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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926627/tiger-sharks-can-connect-equatorial-habitats-and-fisheries-across-the-atlantic-ocean-basin
#1
André S Afonso, Ricardo Garla, Fábio H V Hazin
Increasing our knowledge about the spatial ecology of apex predators and their interactions with diverse habitats and fisheries is necessary for understanding the trophic mechanisms that underlie several aspects of marine ecosystem dynamics and for guiding informed management policies. A preliminary assessment of tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) population structure off the oceanic insular system of Fernando de Noronha (FEN) and the large-scale movements performed by this species in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean was conducted using longline and handline fishing gear and satellite telemetry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926560/hiv-and-hcv-in-u-s-prisons-and-jails-the-correctional-facility-as-a-bellwether-over-time-for-the-community-s-infections
#2
Anne C Spaulding, Emeli J Anderson, Mohammed A Khan, Cesar A Taborda-Vidarte, Jennifer A Phillips
Screening and treating correctional populations for HIV and HCV infections is essential to successfully addressing both epidemics in the USA. The prevalence of HIV and HCV infection is high in prisons and jails due to increased rates of incarceration among disproportionately affected groups such as injection drug users. Through a search of the published and grey literature and surveying persons overseeing health programs in prisons, we collected data on efforts to determine prevalence first for HIV and then for HCV...
September 19, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926390/misconceptions-misuses-and-misinterpretations-of-p-values-and-significance-testing
#3
Joel J Gagnier, Hal Morgenstern
The interpretation and reporting of p values and significance testing in biomedical research are fraught with misconceptions and inaccuracies. Publications of peer-reviewed research in orthopaedics are not immune to such problems. The American Statistical Association (ASA) recently published an official statement on the use, misuse, and misinterpretation of statistical testing and p values in applied research. The ASA statement discussed 6 principles: (1) "P-values can indicate how incompatible the data are with a specified statistical model...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926033/working-towards-consensus-the-need-for-coordinated-policies-to-assist-control-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-and-emerging-disease-threats-in-south-east-asia
#4
I W Patrick, S Sovann, S Socheat
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is an important transboundary disease in South-East Asia. Its control has been a priority in the region for at least 20 years, with extensive institutional support and capacity-building being provided by the international community through the World Organisation for Animal Health. This paper describes the FMD control and eradication programme in the Mekong region (Myanmar, Thailand, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Cambodia and Vietnam) of South-East Asia and evaluates the FMD control programme in one of the region's countries, namely Cambodia...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926026/conceptual-models-underlying-economic-analysis-of-animal-health-and-welfare-with-the-inclusion-of-three-components-people-products-and-resources
#5
D A Hennessy
Infectious animal diseases can spill across farm boundaries, so effective management requires coordinated responses. Costs and benefits from the management of infectious diseases are such that those who make the decisions have weak incentives to act, the levels of goods and services produced from animal agriculture are probably smaller than is socially optimal and resources are likely wasted. This work provides an overview of the existing literature on conceptual economic models in animal disease management, paying particular attention to inadequate incentives to make the required biosecurity efforts...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926018/assessing-the-extent-and-use-of-risk-analysis-methodologies-in-africa-using-data-derived-from-the-performance-of-veterinary-services-pvs-pathway
#6
P Bastiaensen, D Abernethy, E Etter
African countries that wish to export are increasingly faced with import risk assessments from importing countries concerned about the sources of their imported goods. Other risk analysis methodologies and approaches are also employed, which focus on animal and human health within countries and communities. Based on an analysis of evaluations conducted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), using the Performance of Veterinary Services Tool, the authors attempt to define current practice in Africa and degrees of compliance with the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures ('SPS Agreement') and OIE standards...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926016/policy-analysis-for-delivery-of-contagious-bovine-pleuropneumonia-control-strategies-in-sub-saharan-africa
