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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352817/the-association-between-sexual-behaviours-and-initiation-of-post-secondary-education-in-south-africa
#1
Annah V Bengesai, Hafiz T A Khan, Russell Dube
Although young people in South Africa are growing up in an era where their socioeconomic circumstances are seemingly better than those of their parents' generation, they face greater risks in their trajectory to adulthood. This is mainly because the environment in which they are making sexual decisions is also rapidly evolving. Currently, South Africa has the highest prevalence of HIV and AIDS in the world among young people aged 15-24. This study examined the effect of sexual behaviours initiated in adolescence on enrolment in post-secondary education...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352706/environmental-conditions-in-health-care-facilities-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-coverage-and-inequalities
#2
Ryan Cronk, Jamie Bartram
Safe environmental conditions and the availability of standard precaution items are important to prevent and treat infection in health care facilities (HCFs) and to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for health and water, sanitation, and hygiene. Baseline coverage estimates for HCFs have yet to be formed for the SDGs; and there is little evidence describing inequalities in coverage. To address this, we produced the first coverage estimates of environmental conditions and standard precaution items in HCFs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); and explored factors associated with low coverage...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352598/who-consultation-on-etec-and-shigella-burden-of-disease-geneva-6-7th-april-2017-meeting-report
#3
Divya Hosangadi, Peter G Smith, David C Kaslow, Birgitte K Giersing
According to the 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study, diarrhea ranked ninth among causes of death for all ages, and fourth among children under 5 years old, accounting for an estimated 499,000 deaths in this young age group. It was also the second most common cause of years lived with disability (2.39 billion YLDs). The goal of the WHO/UNICEF Integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) is to reduce deaths from diarrhea in children under 5 years of age to less than 1 per 1000 live births, by 2025...
January 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352579/informed-consent-in-physiotherapy-practice-it-is-not-what-is-said-but-how-it-is-said
#4
G Copnell
This paper discusses the concept of informed consent in the context of contemporary biomedical ethics. A change in UK law regarding what information should be provided to patients has brought to the fore the role of physiotherapists in the process of gaining informed consent. It is important that physiotherapists are aware of how this change in the law will affect their practice. For an individual to consent, they need to have both the capacity and freedom to exercise rational thought. These concepts are challenged in contemporary biomedical ethics...
August 7, 2017: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351778/a-qualitative-analysis-of-men-s-involvement-in-maternal-and-child-health-as-a-policy-intervention-in-rural-central-malawi
#5
Elizabeth Mkandawire, Sheryl L Hendriks
BACKGROUND: Men's involvement in maternal and child health presents an opportunity for the advancement of maternal and child nutrition as men often play a key role in decision-making particularly regarding women's reproductive health. While most research on men's involvement in maternal and child health has focused on men's participation in antenatal care, this study focuses specifically on men's involvement in maternal and child nutrition. The purpose of the study is to explore how men's involvement is conceptualised in rural Central Malawi, highlighting the key factors influencing men's involvement in maternal and child health...
January 19, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349868/workplace-alcohol-harm-reduction-intervention-in-australia-cluster-non-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Ken Pidd, Ann Roche, Jacqui Cameron, Nicole Lee, Linda Jenner, Vinita Duraisingam
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The workplace holds substantial potential as an alcohol harm reduction and prevention setting. Few studies have rigorously examined strategies to reduce workplace alcohol-related harm. Hence, an in-situ 3 year trial of a comprehensive alcohol harm reduction intervention in Australian manufacturing workplaces was undertaken. DESIGN AND METHODS: Informed by a gap analysis, a multi-site trial was undertaken. Three manufacturing industry companies, located at four separate worksites, with a minimum of 100 employees were recruited through a local industry network...
January 18, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349246/feasibility-of-a-novel-participatory-multi-sector-continuous-improvement-approach-to-enhance-food-security-in-remote-indigenous-australian-communities
#7
J Brimblecombe, R Bailie, C van den Boogaard, B Wood, S C Liberato, M Ferguson, J Coveney, R Jaenke, J Ritchie
Background: Food insecurity underlies and compounds many of the development issues faced by remote Indigenous communities in Australia. Multi-sector approaches offer promise to improve food security. We assessed the feasibility of a novel multi-sector approach to enhance community food security in remote Indigenous Australia. Method: A longitudinal comparative multi-site case study, the Good Food Systems Good Food for All Project, was conducted (2009-2013) with four Aboriginal communities...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348731/problems-with-precaution-the-transfusion-medicine-experience
#8
Kumanan Wilson, Katherine M Atkinson, Dean A Fergusson, Adalsteinn Brown, Alan Forster, Malia S Q Murphy, Alan T Tinmouth, Jennifer Keelan
The precautionary principle is a dominant paradigm governing risk-based decision-making. Today, there are increasing pressures to re-examine aggressive precautionary approaches, and to assess how the principle should be applied in the modern system. In this paper, we examined three key applications of precautionary approaches in the field of transfusion medicine to provide insight into the risks and benefits of these approaches. The three case studies examined were the donor deferral policies to safeguard against transfusion transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, and, lastly, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus...
