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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324406/a-novel-multi-class-eeg-based-sleep-stage-classification-system
#1
Pejman Memar, Farhad Faradji
Sleep stage classification is one of the most critical steps in effective diagnosis and the treatment of sleep-related disorders. Visual inspection undertaken by sleep experts is a time-consuming and burdensome task. A computer-assisted sleep stage classification system is thus essential for both sleep-related disorders diagnosis and sleep monitoring. In this paper, we propose a system to classify the wake and sleep stages with high rates of sensitivity and specificity. The EEG signals of 25 subjects with suspected sleep-disordered breathing, and the EEG signals of 20 healthy subjects from three data sets are used...
January 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317186/perturbation-of-theta-gamma-coupling-at-the-temporal-lobe-hinders-verbal-declarative-memory
#2
Gabriel Amador de Lara, Ivan Alekseichuk, Zsolt Turi, Albert Lehr, Andrea Antal, Walter Paulus
BACKGROUND: Phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling (PAC) is characterized by the modulation of the power of a fast brain oscillation (e.g., gamma) by the phase of a slow rhythm (e.g., theta). PAC in different sub- and neocortical regions is known to underlie effective neural communication and correlates with successful long-term memory formation. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The present work aims to extend earlier observational data, by probing the functional role of theta-gamma PAC in the left temporal cortex in humans during verbal long-term memory encoding...
December 25, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304108/a-four-state-markov-model-of-sleep-wakefulness-dynamics-along-light-dark-cycle-in-mice
#3
Leonel Perez-Atencio, Nicolas Garcia-Aracil, Eduardo Fernandez, Luis C Barrio, Juan A Barios
Behavioral states alternate between wakefulness (wk), rapid eye movement (rem) and non-rem (nrem) sleep at time scale of hours i.e., light and dark cycle rhythms and from several tens of minutes to seconds (i.e., brief awakenings during sleep). Using statistical analysis of bout duration, Markov chains of sleep-wk dynamics and quantitative EEG analysis, we evaluated the influence of light/dark (ld) changes on brain function along the sleep-wk cycle. Bout duration (bd) histograms and Kaplan-Meier (km) survival curves of wk showed a bimodal statistical distribution, suggesting that two types of wk do exist: brief-wk (wkb) and long-wk (wkl)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298521/neural-correlates-of-phrase-quadrature-perception-in-harmonic-rhythm-an-eeg-study-using-a-brain-computer-interface
#4
Alicia Fernández-Sotos, Arturo Martínez-Rodrigo, José Moncho-Bogani, José Miguel Latorre, Antonio Fernández-Caballero
For the sake of establishing the neural correlates of phrase quadrature perception in harmonic rhythm, a musical experiment has been designed to induce music-evoked stimuli related to one important aspect of harmonic rhythm, namely the phrase quadrature. Brain activity is translated to action through electroencephalography (EEG) by using a brain-computer interface. The power spectral value of each EEG channel is estimated to obtain how power variance distributes as a function of frequency. The results of processing the acquired signals are in line with previous studies that use different musical parameters to induce emotions...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297265/short-term-effects-of-binaural-beats-on-eeg-power-functional-connectivity-cognition-gait-and-anxiety-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Gerardo Gálvez, Manuel Recuero, Leonides Canuet, Francisco Del-Pozo
We applied rhythmic binaural sound to Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients to investigate its influence on several symptoms of this disease and on Electrophysiology (Electrocardiography and Electroencephalography (EEG)). We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled study in which rhythmic binaural beats and control were administered over two randomized and counterbalanced sessions (within-subjects repeated-measures design). Patients ([Formula: see text], age [Formula: see text], stage I-III Hoehn & Yahr scale) participated in two sessions of sound stimulation for 10[Formula: see text]min separated by a minimum of 7 days...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276476/critical-points-and-traveling-wave-in-locomotion-experimental-evidence-and-some-theoretical-considerations
#6
REVIEW
Philippe Saltiel, Andrea d'Avella, Matthew C Tresch, Kuno Wyler, Emilio Bizzi
The central pattern generator (CPG) architecture for rhythm generation remains partly elusive. We compare cat and frog locomotion results, where the component unrelated to pattern formation appears as a temporal grid, and traveling wave respectively. Frog spinal cord microstimulation with N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA), a CPG activator, produced a limited set of force directions, sometimes tonic, but more often alternating between directions similar to the tonic forces. The tonic forces were topographically organized, and sites evoking rhythms with different force subsets were located close to the constituent tonic force regions...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275174/postanoxic-alpha-theta-or-alpha-theta-coma-clinical-setting-and-neurological-outcome
#7
José L Fernández-Torre, Anjana López-Delgado, Miguel A Hernández-Hernández, Alicia Paramio-Paz, Carla Pía-Martínez, Pedro Orizaola, María Martín-García
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prognosis of 26 consecutive adults with alpha coma (AC), theta coma (TC) or alpha-theta coma (ATC) following CRA and to describe the clinical setting and EEG features of these patients. METHODS: We retrospective analyzed a prospectively collected cohort of adult patients diagnosed as having AC, TC or ATC after CRA between January 2008 and June 2016. None of patients included in this analysis underwent therapeutic hypothermia (TH)...
