock genes and adipocytokines show circadian rhythmicity. Dysfunction of these genes are involved in the alteration of these adipokines during the development of obesity. Food availability promotes the stimuli associated with food intake which is a circadian oscillator outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559379/neural-entrainment-to-the-beat-the-missing-pulse-phenomenon
#4
Idan Tal, Edward W Large, Eshed Rabinovitch, Yi Wei, Charles E Schroeder, David Poeppel, Elana Zion Golumbic
Most humans have a near-automatic inclination to tap, clap or move to the beat of music. The capacity to extract a periodic beat from a complex musical segment is remarkable, as it requires abstraction from the temporal structure of the stimulus. It has been suggested that nonlinear interactions in neural networks result in cortical oscillations at the beat frequency, and that such entrained oscillations gives rise to the percept of a beat, or a pulse Here we tested this "Neural Resonance Theory" using MEG recordings as female and male individuals listened to 30-second long sequences of complex syncopated drumbeats designed such that they contain no net energy at the pulse frequency when measured using linear analysis...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559320/visual-cortex-entrains-to-sign-language
#5
Geoffrey Brookshire, Jenny Lu, Howard C Nusbaum, Susan Goldin-Meadow, Daniel Casasanto
Despite immense variability across languages, people can learn to understand any human language, spoken or signed. What neural mechanisms allow people to comprehend language across sensory modalities? When people listen to speech, electrophysiological oscillations in auditory cortex entrain to slow ([Formula: see text]8 Hz) fluctuations in the acoustic envelope. Entrainment to the speech envelope may reflect mechanisms specialized for auditory perception. Alternatively, flexible entrainment may be a general-purpose cortical mechanism that optimizes sensitivity to rhythmic information regardless of modality...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558035/oscillating-pdf-in-termini-of-circadian-pacemaker-neurons-and-synchronous-molecular-clocks-in-downstream-neurons-are-not-sufficient-for-sustenance-of-activity-rhythms-in-constant-darkness
#6
Pavitra Prakash, Aishwarya Nambiar, Vasu Sheeba
In Drosophila, neuropeptide Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF) is expressed in small and large ventral Lateral Neurons (sLNv and lLNv), among which sLNv are critical for activity rhythms in constant darkness. Studies show that this is mediated by rhythmic accumulation and likely secretion of PDF from sLNv dorsal projections, which in turn synchronises molecular oscillations in downstream circadian neurons. Using targeted expression of a neurodegenerative protein Huntingtin in LNv, we evoke a selective loss of neuropeptide PDF and clock protein PERIOD from sLNv soma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516429/cardinal-epigenetic-role-of-non-coding-regulatory-rnas-in-circadian-rhythm
#7
REVIEW
Utpal Bhadra, Pradipta Patra, Manika Pal-Bhadra
Circadian rhythm which governs basic physiological activities like sleeping, feeding and energy consumption is regulated by light-controlled central clock genes in the pacemaker neuron. The timekeeping machinery with unique transcriptional and post-transcriptional feedback loops is controlled by different small regulatory RNAs in the brain. Roles of the multiple neuronal genes, especially post-transcriptional regulation, splicing, polyadenylation, mature mRNA editing, and stability of translation products, are controlled by epigenetic activities orchestrated via small RNAs...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482939/daytime-restricted-feeding-modifies-the-daily-regulation-of-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-and-the-lipoprotein-profile-in-rats
#8
J B Rivera-Zavala, C Molina-Aguilar, M Pérez-Mendoza, M Olguín-Martínez, R Hernández-Muñoz, G A Báez-Ruiz, M Díaz-Muñoz
Daytime restricted feeding (2 h of food access from 12.00 to 14.00 hours for 3 weeks) is an experimental protocol that modifies the relationship between metabolic networks and the circadian molecular clock. The precise anatomical locus that controls the biochemical and physiological adaptations to optimise nutrient use is unknown. We explored the changes in liver oxidative lipid handling, such as β-oxidation and its regulation, as well as adaptations in the lipoprotein profile. It was found that daytime restricted feeding promoted an elevation of circulating ketone bodies before mealtime, an altered hepatic daily rhythmicity of 14CO2 production from radioactive palmitic acid, and an up-regulation of the fatty acid oxidation activators, the α-subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the deacetylase silent mating type information regulation homolog 1, and the transcriptional factor PPARγ-1α coactivator...