#7
J O Onono, B Wieland, A Suleiman, J Rushton
This paper presents a policy analysis for the implementation of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) control strategies in pastoral regions of sub-Saharan Africa, where the disease is endemic. A framework for policy analysis was adapted for this review. The framework has eight principal steps: defining the context of the policy, identifying the problem to be addressed by the policy, searching for evidence of the problem, identifying policy options, projecting policy outcomes, evaluating the potential policy options, weighing their outcomes and making the policy decision...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926007/economics-for-assisting-policy-makers-to-take-decisions-about-new-and-endemic-diseases
#8
T E Carpenter
Animal health policy-makers are frequently faced with making decisions concerning the control and exclusion of diseases in livestock and wildlife populations. Economics is one of the tools they have to aid their decision-making. It can enable them to make objective decisions based on the expected costs and benefits of their policy. In addition, economics can help them determine both the distribution impact and the indirect impact of their decisions. However, economics is only one of many tools available to policy-makers, who also need to consider non-economic outcomes in their decision-making process...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924945/hydrogen-fluoride-hf-substance-flow-analysis-for-safe-and-sustainable-chemical-industry
#9
Junbeum Kim, Yongwoo Hwang, Mijin Yoo, Sha Chen, Ik-Mo Lee
In this study, the chemical substance flow of hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, HF) in domestic chemical industries in 2014 was analyzed in order to provide a basic material and information for the establishment of organized management system to ensure safety during HF applications. A total of 44,751 tons of HF was made by four domestic companies (in 2014); import amount was 95,984 tons in 2014 while 21,579 tons of HF was imported in 2005. The export amount of HF was 2180 tons, of which 2074 ton (China, 1422 tons, U...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923915/americans-misperceive-racial-economic-equality
#10
Michael W Kraus, Julian M Rucker, Jennifer A Richeson
The present research documents the widespread misperception of race-based economic equality in the United States. Across four studies (n = 1,377) sampling White and Black Americans from the top and bottom of the national income distribution, participants overestimated progress toward Black-White economic equality, largely driven by estimates of greater current equality than actually exists according to national statistics. Overestimates of current levels of racial economic equality, on average, outstripped reality by roughly 25% and were predicted by greater belief in a just world and social network racial diversity (among Black participants)...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923078/curbing-the-lifestyle-disease-pandemic-making-progress-on-an-interdisciplinary-research-agenda-for-law-and-policy-interventions
#11
Brigit Toebes, Marlies Hesselman, Jitse P van Dijk, Joost Herman
By 2030, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) will be the leading cause of death in every region in the world. While law and policy have an important role to play in curbing this pandemic, our current understanding of how they can most effectively be used is still limited. This contribution identifies a number of gaps in current research and insists on an interdisciplinary research agenda between law, health science and international relations aimed at designing concrete proposals for laws and policies to curb the NCD pandemic, both globally and domestically...
September 18, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922126/functional-contour-following-via-haptic-perception-and-reinforcement-learning
#12
Randall B Hellman, Cem Tekin, Mihaela van der Schaar, Veronica J Santos
Many tasks involve the fine manipulation of objects despite limited visual feedback. In such scenarios, tactile and proprioceptive feedback can be leveraged for task completion. We present an approach for real-time haptic perception and decision-making for a haptics-driven, functional contour-following task: the closure of a ziplock bag. This task is challenging for robots because the bag is deformable, transparent, and visually occluded by artificial fingertip sensors that are also compliant. A deep neural net classifier was trained to estimate the state of a zipper within a robot's pinch grasp...