December 21, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262336/hippocampus-and-entorhinal-cortex-recruit-cholinergic-and-nmda-receptors-separately-to-generate-hippocampal-theta-oscillations
#8
Zhenglin Gu, Georgia M Alexander, Serena M Dudek, Jerrel L Yakel
Although much progress has been made in understanding type II theta rhythm generation under urethane anesthesia, less is known about the mechanisms underlying type I theta generation during active exploration. To better understand the contributions of cholinergic and NMDA receptor activation to type I theta generation, we recorded hippocampal theta oscillations from freely moving mice with local infusion of cholinergic or NMDA receptor antagonists to either the hippocampus or the entorhinal cortex (EC). We found that cholinergic receptors in the hippocampus, but not the EC, and NMDA receptors in the EC, but not the hippocampus, are critical for open-field theta generation and Y-maze performance...
December 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259151/hippocampal-prefrontal-theta-gamma-coupling-during-performance-of-a-spatial-working-memory-task
#9
Makoto Tamura, Timothy J Spellman, Andrew M Rosen, Joseph A Gogos, Joshua A Gordon
Cross-frequency coupling supports the organization of brain rhythms and is present during a range of cognitive functions. However, little is known about whether and how long-range cross-frequency coupling across distant brain regions subserves working memory. Here we report that theta-slow gamma coupling between the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is augmented in a genetic mouse model of cognitive dysfunction. This increased cross-frequency coupling is observed specifically when the mice successfully perform a spatial working memory task...
December 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244640/cross-frequency-phase-amplitude-coupling-as-a-mechanism-for-temporal-orienting-of-attention-in-childhood
#10
Giovanni Mento, Duncan E Astle, Gaia Scerif
Temporal orienting of attention operates by biasing the allocation of cognitive and motor resources in specific moments in time, resulting in the improved processing of information from expected compared with unexpected targets. Recent findings have shown that temporal orienting operates relatively early across development, suggesting that this attentional mechanism plays a core role for human cognition. However, the exact neurophysiological mechanisms allowing children to attune their attention over time are not well understood...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218004/decoding-of-self-paced-lower-limb-movement-intention-a-case-study-on-the-influence-factors
#11
Dong Liu, Weihai Chen, Ricardo Chavarriaga, Zhongcai Pei, José Del R Millán
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have been applied as new rehabilitation tools for motor disabled individuals. Active involvement of cerebral activity has been shown to enhance neuroplasticity and thus to restore mobility. Various studies have focused on the detection of upper-limb movement intention, while the fewer study has investigated the lower-limb movement intention decoding. This study presents a BMI to decode the self-paced lower-limb movement intention, with 10 healthy subjects participating in the experiment...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213509/comparative-analysis-of-the-electroencephalogram-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-diffuse-axonal-injury-patients-and-healthy-controls-using-loreta-analysis
#12
Jéssica Natuline Ianof, Francisco José Fraga, Leonardo Alves Ferreira, Renato Teodoro Ramos, José Luiz Carlos Demario, Regina Baratho, Luís Fernando Hindi Basile, Ricardo Nitrini, Renato Anghinah
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a dementia that affects a large contingent of the elderly population characterized by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a non-degenerative injury caused by an external mechanical force. One of the main causes of TBI is diffuse axonal injury (DAI), promoted by acceleration-deceleration mechanisms. Objective: To understand the electroencephalographic differences in functional mechanisms between AD and DAI groups...
April 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213487/traumatic-brain-injury-an-eeg-point-of-view
#13
REVIEW
Jéssica Natuline Ianof, Renato Anghinah
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a silent epidemic. Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) causes brain injury that results in electrophysiologic abnormalities visible on electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. The purpose of this brief review was to discuss the importance of EEG findings in traumatic brain injury. Relevant articles published during the 1996-2016 period were retrieved from Medline (PubMed). The keywords were in English and included "traumatic brain injury", "EEG" and "quantitative EEG". We found 460 articles, analyzed 52 and selected 13 articles...