May 9, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469414/the-synergistic-role-of-light-feeding-phase-relations-on-entraining-robust-circadian-rhythms-in-the-periphery
#9
Seul-A Bae, Ioannis P Androulakis
The feeding and fasting cycles are strong behavioral signals that entrain biological rhythms of the periphery. The feeding rhythms synchronize the activities of the metabolic organs, such as liver, synergistically with the light/dark cycle primarily entraining the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The likely phase misalignment between the feeding rhythms and the light/dark cycles appears to induce circadian disruptions leading to multiple physiological abnormalities motivating the need to investigate the mechanisms behind joint light-feeding circadian entrainment of peripheral tissues...
2017: Gene Regulation and Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449894/young-children-with-down-syndrome-show-normal-development-of-circadian-rhythms-but-poor-sleep-efficiency-a-cross-sectional-study-across-the-first-60-months-of-life
#10
Fabian Fernandez, Casandra C Nyhuis, Payal Anand, Bianca I Demara, Norman F Ruby, Goffredina Spanò, Caron Clark, Jamie O Edgin
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate sleep consolidation and circadian activity rhythms in infants and toddlers with Down syndrome (DS) under light and socially entrained conditions within a familiar setting. Given previous human and animal data suggesting intact circadian regulation of melatonin across the day and night, it was hypothesized that behavioral indices of circadian rhythmicity would likewise be intact in the sample with DS. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 66 infants and young children with DS, aged 5-67 months, and 43 typically developing age-matched controls...
May 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446864/neural-entrainment-to-polyrhythms-a-comparison-of-musicians-and-non-musicians
#11
Jan Stupacher, Guilherme Wood, Matthias Witte
Music can be thought of as a dynamic path over time. In most cases, the rhythmic structure of this path, such as specific sequences of strong and weak beats or recurring patterns, allows us to predict what and particularly when sounds are going to happen. Without this ability we would not be able to entrain body movements to music, like we do when we dance. By combining EEG and behavioral measures, the current study provides evidence illustrating the importance of ongoing neural oscillations at beat-related frequencies-i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446580/entrainment-of-visual-steady-state-responses-is-modulated-by-global-spatial-statistics
#12
Thomas Nguyen, Karl Kuntzelman, Vladimir Miskovic
The rhythmic delivery of visual stimuli evokes large-scale neuronal entrainment in the form of steady-state oscillatory field responses. The spatio-temporal properties of stimulus drive appear to constrain the relative degrees of neuronal entrainment. Specific frequency ranges, for example, are uniquely suited for enhancing the strength of stimulus-driven brain oscillations. When it comes to the nature of the visual stimulus itself, studies have used a plethora of inputs ranging from spatially unstructured empty fields to simple contrast patterns (checkerboards, gratings, stripes) and complex arrays (human faces, houses, natural scenes)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441393/sequence-learning-modulates-neural-responses-and-oscillatory-coupling-in-human-and-monkey-auditory-cortex
#13
Yukiko Kikuchi, Adam Attaheri, Benjamin Wilson, Ariane E Rhone, Kirill V Nourski, Phillip E Gander, Christopher K Kovach, Hiroto Kawasaki, Timothy D Griffiths, Matthew A Howard, Christopher I Petkov
Learning complex ordering relationships between sensory events in a sequence is fundamental for animal perception and human communication. While it is known that rhythmic sensory events can entrain brain oscillations at different frequencies, how learning and prior experience with sequencing relationships affect neocortical oscillations and neuronal responses is poorly understood. We used an implicit sequence learning paradigm (an "artificial grammar") in which humans and monkeys were exposed to sequences of nonsense words with regularities in the ordering relationships between the words...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440738/restricted-feeding-modulates-the-daily-variations-of-liver-glutamate-dehydrogenase-activity-expression-and-histological-location
#14
Olivia Vázquez-Martínez, Isabel Méndez, Isaías Turrubiate, Héctor Valente-Godínez, Moisés Pérez-Mendoza, Paola García-Tejada, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
Glutamate dehydrogenase is an important enzyme in the hepatic regulation of nitrogen and energy metabolism. It catalyzes one of the most relevant anaplerotic reactions. Although its relevance in liver homeostasis has been widely described, its daily pattern and responsiveness to restricted feeding protocols has not been studied. We explored the daily variations of liver glutamate dehydrogenase transcription, protein, activity, and histochemical and subcellular location in a protocol of daytime food synchronization in rats...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430043/tuning-neural-phase-entrainment-to-speech