September 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921637/to-serve-or-not-to-serve-ethical-and-policy-implications
#13
Leonard A Jason
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) is one of the nation's more influential health-related non-profit organizations. It plays a large role in shaping health policy by commissioning panels to develop "white papers" describing research and recommendations on a variety of health topics. These white paper publications are often used to help make policy decisions at the legislative and executive levels. Such a prominent institution might seem like a natural ally for policy-related collaborative efforts. As community psychologists, we strongly endorse efforts to positively influence public policy at the national level...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919795/type-2-diabetes-in-vietnam-a-cross-sectional-prevalence-based-cost-of-illness-study
#14
Nguyen Tu Dang Le, Luyen Dinh Pham, Trung Quang Vo
BACKGROUND: According to the International Diabetes Federation, total global health care expenditures for diabetes tripled between 2003 and 2013 because of increases in the number of people with diabetes as well as in the average expenditures per patient. This study aims to provide accurate and timely information about the economic impacts of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Vietnam. METHOD: The cost-of-illness estimates followed a prospective, prevalence-based approach from the societal perspective of T2DM with 392 selected diabetic patients who received treatment from a public hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, during the 2016 fiscal year...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919222/understanding-active-sampling-strategies-empirical-approaches-and-implications-for-attention-and-decision-research
#15
REVIEW
Jacqueline Gottlieb
In natural behavior we actively gather information using attention and active sensing behaviors (such as shifts of gaze) to sample relevant cues. However, while attention and decision making are naturally coordinated, in the laboratory they have been dissociated. Attention is studied independently of the actions it serves. Conversely, decision theories make the simplifying assumption that the relevant information is given, and do not attempt to describe how the decision maker may learn and implement active sampling policies...
August 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919118/global-regional-and-national-disability-adjusted-life-years-dalys-for-333-diseases-and-injuries-and-healthy-life-expectancy-hale-for-195-countries-and-territories-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#16
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE)...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918630/assessing-the-reliability-of-mfa-results-the-cases-of-rhenium-gallium-and-germanium-in-the-us-economy
#17
Grégoire Meylan, Barbara K Reck, Helmut Rechberger, Thomas E Graedel, Oliver Schwab
Decision-makers traditionally expect "hard facts" from scientific inquiry, an expectation the results of Material Flow Analyses (MFAs) can hardly meet. MFA limitations are attributable to incompleteness of flowcharts, limited data quality, and model assumptions. Moreover, MFA results are mostly less based on empirical observation and rather on social knowledge construction processes. Developing, applying, and improving means for evaluating and communicating reliability of MFA results is imperative. We apply two recently proposed approaches for making quantitative statements on MFA reliability to national minor metals systems: rhenium, gallium, and germanium in the US in 2012...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918105/factors-influencing-women-s-decision-making-in-hysterectomy
#18
Monika Janda, Nigel R Armfield, Katie Page, Gayle Kerr, Suzanne Kurz, Graeme Jackson, Jason Currie, Edward Weaver, Anusch Yazdani, Andreas Obermair
OBJECTIVE: To explore factors influencing how well-informed women felt about hysterectomy, influences on their decision making, and on them receiving a less-invasive alternative to open surgery. METHODS: Online questionnaire, conducted in 2015-2016, of women who had received a hysterectomy in Australia, in the preceding two years. RESULTS: Questionnaires were completed by 2319/6000 women (39% response). Most women (n=2225; 96%) felt well-informed about hysterectomy...
September 12, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917096/how-bicycle-level-of-traffic-stress-correlate-with-reported-cyclist-accidents-injury-severities-a-geospatial-and-mixed-logit-analysis
#19
Chen Chen, Jason C Anderson, Haizhong Wang, Yinhai Wang, Rachel Vogt, Salvador Hernandez
Transportation agencies need efficient methods to determine how to reduce bicycle accidents while promoting cycling activities and prioritizing safety improvement investments. Many studies have used standalone methods, such as level of traffic stress (LTS) and bicycle level of service (BLOS), to better understand bicycle mode share and network connectivity for a region. However, in most cases, other studies rely on crash severity models to explain what variables contribute to the severity of bicycle related crashes...
September 13, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915813/the-relationship-between-burden-of-childhood-disease-and-foreign-aid-for-child-health
#20
J Clay Bavinger, Paul Wise, Eran Bendavid
BACKGROUND: We sought to examine the relationship between child specific health aid (CHA) and burden of disease. Based on existing evidence, we hypothesized that foreign aid for child health would not be proportional to burden of disease. METHODS: In order to examine CHA and burden of disease, we obtained estimates of these parameters from established sources. Estimates of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) in children (0-5 years) were obtained from the World Health Organization for 2000 and 2012...
September 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
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