2018: Journal of Risk Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346087/a-not-for-profit-regulatory-model-for-legal-recreational-cannabis-insights-from-the-regulation-of-gaming-machine-gambling-in-new-zealand
#9
Chris Wilkins
A dozen or more regulatory frameworks have been proposed for legal cannabis but many of the "not-for-profit" options have yet to be developed in any detail, reducing the likelihood they will be seriously considered by policy makers. New Zealand's innovative "not-for-profit" regulatory regime for gaming machine gambling (i.e. "slot machines") has reversed the previous increase in gambling expenditure, empowered local councils to cap the number of gambling venues, and is unique in requiring the societies operating gaming machines to distribution 40% of the gross expenditure from machines (i...
January 12, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344354/a-study-on-the-implementation-fidelity-of-the-performance-based-financing-policy-in-burkina-faso-after-12%C3%A2-months
#10
Oriane Bodson, Ahmed Barro, Anne-Marie Turcotte-Tremblay, Nestor Zanté, Paul-André Somé, Valéry Ridde
Background: Performance-based financing (PBF) in the health sector has recently gained momentum in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as one of the ways forward for achieving Universal Health Coverage. The major principle underlying PBF is that health centers are remunerated based on the quantity and quality of services they provide. PBF has been operating in Burkina Faso since 2011, and as a pilot project since 2014 in 15 health districts randomly assigned into four different models, before an eventual scale-up...
2018: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342285/serial-participation-and-the-ethics-of-phase-1-healthy-volunteer-research
#11
Rebecca L Walker, Marci D Cottingham, Jill A Fisher
Phase 1 healthy volunteer clinical trials-which financially compensate subjects in tests of drug toxicity levels and side effects-appear to place pressure on each joint of the moral framework justifying research. In this article, we review concerns about phase 1 trials as they have been framed in the bioethics literature, including undue inducement and coercion, unjust exploitation, and worries about compromised data validity. We then revisit these concerns in light of the lived experiences of serial participants who are income-dependent on phase 1 trials...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339115/toddler-drinks-formulas-and-milks-labeling-practices-and-policy-implications
#12
Jennifer L Pomeranz, Maria J Romo Palafox, Jennifer L Harris
Toddler drinks are a growing category of drinks marketed for young children 9-36 months old. Medical experts do not recommend them, and public health experts raise concerns about misleading labeling practices. In the U.S., the toddler drink category includes two types of products: transition formulas, marketed for infants and toddlers 9-24 months; and toddler milks, for children 12-36 months old. The objective of this study was to evaluate toddler drink labeling practices in light of U.S. food labeling policy and international labeling recommendations...
January 12, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339011/facilitators-and-barriers-to-healthy-pregnancy-spacing-among-medicaid-beneficiaries-findings-from-the-national-strong-start-initiative
#13
Caitlin Cross-Barnet, Brigette Courtot, Ian Hill, Sarah Benatar, Morgan Cheeks, Jenny Markell
BACKGROUND: Closely spaced, unintended pregnancies are common among Medicaid beneficiaries and create avoidable risks for women and infants, including preterm birth. The Strong Start for Mothers and Newborns Initiative, a program of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, intended to prevent preterm birth through psychosocially based enhanced prenatal care in maternity care homes, group prenatal care, and birth centers. Comprehensive care offers the opportunity for education and family planning to promote healthy pregnancy spacing...
January 12, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338793/the-institutional-context-of-tobacco-production-in-zambia
#14
Ronald Labonté, Raphael Lencucha, Jeffrey Drope, Corinne Packer, Fastone M Goma, Richard Zulu
BACKGROUND: Tobacco production is said to be an important contributor to Zambia's economy in terms of labour and revenue generation. In light of Zambia's obligations under the WHO Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC) we examined the institutional actors in Zambia's tobacco sector to better understand their roles and determine the institutional context that supports tobacco production in Zambia. METHODS: Findings from 26 qualitative, semi-structured individual or small-group interviews with key informants from governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental organisations were analysed, along with data and information from published literature...