#15
Simone Falk, Cosima Lanzilotti, Daniele Schön
Musical rhythm positively impacts on subsequent speech processing. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are so far unclear. We investigated whether carryover effects from a preceding musical cue to a speech stimulus result from a continuation of neural phase entrainment to periodicities that are present in both music and speech. Participants listened and memorized French metrical sentences that contained (quasi-)periodic recurrences of accents and syllables. Speech stimuli were preceded by a rhythmically regular or irregular musical cue...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420965/dopamine-a-modulator-of-circadian-rhythms-in-the-central-nervous-system
#16
REVIEW
Kirill S Korshunov, Laura J Blakemore, Paul Q Trombley
Circadian rhythms are daily rhythms that regulate many biological processes - from gene transcription to behavior - and a disruption of these rhythms can lead to a myriad of health risks. Circadian rhythms are entrained by light, and their 24-h oscillation is maintained by a core molecular feedback loop composed of canonical circadian ("clock") genes and proteins. Different modulators help to maintain the proper rhythmicity of these genes and proteins, and one emerging modulator is dopamine. Dopamine has been shown to have circadian-like activities in the retina, olfactory bulb, striatum, midbrain, and hypothalamus, where it regulates, and is regulated by, clock genes in some of these areas...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412321/egcg-ameliorates-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-associating-with-the-circadian-clock
#17
Yashi Mi, Guoyuan Qi, Rong Fan, Xiaohua Ji, Zhigang Liu, Xuebo Liu
In response to the daily light-dark (LD) cycle, organisms on Earth have evolved with the approximately 24-h endogenous oscillations to coordinate behavioral and physiological processes, including feeding, sleep, and metabolism homeostasis. Circadian desynchrony triggered by an energy-dense diet rich in fats and fructose is intimately connected with a series of metabolic disorders. Previous studies revealed that (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) could mitigate metabolic misalignment; however, only a few reports have focused on its potential effect on directly manipulating circadian rhythms to ameliorate metabolic syndrome...
April 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411273/low-frequency-cortical-oscillations-entrain-to-subthreshold-rhythmic-auditory-stimuli
#18
Sanne Ten Oever, Charles E Schroeder, David Poeppel, Nienke van Atteveldt, Ashesh D Mehta, Pierre Mégevand, David M Groppe, Elana Zion-Golumbic
Many environmental stimuli contain temporal regularities, a feature that can help predict forthcoming input. Phase locking (entrainment) of ongoing low-frequency neuronal oscillations to rhythmic stimuli is proposed as a potential mechanism for enhancing neuronal responses and perceptual sensitivity, by aligning high-excitability phases to events within a stimulus stream. Previous experiments show that rhythmic structure has a behavioral benefit even when the rhythm itself is below perceptual detection thresholds (ten Oever et al...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396622/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-reveals-intrinsic-perceptual-and-attentional-rhythms
#19
REVIEW
Laura Dugué, Rufin VanRullen
Oscillatory brain activity has functional relevance for perceptual and cognitive processes, as proven by numerous electrophysiology studies accumulating over the years. However, only within the past two decades have researchers been able to study the causal role of such oscillations using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technology. Two complementary approaches exist. A majority of research employs rhythmic TMS (rTMS) to entrain oscillatory activity and investigate its effect on targeted brain functions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394475/dynamical-entrainment-of-corticospinal-excitability-during-rhythmic-movement-observation-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#20
Manuel Varlet, Giacomo Novembre, Peter E Keller
Spontaneous modulations of corticospinal excitability during action observation have been interpreted as evidence for the activation of internal motor representations equivalent to the observed action. Alternatively or complementary to this perspective, growing evidence shows that motor activity during observation of rhythmic movements can be modulated by direct visuomotor couplings and dynamical entrainment. In-phase and anti-phase entrainment spontaneously occur, characterized by cyclic movements proceeding simultaneously in the same (in-phase) or opposite (anti-phase) direction...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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