January 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203678/multiple-oscillatory-rhythms-determine-the-temporal-organization-of-perception
#14
Luca Ronconi, Nikolaas N Oosterhof, Claudia Bonmassar, David Melcher
Incoming sensory input is condensed by our perceptual system to optimally represent and store information. In the temporal domain, this process has been described in terms of temporal windows (TWs) of integration/segregation, in which the phase of ongoing neural oscillations determines whether two stimuli are integrated into a single percept or segregated into separate events. However, TWs can vary substantially, raising the question of whether different TWs map onto unique oscillations or, rather, reflect a single, general fluctuation in cortical excitability (e...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199073/theta-oscillations-in-the-human-medial-temporal-lobe-during-real-world-ambulatory-movement
#15
Zahra M Aghajan, Peter Schuette, Tony A Fields, Michelle E Tran, Sameed M Siddiqui, Nicholas R Hasulak, Thomas K Tcheng, Dawn Eliashiv, Emily A Mankin, John Stern, Itzhak Fried, Nanthia Suthana
The theta rhythm-a slow (6-12 Hz) oscillatory component of the local field potential-plays a critical role in spatial navigation and memory by coordinating the activity of neuronal ensembles within the medial temporal lobe (MTL). Although theta has been extensively studied in freely moving rodents, its presence in humans has been elusive and primarily investigated in stationary subjects. Here we used a unique clinical opportunity to examine theta within the human MTL during untethered, real-world ambulatory movement...
November 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167325/the-modulation-of-hippocampal-theta-rhythm-by-the-vestibular-system
#16
Phillip Aitken, Yiwen Zheng, Paul F Smith
The vestibular system is a sensory system that has evolved over millions of years to detect acceleration of the head, both rotational and translational, in three dimensions. One of its most important functions is to stabilize gaze during unexpected head movement; however, it is also important in the control of posture and autonomic reflexes. Theta rhythm is a 3-12 Hz oscillating EEG signal that is intimately linked to self-motion and is also known to be important in learning and memory. Many studies over the last two decades have shown that selective activation of the vestibular system, either using natural rotational or translational stimulation, or electrical stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system, can induce and modulate theta activity...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157416/the-temporal-dynamics-involved-in-object-representation-updating-to-predict-change
#17
Naomi du Bois, Mark A Elliott
The synchronization of cortically disparate neural assemblies at frequencies in the gamma-band range (30-70Hz) is considered to be involved in the perceptual organization of the environment. In support of this Elliott (2014) demonstrated improved detection of a target stimulus when this target was primed in a matrix that flickered at specific frequencies in the gamma-band range, each found to be separated by regular intervals which correspond with a 6.69Hz period. This can be explained in terms of the interaction of the stimulus (and stimulus-induced) rhythm with a slow endogenous theta rhythm...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157412/behavioral-oscillation-in-face-priming-prediction-about-face-identity-is-updated-at-a-theta-band-rhythm
#18
Yuanye Wang, Huan Luo
In order to deal with external world efficiently, the brain constantly generates predictions about incoming sensory inputs, a process known as "predictive coding." Our recent studies, by employing visual priming paradigms in combination with a time-resolved behavioral measurement, reveal that perceptual predictions about simple features (e.g., left or right orientation) return to low sensory areas not continuously but recurrently in a theta-band (3-4Hz) rhythm. However, it remains unknown whether high-level object processing is also mediated by the oscillatory mechanism and if yes at which rhythm the mechanism works...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153327/auditory-sensitivity-and-decision-criteria-oscillate-at-different-frequencies-separately-for-the-two-ears
#19
Hao Tam Ho, Johahn Leung, David C Burr, David Alais, Maria Concetta Morrone
Many behavioral measures of visual perception fluctuate continually in a rhythmic manner, reflecting the influence of endogenous brain oscillations, particularly theta (∼4-7 Hz) and alpha (∼8-12 Hz) rhythms [1-3]. However, it is unclear whether these oscillations are unique to vision or whether auditory performance also oscillates [4, 5]. Several studies report no oscillatory modulation in audition [6, 7], while those with positive findings suffer from confounds relating to neural entrainment [8-10]. Here, we used a bilateral pitch-identification task to investigate rhythmic fluctuations in auditory performance separately for the two ears and applied signal detection theory (SDT) to test for oscillations of both sensitivity and criterion (changes in decision boundary) [11, 12]...
November 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142322/bilateral-5%C3%A2-hz-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-on-fronto-temporal-areas-modulates-resting-state-eeg
#20
Aurora D'Atri, Claudia Romano, Maurizio Gorgoni, Serena Scarpelli, Valentina Alfonsi, Michele Ferrara, Fabio Ferlazzo, Paolo Maria Rossini, Luigi De Gennaro
Rhythmic non-invasive brain stimulations are promising tools to modulate brain activity by entraining neural oscillations in specific cortical networks. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility to influence the neural circuits of the wake-sleep transition in awake subjects via a bilateral transcranial alternating current stimulation at 5 Hz (θ-tACS) on fronto-temporal areas. 25 healthy volunteers participated in two within-subject sessions (θ-tACS and sham), one week apart and in counterbalanced order...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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