January 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338699/assessing-predictors-of-intention-to-prescribe-sick-leave-among-primary-care-physicians-using-the-theory-of-planned-behaviour
#15
Yogarabindranath Swarna Nantha, Lei Hum Wee, Caryn Mei-Hsien Chan
BACKGROUND: Providing sickness certification is a decision that primary care physicians make on a daily basis. The majority of sickness certification studies in the literature involve a general assessment of physician or patient behaviour without the use of a robust psychological framework to guide research accuracy. To address this deficiency, this study utilized the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to specifically gauge the intention and other salient predictors related to sickness certification prescribing behaviour amongst primary care physicians...
January 16, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337312/china-co2-emission-accounts-1997-2015
#16
Yuli Shan, Dabo Guan, Heran Zheng, Jiamin Ou, Yuan Li, Jing Meng, Zhifu Mi, Zhu Liu, Qiang Zhang
China is the world's top energy consumer and CO2 emitter, accounting for 30% of global emissions. Compiling an accurate accounting of China's CO2 emissions is the first step in implementing reduction policies. However, no annual, officially published emissions data exist for China. The current emissions estimated by academic institutes and scholars exhibit great discrepancies. The gap between the different emissions estimates is approximately equal to the total emissions of the Russian Federation (the 4th highest emitter globally) in 2011...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336701/coming-out-of-the-shadows-and-the-closet-visibility-schemas-among-undocuqueer-immigrants
#17
Jesus Cisneros, Christian Bracho
Centering the experiences of 31 undocuqueer immigrants, this study seeks to understand the ways that undocuqueer immigrants negotiate the boundaries of social performance by revealing or concealing their gender, sexuality, and immigration status. Findings of this study reveal how, in order to avoid the constant threat of rejection (both legal and social), undocuqueer immigrants engage visibility schemas and make strategic decisions about coming out of the shadows and the closet across different contexts. Undocuqueer immigrants' narratives reveal the ways the closet resembles the shadows in that both provide protection from the outside world, yet neither are considered suitable places for sustaining life...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334963/evaluating-the-impact-of-a-falls-prevention-community-of-practice-in-a-residential-aged-care-setting-a-realist-approach
#18
Jacqueline Francis-Coad, Christopher Etherton-Beer, Caroline Bulsara, Nicole Blackburn, Paola Chivers, Anne-Marie Hill
BACKGROUND: Falls are a major socio-economic problem among residential aged care (RAC) populations resulting in high rates of injury including hip fracture. Guidelines recommend that multifactorial prevention strategies are implemented but these require translation into clinical practice. A community of practice (CoP) was selected as a suitable model to support translation of the best available evidence into practice, as it could bring together like-minded people with falls expertise and local clinical knowledge providing a social learning opportunity in the pursuit of a common goal; falls prevention...
January 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334170/representing-causal-knowledge-in-environmental-policy-interventions-advantages-and-opportunities-for-qualitative-influence-diagram-applications
#19
John F Carriger, Brian E Dyson, William H Benson
This article develops and explores a methodology for using qualitative influence diagrams in environmental policy and management to support decision making efforts that minimize risk and increase resiliency. Influence diagrams are representations of the conditional aspects of a problem domain. Their graphical properties are useful for structuring causal knowledge relevant to policy interventions and can be used to enhance inference and inclusivity of multiple viewpoints. Qualitative components of influence diagrams are beneficial tools for identifying and examining the interactions among the critical variables in complex policy development and implementation...
January 15, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334168/representing-causal-knowledge-in-environmental-policy-interventions-advantages-and-opportunities-for-qualitative-influence-diagram-applications
#20
John F Carriger, Brian E Dyson, William H Benson
This article develops and explores a methodology for using qualitative influence diagrams in environmental policy and management to support decision making efforts that minimize risk and increase resiliency. Influence diagrams are representations of the conditional aspects of a problem domain. Their graphical properties are useful for structuring causal knowledge relevant to policy interventions and can be used to enhance inference and inclusivity of multiple viewpoints. Qualitative components of influence diagrams are beneficial tools for identifying and examining the interactions among the critical variables in complex policy development and implementation...
January 15, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
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